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date: 12 December 2019

(p. 979) General Subject Index

(p. 979) General Subject Index

Aberkios, inscription of 127–8
abbreviations, in manuscripts 158
acrostic form 658, 662
Act of Peter 212
Acta Archelai 231
Acta Codex 223
Acts of John 698
Acts of Paul and Thecla 470–2, 535–6, 609, 769
Acts of the Apostles 323, 345, 585–6, 604, 610, 675–6
Acts of the Scillitan Martyrs 604
Acts of Thomas 228, 369, 375, 647, 660, 698
Adoptionism 243–4
aesthetics 637–8
agapē 713
Agde, council of (506) 720
agenētos 249
Aila (Aqaba) 98
Akathist Hymn 650
Alexandria 555–6, 675, 681
and Arian controversy 239, 241–2
catechetical school 349
institutionalization of church 402–3
origins of Christianity 346–9
patriarchate of 352
school of 847–8, 853, 854–6, 895, 897, 900
synod of (362) 685
allegory 846–7
opposed by Antiochenes 853–4
used by Origen 846–8, 854–6
used in Christian poetry 631, 633–4, 636
almsgiving 787, 796, 797, 800, 942
Altar of Victory 191–2, 292
ampullae, as pilgrimage souvenirs 833, 836
Analecta Bollandiana 611
analogy, in theology 876
Ancyra, council of (314) 439
Anglican Church 12, 13
aniconic, early Christianity as 113–14
anima mundi (world‐soul) 680–1, 683
anointing 695, 704
pre‐baptismal 698, 699
post‐baptismal 698, 699, 703
Anomoeans 249–50
anomoios 249
anthropomorphism 870, 874
Antike und Christentum 74
anti‐Judaism 946–7
anti‐Manichaean writings 231
Antioch
council of (324) 245
council of (325) 429, 437
council of (341) 720
council of (379) 433
‘Dedication Council’ (341) 247
school of 269, 847–8, 853–4, 895, 897, 900
Antiochene theology 377
Antitheses 228
apatheia 681, 683
Apocalypse of Paul 215
Apocalypse of Peter 215
apocalyptic literature, Jewish 587
Apocrypha 521–38
and classical literature 536
and hagiography 524–5, 527, 530–1
and heresy 522–3, 525–7, 534
and intended audience 536
as ‘parabiblical’ 523–5
definitions of 528–32
literary genres of 521
liturgical use of 525–7
relation to canon 524, 526, 527, 529–32
apocryphal acts 535–7, 605, 769
and women 468, 469
Apocryphon of James 418
Apocryhon of John 211–12, 214, 217, 909
apokatastasis 910, 920
apologetics/apologists 186, 189, 195–6, 197, 549–61, 673–4, 676, 681, 870
and chronography 587–9
and historiography 595
apologia 549
apophatic theology 878
Apophthegmata patrum 495–6, 500, 608, 746, 770
Apostles Creed 427–8, 430–1
Apostolic Canons 441
(p. 980) Apostolic Constitutions 250, 441, 718, 719, 720, 745
apostolic succession 392, 593–4
Apostolic Tradition 398, 400, 428, 430, 441, 699, 700–1, 716, 745
apotaktikoi 501
apotaxis 703
Aquileia 287–8
council of 250
Aquilla, biblical translation of 409
Arab conquest 317
Aramaic 366
archaeology 87–98
and cult of saints 819
Archons, in Manichaean cosmology 225–7
art history 106–7
Arian controversy 450, 453, 851
in West 294
Arianism 22, 238–47, 499, 684, 916–17
as a ‘school’ tradition 241–2
as ‘archetypal heresy’ 237
as heretical label 247
Aristotelianism 683
Arles, council of (314) 287, 288, 312, 436, 440, 799
asceticism 19–21, 368, 369–70, 374–5, 395–6, 493, 509–10, 613–17, 764–78, 920–1, 933, 936, 938–40
and authority 771–2, 773–4
and body 774–8
and constructions of self 764, 766–7, 775–8
and culture 766–7
and liturgy 770
and monasticism 770–1, 776
and orthodoxy/heresy 768–9, 771–4, 776
and Pelagianism 261–2, 274
and orthodoxy/heresy 768–9, 771–4, 776
and scripture 768, 773
and social mores 769, 771
and women 478, 506
Buddhist 221
definitions of 764, 766–7, 775–6, 778
Egyptian 352–3
in Arian controversy 249
in Arius's theology 241, 244
in hagiography 770–1
in New Testament 493
in Syria 497, 507–10
in West 293
Manichaean 228, 229–30
resistance to 772
source of clerical authority 396–7
unacceptable forms of 774
ascetics 389
as rivals to clergy 395–6
female 394–5
Asia Minor 323–37
Athanasian Creed (Quicunque vult) 433, 442
authority 241, 615
Avars 336
Baptism 693–707
imagery for 695–6
in the New Testament 695
of infants 265, 266, 272, 700, 705–7
setting for early creeds 428, 430–1
baptismal controversy, North Africa 309
baptismal rites
Coptic 707
delay of 704
Donatist 706
Ethiopic 707
in Armenia 707
in Cappadocia 707
in Egypt 698
in North Africa 698–9, 701
in Spain 707
in Syria 698, 703, 707
invalid by heretics or schismatics 701
pre‐Constantinian 695–701
post‐Constantinian 702–7
Bar Kochba Revolt 346
barbarians 295
Basilideans 215
Beatitudes 645
Bema, feast of 222
Berbers 314
Beth Gazo 666
Bible (see also scripture)
as education 678
influence on prayer 756
‘biblical demiurgical’ 209–10, 216
biblical epic poetry 634–7
Old Testament 634–5
New Testament 635–7
biblical exegesis 23–4, 636
earliest Christian texts for 859
historical critical method 845–9
in doctrinal debates 850–1, 859
intellectual context of 849–50
Jewish 848
liturgical influence on 850, 860
of Augustine 858
of Cappadocians 856–7
of Ephrem 859
(p. 981)
of Jerome 857–8
rabbinic 848, 859
Syriac tradition of 859
western tradition of 857–8
biblical imagery
in art 113–16, 145
biblical interpretation (see biblical exegesis)
biblical models 609, 610, 614
biblical miracles 635
biblical paraphrase, in Byzantine hymns 649
biblical versions 590
bishops 448, 460
and the cult of saints 812–14
as monks 507
as poets 647–8
authority of office 328–32, 333, 334, 947
competition with local elites 330
education of 678
succession of 284
body
in early Christian ethics 937–41
social and symbolic meanings 937–8
Bollandists 611–12, 614
Book of Allogenes 215–16
Book of Elxai 223–4
Book of Steps (Liber graduum) 374–5, 752
Bordeaux pilgrim 828
Braga, council of (675) 289–90, 725
Breviary of Hippo 440
Britain, Christianity in 288–9
Byzantine liturgy, influence on Greek hymnography 646
Caesarea Maritima 349–50, 353–4, 357
as intellectual centre 350
Caesaropapism 449, 456–7
Calends 317
canon 406–20, 850
definition of 407–8
distinct from scripture 406–7
in Judaism 408–10
part of Christian self‐definition 417
canon, in Byzantine hymnography 651
canon law 438–42
Canons of Hippolytus 441
Capernaum 179 n. 3
excavations at 90–1, 95
Cappadocia, as monastic centre 496
Cappadocian fathers 328–32, 856–7, 894–5, 896, 942
and classical culture 329
Carthage
council of (256) 309
council of (397) 414
council of (411) 266, 313–14
council of (416) 264, 267, 273
council of (418) 264, 274
council of (522) 253
relations with Rome 303, 309
Caspari Corpus 260–1
catechesis 698, 699, 704, 705–6, 722
setting for early creeds 428, 431
catechumenate 289–90, 704–6
catacombs 89–90, 94–5, 81
Catholics/Catholicism 11, 673
and Arians 295
celibacy 480
of clergy 400
Chalcedon
council of (451) 333, 334, 335, 344, 355–8, 377–8, 429, 433, 435, 437–8, 441, 685, 821, 831, 887, 897–8
definition of faith 356, 433, 441, 887–9, 899, 900, 901
opponents of 898
The Cherub and the Thief 665
Cherubic Hymn (Cherubikon) 646
choirs 650, 659, 666–7
Christian critiques of Greek and Roman religion 552–3
Christian identity 304
Christian poetry
in Greek 641–53
in Latin 628–38
in Syriac 657–67
Christianity
and Roman society 305–6
in North Africa, origins 303–4
in North Africa, decline 317
in Persia 366, 372
Christianization 115–16, 330–2, 352, 354–5
and asceticism 770
and cult of saints 816–17
in North Africa 316–17
of Goths 252
of pagan inscriptions 128
of Roman Empire 192–3
Christological controversies 334, 355–8, 376–8, 437, 880
Christology 395, 886–901
Apollinarian 893–4
changing perspectives of 886–9, 893
of Cappadocian fathers 894–5
of Pelagius 265
(p. 982) Christology (cont.)
one‐nature 378–9
two‐nature 377–9
‘Word‐flesh’ (logos‐sarx) 892, 893
‘Word‐human being’ (logosanthrōpos) 895
chronicles (see chronography)
chronography 585–91, 598
and apologetics 587
Church 849–50, 851
in Pelagius's theology 265
Manichaean 227
relations with Roman Empire 446–61
church buildings 290–1, 331
Church discipline 315
Church history, as a discipline 285
church orders 392, 403–4
church organization, influence of Roman models 393, 398–9
Circumcellions 315
Clavis Patrum Graecorum 573
Clavis Patrum Latinorum 573
clergy 389–404
celibacy of 400
in North Africa 306, 308–9
influenced by Roman religion 396
persecution of 309–11
reading skills of 717
regional developments 401–3
role in eucharist 717, 719
Cologne Mani‐Codex 223–4
Concept of Our Great Power 215
codex 141, 142, 143–5, 416
production of 147–58
Codex Sinaiticus 147, 155, 413–14, 421 n. 3
Codex Tchacos 215–16
Codex Vaticanus 413–14, 421 n. 3
codicology 141, 143, 160
coercion, of pagans by Christians 193–4
Collectio Avellana 440
colometry 157
communication of idioms (communicatio idiomatum) 879
communion
outside of eucharistic liturgy 720–1
for the dead 721
confirmation 694, 700, 704
confession of faith 430–1
confessional scholarship 789–90
conflict model, of pagan‐Christian relations 186–94
congregation 717–18
class and gender 719
gestures of 718
infants and children in 718
misbehavior of 718
congregational singing 644
Constantinople
as ‘New Rome’ 333, 335
council of (381) 237, 250, 251, 333, 351, 429, 432–3, 502, 684, 894, 897
council of (382) 442
council of (553) 377, 437, 501, 685, 898–9
council of (680–1) 685, 899
impact on eastern Christianity 332–6
Corpus Fontium Manichaeorum 233
cosmogony, Manichaean 225–8
councils 434–8
ecumenical 437–8
local and regional 436
North African 308
use of Roman judicial process 434
creation
and contemplation 917–20
and monastic spirituality 920–1
and redemption 906–7, 909, 922
and Trinitarian doctrine 916–17
doctrine of 906–23
ex nihilo 686, 909, 910, 913–16
Gnostic views of 908–11, 915
Graeco‐Roman views of 907–8
in the Bible 906, 911–13, 922
in the New Testament 907
temporal beginnings of 911–13
creeds 427–34
creeds, in Christian hymns 645
in New Testament 427–8
crucifixion 215, 229
cryptograms 129–30
cult of St Felix 630–1, 634
cultural anthropology 18, 613–14, 766
cultural theory 25–6
cursus honorum 399–400
Dakleh Oasis, Manichaean discoveries in 224, 234
Dead Sea Scrolls 522–3
Debate between a Montanist and an Orthodox 473
decretals, of popes 439
demiurge 210–11, 909
in Manichaean cosmology 225
development of dogma, scholarly theories of 864–6
diakonos 397
(p. 983) dialogue poems (soghitha) 664–5
biblical characters in 664
personifications in 664–5
Didache 696–7, 711, 713, 716, 719, 724, 745, 757
Didascalia apostolorum 395, 698
Dionysiana 440
Diospolis, synod of (415) 259, 263–4, 265, 266, 273
diplomatics 141
discernment 795
disciplina arcani 721
‘discursive turn’, in study of asceticism 768
dismissal rite 700
diversity, early Christian 66–74
divine operations 873–4
divine providence, and interpretation of history 945–6
divinization 894–5
Docetism 215, 243
doctrine of God 864–81
feminist scholarship on 879
documentation, use of in ancient historiography 592–3
Dolbeau sermons 316
Donatists/Donatism 310–15, 392, 449, 451, 606, 706, 799, 800, 947
and cult of saints 813
modern interpretation of 314–15
Dormition, of Virgin Mary 525, 526–7, 820
double creation 910
doxology 755, 907
Dura Europos 91–3, 99, 114
baptistery at 92–3
Dyophysitism 377–9
Easter, date of 589
Ebionites 76
Edessa 366, 367, 369
martyrs of 607
school of 377
Edict of Milan 448–9, 451, 455
education, ancient 678
Egypt 343–58
Elchasaites 223
Elect, Manichaean 229
Elvira, council of (early 4th century) 289, 400, 453, 721, 798
Emperor, role in religious affairs 455–7
Empire, Roman 446–61
end times 586–8
enkrateia 368, 369–70, 380 n. 6
Ephesus
council of (431) 264, 267, 269, 273–4, 377, 442, 678, 820–1, 897
council of (449) 334, 897
epigraphy 122–3
Epiphany 698
episcopal histories 285–6
episcopate, development in West 291–2
episkopos 397, 400
Epistle of Barnabas 347
Epistle to Diognetus 551–2
Epistle to Rheginus 890
epithalamium, of Paulinus of Nola 268
ethics, early Christian 932–49
and normative Christian ethics 932–3
and practice 935–6
and social economy 941–4
as history of thought 934–5
methodologies for 935
rhetorical forms 936–7
eucharist 711–29
and Christology 728
and cult of saints 814, 816–17
and penance 791, 795
and performance theory 727–8
and spectacle studies 728–9
behaviour at 718
biblical basis for 723
‘classic’ form of 714–15
early evidence for 713–14
early practice in Rome 714
following baptism 697–8
frequency of 719–20
in material culture 725–7
in places of pilgrimage 828
influence on personal prayer 756
medicinal/miraculous qualities of 724
New Testament references to 713–14
participants in 717–18
reception by infants 718
restricted to baptized 714, 724–5
teaching about 721–4
terms for 711–12
women's participation in 719
eucharistic doctrine 722–4
eucharistic instruction 721–2
Eucharistic Prayer 716–17
Eugnostos the Blessed 214
eulogiai 833–4
exegesis
of Julian of Aeclanum 269–70
(p. 984) Fasting 777, 787, 800
pre‐baptismal 696–8
with prayer 748–9
femininity, constructions of 467
feminism 71
and doctrine of God 879
feminist scholarship 467, 474–5, 506–7
filioque 429
First Apocalypse of James 215
First and Second Book of Jeu 212
First Jewish Revolt 346
fish (ΙΧΘΥΣ) 127
footwashing 695, 703, 704
Franks 283, 295
freedom, as divine gift 265
freedom of worship, favored by Constantine 449, 451–4
functionalist anthropology, use in early Christian studies 766
Gangra, council of (343) 439
Gelasian Sacramentary 705
genealogy, used in heresiology 205
gender
ancient constructions of 466–7
and clerical authority 394–5, 399
rhetorical strategies of 479
Gnostic hymns 646–7
Gnostics/Gnosticism 78, 203–17, 380 n. 12, 392, 533–5, 536, 908–11, 915
and humanity of Jesus 890
and Manichaeism 225
in Alexandria 346–7
in Gaul 294
influence on doctrine of God 868–9
origins of 216
sources for 212–16
God
as creator 265, 906–23
doctrine of 864–81
incomprehensibility of 878
simplicity of 874–6
suffering of 880
Gospel of John 346
Gospel of Judas 163, 215–16
Gospel of Luke 768
Gospel of Mary 212
Gospel of Matthew 345
Gospel of Philip 217
Gospel of Thomas 211, 369–70, 380 n. 10, 418, 533–4, 767
Gospel of Truth 213, 217
Gospels 323, 345
Goths 248, 250–1, 252–3
and Arianism 295
grace
Pelagius's theology of 265
Julian of Aeclanum's theology of 272–4
‘Great Persecution’ (see also persecution, by Diocletian) 310–11
Greece 323–37
Greek, spoken in early western churches 287
Greek apologists 673, 676–7
Greek hymnography, pre‐Christian 643–4
Greek novels 605
Greek philosophy 46, 672–88
criticism of Christianity 679
influence on Christianity 673–4, 676, 682
pre‐Christian 672
Greekness, as strategy of identity formation 327–8, 337
Hagia Sophia 335, 646
hagiography 176, 608–11, 611–12
ancient translations of 609–10, 618
and apocrypha 524–5, 527, 530–1
as literature 614–15
audience for 617–18
intended audience 608, 612–13
production of 617–18
source criticism of 498–9
Hē Philarchos 241, 242
Hearers, Manichaean 229–30
Hebrew Bible 523
Hellenism 46, 864
and Judaism 865
Hellenization of Christianity 673–5, 682
Harnack hypothesis 864–5
Henos Sōmatos 240
Heptateuchos 634
heresiology 204–5, 211, 216–17, 238, 242, 247, 326
heresy (see also orthodoxy) 67–71, 204–5, 208, 264, 283–4, 326, 391–2, 395, 522, 525–7, 534, 865–6, 938
and devotion to Mary 474
heresy, and historiography 593–4
gendered characterizations 473
study of 22–3
hermeneutics, and canon formation 417–18
Heterousians 247–8, 249
heterousion 249
hierarchicalization 391, 398–9, 401
hierarchy 388–91, 398–99
Manichaean 230
(p. 985) Hinton St Mary 93
Hippo
council of (393) 315, 440
council of (397) 440
Hispana 440
historical criticism/historical critical method 67–9, 605, 612, 845, 847
historical writings, early Christian 176
historiography 284
early Christian 584–99
pre‐Constantinian 585
post‐Constantinian 596–7
history, early Christian conceptions of 283–4
History of the Monks in Egypt (Historia monachorum in Aegypto) 495, 828
Holy Land 353–4
pilgrimage to 828, 829, 830–1
holy places 357
Homeric Hymns 644
homiletics
and hagiography 566–7
and prophetic tradition 568–9
and Hellenistic schools 569–70
and orality 571
and rhetorical expertise 567–8, 570, 579
delivery of 571–2
Syriac traditions of 570, 571
homily/homilies
and daily life 567, 579
and liturgy 568, 570
and commentaries on scripture 571–2
collections/editions of
modern 573–4
ancient 575
dating of 578
definition of 570–2
dubious or spurious attributions 576
re‐use of 575
translations of (ancient) 576–7
Homoians 247–8, 250
Homoiousians 247–8, 505
homoousios 240, 246, 249–50, 252, 429, 432, 435, 679, 684–5, 867, 893
house churches 394–5, 397–8
human‐divine relation 686–7
Hymn of the Pearl 369, 380 n. 9
hymnography, Byzantine 641–53
hymns
and ‘popular’ religion 647
collections of (modern) 642–3
in Latin 637–8
in liturgy 644
in New Testament 643, 645
in Old Testament 644
Victorian 642
Hypostasis of Archons 217
Iconclass 108
iconography, of saints 819
‘iconology’ 107–8
icons 820
identities 71–4, 80, 81
identity
Christian 466
formation of 73–4, 77, 79, 80, 326–8, 793
imitation, of Christ 604
immigrants, in early western Christianity 287
imposition of hands 801
incarnation 244, 251, 356, 380 n. 7
inculturation 675, 688
Index of Christian Art 107
inscriptions 120–35
collections of 131–3
from Asia Minor and Greece 325–6
from Rome 131–2
Montanist 473
women in 133–4, 470
intolerance, religious 451–4, 460, 946–7
Italy, early Christian communities 287–8, 295
Jamnia (Yavneh) 408–9
Jerusalem 89, 705–6, 830
destruction by Romans 346
pilgrimage to 353–4
status of its bishop 353, 356
Jesus Christ
as creature 891–2
as God's Word 891–2, 893, 895
baptism of 698
divinity of 889–91
Gnostic views of 890
human body of 890–1
human experiences of 890–1
in Julian of Aeclanum's theology 271–2
in Pelagius's theology 265
incarnation of 892
scriptural images for 242
soul of 892
theandric operations of 899
Jesus Prayer 753, 755
‘Jew’, as Christian literary construction 175–8
Jewish apocrypha 522
Jewish Christianity 74, 76, 170
Jewish narrative 605
Jewish prayer 748, 749, 756
(p. 986) Jewish scriptures 408–11
Jewish Temple 354
Jewish‐Christian relations 345–8
Jewish‐Semitic culture 674
Jews, Judaism 169–85
and Christian archaeology 95
and Christian origins 345–8
as anti‐ascetic 765
in Palestine 346, 348
influence on Christian doctrine of God 869–71
persistence within Christianity 870
Johannine Christianity 68, 69
Judgment of Peter 234
justice, of God 272, 274
Katalēpsis 878
kataphatic theology 878
Kellia 503
Kellis, Manichaean discoveries in 224, 234–5
Kephalaia of the Teacher 223
kontakion/kontakia 570, 649–53, 666
kyrie eleison 755
Laity 389–404
duties of 390–1
Laodicea, council of (4th century) 439, 720
lapsi 798
Last Supper (institution narrative) 713
‘late antiquity’ 12, 21, 51–5
Lateran, synod of (649) 899
Lateran palace 446–7
Latin poetry
audience for 629, 637
Christian suspicion of 629
technique 629–30, 631–3, 636
Latin romance 605
law codes 197
lectio divina 756
Lent 702, 791, 800
Letter of Auxentius 251, 252
Letter of Peter to Philip 215
letters, of Paul 323
Liber Pontificalis 285
libraries, monastic and cathedral 159–60
Life of Febronia 607
Life of Pelagia the Harlot 610
Life of St Cyprian of Antioch 467
Life of Symeon the Stylite 770–1
Life of the Virgin (Maximus the Confessor?) 527
ligatures 124–5
literary theory 111
liturgical dress 726–7
liturgical music (eight tones) 666, 667 nn. 15
liturgical studies
methodologies for 693–4
historical‐critical method 694
liturgical traditions
diversity of 694
Syriac 367–8l
liturgy
and archaeology 97
Liturgy of St John Chrysostom 646
Liturgy of the Word 714–16
local church 308–9
logoi 680
logoi spermatikoi 677
logos, designation for Christ 679
Logos theology 870
Lombards 295
Lord's Prayer 746, 749, 750, 751
Luddingston 93
Maccabean martyrs 605
madrasha/madrashe 570, 576, 658–62, 666
Mani
life of 221–2
use of Acts of Thomas 369
Manichaean writings, Parthian 232
Manichaeans/Manichaeism 221–35, 245, 373, 375, 868, 908–9, 915
and Augustine 231–3, 259
charges of 772
hymns 659–60
rejected by Pelagius 264–5
rejected by Julian of Aeclanum 270–1
manuscript transmission, errors in 161–2
Mar Saba 652
Marcionites 370, 373, 552, 940
martyr stories 604–7, 611–12
Donatist 312–13
rhetorical strategies in 605–6
martyrdom 190, 604–6, 940–1
Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas 467, 473, 604, 815
Martyrdom of Pionius 604
Martyrdom of Polycarp of Smyrna 604
martyrium, of Perpetua 121
martyrs 447–8, 808–21
acts of 815
and iconography 819
commemorated by cities 331
cult of 810–21
Donatist 312–13, 606, 813
festivals at shrines 816–17
(p. 987)
in Gregory of Tours 284–5
influence of Judaism 810
Protestant view of 811
relics of 121–2, 250
stories of 469
theology of 814
tombs of 89–90
voluntary 808–9
masculinity, constructions of 467
Masoretic bible 408–9
material culture 24–5, 725–7
of pilgrimage 831–4
material remains, of Judaism 174
matter, eternity of 913–16
meals, Manichaean 229–30
Medinet Madi 223, 235
Melitian schism 239, 352, 499–500, 506
memra/memre 570, 576, 658–60, 662–4, 666
narrative memre 662–4
biblical characters in 663
Messalians/Messalianism 506, 752, 758
metanoia 788, 796
metempsychosis 221, 229
Miaphysite Christology 899, 900
Miaphysitism (see also Monophysitism) 378–9, 381 n. 24
Middle Platonism 680–1, 870, 910
midrash 173
Milevis, council of (416) 264, 267, 273
millennialism 588, 598
miracles 817–18
Mishnah 173
monachos, first appearance of word 500–1
Monarchian controversy 850–1
monarchical authority, of bishops 391
monarchical episcopacy 398
in Alexandria 349
monasticism 493–510, 920–1
anchoritic life 493
and heresy 505
and prayer 753, 757–8
and women 506–7
Buddhist 221
cenobitic life 493, 494
in Egypt 346–8, 352–5
in Palestine 350–1, 352–5, 357–8, 497, 505
in Syria 497, 507–10
literary sources for 494–8
regional diversity 507–8
urban setting 507–8
monks, relations with bishops 352
mono‐episcopacy, in Ignatius of Antioch 391, 398–9
Monophysites (see also Miaphysites) 334
Monophysite Christology 577, 646, 900
Montanism/Montanists (New Prophecy) 306–7, 326, 331, 392, 397, 417–18, 471, 473, 757, 940
Muratorian Canon 419
mystagogical catecheses 722
mystery religions, influence of 705
mystical prayer 757–8
mysticism 878
Naassene Hymn 211
Nag Hammadi 212–15, 217, 347, 476, 479, 533–5, 908
Najran Martyrs 606–7
nationalism 356–8
negative theology 877–8, 915
Neo‐Arians 247, 249–51
Neocaesarea, council of 439
Neoplatonism 680–2, 872, 873, 877, 915
used by Augustine against the Manichaeans 232–3
Nestorian controversy 895–8
New Testament 475, 477, 521
canon of 415–20
Nicaea
council of (325) 237, 245–6, 428–9, 432, 434–5, 437–8, 440–2, 450, 499, 679, 684, 721, 889, 891
council of (787) 435
Nicene Creed 428–30, 432–3, 442, 646, 703, 891, 917
in Syriac Christianity 372
Nicene theology/theologies 868, 870, 873–6
Nicene‐Constantinopolitan Creed 917
Nisibis, school of 377
noble death 605
Non‐Chalcedonian churches 898
North Africa 303–18
North American Patristics Society 15
nous 681, 683, 893
Novatianists/Novatianism 331, 701, 799, 800
Objectivity 112
Octoechoes of Severus 666
Odes of Solomon 371, 647, 660, 889
Old Roman Creed (R) 428
‘Old Syriac’ (Vetus Syra), translations of Gospels 368–9
Old Testament 677
first use of term 411
On the Mountains Sinai and Zion 555
On the Origin of the World 214
Only‐Begotten Son (Monogenēs Huios) 646
(p. 988) Opus imperfectum in Matthaeum 251
Orange
council of (441) 440
council of (529) 258
ordination, of women 475, 477–8
organization, of church in North Africa 306–9
Oriental Orthodox Churches 898
Origenism 920
Origenist controversy 495, 501–3, 773
original sin 259, 271–2, 939
Orphic Hymns 644
orthodoxy (see also heresy) 67–71, 274, 283–4, 391–2, 522, 534, 865–6
ossuaries 122
ousia 248, 251
Oxford Movement 12–13, 641
Oxford Patristics Conference 13–14
P. Coll. Youtie 77 500–1
pagan‐Christian relations 292–3
pagans/paganism
as a Christian construction 187–9
as polytheists 188
as monotheists 188
criticism of Christianity 195–6
demise in West 292
fourth‐century revival 191–2
in North Africa 316
perceptions of Christians 305
relations with Christians 186–98
paideia, spiritual 918
Palestine 343–58
as Christian ‘Holy Land’ 348
palimpsests 148
palindromes 129–30
pallium 676
paper 144
papyrology 141
papyrus 141–2, 144–5
‘parabiblical’ literature 523–5
parchment 142–3, 144–5
‘parting of the ways’ 169–70
Pastoral Epistles 769
Patristics
and ‘the body’ 19
and ‘patrology’ 50
and social history 16–17
and social science 17–18
and social theory 17–18
as literary history 49–51
in Belgium 8
in France 11–12
in Germany 9–10
in Great Britain 12–13
in Italy 8
in the Netherlands 8
Oriental 13
patronage 392–3, 395, 397, 941
Pauline churches 67, 68, 76
Pauline theology 75, 76
Pelagian writings 260–3
Pelagianism 258–74, 705
as a coherent system 259
as ‘heresy’ 258–9, 262, 264
penance 786–802
and baptism 788–9, 792, 794, 796–7, 798–9
and local community 795
and scripture 787–8, 790, 791–4, 795
as conversion 787–8
as deathbed ritual 801
as ‘second baptism’ 797, 803 n. 9
communal character 786–7, 789
in the New Testament 787, 792–4
for serious sins 794
Jewish practices of 794
methodological challenges 786–91
penitentials, Irish 440
performance theory 767
persecution 327, 459–60
by Decius 309, 456, 701
by Diocletian 310–11, 325, 448, 454
by Valerian 309–10, 456
in North Africa 309–11
of Christians 186, 190, 195
Persian Empire 366, 372, 376
Persian invasions 336
Persian martyrs 606
personification and dispute 661
Peshitta 366–7, 368–9, 376, 409, 420
Petra 96, 99
Philokalia 854, 855
philosophy 908–10, 921
and Christian faith 678
and ethics 676, 683, 687
and heresy 677
and Jesus 675
and Judaism 675
and Mosaic law 677
and Roman Empire 674–5
and theology 676, 685
and theological controversies 684
Christian rejection of 677
influence on Christian doctrine of God 871–3
opposed to Bible 679
Phōs Hilaron 645
Phrygia, inscriptions in 325–6
(p. 989) pilgrimage 352–5, 747, 826–37
and episcopal authority 830–1
and material culture 831–4
as a rite of passage 834–5
as tourism 835
building complexes for 832
competition for sites 831
criticisms of 830
definitions of 826
Jewish precedents for 827
local‐regional‐international dynamics 834–5
methodological approaches to 834–5
motivations for 830–1
pre‐Christian traditions for 827
to Holy Land 828, 829, 830–1
to holy places 827
to holy people 828
to monasteries 828
souvenirs of 832–4
pilgrimage shrines 115
pilgrims
monks as 830–1
women as 827
writings by 827–31, 835–6
Pistis Sophia 212
Platonism 680, 682, 683
in Arius's theology 244
influence of 891
worldview of 909–11
poetic genres 633
poetry, Christian
in Greek 641–53
in Latin 628–38
in Syriac 657–67
polemical disputation 866, 878
political theology
of Aphrahat 372–3
of Ephrem 372–3
poor, care of 942–3
poverty 941–3
prayer (personal)
academic study of 744–5
biblical influence on 754–6
and fasting 748–9
and use of Bible 746, 751, 752–6, 758
eucharistic influence on 756
fixed times for 751
formal elements of 746
in early Syriac tradition 752
in Graeco‐Roman religion 749
in monastic settings 752–4, 757–8
in the New Testament 748–50, 757, 758
Jesus's teachings on 748–9
liturgical influence on 754–6
material images of 747
Paul's teachings on 749–50
postures of 747, 751
theology of 751–2
writings on 750–52
preaching 316–17
and Hellenistic schools 569–70
and priestly authority 569
audience for 566–7
in synagogues 569
locations 577–8
scholarly study of 565–7
presbyteros 397, 399
priesthood 399–400
financial support of 393–4
invoked by Cyprian 400
procreation 271
profession of faith 695–9
prophecy, Jewish scripture as 411
prophetic authority, exercised by women 395
prosopography, of women 480
Protestants/Protestantism 8, 11, 48
Liberal 865
Protestant Reformation 673
influence in early Christian archaeology 90
influence on study of penance 790
Protestant scholarship, on asceticism 765
Protevangelium of James 522, 524
‘proto‐orthodoxy’ 70, 421 n. 4
Psalms 746, 752, 754, 755–6
in Christian hymns 644–5
Pseudepigrapha 522
pseudonymity, and women's writings 468
‘Psychici’ 307
Ptolemy's Letter to Flora 211
punctuation, in manuscripts 157–8
purification, of soul 876
Pythagoreans 676, 683
Q 345, 533
Qal'at Si'man 93, 832
Qur'an 561
Rabbis/rabbinic Judaism 173, 367, 417
rabbinic exegesis 848, 859
Ravenna 252
rebaptism 798–9, 800
recapitulation 909
reception theory 568
(p. 990) Recognitions (Ps‐Clement) 375–6
regions 69
relics
access to 832–3
of martyrs 250, 293
in Constantinople 333, 336
religion 206
resurrection, 380 n. 11, 578, 635
in Origen's teaching 350
Renaissance 48, 673
rhetoric, in early Christian ethics 936–7
rhetorical strategies, in ancient histories 326
ritual meals, Manichaean 229–30
ritual theory 770
Roman emperor, role in persecution 190
Roman Empire, and Church 945–7
Roman state religion 456
Romanness, as strategy of identity formation 327–8, 337
Romanticism 49
Rome 286, 288, 290, 295, 701, 705
and cult of saints 819
archaeology of 87–8, 94–5, 99
bishop of (see also Pope) 449
early churches in 291
institutionalization 402
synod of (680) 899
Rosary 753
rule of faith 428, 431, 850, 854, 907
and canon of scripture 418
Sacerdos 399–400
sacralization 391, 399–401
sacrifice, Graeco‐Roman 749
St Paul outside the Walls 87–8
saints
as miracle workers 816
as patrons 811–12
as role models 816
cult of 293, 808–21
San Lorenzo, basilica of 96–7
Sarogossa, council of (380) 774
sarcophagi 92, 97, 114
sarcophagus, of St Paul 87
Sardica, canons of (342/3) 439
Sasanids 366, 372
Scholasticism 48
schools, ancient (rhetorical and philosophical) 849–50
Scilli, martyrs of 304
scribes 146–7
scripts 151–5
scripture (see also Bible) 283
and Christian culture 44–8
distinct from canon 406–7
in Syriac tradition 365
interpretation of 845–60
Manichaean 222–4
reading at pilgrimage sites 828
reading in liturgy 715–16
scroll 142, 145–6
‘scrutinies’, in baptismal preparation 702–3, 705
Second Sophistic 327, 551, 566
Second Treatise of Great Seth 215
self‐designation, used in study of Gnosticism 207–8
Seleucia‐Ctesiphon 366
synod of (410) 376
semiotics 111
Septuagint (LXX) 365, 409–14, 420, 590, 675, 755
Sethian texts, from Nag Hammadi 214–15
sexual ethics 938–40
and clerical hierarchy 940
sexuality
in apocryphal acts 535–6
teaching of Julian of Aeclanum 271
Shepherd of Hermas 418, 796–7
Sibylline Oracles 553, 558
sigla, used in epigraphy 124–5
Simonians 215
sin
serious kinds 792–4, 795, 96, 802 n. 1
transmission of 266–7, 271–2, 274
sinlessness, in Pelagius's theology 265–6
Sirmium
council of (357) 248
council of (359) 248
‘Dated Creed’ of 248
slavery 943–4
practiced by Christians 944
social class
of bishops 328, 330
of clergy 392–3, 394
of Cyprian 307
of North African Christians 305
social history 605–6, 612–14, 615–16
social memory 606–7, 616–17
sociology of religion 933–4, 935
Son of Man 345
‘sons and daughters of the covenant’ (bnay/bnāt qyāmā) 374, 376, 752
Sophia of Jesus Christ 212, 214
(p. 991) soteriology, in Arian controversy 243
Spain, origins of Christianity in 286–7, 288, 291, 295, 296
spolia 123
sportula 393, 401
spread of Christianity, random character 288–9
Statuta ecclesiae antiqua 440
stenographers (notarii) 575
stichometry 155–7
Stoics, Stoicism 676, 680, 683, 870, 874
subjectivity 606, 617
suffering, of God 880
suicide, and martyrdom 940
Sunday 919
symbols
in Christian art 113–16
in Christian inscriptions 127–8
Symmachus, biblical translation of 409
Syntagmation 245, 249
syntaxis 703
Syriac Christianity 365–81
relation to Greek world 365–6
relation to Judaism 367–8, 373, 376
Syriac language 365–6
Syriac literature
influence on Greek hymnography 645–6
liturgical traditions 657, 665–6
liturgical collections 665–6
Syriac poetry
metres 661–4
metrical forms of 657–8
modern scholarship on 661
recitation or song 658–60
Talmud 173
Talpiot (Talpiyot) 88
Targumim 367
teachers, as church leaders 397
Teaching of Addai 371
tears, in prayer 758
temporality, of creation 911–13
Testimony of Truth 78, 215
textual criticism 160–2
Theodosian Code 197
Theodotion, biblical translation of 409
theologians, modern 258–9
theology 23, 294
Theotokos 820, 896
Thomas Christianity 68, 69
‘Three Chapters’ 295
Thunder: Perfect Mind 214
time 587, 835
Toledo
council of (589) 253, 430
council of (590) 295
Tosefta 173
traders, role in spreading Christianity 288
traditores 311
tradux peccati 266–7
translations, ancient 666
role in Pelagian controversy 259
tribal peoples 251–3
Trinitarian controversies 867–8, 870, 873, 916–7
Tripartite Tractate 213–14
Trisagion 755
troparion 649–50
Trullo
council of (691–2) 414, 439, 725
typology 847–8
in study of early Christian ethics 934
in study of Gnosticism 205–7
UNESCO 233
Untitled Text (Sethian) 212
Vaison, council of (442) 440
Valencia, council of (546) 725
Valentinian mythography 211
Valentinian texts, from Nag Hammadi 213–14
Valentinians 215
refuted by Tertullian 211
described by Clement and Origen 211–12
Vandals 252–3, 295, 317
vellum 142–3
‘verbal monophysitism’ 900
vestments, of clergy 400–1
vicarius Christi, bishop as 400
Virgil, in Christian poetry 632–3, 636
Virgin Mary 473–4
cult of 820–1
icons of 820
virginity 261, 469–70, 939–40
virgins 394–5, 401
social control of 769, 772
supporters of Arius 395
Visigoths 252–3
visual culture, definition 105
votive offerings 827, 832
Warburg Institute 108
wax tablets 142
White Monastery 356, 505
Wisdom, appellation for Christ 240–3
Wondrous Mountain 832
(p. 992) women 18–19, 605–6, 609–10, 620
and ministry 477
as authors 467–8
as church officers 394–5
as hymnographers 652–3
as patrons 472
as sponsors of hymns 652
as supporters of Arius 241
choirs of 659
correspondence of 469
devotional practices of 474
evidence about 467–70
in apocryphal acts 535–6
in ascetic texts 769, 773, 777, 778
in Christian inscriptions 133–4
in early Christianity 465–82
in Nag Hammadi texts 534–5
ministries of 477–8
religious authority of 471–2
subordination in liturgy 719
Wondrous Mountain 832
Word (logos), appellation for Christ 240–3, 356, 679, 870
Word (logos), as designation for Christ
writing implements 149
xenodocheian 942
Zmirta 660
Zoroastrians 372