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date: 17 September 2019

(p. 1103) Subject Index

(p. 1103) Subject Index

abduction, and semiotics 96–7
Aboriginals 425–6
and art 430
and cultural change 428
and land-use 882
and language 425
and rock art 881
and ‘the Dreaming’ 881–2
Abri Crô-Magnon 311
Abric Romaní 344, 345–6
Abu Hureyra 454, 457, 461–2
Achaemenian empire, and Central Asia 796–8
Acheulean Industrial Complex 255, 260–1, 281
and Homo ergaster/erectus 272, 273, 274–5
and later archaic homo (Homo heidelbergensis) 279–81
Adrar Bous Gisement 743
Adzhina-tepe 772
Aetokremnos 685
Afar 734
Afghanistan, and history of archaeology in 772–3 see also Central Asia
Africa:
and dispersals from:
modern humans 301–3, 382–6
multiple dispersals 379–80
pre-modern humans 373–7
process of 377–80
routes 378–9, 386
technological advances 379
and Homo sapiens sapiens 298–303
and human evolution 734–7
and hunter-gatherers 428–9
interactions with food producers 432–3
and origins of Homo sapiens 380–1 see also North Africa; sub-Saharan Africa
age, and life-course analysis 1042–3
agency 526–8
agriculture:
and definition of 445
and Holocene New Guinea 882–3
and sub-Saharan Africa 728–9 see also farming and domestication
Ahmarian technocomplex 305–6
Ai Khanum 773, 798–9, 800–1
Ain Boucherit 271
Ain Ghazal 685
Ain Hanech 270, 682
Ak-depe 780
Akkad, empire of 697, 700
Akrotiri 704
Alalakh 702
Aleut 419
Alexandria 703
Alexandria Archaeology 1094
Algonquian 939, 944
Alia Bay 264
Alice Boer 985
Alta 817
alternative communities, and community archaeology 1091–3
Altyn-depe 779, 782–3, 784–7
Ambitle Island 911, 914
Ambrona 280
Amekni 743
Americas:
and human settlement of 390–7, 616
‘Clovis First’ scenario 390–2, 930–1
early occupation of 975–8
genetic evidence 395
impact of climate change 396–7
linguistic evidence 395–6
multiple dispersals 396
pre-Clovis occupation 392–6, 931–2
Amūd 335, 342
Anangula Island 822
Anatolia 219, 223, 306, 684, 685, 686, 691, 704
anatomically modern humans (AMH) (Homo sapiens sapiens) 290, 298
and Africa 298–303
dispersion from 301–3
and behavioural modernity 290
assumption of trait survival 317
(p. 1104) characteristics of 297
chronological distribution of characteristics 292
dissemination of 297–8
emergence of 317–22, 323
meaning of 322
origins of 290–1
population dispersal 318–20, 323
rate of change 291
social links between groups 319–20
spoken language 321–2
subsistence activities 320–1
symbolic behaviour 321
transmission 317–18
and Europe 306–7
Aurignacian technocomplex 307–16
and mobility strategies 304–5
and origins of 291
and physical characteristics 296–7
and population dispersal 318–20, 323
social links between groups 319–20 see also human nature
Anau Ia 777–8
ancestor-based interpretation, and spatial archaeology 179–80
androcentrism, and archaeological theory 84, 1030, 1037, 1040
anthropological archaeology 567
and biographical approach 568–9
and interaction, human body 569–72
and trade 568
Anthropological Institute 54, 61
Anthropological Society 54
Anthropological Society of London 55
anthropology:
and archaeology 22, 92–3
and history of archaeology 54–5
divergence from 55–6
and the New Archaeology 74, 75
and spatial archaeology 178, 179
Antioch 798
Antiocha Margiana 798
antiquarianism:
and definition of 53
and history of archaeology 52–4
disappearance of term 55
incorporation of role of 56
antiquities laws 1017–18
and illicit trade in antiquities 1020–1
Anyang 579, 593–4
AOC Archaeology Group 1093–4
Apollo II Cave 738
Arago 278, 280, 335
Aramis 263
Arawe Islands 909, 910
and Siassi trade networks 912–14
arboriculture, and Holocene New Guinea 883
archaeological representation:
and communication of ideas 1048–9
and concerns of 1048
and didactic/non-didactic distinction 1049–50
and forms of representation 1048
and history of 1050–1
17th century geography and history books 1054–5
17th century history paintings 1056
17th century museum displays 1056
18th century antiquarian illustrations 1058–9
18th century decoration and design 1062
18th century neoclassical art 1059–62
19th century archaeological illustration 1062–4
19th century history painting 1067–9
19th century media reports 1067
19th century museum displays 1064
19th century reconstruction of ancient sites 1064–7
20th century computer games 1071
20th century film and television 1069–70
20th century literature 1070
20th century re-enactments 1070–1
Renaissance paintings and book illustrations 1051–4
and importance of 1049
and major studies on 1049
and research questions and methods 1071–4
and significance of 1074
archaeological sites:
and negotiation of knowledge 109
and preservation of 190, 191
and production of 5
and surveying of 14 see also excavation
archaeological theory:
and coexistence of approaches 90
and definition of theory 72
and descriptive nature of 85
and epistemology 83
and expansion of 71, 72
and extended scope of 72
and feminism 83–4
and fragmentation of 80
and future position of 107–9
and gender 83–4
(p. 1105) and geographical differences 73
and higher profile of 71–2
and idea of process 78
and ideology 83
and impact on practice 72, 73
and incremental change 90
and indigenous peoples 84
and influence of 85
and influence of other disciplines 72
and Latin American social archaeology 79
and Marxism 78–9
and middle-range theory 77
and modernity 106–7
and multivocality 90
and the New Archaeology 74–7, 89–90
anthropology 74, 75
Britain 75–6
creation of archaeological record 77
culture 74–5
impact of 76–7
origins of 74
positivism 75
reactions to 78–80
scientific method 75
United States 75
and non-English speaking world 84
and politics 72–3, 81
and postprocessual archaeology 80–2, 90–1
as extension of New Archaeology 82
formative influences 80–1
hermeneutics 81
other traditions 84
politics 81
post-structuralism 81
reactions to 83
structuralism 81
archaeology:
and access to source material 19–20
and anthropology 22, 92–3
and art history 93
and classification of finds 15–19
find context 15
national surveys 16–17
storage 18–19
stratigraphy 15–16
and creation of archaeological record 77
and definition of 4, 38–40
duality of practice 5, 6
historical context 49
objectives of 4–5, 6
and disciplinary boundaries 7–8, 21–2, 23, 24, 48, 91–2
and disciplinary status of 91–4
and documentation of finds 16–18
and employment in 10, 38
and future of 37–8
and growth of discipline 3, 4, 10–11, 23
and history 22–3, 92–3
and hybrid character of 90, 91, 92, 94
and indigenous peoples 32–3
and institutional environment 9–11
and international conferences 11
and interpretation 6
approaches to 26–31
changes in theoretical framework 30–1
impact of science 28, 29–30
long/short term 26–7
rational/romantic approaches 33–6
and material character of discipline 93
and national identity 31–2
and natural sciences 24–5
and prehistory 21–2
and preservation of the past 5, 6
and professional standards 20
and rational/romantic approaches to cultural heritage 33–6
and recovery of archaeological finds 11–15
causes of 11–12
documentation of 14
phases of 12–13
settlements 14–15
source-criticism 12, 13
and research community, establishment of 28
and study of the past 4–5, 6
and traditions of 22–3
and work of archaeologists 8–9 see also archaeological theory; history of archaeology
archaeometry 93
Archaic peoples, and Central Andean region 651
Arctic, see circumpolar zone
Ardipithecus kadaba 263
Argaric 706
art:
and anthropology of 97
and human nature 245–6
and hunter-gatherers 430–1
and Mesoamerica
Aztec Empire 638, 639
Olmec culture 620, 622
Teotihuacan 627 see also history painting; rock art
art history, and archaeology 93
Asa Issie 264
Asa Koma 263
Ashkelon 702
(p. 1106) Asia:
and dispersal of modern humans 383–5
post-Last Glacial Maximum 389–90
and dispersal of pre-modern humans 375, 377, 378, 379 see also Central Asia; East Asia
Aspero 653
Assyrian empire 712
Atapuerca 271–2, 275, 278, 280, 282, 297, 335, 376, 379
Aurignacian technocomplex 358
and earliest traces of 385
and European Aurignacian 305, 307–16
and Levantine Aurignacian 305
Australasia:
and challenge for archaeology in 889
as clumsy concept 866
and continental-scale narratives 867
criticism of 867
and environmental change 868–9
and geographical scope of 866
and Holocene Australia 880–2
and Holocene New Guinea 882
agriculture 882–3
arboriculture 883
regional interaction spheres 884
and human-environment interactions:
New Zealand 878–9
Sahul 872–4
Sahul/New Zealand comparison 879–80
and initial colonization:
New Zealand 876–7
Sahul 871–2
Sahul/New Zealand comparison 879–80
and New Zealand:
cultural-chronological sequence 884–5
human-environment interactions 878–9
initial colonization 876–7
and post-colonial archaeologies 885–8
‘contact’ archaeology 886
cultural landscapes 887–8
culture-heritage management 886–7
indigenous peoples 886
influence of colonial histories 885–6
and rethinking archaeology of 888–9
and Sahul:
chronological plane 867–8
human-environment interactions 872–4
initial colonization 871–2
meaning of 868 n1
Pleistocene occupation 874–5
socio-spatial plane 868
Australia:
and Aboriginals:
land-use 882
language 425
‘the Dreaming’ 881–2
and archaeological practice in 866
and community archaeology 1081, 1089, 1090
and dispersal of modern humans 385
Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 387
and geological stability 868
and Holocene Australia 880–2
and hunter-gatherers 425–6, 428
impact of European contact 434
and microlith technologies 425–6 see also Australasia; Sahul
australopithecines 371, 736
and earlier australopithecines 263–7
and later ‘robust’ australopithecines 267–8
and pre-australopithecines 262–3, 281
Australopithecus aethiopicus 267
Australopithecus afarensis 264
Australopithecus africanus 264, 266
Australopithecus anamensis 264
Australopithecus boisei 267, 269
Australopithecus garhi 264, 266
Australopithecus robustus 267, 270
Austronesian languages 901
Avaris 703–4
Awash Basin 277, 278–9, 380, 730
Ayaz-kala 805
Aztec Empire 636–40
and art 638, 639
and belief system 637
and extent of 636
and human sacrifice 637, 638
and monuments 638–9
and population 637
and Spanish conquest 640
and tribute goods 636
and warfare 638, 639–40
Bacho Kiro 386
Bactria 773, 792–3, 794
Balearic islands 689, 708
Balkans, and national identity 32
Balkh 806
Balof 2 908
Balver Höhle 347
Bamiyan valley 806
Bandiyan 804
Banshan 275
Baradostian technocomplex 305
Batán Grande 664
Bayesian probability 157–8
and radiocarbon dating 158–9
Begram 802
(p. 1107) behavioural ecology, and huntergatherers 416–17
behavioural modernity:
and assumption of trait survival 317
and characteristics of 297
and chronological distribution of characteristics 292
and dissemination of 297–8
and emergence of 317–22, 323
Africa 298–303
Europe 306–16
Near East 303–6
population dispersal 318–20
social links between groups 319–20
spoken language 321–2
subsistence activities 320–1
symbolic behaviour 321
transmission 317–18
and meaning of 322
and origins of 290–1
and origins of Homo sapiens 380
belief systems:
and farming societies 459
and hunter-gatherer societies 458–9
and Mesoamerica 614–15
Aztec Empire 637
Berelekh 390
Bering Strait 821–5
and Birnirk culture 824–5
and characteristics of 821–2
and Ipiutak culture 823
and land bridge 822
and maritime societies 822–3
and Okvik culture 823
and Old Bering Sea Culture 823
and Punuk culture 823–4
and Siberian Late Paleolithic 822
and Thule culture 825
bias 177
and excavation data 196
Bilsingsleben 278, 282
binocular microscopy, and materials analysis 212
biography:
and commodities of exchange 568
and cultural biography 103
and landscape biographies 34
and monument biographies 34
and object biographies 102–3
Bir Kiseba 743
Birnirk culture 824–5
Bismarck Archipelago 397, 399, 400, 901, 921
and earliest human occupation 906–9
Blombos Cave 299, 380
Bluefish Caves 392
Bobongara 871, 874
Bodo 736
body:
and interaction 569–72
and phenomenological aspects of technology 128–9
and spatial archaeology 178 see also embodiment
Bohunician technocomplex 305, 316
Boisman culture 849
bone tools:
and Aurignacian technocomplex 305, 307–16
and Homo sapiens sapiens 298–303
Africa 298–303
Europe 306–16
Near East 303–6
and Neanderthals 346–7
Border Cave 736
Bouri 266, 271
Boxgrove 278, 280–1, 341, 377
brain size:
and earlier australopithecines 263, 266
and early genus Homo 268, 271
and expansion of 283
and Homo ergaster/erectus 271, 273, 277, 375
and later archaic homo (Homo heidelbergensis) 277, 281, 282, 283
and later ‘robust’ australopithecines 267
and Neanderthals 337
British Archaeological Association 53–4
and foundation of 51
British Archaeological Institute 51, 54
British Museum, and Parthenon Sculptures 1018–20
Brixham, and Pengelly's excavation of bone-cave 58–60
bronze metallurgy:
and East Asia 854–5
and Erlitou 588–9
and Laoniupo 600
and Sanxingdui 599
and Wucheng 598
and Yinxu 596
and Zhengzhou 592
Buang Merabak 907
Buddhism 842, 861
and Central Asia 803
Buia 271
Buka Island 907, 908, 909, 914
Buran-Kaya 347
Byblos 702, 703
Byzantium, and glass production 227
(p. 1108) Caballo Muerto 655
Cahokia 941
Cahuachi 661
Cajamarca Valley 656
Canada 825–9
and community archaeology 1082, 1087
forestry 1095
and Dorset peoples 826–7
and early occupations of arctic 825
and interior subarctic Indians 828
and Maritime Archaic Indians 829
and Norse 830
and regional cultural variations 825
and Thule culture 827–8
Cape Coast 1091
capitalism, archaeology of 23
Capri 682
Caral 653, 986–7
Carbon 14-dating, see radiocarbon dating
Carthage 712, 714
Casas Grandes 943, 948
Casma Valley 655
Catal Huyuk Project 1091
Çatalhöyük 685, 1085
catastrophe theory, and cultural complexity 543
Cave Toca de Esperanza 976
Cenjiawan 275
Central Andean region:
and early complex society (3500–1800 BC) 652–4
Late Preceramic period 653–4
and Early Horizon (900–300 BC) 656–8
Chavín 656–8
settlement patterns 658
and early occupations of 651–2
agriculture 652
Archaic peoples 651
Chinchorro people 652
Monte Verde 393–4, 396, 616, 651
Paiján 651
and establishment of first states 648
and first urban states(300 BC-900 AD)
coastal 658–61
Gallinazo people 658–9
highland 661–3
Lima culture 660
Moche culture 659–60
Nasca culture 661
Salinar people 658
Tiwanaku 648, 661–2, 663
Wari 648, 662–3
and geographic characteristics of 649–50
and Hephthalite Huns 805–6
and human settlement of 647
and Initial Period (1800–900 BC) 654–6
ritual architecture 654–5
and Inka empire 647, 666–70
administration of 669
Cuzco 667–8
expansion of 667
kings of 667
provincial impact of 669
religion 668
rise of 666–7
socio-economic organization 668–9
sources for 667
Spanish conquest 669–70
and Late Intermediate Period (AD 900–1400) 664
Chimú 664–6
Ica culture 666
Lupaqa people 666
Peruvian coast 664–6
Qolla people 66
Sicán culture 664
and Moche culture 648
and state society 647
Central Asia:
and Achaemenian empire (558–330 BC) 796–8
and Afghanistan 772–3
and Bronze Age:
Margiana sequence 787–90
north-western Afghanistan & southern Bactria (1800–1600 BC) 791–3
southern Uzbekistan & northern Bactria (1800–1500 BC) 790–1
and Buddhism 803
and contemporary state borders 763
and geography of 763–4
desert 764
landscape 764
water 764
and Greco-Bactrian empire (240–145 BC) 799
and history of archaeology in 769–72
Afghanistan 772–3
post-Soviet period 774–5
under Soviet rule 770–2
and Iron Age:
Archaic Dehistan (14/13th-9/8th centuries BC) 795–6
Yaz I (1500–1000 BC) 793–5
and Kushan empire 800–3
and mortuary practices 766, 785, 790
and Namazga sequence 778
Namazga I/Anau Ib, early Aeneolithic (4800–4000 BC) 778–9
Namazga II/Anau II, Middle Aeneolithic (4000–3500 BC) 779–80
(p. 1109) Namazga III, late Aeneolithic (3500–3000 BC) 780–2
Namazga Idefinition, Early Bronze Age (3000–2500 BC) 782–4
Namazga definition /definition I, Middle Bronze Age (2500–1750 BC) 784–7
and Neolithic 776–7
Anau Ia 777–8
Djeitun culture 776–7
and nomadic migration 766–7
and oasis-based urban centres 764, 766
and Palaeolithic and Mesolithic 776
and Parthian empire (171 BC-224 AD) 799–800, 803
and pastoral economy 766
and Russian conquest of 763
and Sasanian empire (224–628) 803–6
and Seleucid empire (312–129 BC) 798–9
and settlement patterns 767–9
and Sogdians (Sughd) 806–7
and trade routes 763
Central Place Theory (CPT) 175, 176–7
Ceprano 271, 275
Četina culture 699
Chaco Canyon 942–3
Chad, Lake 742
chaînes opératoires research 122–3, 130–1
and reconstruction of artefact life-cycles 210
distribution 211–12
experimental replication 212
production technology 211
use 212
Chakmakli-depe 778
Chalandriani-Kastri 698
Chan Chan 665–6, 988
Châtelperronian technocomplex 312–3, 316
Chaudefinition et cadefinition e 321
CChaví culture 656–6
Chaví de Huantar ín de Huantar 967, 980, 987
Chesowanja 267
Chet-less-cun-dunn 1090
Chichen Itza 634, 1041
Chihuahua 943
chimpanzees, and culturally mediated behaviour 262
Chimú 664–6
chin, and human nature 252
China:
and archaeology in:
dedefinition elopment of 579–80
didefinition erent approaches to 580, 843
and bronze 854
and cultural complexity 850–3
and Daxinzhuang 601–2
relationship with Shang 602
and Erlitou 586–90
and establishing dynastic history 580–1
and ethno-linguistic didefinition ersity 842
and Huanbei 593–4
and iron 855
and Laoniupo 599–601
relationship with Shang 601
and leadership 859
and megalithic tombs 853–4
and mounded tombs 855
and origins of 579
and origins of farming 463
and plant and animal domestication:
animals 849–50
millets 849
rice 848
and Sanxingdui 598–9, 605
relationship with Shang 599
and state formation 579, 603–5, 851
definition of state 581–2
and Taosi 583–6, 604
and urbanization 579, 603, 604
and Wucheng 597–8, 605
relationship with Shang 598
and Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project 580–1
and Xinzhai 590
and Yinxu 594–7
nature of Shang state 602–3
and Zhengzhou 590–3 see also East Asia
Chinchorro people 652
Chon'gokni 845
Chopan-depe 776
Chorasmia 805
Choris culture 822
chronology:
and importance of 145–6, 163–4
and nature of time 149–50
and relatidefinition e dating sequence:
cross-cultural comparisons 151
seriation 151
stratigraphy 150–1 see also dating techniques
circumpolar zone:
and archaeological challenges of 812
and Bering Strait 821–5
Birnirk culture 824–5
characteristics of 821–2
Ipiutak culture 823
land bridge 822
maritime societies 822–3
(p. 1110) Okdefinition ik culture 823
Old Bering Sea culture 823
Punuk culture 823–4
Siberian Late Paleolithic 822
Thule culture 825
and cultural didefinition ersity 812–13, 830
and cultural ecology 815
and culture change 815
and definition of:
arctic 813–14
subarctic 814
and environmental adaptation 831
and historical overview of archaeology of 814–15
and human mastery of 812
and northern Canada and Greenland 825–9
Dorset peoples 826–7
early occupations of 825
Early Paleoeskimo 825
interior subarctic Indians 828
Inuit 830
Maritime Archaic Indians 829
midden accumulations 825
Norse 829–30
regional cultural variations 825
Thule culture 827–8
and northern Fennoscandinavia 816–19
agriculture 817
earliest human occupation 816
iron technology 817
Medieval period 819
reindeer-hunting 817
rock art 817
Sami reindeer-herding 818–19
Stone Age 816
and Siberia 819–21
earliest human settlements 819
extended occupation of 819–20
hunting and fishing economies 821
metal-producing cultures 820–1
Neolithic 820
rock art 820
Ust-Poluy period 821
and social context of archaeology of 815
and social networks 831
circumscription theory, and cultural complexity 542
Cishan culture 849
Cissbury:
and Lane-Fox's excavations 60–1
and Willett's excavations 61
Clacton 261, 341
classical archaeology:
and archaeological theory 83
and processual ideas 79
classification of finds 15–19
and access to source material 19–20
and documentation system 16–18
and find context 15
and national surveys 16–17
and storage 18–19
and stratigraphy 15–16
climate change:
and Australasia 868–9
and dispersal of modern humans:
impact of Last Glacial Maximum 387
post-Last Glacial Maximum 387–90
and dispersal of pre-modern humans 378
and forager-farmer transition 454
and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 386–7
and Mediterranean 681, 692–3
and origins of farming 461, 462, 463, 472
and settlement of Americas 396–7
and Younger Dryas 387
Clovis:
and characteristics of 397
and Clovis Xuted projectile points 155
and Clovis horizon 155
and settlement of Americas 390–2, 930–1
Cognitive Archaeology 90
and materiality/material agency 101
colonial archaeology 23, 24
Combe Grenal 350
commercial archaeology 8, 9, 10, 15, 190–1, 195
and community archaeology 1093–4
city archaeology 1094–5
forestry 1095–7
communication:
and definition of 558
and embodied modes of 570
community archaeology 1097–8
and Australia 1081, 1089, 1090
and Canada 1082, 1087
forestry 1095
and collaborative nature of 1078, 1085
and community initiated archaeology 1086–9
and defining communities 1086
alternative communities 1091–3
descendant communities 1090–1
local vs indigenous 1089–90
and developer-funded archaeology 1093–4
city archaeology 1094–5
forestry 1095–7
and distinguishing feature of 1078
and diversity of 1079
and Fiji 1086–7, 1095
and Ghana 1090–1
(p. 1111) and growing popularity of 1080
and Heritage Stewardship 1082–3
and history of 1078–9
and indigenous peoples 886, 1081
and methodologies of 1083–6
communication 1085
community approach 1085
key components 1083–4
mistakes 1085–6
and New Zealand 1082, 1089–90
forestry 1095–7
and Romania 1094
and social inclusion 1080
and stewardship 1080, 1082–3
and United Kingdom 1080–1, 1087, 1091–3
developer-funded 1093–4, 1095
forestry 1095
and United States 1082–3, 1090, 1091
developer-funded 1094–5
forestry 1095
complexity theory, and cultural complexity 543
computer games, and archaeological representation 1071
concept formation 522
conferences, and archaeology 11, 38
connectivity, and definition of 557
construction:
and developer-funded archaeology 1093–4
city archaeology 1094–5
forestry 1095–7
and rescue excavations 4, 8, 15, 190–1
contact archaeology 886
and North America 950–1
contexts, and excavations 202
continuity:
and Dawkins' attacks on Pitt Rivers 62–4
and Pitt Rivers' ideas on 60, 62
Cook Islands 898, 905
copper and alloys:
and distribution studies 229–30
and production technology reconstruction 219–22
chemical analysis 220
choice of alloys 221–2
extraction and processing of ores 219
fabrication and decorative processes 220
indefinition ention of copper metallurgy 220–1
and sub-Saharan Africa 733
Corsica 685, 694, 708
Codefinition a Negra 342
Coxcatlan Cadefinition e 617
Crete 687, 700
and palace-states of 704
and population of 708
critical theory 25
cross-cultural comparisons, and relatidefinition e dating sequence 151
Crow Creek massacre 945
Cuedefinition a de las Manos 986
Cuedefinition a de los definition ampiros 464
cultidefinition ation 447
cultural biography 103
cultural complexity 547–8
and attitudes towards concept 519–20
and didefinition erentiation 520, 522–5
problems equating with 523–5
and East Asia 850–3
China 850–3
Japan 853
Korea 853
and explanation of changes:
catastrophe theory 543
circumscription theory 542
collapses in 547
complexity theory 543
cultural edefinition olution 541–2
cybernetic systems theory 543
demographic-economic theories 544–7
edefinition olutionary theories 540–1
general theories 542
material prime modefinition ers 542–3
specific theories 542
and formal definition s 520, 522, 524
unusability of 521
and ideal-type definition 532–3
as measure of human organization 520–1
and measurement of 534, 538
circularity 536
contemporary ancestors problem 534
data reliability 534–5
inappropriate categories 535
nominal data 536–8
unit definition 535–6
and minimal definition of 520, 529–30, 548
coherence 530–1
comparison with didefinition erentiation 529–30
operationalization 532
definition alidity 531–2
and nature of change 538
continuous models 540
simple/complex distinction 539–40
stage theories 538–9
and quantification 521
and South America 978–81
and typology of uses of concept 525–9
and use of concept in archaeology 519
(p. 1112) cultural edefinition olution:
and cultural complexity 541–2
and South American archaeology 969
Cultural Edefinition olution, Law of 121
cultural heritage:
and claims to 33
and indigenous peoples 32–3
and national identity 31–2
and rational/romantic approaches to 33–6
cultural memory 104
cultural relatidefinition ism 239
Cultural Resource Management (CRM) 181, 182–3, 1082
Cultural Surdefinition idefinition al 1009
cultural traditions, and edefinition olution of 104
cultural transmission theory 90, 104
culture:
and culture history paradigm 118–19
and human nature 246–8, 250, 251
and meaning of 118, 120
as property 1017
culture areas 926
culture history:
and dedefinition elopment of 171–2
and South American archaeology 970–1
culture-historical archaeology 559
and criticisms of 559–60
and interaction 559
and trade 559
Cumbemayo Canal 656
Cuzco 666, 667–8
cybernetic systems theory, and cultural complexity 543
Cyprus 559–60, 685–6, 690, 692, 698, 699–700, 710
and emergence of polities 704–5
and inter-regional trade 705
Cyrene 714
Cyropolis 796
Dadianzi 851–2
Dalmatia 708, 711
Daldefinition erzin-tepe 803
Dashlidji-depe 779
Dashly 791–2
dating techniques 147–8
and addefinition ances in 164
and dispersal of humans 372–3
and future research 164
and importance of 145–6
and life-cycle model of 146
and limitations of 152, 164
and marine reserdefinition oir odefinition set 155–6, 159–61
and nature of time 149–50
and radiocarbon dating 152
Bayesian analysis 158–9
calibration 152–7
freshwater definition ardefinition e data 156
problems with 152–4
and relatidefinition e dating sequence:
cross-cultural comparisons 151
seriation 151
stratigraphy 150–1
and requirements of 146
and tephrochronology 161, 162–3
Daxinzhuang 601–2
dead culture 12
débitage, and Neanderthals 349
Dederiyeh cadefinition e 335
Dehistan 795–6
dendro-chronology 27
and radiocarbon dating 153
Denmark:
and archidefinition ing of archaeological finds 13
and classification of finds 16
and Kitchen Midden Commission 28
and national archaeological surdefinition ey 16–18
and preserdefinition ation of sites 14
descendant communities, and community archaeology 1090–1
Dedefinition il's Lair 871
diagenesis 495
diet, human:
and adefinition ailability of food 489–90
application of technology 489
ecosystem productidefinition ity 489
indefinition ention in procurement of 490
and bone as edefinition idence of 490–1, 494–5
alteration of 495
inferences from trace elements 495–6
structure of 494–5
and consumption rhythms 488
and determinants of 484
and dietary isotope studies 496
basis for 496–7
freshwater fish consumption 508–10
limitations of 506
Mesolithic marine resources 507–8
milk residues 510–11
status and dietary didefinition erences 511–12
definition ariation in carbon and nitrogen isotopes 497–9
and dietary selection 493
and extra-corporeal edefinition idence of 490
artefacts 492–3
bone and teeth 490–1, 494, 495
plant material 491
soils and sediments 492
and human tissue as edefinition idence of 494
and information sources for 448–9
and Mesoamerica 614, 617
and milk 493, 494, 504–5, 507
and nutritional requirements 485
energy 485–6
fats and oils (lipids) 487
protein 486–7
definition itamins and trace elements 487–8
and reconstruction from isotopic tracers 499–500
early hominins 500
early modern humans 501
Iron Age 505
late Upper Palaeolithic 501–3
Neanderthals 501
Neolithic diet 504–5
other approaches 507
transition to agriculture 503–6
and role of 506
and study of:
aim of 484
limitations of 484–5
didefinition usion, and technology 151
digital technology:
and access to source material 19–20
and reflexive excavation 20
discourse analysis 107
dispersals, human 318–20, 323, 371–2, 401–2
and curiosity 402
and early dispersal of Homo sapiens into Eurasia 382–6
date of 382–3
routes 386
speed of 383–5
and edefinition idence for 372
and first dispersals from Africa 373–7
East Asia 375
Europe 376–7
Homo ergaster 373–6
Homo heidelbergensis 377
South-East Asia 375, 377
as human characteristic 372
and hunter-gatherers 424–5
and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 386–7
and post-Last Glacial Maximum 387–9
two-stage recolonization 389
and process of early dispersals 377–80
climate change 378
exploration/discodefinition ery 378
multiple dispersals 379–80
routes 378–9
technological addefinition ances 379
and settlement of Americas 390–7
‘Clodefinition is First’ scenario 390–2
genetic edefinition idence 395
impact of climate change 396–7
linguistic edefinition idence 395–6
multiple dispersals 396
pre-Clodefinition is occupation 392–6
and settlement of the Pacific islands 397–401
genetic edefinition idence 401
Lapita Culture 399–400
linguistic edefinition idence 400–1
and study of 372–3
dating techniques 372–3
genetic approach 373
linguistic approach 373
distributed objects 97, 103–4
distribution maps, and spatial archaeology 172
Djarkutan 790–1
Djeitun 776–7
Dmanisi 271, 273, 376, 378, 379
documentation of finds 16–18
and access to source material 19–20
domestication, see farming and domestication
Donggutuo 275
Dongshanzui 850, 851
Dorset peoples, and northern Canada and Greenland 826–7
Dragsholm 475
Drimolen 267
dying culture 12
Dyuktai Cadefinition e 390
East Asia:
and archaeological practice in 843–4
China 843
Japan 843–4
Korea 843–4
linguistic difficulties 844
terminology 844
and bronze 854–5
China 854
Japan 854–5
Korea 854
and Buddhism 861
and Chinese cultural hegemony 860–1
and cultural complexity 850–3
China 850–3
Japan 853
Korea 853
and didefinition ersity of 841–2
and early pottery 847–8
Japan 847–8
Korea 848
(p. 1114) and geographical scope of 841
and ‘horse-riders’ 859
and inapplicability of modern boundaries 842–3
and iron 855
and leadership 859–60
China 859
Japan 860
Korea 860
Russian Far East 860
and maritime connections 841
and megalithic tombs 853–4
China 853–4
Korea 853, 854
and mounded tombs 855–8
China 855
Japan 855, 857–8
Korea 855–7
and Paleolithic 844–6
approaches to stone tools 845–6
influence of European work 844–5
Late Pleistocene 846–7
Modefinition ius Line error 845–6
pottery at Pleistocene/Holocene border 846–7
terminological problems 845
and plant and animal domestication:
animals 849–50
millets and dry farming 849
rice 848–9
East Turkana 267, 268, 269, 271, 273, 400
East fienatchee Clodefinition is site 1085–6
Easter Island 397, 399, 898, 917
eating, and cultural meaning 448
Ebla 697, 700
ecology, and focus on human 120
economic anatomy 415
Egypt:
and farming and domestication 743
and formation of Nile delta 687
and glass production 225–6
and Middle Kingdom 702
and New Kingdom 703
location of capital 703
and the ‘Sea Peoples’ 709, 710
Ehringsdorf 297
El Abra 984
El Jobo 984
El Paraiso 653
El Sidrón cadefinition e 355
Elandsfontein 277
electron microscopy, and materials analysis 213
Elgin Marbles 1018–20
El'ken-depe 793–4
El-Kherba 270
Elmina Castle 1091
embodiment 1038 see also body
Emiran technocomplex 305, 316
England, and preserdefinition ation of sites 14
Enkomi 704
Enlightenment, and indigenous peoples 1004–6
Erk Kala 767–9, 798
Erligang culture, and Zhengzhou 590–3
Erlitou 586–90
ethics 33, 108
ethnicity, and gender archaeology 1043–4
ethnoarchaeology 23, 77, 81
and hunter-gatherers 415
and technology studies 123
Ethnographical Society 54
ethnology, and archaeology 23
Etruria 711
Europe:
and dispersal of modern humans 386
impact of Last Glacial Maximum 387
post-Last Glacial Maximum 387–90
two-stage recolonization 389
and earliest hominin presence 376–7
and Homo sapiens sapiens 306–7
Aurignacian technocomplex 307–16
and origins of farming 464–6
European Association of Archaeologists (EAA) 11, 20, 38
European Aurignacian technocomplex 305, 307–16
edefinition olution 62
and continuity 60, 62
Dawkins' attacks on Pitt Ridefinition ers 62–4
and cultural traditions 104
and Darwin 332–3
as descent with modification 540–1
and sexual selection 1033–4
and teleological evolutionism 64 see also human evolution
edefinition olutionary archaeology 83
and South American archaeology 969–70
edefinition olutionary ecology, and hunter-gatherers 416
edefinition olutionary psychology 245, 249
excadefinition ation:
as archaeological actidefinition ity 8
and adefinition oidance of 190
and choice of site 191–5
constraints on 195
edefinition aluation 192–3
finance 192, 193, 195
(p. 1115) nature of excavation 193–4
research objective 191–2
rural 193
sampling strategies 194–5
urban 193–4
and continuing need for 189
and destruction of site 190
and development of methods 14
Bulleid's Somerset Levels excavations 64–5
Lane-Fox's Cissbury excavations 60–1
Lane-Fox's Cranbourne Chase excavations 61–2
Pengelly's Brixham excavations 58–60
and history of archaeology 56–65
answering specific problems 58
antiquity of humans 58–9
Brixham bone-cave 58–60
Cissbury 60–1
continuity 60, 62
Cranbourne Chase 61–2
development of methods 57–8
reluctance to participate 49
as sites of collection 57, 62
Somerset Levels 64–5
and nature of data 195–202
biased record 196
creative use of 197
data loss 196–7
documentary sources 197
(in)completeness of 196–7
interpretation 195–6, 198–201
pottery 197–8
recording and presentation of 201
and post-excavation work:
analysis 206–7
publication 206, 207
writing up 205–6
and procedures and methodology 202–5
context recording 203–5
contexts 202
mechanics of 205
photographs 203
physical relationship of contexts 205
plans and drawings 203
recording data 202–3
stratigraphic relationship of contexts 203–5
written record 203
and public perception of archaeology 189
and reflexive excavation 21
and structuring of data 190 see also rescue excavations
exchange:
and aspects of commodities of 568
and definition of 556
and down-the-line model 566
and gravity model 566
and Renfrew's model of 563
as socially embedded 567–8 see also trade
façonnage, and Neanderthals 349
farming and domestication:
and belief systems 459
and Central Andean region 652
and definition of 445
and East Asia:
animals 849–50
millets and dry farming 849
rice 848–9
and foraging-farming continuum 457–9
and historiography of forager-farmer transitions 453–7
ambiguity of terms 456–7
assumption of inevitability 456
climate change 454
cultural factors 456
hearths of domestication 453–4
New Archaeology 453–4
oasis hypothesis 453
population pressure 454
postprocessual archaeology 454–6
stages of progress 453
and impact of 447, 476
and information sources for transition to 448–52
diet 448–9
food refuse 449
genetics 449–50
material culture 450–1
modern analogies 451–2
scientific techniques 451
skeletal remains 448–9
and Mediterranean 694–5
and Mesoamerica 618
Maya civilization 629–30
and North America, Archaic Period 935
and origins of 459–61, 472–7
agricultural ideologies 475–6
Americas 464
attraction of domesticates 474
China 463
climate change 461, 462, 463, 472
different patterns of 472
Eurasian system of agriculture 466–7
Europe 464–6
gender roles 474–5
geographical scale 466–8
information sources for 448–52
population pressure 454, 472
pressures on higher-ranks food sources 472
South-East Asia 463–4
and social organization 457–9
and spread of 468–72
complex patterns of 469–72
‘Neolithic dispersal’ theory 468–9
and sub-Saharan Africa 740–5
animals 742
eastern Africa 744
Egypt 743
Malian Sahara 743
motivations for adopting 745
plants 740–2
social impact of 745
socio-economic structuring 742–3
southern Africa 744
southern Sahara 742–3
western Africa 743
Fell Cave 976, 985–6
feminism 526
and archaeological theory 83–4
and gender archaeology 1029, 1030–1
Fennoscandinavia, northern 816–19
and agriculture 817
and earliest human occupation 816
and iron technology 817
and Medieval period 819
and reindeer-hunting 817
and rock art 817
and Sami reindeer-herding 818–19
and Stone Age 816
Weld surveying 14
Fiji 399, 400, 898, 910
and community archaeology 1086–7, 1095
Wlms, and archaeological representation 1069
Finland:
and earliest human occupation 816
and rock art 817
and Stone Age 816
Wre:
and later archaic homo (Homo heidelbergensis) 278, 282
and Neanderthals 348
‘First Family’ 264
Firuzabad 804
Wshing, and human diet 502–3
Flores Island 377, 682, 872, 888
Florisbad 277
and Florisbad skull 297
Fontana Nuova 683
footwear, and role of 100
forestry, and community archaeology 1095–7
formation processes of the archaeological record 12
Fort Ross 950
Fort St Jago 1091
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and materials analysis 213
Franchthi cave 685–6
Fuente Alamo 706
Funtuna 400
Gallinazo people 658–9
gas chromatography 451
Gatas 706
gender:
and archaeological theory 83–4
and Native Americans 946–7
and North America 952
and origins of farming 474–5
gender archaeology 1029–30
and class 1043
and embodiment 1038
and ethnicity 1043–4
and feminism 1029, 1030–1
and future of 1044
and gender Xuidity 1035–6
and gendered behaviour 1033–5
and life-course analysis 1042–3
and masculinity 1040–2
and performance 1037
and queer theory 1036–8
and sex, definitions of 1032–3
and social construction of gender 1031–2
and socio-biological view of gender 1032
and third genders 1035–6
genetics:
and beginnings of farming 449–50
and language 381
and origins of Homo sapiens 380
and settlement of Americas 395
and settlement of the Pacific islands 401
and study of human dispersals 373
Geographic Information Systems (GIS):
and Cultural Resource Management 182–3
and spatial archaeology 171, 180–2, 183–4
geography, and spatial archaeology 175, 176, 178, 181
Geoksyur oasis 779–81
Geoktchik tepe 795–6
Geological Society 61
geology, and archaeology 23, 24
geophysics, and data collection 189
Germany, and archaeological theory 79
Ghana, and community archaeology 1090–1
(p. 1117) Gheo-Shih 617
glass:
and distribution studies 230
and production technology reconstruction:
beginnings of production 225–6
Byzantium 227
Egypt 225–6
Islamic world 227
Mesopotamia 225
Rome 226–7
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) 181
globalization 36
and cultural heritage 8
Göbekli Tepe 463
Gona 263, 264–6, 267, 271, 277, 735, 736
Gonur-depe I 788, 789
Gorham's Cave 342
Gorodtsovian culture 313
Gournay-sur-Aronde 194
Gravettian technocomplex 313, 316, 317
Greco-Bactrian empire, and Central Asia 799
Greenham Common 1091–2
Greenland 825–9
and Dorset peoples 826–7
and early occupations of 825
and midden accumulations 825
and Norse 829–30
and regional cultural variations 825
and Thule culture 827–8
Grimes' Graves 61
Gröbern 341
Grotta del Cavallo 316
Grotte du Renne 313, 345, 356, 359–60
Grotte Vauffrey 344, 345, 346
Guitarrero Cave 984
Gyaur Kala 769, 798
habitus theory 526
Hacinebi Tepe 563
Hadar 264, 268
Hane Dune 876
Harappan civilization 792
Hatunmarca 666
Hawaii 397, 399, 400, 898, 915, 916, 917–20
and chiefly power 918
and heroic history 918
and model household cluster 919–20
and prehistory of 917–18
and sacred structures 918–19
and social divisions 919, 920
Hazor 702
Hecatompylos 800
Hephthalite Huns 805–6
Herat 769
heritage:
and growth of archaeology 4, 23
and national/regional agencies 9–10
and post-colonial archaeologies 886–7
and work of archaeologists 8–9
and World Heritage Convention 887
Heritage Stewardship 1082–3
hermeneutics 106
and postprocessual archaeology 81
Herto 291, 321
Hexian 271, 278
Historic Environment Liverpool Project 1095
historical archaeology 23, 24
and North America 951–2
historical change, and production of archaeological sites 5
history, and archaeology 22–3, 92–3
history of archaeology:
and 19th century approach to archaeology 51–2
and anthropology 54–5
divergence from 55–6
and antiquarianism 52–4
definition 53
disappearance of term 55
incorporation of role of 56
and continuities in 65, 66
and definition of archaeology 49
and dificulty writing 47–8
and excavation 56–65
answering specific problems 58
antiquity of humans 58–9
Brixham bone-cave 58–60
Cissbury 60–1
continuity 60, 62
Cranbourne Chase 61–2
development of methods 57–8
reluctance to participate 49
as sites of collection 57, 62
Somerset Levels 64–5
and gentlemen archaeologists 48–9, 50
and history of ideas 106
and importance of 31
and specialization 48
history painting, and archaeological representation 1056, 1059–62, 1067–9
Hittites 703, 710
Hohokam 938, 940, 943, 948
Homes with History project 1094
hominid origins 262, 281–4
and Acheulean Industrial Complex 260–1
and earlier australopithecines 263–7
and early genus Homo 268–71
and Homo ergaster/erectus 271–7
(p. 1118) and later archaic homo (Homo heidelbergensis) 277–81, 283
and later ‘robust’ australopithecines 267–8
and Oldowan Industrial Complex 256–60
and pre-australopithecines 262–3
and sub-Saharan Africa 734–7
hominins 299 n1
Homo, and emergence of genus 254, 736
early genus Homo 268–71
Homo ergaster/erectus 271–7
later archaic homo (Homo heidelbergensis) 277–81, 283
Homo antecessor 272, 275, 379
Homo erectus 271–7, 736
Homo ergaster 271, 732
and dispersal from Africa 373–6, 378, 736
Homo floresiensis 377
Homo georgicus 273
Homo habilis 268, 269
and dispersal from Africa 375
Homo heidelbergensis 277–81, 282, 283, 333, 335, 736
and dispersal from Africa 377, 379
Homo helmei 278, 297, 298
Homo rhodesiensis 278
Homo rudolfensis 268, 269
Homo sapiens:
and characteristics of 252
and language 381–2
and origins of 380–1
and symbolic behaviour 380–1 see also dispersals, human; human nature
Homo sapiens sapiens, see anatomically modern humans (AMH)
Hongshan culture 850, 851, 852, 854, 855, 859
Hopi 948
horticulture 447
Howiesons Port industry 323
Hoxne 281
Huanbei 593–4
Huanuco Pampa 988–9
human evolution 254–5 see also hominid origins
human nature:
and ape behaviour 243–4
differences from 244–5
as Aristotelian legacy 246–9
and characteristics of 252
and the chin 252
and civilization 238, 239
and cultural relativism 239
and culture 246–8, 250, 251
and difficulty in identifying specific aspects of 247–8
and divergence from the apes 240–2
bio-cultural 241–2
bipedalism 240–1
cultural diffierences 243
dental features 241
expansion of brain 241
physical differences 242
and diversity of behaviour 245
and generalizations about 251
and illusions of 243–6
and innate/learned aspects 243
and language 248
and natural man 238–9, 239–40
and naturalistic fallacy 244
and political implications of 238
and qualifiers of term 250–1
cultural variables 250
political uses of 250–1
value-laden 250
and religion 248
and sex-based diffierences 248–9
and uniformities in 248
human rights 33
human sacrifice:
and Aztec Empire 638
and China:
Laoniupo 600, 601
Longshan culture 583
Yinxu 600
Zhengzhou 591–2
and Maya civilization 630
and Mesoamerica 614
humanity, and definitional problem 237–8 see also anatomically modern humans (AMH)
hunter-gatherers 411–12
and Africa 428–9
and approaches to 413–15
behavioural ecology 416–17
ethnoarchaeology 415
ethnographic Weldwork 415
evolutionary ecology 416
historical approach 417
Marxist models 417, 418
optimal foraging theory 416
‘Original AZuent Society’ (OAS) model 415
and art 430–1
and Australia 425–6, 428
and belief systems 458–9
and colonization of world, environmental factors 424–5
and definition of 412–13
(p. 1119) criticism of bipolar classification 413
social organization/ideology 413
subsistence 412, 413
and diet variations 418
impact of environment 418–19
and ecological knowledge 419
and egalitarian societies 422–3, 457
and equestrian societies 433–4
and food sharing 421–2
and food storage 421
and forager-farmer transition 429, 447
foraging-farming continuum 457–9
historiography of 453–7
information sources for 448–52
and impact of European contact 433–4
and interactions with food-producers 431–2, 433
hunter-gatherer decline 433, 434
social change 433
southern Africa 432–3
and Mediterranean 686–7
and Mesoamerica 617, 618
and mobility 420–1
food storage 421
motivations for 420
types of settlement 420
women's role 420–1
and non-egalitarian societies 423, 457
and North Africa 687
and North America, Archaic Period 935
and pottery 426
and social and economic intensification 426–30
and social change 426–30, 433
and social organization 424–5, 457–9
and South America 976
and sub-Saharan Africa 737
southern Africa 744
and technology/tool-making 419–20, 425, 426
Huron 949
husbandry 447
Ica culture 666
Iceman 6, 13, 26, 449, 494, 570, 694
icons, and semiotics 96
ideal types 532–3
ideology, and archaeology 31–2, 83
Iisaak Forest Resources 1095
Il'skaya 347
Inca Cueva 986
indices, and semiotics 96
indigenous peoples
and archaeological theory 84
and archaeology:
academic involvement in 1014
academic/political tensions 1013
impact on agenda of 1012–13
Kennewick Man 1015–16
oral traditions 1015
rapprochement between 1015
relationship with 1011–12
and archaeology of 23
and assertion of rights 434
and assumption of extinction 1006–7
and collective cultural rights 1010–11
and community archaeology 1081
and cultural heritage 32–3
and definitional difficulties 1009–10
and Enlightenment view of 1004–6
and exclusion of 1001–2
and Greek and Roman roots of concept 1002–3, 1004
Greek origin stories 1003
Roman origin stories 1003
and Indigenous museums 1022
and Indigenous-rights movement 1008–11
strategic essentialism 1013–14
and International Labour Organization 1008
and League of Nations 1007–8
and paradox of 1001
and political status of 1007–8
and post-colonial archaeologies 886
as recent phenomenon 1002
and United Nations 1008
and World Archaeological Congress 1012–13
cultural rights 1013
Indo-European languages 469
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) 213–14
industrial archaeology 23
infanticide 244
Inka empire 647, 666–70, 966, 967–8
and administration of 669
and Cuzco 667–8
and expansion of 667
and kings of 667
and provincial impact of 669
and religion 668
and rise of 666–7
and socio-economic organization 668–9
and sources for 667
and Spanish conquest 669–70
institutions, and archaeology 9–11
intensification 426–8, 867
interaction 555
and anthropological archaeology:
biographical approach 568–9
human body 569–72
(p. 1120) and communication 558
and connectivity 557
and culture-historical archaeology 559
and definition of 557
and interaction sphere 557
and past societies 572–3
and postprocessual archaeology 567
nature of exchange 567–8
and processual archaeology 560–1
criticism of approach 565–6
socio-economic organization 561–5
and scales of 557
International Labour Organization 1008
internet, and access to source material 19–20
interpretation 6
and approaches to 26–31
long/short term 26–7
and changes in theoretical framework 30–1
and excavation data 195–6, 198–201, 207
and impact of science 28, 29–30
and materials analysis 214–16
and politics 81
and rational/romantic approaches to 33–6
interpretative archaeology 567
and material culture 567
Inuit 419, 420, 422, 430, 434, 814, 830
Ipiutak culture 823
Iqaluktuuq 1087
iron:
and East Asia 855
and production technology reconstruction 222–4
Wrst production 223
steel 222–3
wrought iron 222
and sub-Saharan Africa 733–4
Iron Gates 502–3, 508–10
Iroquois 942, 944, 949, 1008
Iroquois Confederacy 949
Islamic world, and glass production 227
Italy 694, 711
and Bronze Age settlement patterns 708
ITT Rayonier 1097
Jankovichian technocomplex 316
Japan 841
and archaeological practice in 843–4
and bronze 854–5
and Buddhism 861
and cultural complexity 853
and early pottery 847–8
and ‘horse-riders’ 859
and leadership 860
and mounded tombs 855, 857–8
and Paleolithic 846
and plant and animal domestication:
animals 850
rice 849 see also East Asia
Java, and pre-modern humans 375
Jebel Irhoud 297
Jerf al Ahmar 463
Jerzmanowician technocomplex 316
Jian 855–6
Jinniushan 278
Jomon culture 847–8, 853
Ju/'hoãnsi Bushmen 422, 423, 432
Kabri 702
Kabwe 277, 730, 736
Kachemak culture 822
Kalahari Bushmen 413, 415, 417–18, 420, 431, 433, 434, 1010
Kalambo Falls 279, 737
Kanapoi 264
Kara-depe 781
Katanda 321
Kaya 857
Kazakhstan, see Central Asia
Kebara 335, 342, 344, 345
Kelleli 787–8, 789
Kennewick Man 32–3, 435, 932, 1015–16
Kent's Cavern 348
Kerma 749
Khalchayan 802–3
Khapuz 783
Khoresmian Archaeological Ethnographic Expedition 770
Kilu Cave 907, 908
Kisese II rock shelter 738–9
Kitchen Midden Commission 28
Kitikmeot Heritage Society (KHS) 1087
Klasies River Mouth 736
Knossos 687, 698, 701, 704
and population of 708
Kodiak Island 822, 824
Koguryo 855–6, 860
Koktepe 802
Kongju 856
Königsaue 348
Konso Gardula 261, 267, 271, 273
Koobi Fora 273–4, 736
Korea 841
and archaeological practice in 843–4
and bronze 854
and Buddhism 861
and cultural complexity 853
(p. 1121) and early pottery 848
and horses 859
and iron 855
and leadership 860
and megalithic tombs 853, 854
and mounded tombs 855–7
and Paleolithic 845
and plant and animal domestication:
animals 850
millets 849
rice 848–9 see also East Asia
Kosipe 874
Kotosh Tradition 653–4
Krapina 340, 355
Kromdraai 267
Kuchuk 794
Kuk 464
Kulpi Mara 387
Kumbi-Saleh 750
Kumbun Island 909
Kumsong 861
Kush 743, 749
Kushan empire 800–3
Kyongju 856–7, 861
Kyzyl 794
La Cotte de St-Brelade 341
La Draga 686
La Emerenciana 474
La Ferrassie 321, 354
La Florida 655
La Quina 342
La Roche-Cotard 356
La Venta 621–2
La-Chapelle-aux-Saints 334
Lachitu cave 871
Laetoli 264
Lagar Velho 312, 359
Lagoa Santa 985
Lake Mungo 871, 887
Lakhtin culture 823
landscape:
and ancestor-based interpretation 179–80
and changes in 5, 11
as cultural construction 34
and cultural landscapes 887
and formation of 105
and landscape biographies 34
and material culture 104, 105–6
as process 104–5
and taskscape 104, 105
landscape archaeology 171
and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 180–3
and integrated approach to 174–5
and Mediterranean archaeology 680–1
and surveying 174
landscape history 23
language:
and Aboriginals 425
and emblematic languages 915
and emergence of behavioral modernity 321–2
and genetics 381
and Homo sapiens 381–2
and human nature 248
and Indo-European languages 469
and inter-group languages 915
and material culture 95
and Mediterranean 690–1
and Mesoamerica 615–16
and Native Americans 395–6
and Neanderthals 355
and Pacific islands 400–1, 898
and South America 966
and study of human dispersals 373
and sub-Saharan Africa 734, 747
Lantian 271
Laoniupo 599–601
Lapita culture 399–400, 901–4, 910–11
Las Buitreras 986
laser ablation, and materials analysis 214
Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 386–7, 869
Latin American social archaeology 79, 971–3
Lauricocha 984
Lazaret Cave 278, 345
leadership, and East Asia 859–60
League of Nations 1007–8
Lefkandi 710
Lehringen 341, 353
Leofric Project 1087
Lerna 698
Les Rois 386
Levallois technique 278, 282, 293–6, 340, 349
Levantine Aurignacian technocomplex 305
Liang-Bang 377
Libya 710
life-course analysis 1042–3
life-cycles, and object biographies 103
Lima culture 660
Lincombian technocomplex 316
Lipari 692
literature, and archaeological representation 1070
living culture 12
Lofoten islands 819
Longshan culture, and Taosi 583–6
(p. 1122) Longuppo Cave 375
Los Millares 698, 700
Los Toldos 985
Lower Palaeolithic, and evidence of human evolution 255
Lower Xiajiadian 851–2, 854, 855, 859
‘Lucy’ 264
Ludlow coal-miner's camps 1091
Lumpemban 321
Lupaqa people 666
Lynford 342
Machu Picchu 668
Makah 1079
Makapan 266, 730
Malakunanja 385, 871
Malema 267
Maliang 275
Mallorca 699
Malta 692, 699, 700, 709
Manus 909, 910, 911, 914
Maori culture 876, 1082
and community archaeology 1089–90
Maracanda 798
Margiana 787–90
Mari 702
marine reservoir offset, and dating techniques 155–6, 159–61
Marquesas 400, 905
Marsa Matruh 709
Marxism:
and archaeological theory 78–9
and hunter-gatherer societies 417, 418
Mary Rose 196
masculinity 1040–2
mass spectrometry 451
Matenbek Island 464, 908
Matenkupkum 906–7
material agency 97, 99–100, 101
material culture:
and beginnings of farming 450–1
and contemporary studies of 77
and cultural beliefs 101
as disciplinary focus 93
and distributed objects 97, 103–4
and evidence of human diet 492–3
and interpretative archaeology 567
and landscape 104, 105–6
and language 95
and material agency 97, 99–100, 101
and material/ideal relationship 95
and materiality 97–9, 101
and meaning 567
and meaningful constitution of 94
as metaphor 95
and object biographies 102–3
as object of archaeological study 5, 6, 94
and objectification 98
as plural text 95
and postprocessual archaeology 567
and self-making 98
and semiotics 95–7
and structuralism 81
as system of signs 95
and theoretical perspectives on 94–7see also material culture
materiality 97–9, 101
materials analysis:
and chaînes opeéatoires research 210
and distribution studies 227
glass 230
metals 229–30
pottery 228–9
stone 227–8
and goals of 210
and interpretation of artefact lifecycles 214–16
distribution 215–16
emic approach 214
holistic approach 214
production 214–15
use 215
and production technology reconstruction:
copper and alloys 219–22
glass 225–7
iron 222–4
metals 218–19
pottery 216–18
vitreous materials 224–5
and reconstruction of artefact life-cycles:
distribution 211–12
experimental replication 212
production technology 211
use 212
and scientific methods for reconstruction 212–14
binocular microscopy 212
determining chemical composition 213–14
determining stable isotope composition 214
microscopy 212–13
X-ray radiography 212
and stages of 210
Mauer 278
Maupiti 876
Mavroraki 559
Maya civilization 629–33
and cities 632
(p. 1123) and collapse of 632–3
and elite culture 629, 630–2
and monuments 630
and sacrifice 630
Meadowcroft Rockshelter 392–3, 394, 931
Meare Lake Village 65
Median empire 796
Mediterranean 677
and archaeology of:
climate change 681
contexts of 680
landscape archaeology 680
physical anthropology 681
scientific analysis 681
shipwrecks 680–1
texts and images 681
and characteristics of 681–2
and fragmented basin (5500–3500 BC):
agriculture 688
colonization of islands 689
gender relations 689
interaction zones 691–2
languages 690–1
limited mobility 690
metallurgy 691
mortuary practices 691
North Africa 688
pastoralism 688
ritual life 689
segmentary communities 689
and genesis of Mediterranean dynamics (3500–2200 BC) 692–701
Aegean 698, 699
animal and plant exploitation 694–5
changes in Nile delta 696
climate change 692–3
Cyprus 699–700
Ebla 697
ecological change 693
Wrst state-level polities 692
impact of Mesopotamia 695–6
increase in metal consumption 692
interaction zones 698, 699
Levant 695–6, 697, 701
Malta 699, 700
maritime interactions 696–7, 698–9
ruralization 701
settlement patterns 693–4, 697–8
social crises 700
social relations 694
social resilience 700–1
social storage 694
and geographical differences 679–80
and Ice Age population 684
and making of the Middle Sea (1300–600 BC) 709–14
central and western developments 710–11
incorporation of North Africa 714
inter-regional trade 711–13
Libyan confederacies 710
political disruption 709–10
‘Sea Peoples’ 709, 710
spread of eastern practices 713
waning of Egyptian power 710
and Middle and Late Bronze Ages (2200–1300 BC) 701–9
Aegean economy 706
Anatolian palace-states 704
Argaric 706–8
Cretan palace-states 704
Cypriot polities 704–5
east-west contrasts 701
Egyptian-Levantine interaction zone 702
inter-regional trade 705–6, 708–9
Levant 702–3
New Kingdom Egypt 703–4
Nile delta 703–4
North Africa 709
urban-rural settlement 701–2
western communities 706–8
and Neolithic expansion (12, 500–5500 BC) 684–8
dispersal by sea 687
emergence of seafaring 685–6
North Africa 687–8
Pre-Pottery Neolithic period 684–5
and pre-Mediterranean (1.8 million-12, 500 BC) 682–4
dispersion of modern humans 682–3
and rescue excavations 680
and tectonic past of 679
and Younger Dryas 684
megadontia 264, 281
megalithic monuments, and East Asia 853–4
Melanesia:
and connectivity and difference 914
and diversity 898, 900, 911–12
production of 912–15
and establishment of contemporary patterns 921–2
and production and exchange 900, 912
and Siassi trade networks 912–14
Menorca 699
Merv 767, 769, 797, 798, 799, 800, 803, 804
Mesoamerica:
and Aztec Empire 636–40
art 638, 639
belief system 637
(p. 1124) extent of 636
human sacrifice 637, 638
monuments 638–9
population 637
Spanish conquest 640
tribute goods 636
warfare 638, 639–40
and Classic Maya civilization 629–33
agriculture 629–30
cities 632
collapse of 632–3
elite culture 629, 630–2
monuments 630
sacrifice 630
and colonial period 641
and customs and beliefs 614–15
and diet 614, 617
and Early Formative 619
changes associated with 619
and early settlement of 616–17
and farming 619
origins of 618
and generosity 620
and geographic characteristics of 611–13
and houses 619–20
and hunter-gatherers 617, 618
and inter-regional trade 619
and languages of 615–16
and Monte Albάn 623–5
decline of 625
growth of 623
houses 624
public buildings 624
warfare 623–4
and Olmec culture 615, 620–3
art 620, 622
hereditary inequality 622
La Venta 621–2
political authority 622
San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan 620–1
writing 622–3
and Postclassic period:
Chichen Itza 634
decrease in settlement size 633–4
increase in long-distance trade 633
recognition of military achievement 633–6
Tula 634–6
Xochicalco 634
and pottery 619
and social inequality 619, 620
and Spanish conquest 640
and Teotihuacan 625–9
art 627
cosmopolitanism of 627–8
destruction of 628–9
growth of 625–6
houses 626–7
inter-regional competition 625
monuments 626
status goods 628
trade 628
warfare 628
and villages 619 see also Americas
Mesopotamia:
and glass production 225
and Mediterranean development 695–6
metals:
and distribution studies 229–30
and earliest use of 218–19
and materials analysis 218–19
copper and alloys 219–22
Micronesia, and languages of 901
microscopic use-wear studies 122
microscopy, and materials analysis 212–13, 451
middle-range theory 77
and hunter-gatherers 415
Miletus 704
Millarville, and community archaeology 1087
Mississippian culture 511, 937, 938, 939, 940, 941–2, 943, 944, 945, 948–9
Mitanni 703
Mladeč 312, 386
Moche culture 648, 659–60, 981, 987
and ceremonial constructions 659–60
and metallurgy 125, 660
and warfare 659
Mode 1 industries, see Oldowan Industrial Complex
Mode 2 industries, see Acheulean Industrial Complex
models, and spatial archaeology 175–7
modernism 33–6
modernity, and archaeology 106–7
Modjokerto 271
Mondjukli-tepe 777, 778
Monte Accoddi 691
Monte Albάn 623–5
and growth of 623
and houses 624
and public buildings 624
and warfare 623–4
Monte Verde 393–4, 396, 616, 651, 931, 984–5
monuments:
(p. 1125) and care of 8
and monument biographies 34
and preservation of 14
mortuary practices:
and Holocene Australia 881
and Longshan culture 585
and Mediterranean 691
and Mesoamerica 619
and Neanderthals 354–5
and North America, Archaic Period 934–5 see also mounded tombs
Moula Guercy cave 355
mounded tombs, and East Asia 855–8
Moundville 941
Movius Line 272, 845
Moxeke 655
Muaco 982
Mullali 779
multiculturalism 33
Mumba 736
museology 9
museums:
and archaeological representation 1056, 1064
and archaeology 1022, 1023
and illicit trade in antiquities 1020–1
and Indigenous museums 1022
and organization of Wnds 19
and role of 1022–3
and work of archaeologists 9
Mussau 909
Mycenae 704
mytho-praxis 918
Nabta Playa 449
Nahal Mishmar hoard 691
Nahal Qana 691
Namazga 779, 782
Nanchoc 651
Nanjing 278
Napta Playa 743
Nara 861
Narmada Valley 278
Nasca culture 661
Nasca Lines 661
Natchez 941
national identity, and archaeology 31–2
National Museum of the American Indian 1022
nationalism, and archaeology 32
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGRA, USA) 32, 1015, 1016, 1018
Native Americans:
and Archaic Period 932–5
changes in hunter-gatherer groups 933–4
cultigens and domesticates 935
environmental conditions 933
hunter-gatherers 935
mobility 933
mortuary practices 934–5
population growth 934
symbolic monuments 934
tethered mobility 934
and bow and arrow 936–7
and domesticated plants 936, 937
and Enlightenment view of 1004–6
and ethno-linguistic diversity 926
and European conquest of North America 947
contact period 950–1
differential success of colonisers 949–50
infectious disease 947–8
and Formative package 936, 940
and gender 946–7
and lack of domesticated animals 947
and languages 395–6
and Mesoamerica, contact with 939
and monuments 936
and origin stories 930
and political authority 940–1
Northeast 942
Northwest coast 944
Southeast 940–1
Southwest/Northwest 942–4
and pottery 936
and proto-historic period 948–9
abandonment of towns 948
confederacies 949
and settlement of Americas 395
‘Clovis First’ scenario 390–2, 930–1
Native American/archaeological conflict 932
pre-Clovis occupation 392–6, 931–2
and trade networks 937–9
copper 938
Hopewellian Interaction Sphere 938
marine shells 938
prestige goods 938
and ‘two-spirits’ 1035–6
and warfare 944–6
Natufian complex 684
natural sciences:
and archaeological interpretation 28, 29–30
and archaeology 22–3, 24–5
and processual archaeology 25
Natural Selection 62
natural selection 332–3
naturalistic fallacy 244
Nauwalabila 385, 871
Ndutu 277, 736
(p. 1126) Neanderthals:
and adaptation to cold environments 333, 334
and behaviour 340
and biology of 336–40
and campsite organization 344–6
and changed view of 334–5
and climatic conditions 342–3
and clothing 346, 347
and controversy over 333
and diet reconstruction 501
and discovery of 332, 333
and distribution of 335–6
and environment 343–4
forests 348–9
and evolutionary position of 333, 335
and extinction of 334, 356–60
role of modern humans 357–9, 386
and Wre 348
and hunting 341–2
spears 353–4
and interbreeding with modern humans 312, 359
and language 355
and longevity 337
and mobility 347–8
and mobility strategies 304–5
and mortuary practices 354–5
and Near East 304
and nutrition 340, 341
and popular image of 334
and population size 357
and raw-material sources 348
and regional differences 335
and research on 333–4
and scavenging 342
and susceptibility to trauma 339–40
and symbolism and art 356
and tool-making 346–7, 349–50
Levallois technology 349
tool functions 350–3
and transitional assemblages 359–60
and use of caves and rock shelters 344–5
and use of wood 346
Near East:
and homo sapiens sapiens 303–6
and origins of farming 461–3, 466–7
Nelson Bay cave 737
neoclassical art, and archaeological representation 1059–62
neutron activation analysis, and materials analysis 213
New Archaeology, see processual archaeology
New Britain 399, 871, 872, 901, 904, 906, 908, 909, 910, 911, 912–13
New Caledonia 900, 910
New Guinea 397, 399, 898, 909, 911
and archaeological practice in 866
and environmental change 868
and Holocene New Guinea 882
agriculture 882–3
arboriculture 883, 909
regional interaction spheres 884
and language 901 see also Australasia; Sahul
New Hanover 909
New Ireland 464, 871, 884, 904, 906, 907, 908, 909, 910, 911, 914
New Zealand 399, 400, 898
and archaeological practice in 866
and community archaeology 1082, 1089–90
forestry 1095–7
and cultural-chronological sequence 868, 884–5
and environmental change 868
and human-environment interactions 878–9
comparison with Sahul 879–80
and initial colonization 876–7
comparison with Sahul 879–80 see also Australasia
Ngarrabullgan Cave 385
Niah Cave 463
Nihewan Basin 275, 379
Nisa 800
Nissan 909
Niuheliang 850–1, 854
Nombe 874
Norse, and northern Canada and Greenland 829–30
North Africa 687–8
and Bronze Age Mediterranean 709
and hunter-gatherers 687
and incorporation into Mediterranean world 714
North America:
and Archaic Period 932–5
changes in hunter-gatherer groups 933–4
cultigens and domesticates 935
environmental conditions 933
hunter-gatherers 935
mobility 933
mortuary practices 934–5
population growth 934
symbolic monuments 934
tethered mobility 934
and bow and arrow 936–7
and Clovis horizon 155
and culture areas 926, 927, 929
and domesticated plants 936, 937
(p. 1127) and ethno-linguistic diversity 926
and European conquest 947
contact period 950–1
differential success of colonisers 949–50
infectious disease 947–8
and Formative package 936, 940
and gender 946–7
and historical archaeology 951–2
class 952
Colonial Period 951
gender 952
race 951–2
and human settlement of 390–7
‘Clovis First’ scenario 390–2, 930–1
genetic evidence 395
impact of climate change 396–7
linguistic evidence 395–6
multiple dispersals 396
Native American origin stories 930
Native American/archaeological conflict 932
origin stories 929–30
pre-Clovis occupation 392–6, 931–2
and Mesoamerica, contact with 939
and monuments 936
and political authority 940–1
Northeast 942
Northwest coast 944
Southeast 940–1
Southwest/Northwest 942–4
and pottery, chronology of 936
and proto-historic period 948–9
abandonment of towns 948
Native American confederacies 949
and trade networks 937–9
copper 938
Hopewellian Interaction Sphere 938
marine shells 938
prestige goods 938
and warfare 944–6
North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) 815
Norton culture 822, 823
Norway:
and earliest human occupation 816
and iron technology 817
and Medieval period 819
and reindeer-hunting 817
and rock art 817
and Stone Age 816
oasis hypothesis, and farming 453
object biographies 102–3
objectification 98
Ofnet 501
Ohalo 461
Okvik culture 823
Old Bering Sea culture 823
Oldowan Industrial Complex 255, 266
and Homo ergaster/erectus 272, 273
and stone artefacts 256–60
Developed Oldowan 256–7
Oldowan 256, 257
Olduvai Gorge 267, 268, 269–70, 271, 273, 730, 735, 736, 737
and stone artefacts 256–60
Ollantaytambo 668
Olmec culture 615, 620–3
and art 620, 622
and hereditary inequality 622
and La Venta 621–2
and political authority 622
and San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan 620–1
and writing 622–3
Olorgesailie 274
Oma 380
Omo Valley 267, 291, 736
optical microscopy, and materials analysis 212–13
optimal foraging theory, and huntergatherers 416
Oradour-sur-Glane 1090
Orce 376–7
Ordnance Survey 174
Original AZuent Society (OAS), and huntergatherers 415
Orrorin tugenensis 263
Oxus civilization 784, 793
Oxus Treasure 772
Ozette 939, 1079
Pachacamac 660, 666
Pacific islands:
and classification of 900–1
and eastern homogeneity 898–900
and east/west contrast 898
and human settlement of 397–401, 921
Ancestral Polynesian Society 905–6
Austronesian migrations 901, 904
different processes of 905–6
genetic evidence 401
genetics of modern populations 904–5
interchanges with South-East Asia 901, 904
Lapita culture 399–400, 901–4, 910–11
linguistic evidence 400–1
Pleistocene 906–9
requirements for 909
and language groups 901
(p. 1128) emblematic languages 915
inter-group languages 915
linguistic diversity 898
and Lapita culture 399–400, 901–4, 910–11
and Melanesia:
connectivity and difference 914
diversity in 898, 900, 911–12
establishment of contemporary patterns 921–2
production and exchange of material culture 900, 912
production of diversity 912–15
Siassi trade networks 912–14
and Near Oceania 399, 900–1
and Polynesia:
attachment to land and place 900, 920
conservative cultural tradition 917
Hawaii 917–20
homogeneity in 898–900
initial colonization 905
production of homogeneity 915–21
social principles 915–17
and Remote Oceania 399, 900, 901
and western diversity 898, 900
Paekche 855, 856, 859, 860, 861
Paijάn 651
Pakefield 377
palaeosols 492
Palli Aike Cave 985–6
Pama-Nyungan 425
Pamwak 909
Panakiwuk 908
Panaztepe 704
Panjikent 772, 807
Pantelleria 709
Paquime 939
Parthanissa 800
Parthenon Sculptures 1018–20
Parthian empire, and Central Asia 799–800, 803
Passo di Corvo 689
pastoralism 447
Pedra Furada 392, 976
Peiligang culture 849
Pengtoushan 848
Peninj 261, 267, 273
peopling of the world, see dispersals, human
performance 100, 1037
Peştera cu Oase 306–7, 312
Petralona 278
phenomenology 106
and spatial archaeology 178–9
and technology studies 126–9
Phoenicians 712, 713
photosynthesis, and dietary isotope studies 497, 498, 499
physical anthropology 681
Piedra Museo 986
Pikimachay 976, 984
Pisaq 668
place:
and archaeology of 106
and culturally constructed 170
and spatial archaeology 178
politics:
and archaeological theory 72–3, 81
and technology 129
pollen analysis 15, 29, 30, 491
Polynesia:
and Ancestral Polynesian Society 905–6
and attachment to land and place 900, 920
and conservative cultural tradition 917
and homogeneity 898
Hawaii 917–20
production of 915–21
and initial colonization 905
and languages of 901
and social principles 915–17
Pompeii 196
Pontnewydd Cave 335
popular culture 36
population dispersal, see dispersals, human
positivism:
and the New Archaeology 75
and quantitative revolution 175
and spatial archaeology 177
post-colonial archaeology:
and contact archaeology 886
and cultural landscapes 887–8
and culture-heritage management 886–7
and indigenous peoples 886
and influence of colonial histories 885–6
postmodernism 33–6
and definition of 80
and postprocessual archaeology 80
postprocessual archaeology 80–2, 90–1
and cultural material 567
as extension of New Archaeology 82
and forager-farmer transition 454–6
and formative influences 80–1
and hermeneutics 81
and interaction 567
nature of exchange 567–8
and interpretive approach 26
and material/ideal relationship 95
and other traditions of archaeology 84
and politics 81
(p. 1129) and post-structuralism 81
and reactions to 83
and South American archaeology 974–5
and structuralism 81
and trade 567
nature of exchange 567–8
post-structuralism 81
pottery:
and adoption of 216
and discovery/invention of 216
and distribution studies 228–9
and excavation data 197–8
and hunter-gatherers 426
and production technology reconstruction 216–18
perceptions of materials and techniques 218
raw materials 217
scale of production 217–18
uses 218
Pouerua Archaeological Project 1089–90
Poverty Point 934
Powhatan Confederacy 949
practice theory 127, 526, 567
prehistory, and archaeology, 21–2
preservation:
and archaeological sites 190, 191
and archaeology 5, 6
and national identity 31–2
and recovery of archaeological Wnds 11
processual archaeology (New Archaeology) 26, 74–7, 78, 89–90, 560
and achievements of 564–5
and anthropology 74, 75
and creation of archaeological record 77
and culture 74–5
and features of 560
and forager-farmer transition 453–4
and impact of 76–7
and interaction 560–1
socio-economic organization 561–3
and middle-range theory 77
and natural sciences 25
and origins of 74
and positivism 75
and postprocessual archaeology 82
and process 78
and reactions to 78–80
and scientific method 75
and South American archaeology 973–4
and systems 560
and trade 560–1
centre-periphery relations 564
colonial enclave 563
criticism of approach 565–6
peer-polity interaction 564
port-of-trade 563–4
prestige goods exchange 564
Renfrew's model of exchange 563
socio-economic organization 561–3
world systems 564
and United Kingdom 75–6
and United States 75
progressionism 62
property:
and archaeological artefacts 1016–17
and culture as 1017
protohistory 8, 22
public participation, and archaeology 20, 21 see also community archaeology
Pueblos 936, 942–3, 945
Punuk culture 823–4
Puritjarra 387
Purulén 655
Purushapura 803
Puyo 856, 861
Pyasina culture 820
Qafzeh 304, 382, 385
Qatna 702
Qeqertasussuk 825
Qolla people 666
quantitative revolution, and archaeology 175
queer theory 1036–8
Quesir Community Project 1083, 1095
radiocarbon dating 30, 152
and calibration 152–7
Bayesian analysis 158–9
Clovis horizon 155
freshwater varve data 156
importance of 154–5
marine reservoir offset 155–6, 159–61
problems with 152–4
and impact of 27
Raman spectroscopy, and materials analysis 213
rationalism 33–6
Real Alto 653
re-enactments, and archaeological representation 1070–1
reflexive archaeology 3–4, 21
regional settlement systems 121
relationality 108
religion, and human nature 248
remembrance 104
Renaissance, and archaeological representation 1051–4
(p. 1130) repatriation 1017
and distinction from restitution 1018
and indigenous peoples 1021
and new rhetoric on 1020
and Parthenon Sculptures 1019–20
representation, see archaeological representation
rescue excavations 8, 190–1
and growth of archaeology 4
and legislative basis 15
and Mediterranean 680
residue analysis 681
restitution 1017
and distinction from repatriation 1018
and Parthenon Sculptures 1018–19
Riwat Plateau 375
rock art:
and Aboriginals 881
and hunter-gatherers 430–1
as information source 451
and male Wgures 1041
and northern Fennoscandinavia 817
and Siberia 820
and sub-Saharan Africa 738–40
Romania, and community archaeology 1094
romanticism 33–6
Rome, and glass production 226–7
Royal Anthropological Institute 54 n 2
Royal Commission on Historical Monuments 14
Russian Far East 841
and leadership 860
and Paleolithic 845, 846
and plant domestication, millets 849
and pottery 846–7 see also East Asia
Sahelanthropus tchadensis 263
Sahul:
and chronological plane 867–8
and environmental change 868
and human-environment interactions 872–4
comparison with New Zealand 879–80
and initial colonization 871–2
comparison with New Zealand 879–80
and meaning of 868 n1
and Pleistocene occupation 874–5
and socio-spatial plane 868 see also Australasia
Salinar people 658
Salzgitter-Lebenstedt 341, 347
Samarkand 769, 798, 807
Sambungmachan 271
Sami (‘Lapp’) people 818–19
Samoa 400, 898, 901, 905, 910, 915
sampling 177
San Isidro 464
San Jacinto 655
San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan 620–1
San peoples 1010
Sangiran 271
Sannai Maruyama 853
Santa Isabel Iztapan 616
Sanxingdui 598–9, 605
Sāo Raimundo 985
Sapalli-tepe 790
Saqqaq culture 825
Sardinia 682–3, 685, 691, 694, 701, 708, 711
Sasanian empire, and Central Asia 803–6
scanning electron microscopy, and materials analysis 213
Sch öeningen 261, 341, 379
scientific analysis, and Mediterranean archaeology 681
scientific method, and the New Archaeology 75
Scoglio del Tonno 560–1
Sechín Alto 655
Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project (SHARP) 1081
Segsbury Camp 182
Seleucid empire, and Central Asia 798–9
semiotics 95–7
sensory culture studies 572
seriation 151
settlement archaeology, and spatial archaeology 172–4
settlement patterns 14
settlement sites 14
sex:
and archaeologies of sexuality 1038
and definition of 1032–3
and embodiment 1038
and sexual selection 1033–4 see also gender archaeology
Shanidar Cave 335, 339, 341, 354
shipwrecks, andMediterranean archaeology 680–1
Shortugai 773, 792
Shum Laka 464
Siassi islands, and trade networks 912–14
Siberia 819–21
and earliest human settlements 819
and extended occupation of 819–20
and hunting and Wshing economies 821
and metal-producing cultures 820–1
and Neolithic 820
and rock art 820
and Ust-Poluy period 821
Sicάn culture 664
Sicily 694, 711
signification 95, 96–7, 107
(p. 1131) SIlk Road 763, 806
Silla 856–7, 859, 860, 861
Sipάn 660
Site Catchment Analysis (SCA) 175, 176–7
Skhūl 304, 382, 385
social agency, and technology studies 126–9
social anthropology, and archaeology 23, 24
social archaeology 567
social complexity, see cultural complexity
Social Darwinism 250
social evolutionism 62
and cultural complexity 541
social identity:
and production of 130–1
and technology 125–6
social reproduction, and technology 125–6
social storage 694
society 528
Society for American Archaeologists (SAA) 11, 20, 38
Society for East Asian Archaeology 844
Society Islands 400, 915
Society of Antiquaries 53, 54
sociobiology 1032
and gendered behaviour 1033–5
sociology, and archaeology 23
Sogdians (Sughd), and Central Asia 806–7
soil analysis, and evidence of human diet 492
Sokkuram 861
Solomon Islands 399, 904, 907, 908, 909, 910
Somerset Levels, and Bulleid and Gray's excavations 64–5
source-criticism, and classification of archaeological sources 12, 13
South America:
and chronologies of 966–8
prehistoric period 966–7
regional horizons 968
Rowe-Menzel sequence 967–8
and common features:
at conceptual periphery 958–9
Iberian colonialism 958, 966
and cultural complexity 978–81
and diversity of 958
and early occupation of 975–8
and geography of 961–2
Amazonia 963, 964–5
Andean range 963
Circum-Caribbean area 962
coastal desert 963, 965–6
grasslands 963
highland plains 963
Pampas grasslands 963–4
and intellectual traditions of South American archaeology 968–9
culture history 970–1
evolutionism 969–70
Latin American social archaeology 971–3
postprocessual archaeology 974–5
processual archaeology (New Archaeology) 973–4
and languages of 966
and Portuguese colonialism 966
and Spanish colonialism 966
and synthesis of South American archaeology 960–1, 982
difficulties in 959–60
South Turkmenistan Complex Archaeological Expedition (YuTAKE) 770–1, 774
South-East Asia, and origins of farming 463–4
Soviet Union, and archaeological theory 79
space:
and centrality of 169
and Lefebvre's spatial triad 170–1
and time 170
spatial archaeology 169–70, 184
and anthropology 178, 179
and Central Place Theory 175, 176–7
and challenges facing 185
and culturally constructed place 170
and emergence of 171–7
distribution maps 172
economic ecological approach 174
formal models 175–7
integrated approach to landscape 174–5
quantitative revolution 175
scientific method 175
settlement archaeology 172–4
spatial representation 172
statistical techniques 177
surveying 174
and geography 175, 176, 178, 181
and humanized approaches 177–8
ancestor-based interpretation 179–80
body 178
methodology 179
phenomenology 178–9
social contextuality 179–80
space/place distinction 178
and Lefebvre's spatial triad 170–1
and methodology, changing attitudes towards 179
and quantified space 170
and representational space 170, 171, 178
and representations of space 170, 171
and Site Catchment Analysis 175, 176–7
and spatial practice 170, 171
(p. 1132) and spatial technologies 180–4
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 180–2, 183–4
integrated approach 183
and tension between quantitative and qualitative understanding 170, 171
species 237–8
spectroscopy, and materials analysis 213
Spitalfields Project 196
Spitsynskayan culture 313
St Acheul 261
St Césaire 313
stage theories, and cultural complexity 538–9
Starr Carr 174
state formation, and China 603–5
definition of state 581–2
Erlitou 589
late Neolithic polities 583
Longshan culture 583
statistics, and spatial archaeology 177
steel, and production technology reconstruction 222–3
Steinheim 278, 335
Sterkfontein 266, 268, 270, 730, 734, 735, 736
stone, and distribution studies 227–8
stone tools:
and Acheulean Industrial Complex 272, 273, 274–5, 279–81
and Aurignacian technocomplex 305, 307–16
and earlier australopithecines 266
and early genus Homo 268–9
and Homo ergaster/erectus 272–3, 274–5
and Homo sapiens sapiens 298–303
Africa 298–303
Europe 306–16
Near East 303–6
and later archaic homo (Homo heidelbergensis) 278–81, 282
and manufacturing methods 291–6
and Neanderthals 349–50
and Oldowan Industrial Complex 256–60
and sub-Saharan Africa 732–3
and Taosi 585
Stonehenge 1092–3
Stonehenge archer 27
stratigraphy:
and classification of Wnds 15–16
and excavation data 203–5
and relative dating sequence 150–1
Streletskayan culture 313
structuralism 81, 106
as analytic methodology 126
and symbolic perspective on technology studies 124–6
structuration theory 127, 526
Studenhoe 389–90
sub-Saharan Africa 723–4
and archaeological research 729–32
colonial period 729
cultural heritage management 732
current state of 731–2
early hominid sites 730
establishing chronology 730
future of 732, 752
Iron Age 731
post-colonial period 729
regional research 731
systematic research 729–30
theft of cultural property 753
and chronology of 724–5
and definition of 724
and emergence of urbanism and complex societies 747–51
centralization 748
public buildings 748
ranked societies 747
regional interaction spheres 749
religion and ritual 748
state formation 749
trade networks 747–8, 749–50
urban centres 748–9, 750
Zimbabwe culture 750–1
and European contact with 751–2
and farming and domestication 740–5
animals 742
eastern Africa 744
Egypt 743
Malian Sahara 743
motivations for adopting 745
plants 740–2
social impact of 745
socio-economic structuring 742–3
southern Africa 744
southern Sahara 742–3
western Africa 743
and human evolution 734–7
and hunter-gatherers 737
southern Africa 744
and iron-using agro-pastoral societies 745–7
Bantu speakers 747
Central Cattle Pattern (CCP) 746–7
dispersal of 746
food production 746
linguistic identity 747
pottery 745–6
and language 734
(p. 1133) and physiography of 725–9
agriculture 728–9
climate 726–8
environmental change 728
topography 725–6
vegetation 728
and rock art 738–40
and settlement patterns 734
and technologies:
copper 733
influence of 734
iron 733–4
pottery 733
stone 732–3
and worldviews 734
Sughd 806–7
Sultan Kala 769
Sumnagin culture 819–20
Surkh Kotal 773, 802, 804
surveying, and emergence of spatial archaeology 174
Survival 1009–10
Susa 797
Swanscombe 278, 335
Swartkrans 267, 268, 270, 271
Sweden
and deserted farmsteads 5
and earliest human occupation 816
and reindeer-hunting 817
and rock art 817
and Stone Age 816
symbolic behaviour:
and emergence of behavioral modernity 321
and hominid origins 282
and Neanderthals 356
and origins of Homo sapiens 380
systems theory, and cultural complexity 543
Szeletian technocomplex 316
Tabūn 304, 335
Tagalagal 743
Tagua-Tagua 984
Taima-Taima 983
Tajikistan, see Central Asia
Takhirbai 787, 789
Talasea 909, 913
Tambo Viejo 661
Taosi 583–6, 604
Tash Ki'rman 805
taskscape 104, 105
Tata 356
Taubach 341
Taung 730
Tavoliere plain 689
technology studies:
and centrality of 115–16
and conceptual changes 131
and formal period of (1860–1960) 116–18
culture history paradigm 118–19
evolutionary paradigm 117–18
morphological approach 116–17
peripheral interests 119
technological stages in history 116
technology and progress 117, 118
technology as hardware 119–20
and functional and materialist research (1960s to present) 120–1
chaînes opeéatoires research 122–3
concept of technology 123–4
culture ecology paradigm 120–1
ethnoarchaeology 123
human ecology 120
Law of Cultural Evolution 121
methodological advances 121–3
microscopic use-wear studies 122
and importance of 116, 132
and overlap of theoretical perspectives 131–2
and social agency and phenomenology view (1990s to present) 126–9
axioms of 127
body 128–9
centrality of human agents 128
chaînes opeéatoires research 130–1
as people/practice-centred approach 128
politics 129
and symbolic perspectives (1970s to present) 124–6
structuralist basis of 124–5 see also materials analysis
teeth:
and dietary change 449
and earlier australopithecines 264, 266
and early genus Homo 268
and evidence of human diet 490–1, 494, 495
and hominid origins 281
and Homo sapiens sapiens 311–12
and later ‘robust’ australopithecines 267, 268
television 8, 1070
Tell Abu Hawam 563–4
Tel'manskayan culture 313
Temet I 743
temporality, and object biographies 103
Tenochtitlan 636, 637
Teotihuacan 625–9
and art 627
and cosmopolitanism of 627–8
and destruction of 628–9
and growth of 625–6
and inter-regional competition 625
and monuments 626
and status goods 628
and trade 628
and warfare 628
tephrochronology 161, 162–3
Termez 803, 806
Teshik Tash cave 776
Texcoco 636
Thessaly 689
Thiessen Polygons 176
Thule 425, 430
Thule culture 825, 827–8
Tichitt 743
Tierra del Fuego 397
Tighenife 271
Tillya tepe 773, 794, 801–2
time:
and nature of 149–50
and space 170
Time Team 8, 1070
Ti-n Ouaffadene 743
Tiwanaku 648, 661–2, 663, 963, 981, 987–8
and ritual architecture 662
Tlacopan 636
Tlatilco 619
Togolok 788–9
Tonga 399, 400, 898, 905, 910, 915, 916
Tongariro National Park 887
tools:
and Acheulean Industrial Complex 260–1, 279–81
and Aurignacian technocomplex 305, 307–6
and chaînes opeéatoires research 122–3
and earlier australopithecines 266
and early genus Homo 268–9
and Homo ergaster/erectus 272–3
and Homo sapiens sapiens:
Africa 298–303
Europe 306–16
Near East 303–6
and hunter-gatherers 419–20
and later archaic homo (Homo heidelbergensis) 278–81, 282
and microscopic use-wear studies 122
and Neanderthals 346–7, 349–50
tool functions 350–3
and Oldowan Industrial Complex 256–60, 281
and stone tools, manufacturing methods 291–6
Toprak-kala 805
Toros-Menalla 263, 730
Torralba 280
Total Stations 181
tourism, and growth of archaeology 4, 8
trade 555
and anthropological archaeology 568
biographical approach 568–9
and Bronze Age Mediterranean 705–6, 708
and culture-historical archaeology 559
and definition of 556
and economic and social development 556
and exchange 556
and interpretative archaeology 567
and past societies 572–3
and postprocessual archaeology 567
nature of exchange 567–8
and processual archaeology 560–1
centre-periphery relations 564
colonial enclave 563
criticism of approach 565–6
peer-polity interaction 564
port-of-trade 563–4
prestige goods exchange 564
Renfrew's model of exchange 563
socio-economic organization 561–5