- The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology
- List of Contributors
- The Discipline of Archaeology
- The Formative Century, 1860–1960
- The Theoretical Scene, 1960–2000
- Into the Future
- Measuring the Passage of Time: Achievements and Challenges in Archaeological Dating
- Human Activity in a Spatial Context
- Data Collection by Excavation
- Mastering Materials
- The Nature of Humanness
- Early Hominids
- The Emergence of <i>Homo</i> Sapiens Sapiens
- The Neanderthals
- Peopling the World
- Hunters and Gatherers
- Early Farming and Domestication
- Studying Human Diet
- Cultural Complexity
- Trade and Interaction
- China: State Formation and Urbanization
- The Central Andean Region in Prehistory
- The Mediterranean and its Hinterland
- The Archaeology of Sub-Saharan Africa
- Pre-Islamic Central Asia
- The Circumpolar Zone
- East Asia
- The Pacific Islands
- North America
- South American Archaeology
- Indigenous Voices, Archaeology, and the Issue of Repatriation
- Sex and Gender
- Archaeological Representation: the Consumption and Creation of the Past
- Community Archaeology
- Subject Index
- Index of Personal Names: Includes all referenced authors.
Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the Neanderthals from an archaeological perspective. It explains that the Neanderthals literally exploded into a world of scientific controversy in 1856 because of the Pleistocene fauna from the caves of the Neander Valley collected by a local school teacher Johann Fuhlrott. It discusses the three hypotheses have been advanced in order to explain the evolutionary position of the Neanderthals. These include the Neanderthal phase of man hypothesis, the presapient hypothesis, and the pre-Neanderthal hypothesis. It also describes the behaviour, resources and subsistence, speech and language, and symbols and art of the Neanderthals.
Paul Pettitt is Professor of Archaeology at Durham University.
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