- The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology
- List of Contributors
- The Discipline of Archaeology
- The Formative Century, 1860–1960
- The Theoretical Scene, 1960–2000
- Into the Future
- Measuring the Passage of Time: Achievements and Challenges in Archaeological Dating
- Human Activity in a Spatial Context
- Data Collection by Excavation
- Mastering Materials
- The Nature of Humanness
- Early Hominids
- The Emergence of <i>Homo</i> Sapiens Sapiens
- The Neanderthals
- Peopling the World
- Hunters and Gatherers
- Early Farming and Domestication
- Studying Human Diet
- Cultural Complexity
- Trade and Interaction
- China: State Formation and Urbanization
- The Central Andean Region in Prehistory
- The Mediterranean and its Hinterland
- The Archaeology of Sub-Saharan Africa
- Pre-Islamic Central Asia
- The Circumpolar Zone
- East Asia
- The Pacific Islands
- North America
- South American Archaeology
- Indigenous Voices, Archaeology, and the Issue of Repatriation
- Sex and Gender
- Archaeological Representation: the Consumption and Creation of the Past
- Community Archaeology
- Subject Index
- Index of Personal Names: Includes all referenced authors.
Abstract and Keywords
This article gives an analysis of the nature of humanness in archaeology. It discusses the record of human divergence from the apes, the hidden record of becoming human, and the concept of human nature as an Aristotelian legacy. It suggests that the most problematic aspect of human nature is the implicit dichotomy between the innate or instinctual, on the one hand, and the acquired or learned, on the other. It describes how archaeology and ethnography have combined to demonstrate the considerable impact of cultural factors upon the human expression of social, ecological, and life-history variables that are regularly tallied for other species by ecologists.
Jonathan Marks is Professor, Department of Anthropology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
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