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date: 15 September 2019

(p. 1041) Index

(p. 1041) Index

abduction 31–2
adjudication 206–67
authority 207
consistency 207
determinacy 225–8
discretion 208–21
Dworkin, Ronald 36
easy cases and hard cases 208–21
expectations from 206–7
formalism 179–80
indeterminacy 225–8
judges 34–7
justification 221–5
legitimacy 207, 221–5
legitimacy condition 247–66
direct argument 257–8
fallibility argument 261–6
indirect argument 258–61
modified conventionalism 251–66
question 247–51
modified conventionalism 251–66
natural law 34–7
rationality 208, 221–5
rationality condition 228–47
outline 228–32
value pluralism 233–47
sceptical challenge 225–8
value pluralism 233–47
Alexander, Larry 608
anarchy,
authority 383
Anscombe, Elisabeth 535, 657
Aquinas 3, 10, 17, 18, 24, 34, 49, 52, 62, 65, 71, 75, 87, 536
Aristotle 3, 8, 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, 31, 44, 45, 51, 52, 62, 380, 440, 441, 604, 630, 637
Augustine 3, 34
Austin, J. L. 960, 961, 963–4
Austin, John 9, 23, 72, 126, 127, 135, 312, 381, 517, 952
authority 382–439
adjudication 207
anarchy 383
autonomy 385–7
common law 616–20
constraint model 415–19
content-independent and peremptory reasons 390–1
decision model 415–19
authoritative advice 420–3
compensating for shortfalls in rationality 423–4
coordination 424–7
feasability 427–30
inadequacies 420–30
dehumanisation 388
democracy,
autonomy and 437–9
mediation and 434–7
Dworkin, Ronald 249
epistemic approach 399–401
Fuller, Lon 79
Godwin, William 388, 394
Ladenson, Robert 395–8
legal positivism 116–23, 147–57
Authority Thesis 155–7
comptability argument 150
nature of authority 147–50
Normal Justification Thesis 153–5
Preemption Thesis 151–3
legitimacy 384
mediation,
arbitration and 432–3
democracy and 433–4
paradoxes of authority 434–7
natural law 20–23
nature 147–50
paradoxical nature 382–4, 385–93
Razian solutions to 406–8
pre-empting reasons 402–1 5
double counting 414–15
justification of the State 405–6
necessity for 408–9
pre-emptive thesis 404–5
prisoner's dilemma 414
rationality 413
(p. 1042) service conception of authority 402–3
simple model 409–10
sufficiency 416–17
prisoner's dilemma 414
rationality 384, 391–3
Raz, Joseph 402–8, 409–15
revisionists strategies 384
right to rule 395–8
rule of recognition 21
service conception 402–3, 431–9
Soper, Philip 250
weakening 393–402
right to rule 394–8
Wolff, Robert Paul 385–91
Ayer, A. J. 960
Bacon, Francis 594, 596–7
Barnett, Randy 94, 723, 743
Beitz, Charles 904
Bentham, Jeremy 9, 17, 52, 381, 481, 517, 589, 592, 609, 616, 939–45, 949, 961
Beran, Harry 526
Bernstein, Richard 378–9
Beyleveld, Deryck 94
Bickel, Alexander 295
Black, Charles 1027–8
Blackburn, Thomas 980
Blackstone 590, 596, 632, 641–2
Boswell, James 544
Brink, David 976, 979, 985
Brower, Bruce 976
Brownsword, Roger 94
Brudner, Alan 95
Buchanan, Allen 914
Burke, Edmund 59
Calabresi, Guido 625
Calhoun, Chesire 1025
Cardozo, Benjamin 656, 667
Chapman, Bruce 601, 606
Cicero 3, 8, 62, 381
Coase, Ronald 583
Coke, Edward 591, 592, 593, 595, 616
common law,
analogical thinking 603–9
artificial reason 593–5
authority 616–20
classical jurisprudence 590–600
common knowledge 589
common reason 593–5
constitution ofnation 591–2
conventionalism 600–20
authorities 616–20
authority 616–20
common reasoning 602–9
congruence thesis 613–14
material 609–16
positivist vs. common law conventionalism 600–2
custom of the realm 590–2
deliberative discipline 602–3
judge-made law 589
meaning 54, 588
natural law 54–5, 592–3
philosophy 54–5
philosophy of 588–620
precedent 595–7
reason 54–5
stare decisis 588
statutes 597–9
theoretical authorities 398–402
theory of law, common law jurisprudence as 599–600
Tubbs, J.W. 595
understanding 589–90
weakening,
theoretical authorities 398–402
consent,
obligation 525–8
constitutional interpretation 289–310
approaches 269
common law aspects 309–10
common law countries 268–9
controversy 268
countermajoritan difficulty 295–7
descriptive theories 270–1
interpretation, meaning of 269–70
issues 289–92
legitimacy 292–5
living constitutions 310
modern reader 308–9
normative theories 270–1
original understanding 300–8
adopters and readers 302–3
attitude 304
coverage 304
generally 300
interpretation 304
levels of understanding 305–7
reasons for following 300–2
(p. 1043) structural inferences 307–8
political legitimacy 292–5
sceptical approach 270
undisputed features 298–300
written constitutions 268 see also statutory interpretation
contrac tlaw,
autonomy 732–3
Benson, Peter 732–49
contemporary theories 749–51
critical legal studies 691–2
deontic theory 693
enforcement doctrines 707–15
Fried, Charles 689, 7–2
generally 687–90
Hegelian theory 732–49
methodological issues in contract theory 691–703
doctrinalareas, distinctiveness of 699–701
doctrine as legal theory versus legal data 691–4
ex ante and ex post perspectives 701–3
legal realism 692
normative versus explanatory theory 694–6
origins of disagreement 697–9
natural law 47–8
normative primacy, distinctiveness and doctrine as data 735–43
philosophy 47–8, 687–751
promise, contract as 703–2
Rawls 734
Craswell, Richard 688, 689–90, 716, 717–23, 725–6, 729, 744, 746, 747
criminal law,
attempts 832–41
inchoate crimes 835–7
incomplete 835–7
legal impossibility 837–9
proximate causation 840–1
success, relevance of 833–5
duress 849–50
excuse as defence 847–50
duress 849–50
insanity 847–8
intoxication 848–9
Feinberg, Joel 477, 484, 851–64
individuation of crimes 841–2
insanity 847–8
intoxication 848–9
justification defences 842–7
lesser evils defence 844–5
others, defence of 845–7
property, defence of 845–7
self-defence 845–7
lesser evils defence 844–5
natural law 49–50
omissions 864–7
philosophy 815–67
property, defence of 845–7
responsibility 564–80
self-defence 845–7
special part 851–67 see also punishment
critical legal studies 691–2
Davidson, Donald 577
deduction 31
determinacy,
adjudication 225–8
Devlin, Patrick 852–53
Dewey, John 167, 168
discretion,
adjudication 208–21
Doddridge, John 593, 594
Duff, R. A. 549
Dunn, John 544
duress 849–50
Durkheim, Émile 545
Dworkin, Ronald 36, 66, 76, 82–5, 96, 138–9, 140, 141–4, 145–6, 208, 209, 212, 213–14, 216, 217, 218–19, 220, 224, 236, 239, 240, 311, 337, 340, 343, 348, 356–7, 369, 373–4, 380, 440, 490, 516, 521–2, 533–5, 608, 693, 702, 726, 727, 853, 956–7, 983, 984–6
authority 249
interpretive theory of law 83
legal positivism 105, 115, 124
methodology 314–35
natural law 36, 66, 76, 82–5
normative jurisprudence 314–35
Eisenberg, Melvin A. 609
epistemology:
law and 37–8
Epstein 585
eudaimonia 28
Evans, Gareth 980
fault:
tortlaw 657
Feinberg, Joel 477, 484, 851–64
Finch, Henry 593
Finnis, John 18, 71, 75, 85–9, 95
criticism 87–8
legal theory 88–9
moral theory 85–7
formalism 166–205
adjudication 179–80
blind adherence to rules 172–4
confusion 178–80
deduction 167–70
deductivism or anti-instrumentalism 187–205
background 187–90
contrast between deductive and policy based decision procedures 193–5
deduction 195–6
deductively applicable rules 199–205
economic functionalism 198–9
illustration 198–9
inference from indeterminacy to policy 190–2
instrumentalism 195–6
judicially elaborated private law 187–90
resolution of tension between 196–8
summary 199–205
easy case formalism 173
criticism 174–8
economic 198–9
Fuller, Lon 183–5
generally 166–7
intellectual fashion 178–9
legal positivism or legal determinacy 180–7
autonomy of law 186–7
formal study/formal sources 181–2
indeterminacy 185–6
legal reasoning 186–7
positivism 185–6
sources thesis 182–5
logic 180
meaning 30–1
mechanism 167–70
natural law 30–1
overly rule-bound decision making 173
Schmidt, Carl 183
sources thesis 182–5
varieties of 170–2
Franck, Thomas M. 899–900
Frege 946
Fried, Charles 689, 703–32
Fuber, Klaus 135
Fuller, Lon 66, 75, 76, 96, 137, 177, 183–5, 225, 516, 542, 600
authority 79
criticisms 81–2
formalism 183–5
internal morality of law 79–81
law as object versus law as process 77–9
legal positivism, critique of 77
moral good 78
non-existence of God 78
principles of legality 79–81
Gaius 25
Gans, Chaim 541
gender and law 990–1039
born that way argument 991, 992, 1011–15, 1030–2
generally 990–2
genetic engineering 1032
lesbian and gay rights 1007–11
pragmatic evaluation of arguments 1029–38
sex-discrimination argument 992, 1015–29, 1033–8
sexual orientation 993–1006
behavioural view 996
choice, whether 1004–6
dispositional view 997
identifying 995–6
innate, whether 1000–4
meaning 993–5
natural human kinds, whether 998–1000
self-identification view 997
Gerwith, Alan 95
God,
natural law and 66–8
Godwin, William 388, 394
Golden Rule 29–30
Goldman, Alvin 577
Green, Leslie 411
Greenspan, Patricia 555
Grotius, Hugo 5, 62, 67
Haberm as, Jürgen 32
Hale, Matthew 591, 592, 594, 595, 596, 597–8, 600
Hampton, Jean 555
Hand, Learned 438, 678–81
Harris, J.W. 775
Hedley, Thomas 591
(p. 1045) Hegel, Georg 95, 380, 381, 657, 736
Hobbes, Thomas 5–6, 8, 24, 70, 74, 366–8, 380, 381, 517, 518, 520, 525, 535, 539, 616, 617, 639
Hohfeld 24, 477, 479, 484
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 48, 166, 167, 173, 187, 192, 196, 203, 337, 338–9, 517, 546, 643
homosexuality, see gender and law
Honoré, Tony 549, 560, 584, 665, 774–6
Horowitz, Donald 914
human rights 25, 887–902
Hume, David 7, 28, 38, 74, 381, 515, 526–7, 532, 535, 536, 537, 540, 542, 612, 642
Hurd, Heidi 151–3
impartiality 30
induction 31
inference 31–2
insanity 847–8
ascriptivist theories 916–20
plebiscitary theories 913–16
institutionality,
natural law 25–6
international law:
cultural imperialism 891–2
deep distributive pluralism 898–900
distributive justice 897–8
group rights 896–7
human rights 887–902
humanitarian intervention 920–5
institutional incapacity 901–2
international justice 903–34
legal nihilism 871, 873–4, 877–9
liberal paradigm 872–81
moral minimalism 875–7
moral theory 881–6
natural law 52–4
neglect of 868–72
philosophy 52–4, 868–934
primary right theories 913–19
realism 872–81
remedial right only approach 910–13
secession 907–10
self-determination 906–7
societal distributive autonomy 900–1
state system, moral legitimacy of 879–81
succession 906–7
system legitimacy 925–34
transnational justice 887–902
judges:
adjudication 34–7
Dworkin, Ronald 36
justification,
adjudication 221–5
Kadish, Sanford 571
Kairys, David 265
Kant, Immanuel 7, 28–9, 38, 43, 181, 380, 381, 388, 525, 535, 539, 568, 572, 614, 637, 736
Kelsen, Hans 9, 10, 17, 21, 49, 181, 364, 517, 542, 546, 952
Klosko, George 536, 537–8
Koppelman, Andrew 1021
Kramer, Matthew 125
Kress, Kenneth 608
Kripke, Saul 976, 979
Ladenson, Robert 395–8
Langdell, Christopher 700
language:
Bentham 939–45, 949, 966
context principle 946–50
diversity principle 950–5
expressive use of words 944–5
fictitious entities 941–2
Finnis, John 952–5
Hart, H. L. A. 945–66
law and 38–9, 935–68
legal theorists use of 938–9
like language, law is 937
meaning 38–9
natural law 38–9
open texture 967–8
paraphrasis 941–2
performative uses 960–6
proper sense of words 943–4
Raz, Joseph 965–6
sensible objects 941–2
use by law of 937
vagueness 955–60
veil of mystery 943–4
law:
natural law meaning 1–2
legal nihilism 871, 873–4
legal philosophy:
political philosophy and 18–20
analytical methodology 374–7
existence conditions 361–8
history 377–81
interdependence 353–8
law and politics 352–3
normative positivism 369–74
substantive values 358–61
legal positivism:
Austin 9
(p. 1046) authority 116–23, 147–57
Authority Thesis 155–7
comptability argument 150
entailed law 123–4
nature of authority 147–50
Normal Justification Thesis 153–5
Preemption Thesis 151–3
Bentham 9
conceptual foundation 125
Conventionality Thesis 125, 129–35
Dworkin, Ronald 105, 115, 124
exclusive 8–11, 104–24
authority 116–23
Dworkin 105, 115
hard positivism 125
meaning 104–5
soft positivism 105
sources thesis 104, 105–9
Füber, Klaus 135
Fuller's critique of 77
hard 125
Hart, H. L. A., see Hart, H. L. A.
Hurd, Heidi 151–3
inclusive 11–15, 125–65
conceptual foundations 126–36
Conventionality Thesis 125, 129–35, 143–5
Incorporation Thesis 136–65
modern natural law theory and 97–8
Normal Justification Thesis 153–5
Pedigree Thesis 127, 128
Preemption Thesis 151–3
Separability Thesis 125, 135–6, 145–6
Social Fact Thesis 125, 126–9
three commitments 126–36
Incorporation Thesis 136–65
authority 147–57
Normal Justification Thesis 153–5
Practical Difference Thesis 157–65
Social Fact Thesis 141–3
Weak Conventionality Thesis 143–5
incorporationists 125
Kelsen 9, 10
Kramer, Matthew 125
Separability Thesis 145–6
MacCormick, Neil 95
Marmor, Andrei 125, 131, 132
meaning 9
natural law,
relationship with 95–8
response to 76
Normal Justification Thesis 153–5
obligation 33–4
Pedigree Thesis 127, 128
Practical Difference Thesis 157–65
Coleman 159–60
judicial decision 164–5
motivational guidance 164–5
necessity component 160–2
Shapiro, Scott 157–9, 162–5
sufficiency component 162–4
Preemption Thesis 151–3
Separability Thesis 125, 135–6, 145–6
Shapiro, Scott 125, 131, 157–9, 162–5
Social Fact Thesis 125, 126–9, 141–3
soft positivism 105, 110–16, 123–4
Soper, Philip 155–6
three commitments 125, 126–36
Waluchow, W. J. 125, 151
legal realism 20
legitimacy,
adjudication 221–5
authority 384
constitutional interpretation 292–5
Leiter, Brian 20–3, 117, 150, 313, 344, 346–51, 979, 981, 982, 983
lesbians, see gender and law
Lessig, Lawrence 305
Levenbook, Barbara Baum 605, 606
Levi, Edward 605
Levin, Isaac 421–3
Llewellyn, Karl N. 604
Locke, John 5, 6, 7, 43, 62, 380, 381, 515, 518, 520, 525–6, 527–8, 529, 632, 637–40, 642, 651
logic 32
formalism 180
Lyons, David 138
MacCormick, Neil 95, 208, 209–11, 212–13, 214, 216, 217, 218, 220, 222, 224, 226, 236–8, 251
McDowell, John 983
Machiavelli 380, 381
Mackie, John 40, 567
Maritain, Jacques 75
Marmor, Andrei 125, 131, 132, 600
marriage 42–5
Melamed, Douglas 625
metaphysical realism 89–93
methodology 15–1 8, 311–52
conceptual analysis 343–51
contribution of 311–12
(p. 1047) descriptive theory 311–14
Dworkin, Ronald 314–35
Hart, H. L. A. 335–7, 341–2, 343–4
naturalism 343–51
normative jurisprudence 314–35
Peny, Stephen 339–42
Milgram, Stanley 429–30
Mill, J. S. 517, 918
Miller, David 918, 919
Moore, Michael 89–93, 96, 413, 555, 853, 856–7, 979
moral theory,
Finnis, John 85–7
morals:
genealogy 8
responsibility 552–64
Morris, Herbert 555
Murphy, Ieffrie 555
Nagel, Thomas 491–2, 540–1, 983
natural law 120
adjudication 34–7
Aquinas 3, 10, 17, 18, 24, 34, 49, 52, 62, 65, 71, 75, 87
Aristotle 3, 8, 16, 17, 18, 19, 28, 31, 44, 45, 51, 52, 62
Austin 9, 23, 72
authority 20–23
challenges to 73–75
Cicero 3, 8, 62
classical theory 3–4, 10, 12–13
legal positivism and 95–7
meaning 2
common law 54–5, 592–3
connection with law 70–3
constitutional interpretation 58–9
contract law 47–8
criminal law 49–50
Dworkin, Ronald 36, 66, 76, 82–5, 9
epistemology and law 37–8
evaluation 99
Finnis, John 71, 75, 85–9, see also Finnis, John
formalism 30–1
Fuller, Lon 66, 75, 76, see also Fuller, Lon
God and 66–8
Grotius, Hugo 5, 62, 67
Hart, H. L. A. 26–8, 93, 95
Hobbes, Thomas 5–6, 8, 74
Hume, David 7, 28, 38, 74
institutionality 25–6
international law 52–4
definition 63–6
jurisprudence, place in 95–100
Kant 7, 28–9
Kelsen 21
language, law and 38–9
law, meaning of 1
legal and political philosophy, relationship between 18–20
legal positivism, relationship with 95–8
Locke, John 5, 6, 7, 43, 62
Maritain, Jacques 75
meaning 98–9
metaphysical realism 89–93
minimum content 93–4
modern tradition 5–8, 75–100
generally 61–3
inclusive legal positivism and 97–8
legal positivism, responses to 76
objectives, theoretical 61
Moore, Michael 89–93, 96
natural, meaning of 1–2, 64–5
natural rights 69–70
objectivity, law and 39–40
obligation 33–4
philosophy 49–50
Plato 3, 8, 17, 31, 32, 40–1, 59, 62, 68
pragmatism 31–2
private wrongs and recourse 55–8
property law 51–2
Pufendorf, Samuel 5, 6, 62, 68
rational choice 40–1
rational choice, law and 40
reasonableness 2
reasons 26–30
responsibility 59–60
rights 24–5
role 61
role of theory 98–100
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 62
sexuality, law and 41–5
Soper, Philip 73
statutory interpretation 58–9
Suárez, Francisco 62, 68
theorists 64
theory 63–75
tortlaw 45–47
unreasonableness 2
Nietzsche, Friedrich 8, 568
Nozick, Robert 530
nuisance 660–61
objectivity 969–87
epistemological 969, 973–4
law and 977–87
metaphysical 969, 970–3
independence 970–3
natural law 39–40
semantic 969, 975–6
obligation 514–47
allegiance 519–22
associative obligations 532–5
consent 525–8
facilitate the rule of law, to 545
fairness 530–1
friendship 528–30
generally 514–15
justification 523–5
know the law, to 545–6
law and 33–4
natural law 33–4
nature of law 515–25
non-voluntary theories 533–9
associative obligations 532–5
necessary institutions 535–9
normativity 516–19
particularity 525
place of 543–7
positivism 33
scepticism 539–43
voluntary 525–31
consent 525–8
expressive theories 528–30
fairness 530–1
omissions 864–7
Oppenheim 379
Parekh, Bikhu 544
Parfit, Derek 564, 854
Pashukani s 181
Peirce, Charles Sanders 31–2
Perry, Stephen 312, 314, 339–42, 343, 380, 412, 549, 584, 629, 665
Pettit, Philip 976
Plato 3, 8, 17, 31, 32, 40–1, 59, 62, 68, 380, 381, 399, 972
Pogge, Thomas 904–5
political philosophy,
legal philosophy and 18–20
analytical methodology 374–7
existence conditions 361–8
history 377–81
interdependence 353–8
law and politics 352–3
normative positivism 369–74
substantive values 358–61
political theory 377–81
polygamy 44
Posner, Richard 32, 585, 625
Postema, Gerald J. 369, 606, 983, 986–7
Pound, Roscoe 166
pragmatism:
natural law 31–2
Peirce, Charles Sanders 31–2
precedent 595–7 see also common law
Prisoners Dilemma 41, 414
private law:
anti-instrumentalism 653–4
Blackstone 641–2
contractarian model 637–44
Blackstone 641–2
civil recourse 643–4
Locke 637–40, 642
corrective justice 623
theories 627–31, 645
criminal statutes 648
law and economics approaches 624–32
Locke 637–40, 642
philosophy of 621–55
problems 645–54
tort 645–6
property 647–8
public law distinguished 649–51
reasons for liability 623–4
rights of action 633–6
action 634
conditional legal powers 632–3
privacy of private rights 634
privileges 636
species of right 634–5
triangularity 635–6
unified domain 652
private wrongs,
recourse 55–8
property law,
contract and 777–99
distributive justice 752–3
justification 754–9
liability 777–99
natural law 51–2
nuisance 775–6
ownership interests 753
philosophy 51–2, 752–814
private law 754, 759–7
reasonableness of right 799–814
Protagoras 972
Pufendorf, Samuel 5, 6, 62, 68
punishment 815–67
completed attempts 832–41
consequentialist theories 820–1
culpability, criminal 826–30
desert 822
desert-sensitivity 851
exculpatory mistakes of fact and law 831–2
Feinberg, Joel 477, 484, 851–64
legality 823
retribution 50, 816–20
distributive justice versus retributive justice 818–19
measurement of desert 817–19
moral responsibility 817
negative desert, ground of 817
personal identity 817
strength of constraints 819–20
types of theory 816–17
retroactivity 823
special part of criminal law 851–67
theories 816–22
consequentialist 820–1
retributive theories 816–20
threat-based 821–2
voluntary act required 823–6 see also criminal law
Putnam, Hilary 336, 972, 976, 979, 983
Quine, W. V. O. 344, 345
Railton, Peter 976, 985
rational choice,
law and 40–1
natural law 40–1
rationality,
adjudication 208, 221–5
authority 384, 391–3
Rawls, John 359, 520, 530, 538, 642, 693, 868, 876, 887, 903
reason:
common law 54–5
reasonableness:
natural law 2
reasons 440–75
choice 470–4
facts 442–7
force 464–70
Hart, H. L. A. 26–8
natural law 26–30
persons 457–9
reasonableness 474–5
reasoning 459–64
speech and 440
values:
facts and 447–50
reasons and 451–9
reasons without values 451–5
without reasons 455–7
Regan, Donald 515
responsibility 548–87
accidents, for 580–7
agents 550
attributions 550
claims 548, 550–1
collective 549
criminal 564–80
ground for demanding 550
modern literature 549
moral 552–64
political 551
relational character 551
retribution 550
role responsibility 549
use of term 549–50
retribution 50
rights 476–513
beneficiary theories 481–3
choice theories 481–3
claims 476
conceptual basics 477–80
conflicts 488–513
personal interests and rights 497–9
rights and goods 490–7
rights, of 499–513
Hobbes 24
Hohfeld, 24, 477, 479, 484
human 25
interest theory 483–7
moral 476–7
natural law 24–5
Raz, Joseph 483–7
status-as-a-person theory 483–7
theories 480–7
Ripstein, Arthur 578, 581, 584, 630
Rorty, Richard 32
Ross, Alf 338
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 62, 380, 381, 525
St German, Christopher 592
Savigny 381
(p. 1050) Scandinavian Realists 338, 339
Scanlon, T. M. 549, 567
Schauer, Fred 412, 589
Scheffler, Samuel 479, 555
Schmidt, Carl 183
self-defence 845–7
Selznick, Philip 371
sexual orientation 993–1006, see also gender and law
sexuality:
law and 41–5
marriage 42–5
Shapiro, Scott 125, 131, 157–9, 162–5, 341, 610, 611
Shavell, Steven 625
Shiner, Ronald 96
Sidgwick, Henry 191
Smith, Steven 88
Socrates 41, 68
Soper, Philip 73, 155–6, 250, 515, 523–4
special jurisprudence 360
statutory interpretation 268–89
approaches 269
common law countries 268–9
controversy 268
descriptive theories 270–1
deviation from textual language 280–1
evolutionary meaning 275–7
fixed meaning 275–7
general parameters 271–4
intent, legislative 277–9
evidence of 278–9
relevance 281–3
understanding 283–7
interpretation, meaning of 269–70
natural law 58–9
normative theories 270–1
purpose, relevance of 288
readers understanding 279–80
mental states 287–8
sceptical approach 270
written constitutions 268 see also constitutional interpretation
Stavropoulos, Nicos 979
Strauss, David 309
Strawson, Peter 553–5, 556–8
Suárez, Francisco 62, 68
Taylor, Gabriele 555
Thomson, Judith 478–9, 480, 484, 490–1
Thoreau, Henry David 543
tort law:
extent of injury 677–81
fault 657
foresight 664–70
generally 656–62
liberty and security 682–5
negligence 658–60
nuisance 660–1
objective standard 671–7
philosophy of 45–47, 656–86
reciprocity 661
risks and norms 662–4
social insurance 660
strict liability 657
type of injury 677–81
Trebilcock, Michael 687
Tribonian 25
Unger, Roberto 265
unreasonableness:
natural law 2
value pluralism 233–47
voluntarism 68
Waismann, Friedrich 967–8
Waldron, Jeremy 504–6, 509, 538, 609
Waluchow, W. J. 125, 151, 600, 602
Weber, Max 370
Wechsler, Herbert 299, 571, 1027
Weinreb, Lloyd 94
Weinrib, Ernest 583, 627, 628, 629, 630, 631
Westen, Peter 607
Williams, Bernard 555, 559
Williams, Glanville 571
Winfield, Richard Dien 95
Wittgenstein 946, 951, 953, 955
Wolff, Robert Paul 385–91
Wollheim, Richard 555
Zuckert, Michael 70