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date: 20 October 2019

(p. 831) Subject Index

(p. 831) Subject Index

ABC television network 74
abortion, and framing of issues 193, 194–5
Abuja 527
Acheson‐Lilienthal Report 727
action
actor‐network theory, and technological design 752
and impact of ideas 284–94
theory of 231–2, 234–5 see also agency; social action
AES Corporation 590–1
affect 162–3
affect control theory 162–3
affect program theory 161–2
generation of 557 see also emotions; psychology
affective politics 548, 556–7
affective allegiances 162–3
and gaining attention 557
and hope 558–9
and nature of contemporary democracy 558
affirmative action 288
and census category construction 670–1
and protection of minority rights 362
and Soviet Union/Russian Federation 674 see also civil rights movement
Afghanistan 655, 658
Africa:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and nineteenth‐century colonialism 270–1
and urbanization:
control of capital city 655–6
political implications of 650
urban population growth 651–2
African Union 529
agency 22
and discourse 790–2
and rational choice theory 91
and structure‐agency relationship 81, 85–7, 90–2
and place 512 see also action
Agincourt 609
agricultural biotechnology:
and “frankenfoods” 757
resistance to 754–5
AIDS activism, and framing 203
American Federation of Labor, and framing 193
American Revolution, and demographic thinking 622
Angola 655
animal rights movement, and framing 197
anthropology:
and culture:
Boas's approach 343
as contested concept 342–3
culture and personality school 343–4
fluidity of 349
Geertz's approach 345–7
Kroeber's approach 344
narrow focus on 351
and detection of culture:
embodiment 356–7
(p. 832)
field research 351–4
reflexive accounts 353–5
violence 355–6 see also culture
Anti‐Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972) 730
anti‐globalization movement 754
antinomianism, postmodern 114, 125
anti‐nuclear movement, and framing 187–8, 195, 198
anti‐personnel (AP) landmines 736–7
bans on 255, 737
and identification of international legal norms 261–3
anti‐satellite (ASAT) technology 730
anti‐slavery movement 431–2
apartheid 118
Arabic poetry 385
architecture, and imperialism 518
Argentina 431, 519
and social movement protests 572
and social upheaval 566
argumentation 266
arms control 727–8, 731
arms race, and dynamics of 731–2
art:
and modern art discourse 777–8, 793
and politics 777
articulation, and social power of 396
ASEAN 529
Asia, and urbanization 650, 651–2
asylum seekers 639
Atomic Energy Commission (USA) 699
attention, and affective politics 557
Augsburg, Treaty of (1555) 421
Auschwitz 519
Australia:
and immigration 642, 643
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
Austria, and immigration 643, 644
authoritarian personality 147–8
authority, obedience to 140–1
awareness, levels of 159
Baruch Plan 727
behavioralism:
and economics 291
and political science 797
approaches to 798
and universal vs contextual knowledge 799–800 see also explanation; political science; social sciences
Beijing 518, 536
and student protests 565–6, 571
beliefs:
and culture 324
higher‐order beliefs 42
implicit beliefs 228
Berlin 518–19, 521
blockade of (1948) 301
Berlin Society of Anthropology 343
Berlin West Africa Conference (1884–1885) 270
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (India) 574
bias:
complaints against 73
and epistemology 62–3
and naive realism 137
role of 65–7
and scientific research 61 see also ideology; objectivity
bicycles, and political significance of 681, 688
binary codes, and political culture 401–2
Biological Weapons Convention (1972) 730
biotechnology:
and bioethics 757–8
(p. 833)
resistance to 754–5
Black Death, and impact of 597–9, 615
end of English feudalism 599–603
Lutheran Reformation 611–14
rise of Florentine city‐state 603–8
witchcraft 609–10
blinding laser weapons 737
“bowling alone” 756
brain:
characteristics of 99
and choice 98
and human cognition 100–2 see also mind; psychology
Brasilia 527
Brazil:
and census classifications 628
and emancipation of slaves 431, 432
and Movement of Rural Landless Workers 570
and racial divisions 361
Brookings Institution 731
Brown v Board of Education (US Supreme Court 1954) 287
Brussels, Conference of (1889–1890) 270–1
Buchenwald 519
built environment, and contentious politics 571–2
Bujagali falls dam 590–1
“bystander effect” 141
Cameroon:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
Campus Watch 75
Canada, and immigration 642
Canberra 527
capital cities:
as centers of action 517–18, 520
and city planning 518, 520
and civic spaces 521
and consequences of action 522–5
control of, and international recognition 655–6
creation of 526–8
and electoral politics 516
functions of 518
location of 525–6
and political elites 516
and political space 521–2
and religious space 522
and significance of 513, 654
as sites of authority 518 see also cities; city planning; urbanization
case demarcation 83, 479–80
cathexis 160
Cato Institute 334
causal effects 7–8
causation, multiple factors of 151
censorship, and Iraq war 74
censuses:
and category construction:
affirmative action model 670–1
class 627–8
colonial India 667–8
cultural identities 666
occupational 627–8
political nature of 666, 675
power‐sharing model 672–3
race/ethnicity 628–9, 666–7, 668–9
Soviet Union/Russian Federation 673–5
territorial threshold model 671–2
United States 668–9
and compilation practices 625–6
and development of 622
and identity formation 667
American Indians 670
India under British rule 629–30, 667–8, 669
language rights 672
Pakistan 671–2
post‐independence India 670
pre‐colonial India 668
and informants' interests 626
and location of individuals 623–5 (p. 834)
de facto principle 624, 625
de jure principle 624–5
and “making up people” 629
and resistance to 665–6
and sample surveys 626–7
Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies 396
Challenger space shuttle 298, 747
Chandigarh 521
change, and discourse 779
Chartism 370
chemical weapons, and international norms 256–7
Chemical Weapons Convention (1993) 730
Chicago school 797–8
China:
and “citizen” concept 543–4
and food protests 540–1
and local governments 539
and mass political movements 539–40
and place politics 510
and political space 521, 537
and social movements 543
and student protests 565–6, 571
and Tiananmen 522, 536
Chipko movement 570
choice:
and brains 98
and context‐based explanations 97
and individual‐centered explanations 97, 98
and mind 98, 99–102
and non‐cooperative game theory 98, 106–9
and political phenomena 97
and preferences 98
cities
and nuclear war planning 302
global cities 524
megacities 652
primate cities 653
citizenship:
and conceptions of 543
in China 543–4
and globalization 555–6
and immigrant integration 644
city planning:
and imperial architecture 518
and Paris 520
and racial segregation 520–1 see also capital cities; cities
civic space 521
Civil Rights Act (USA, 1964) 287
civil rights movement:
Brown v Board of Education (USA) 287
and framing 195, 196, 198
and narrative 404
spatial dimensions of 571, 574–5 see also affirmative action; social movements
civil society:
and “bowling alone” 757
and civic groups 406–7
global 555 see also social capital
claims‐making:
and democratic consolidation 370–2
and framing 196–7
and political culture 407–8
and repertoires 426–8, 573
and social movements 426–8 see also contentious politics; social movements
class 122
and census categorization 627–8
and ideas 228, 233
and ideologies 398
consciousness of 71
formation of 237
English working class 369–70 see also labor movement
(p. 835) climate change, and constrained relativism:
perceptions of nature:
egalitarian solidarity 332
fatalism 332
hierarchical solidarity 332
individualist solidarity 331–2
perceptions of time factor:
egalitarian solidarity 333
fatalism 333
hierarchical solidarity 333
individualist solidarity 333
and risks of and responses to:
egalitarian solidarity 333–4
fatalism 337
hierarchical solidarity 335–7
individualist solidarity 334–5
cloning 747, 757
closure, and social construction of technology (SCOT) 685
clumsiness, and constrained relativism 337
coalition formation 107–8
co‐dependency, and epistemology 65
codes, and political culture 401–2 see also ideas; frames; language; narratives
co‐evolution, and technology and politics 724, 726, 733–4
cognitive mechanisms 16
collective action:
and local knowledge 584–5
Olson's law of 121, 244 n
collective identity:
and frames 192
and political culture 404–5
collective judgements 48–9
collective memory, see memory
collectivities:
as holders of ideas 229
and political ontology 88–9
and social construction of collective interests 244–5
colonialism 269
and censuses, India under British rule 629–30, 667–8, 669
and city planning 520–1
decolonization 270, 274
and imperial architecture 518
and trusteeship 269–70
nineteenth‐century Africa 270–1
Columbus Dispatch (newspaper) 73
commemoration:
and social memory 214–15
and symbolic spaces 536
communication:
and dramas 403
and formation of public opinion 144–6
and narrative 404
and political culture 405–6
customs of civic life 406–7 see also language; mass media; narratives
Communist Manifesto, and space 568–9
comparative method 116–17, 121–4
comparative politics 798–9
area studies 23, 800–1
Committee on Comparative Politics 801–2
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996) 730
computer games, and gender politics of design 712–13
conditions, and general laws 12–13
consent, legal theory of, and international legal norms 254
consequentialism 53–4
consociationalism 362
constrained relativism:
and beliefs and values 324
and climate change:
egalitarian solidarity 332, 333
fatalism 332, 333
hierarchical solidarity 332, 333
individualist solidarity 331–2, 333
(p. 836)
perceptions of nature 331–2
perceptions of time factor 332–3
risks of and responses to 333–6
and clumsiness 337
and culture 325–6
and social solidarity 328–30
constructivism:
and culture 348
and ideational‐material relationship 92–3
and identity formation 371
and international legal norms 255–6
constitutive effects 258
prisoners of war 258–9
and power 363–6
and race, ethnicity and religion 363, 366–7
and state creation of social categories 367, 368–9 see also political ontology
contentious politics:
and framing 196
and mechanisms 14
and space 567–70, 575–6
built environment as obstacle/facilitator 571–2
as depository of social relations 570
spatial routines 573–4
symbolic spaces 574–5 see also social movements
context 3–32
and alternative approaches:
mixed strategy 9
postmodern skepticism 8
search for general laws 7–8
and classes of contextual effects 7
and controlling for 23–4
and correcting for 25
and explanatory logic:
law‐seeking 12–13
mechanism‐based accounts 13
propensity analyses 13
skepticism 12
systemic analyses 13
and explanatory stories 17–19
and history 454–69, 474–5
and importance of 5–6
and meaning 780–1
and mechanisms:
classification of 16
and episodes 15–16
identification of 14–15
and processes 15
rational choice theory 16–17
and ontologies 78–96
holism 10
hybrids of 11–12
methodological individualism 10
phenomenological individualism 10
relational realism 11
and political processes 6
and puzzle‐solving 20–2
contingency:
and critical junctures 461
and path dependency 461–3 see also determinism; explanation; mechanisms
continuous government 553
contraceptive pill, and gender politics 711–12
cooperation:
and behavioral variation 178–9
and public goods game 179–81
Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (COCOM) 738
co‐reasoning, and personal relationships 45–6
corporate bodies 48–9
corporatism 11
correlational analysis, and repetition in history 482–3
cosmocracy 555
countercyclical demand management 229, 240–1
covering laws, see laws in social science
(p. 837) credences:
and decision theory 39–40
and politics of 548, 560–1
credulity 66, 67–8
critical junctures:
and contingency 461
and path dependency 460, 461
critical theory 772
crowds, and emotions 164
cultural differences, and political conflict 770
cultural fronts, politics of 561
cultural hegemony 234
cultural memory, see memory
culture:
and anthropological approaches to:
Boas's approach 343
as contested concept 342–3
culture and personality school 343–4
fluidity of 349
Geertz's approach 345–7
Kroeber's approach 344
narrow focus of 351
and approaches to 320–1
and beliefs and values 324
and constrained relativism 324, 325–6, 328–30
and constructivist approach to 348
and cultural biases 325
and debates over use of term 342
and detection of:
embodiment 356–7
field research 351–4
reflexive accounts 353–5
violence 355–6
as essential for politics 319–20
and Marxism 320, 321
and (military) organizational culture 348–50
and new institutionalism 322
and political culture approach to 347
strategic culture 347–8
and preferences 177–9, 184
and rational choice theory 320, 321
and rules of the cultural method:
culture as explanation of last resort 322–3
culture as uncaused cause 322
culture as veto on comparison 323–4
and social solidarity 324–5
constrained relativism 328–30
Hindu philosophy 328
new institutionalist framing 328
customary law 253, 260
and international legal norms 254–5
anti‐personnel (AP) landmines 261–3
chemical weapons 256–7
establishing state obligations 255
identification of 259–61, 263–4
cyberfeminism 715–17
Cyberjaya 528
cybernetic hierarchies 234–5
cyberspace, and gender 713–15
Dahomey 273
data mining 440, 444
dataveillance 553
Dayton Accords 362
decentralization, and local knowledge 579
deception, and politics 247–8
decision theory:
and folk psychology 39–40
and nature of persons 39–40
and personal relationships 43–5
and philosophical presuppositions 38
decolonization:
and international trusteeship 270
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
(p. 838) deliberative democracy:
discursive opportunity structure, and framing 194
and human cognition 100–2 see also discourse theory
democracy:
and affective politics 558
consolidation of 360
and race, ethnicity and religion 370–2
views of dominant groups 230
deliberative democracy 100–2, 194
and “demokaraasi” in Senegal 21
digital democracy 686, 696–7
and discourse‐reality gap 793–4
and ethnicity, protection of 362
and exclusion 367
and experts 759
and fear of 285–6
and political awareness 137–8
and political conflict 770
and political science discourse 774
and public opinion 144
and race, cancellation of 362–3
radical democratic projects and local knowledge 583–8
and religion, privatization of 361–2
and singularism 51
and social heterogeneity 361
and solidarism 51
and the state 51–2
Democratic Party (USA) 289, 291
democratization:
and industrial democracy 692–3
and social movements 425
and technology 695
and urbanization 658–60
demography 629–30
and Black Death, impact of 597–9, 615
end of English feudalism 599–603
Lutheran Reformation 611–14
rise of Florentine city‐state 603–8
witchcraft 609–10
and categorization of individuals 619–20, 627, 664–5
and conventions of 620
equivalence of individuals 619, 621, 622, 623
political character of 621
renegotiations of 623
and impact on political processes 615–17
and immigration 636–45
and nature of 619
and parish registers 621–2
politics of 619–30, 664–75
and “population”:
as democratic concept 621
evolution of modern concept of 622
and provisional nature of knowledge 623
and uses of information 620 see also censuses; immigration in Western democracies; urbanization
description:
and political science 6
“thick description” 22, 323, 345, 346, 478–9, 804
design, and technology 746, 759
and politics of 752–5
consumers 752
corporations 753
resistance 753–5
states 752–3
designer values 54
determinism:
and historical lock‐in 463–5
and politics 688–9
and technology 683–4, 707 see also contingency; explanation; mechanisms
developing countries 417–20
and polarization 782–3
and urbanization:
challenge of 660–1
control of capital city 655–6
(p. 839)
democratization 658–60
political implications of 650
political parties 659
potential inter‐city conflict 656–8
state consolidation 656
urban population growth 651–3
voting systems 660
Diamond v Chakrabarty (US Supreme Court 1980) 758
Dien Bien Phu 523
difference, method of, see comparative method
digital democracy 686, 696–7
disagreement, politics of 560
discourse theory 793–4
and agency 790–2
and best use of 771
and change 779
and collective stories 773
and democracy 793–4
and development 781–3
and discourse analysis 387–8
and discourse communities 789–90
and discourse‐shifting 777–8, 783–4, 793
and doctrinal discourses 775
and frames 191
and group identities 397
and interpretation 769, 776, 780, 783, 785
and lack of attention to 768–9
and meaning and context 780–1
and modern art 777–8, 793
and narrative 772–3, 783–5
and narrative reconstruction of reality 772
and nature of persons 40–3
and personal relationships 45–6
and philosophical presuppositions 38
and political narratives 789–90
and politics 773–7, 793–4
and reason 775
and religion 775
and risk 787–9
and role of 767–8
and subjectivity 780
as symbolic capital 777–8
and system 772–3
and talk 772
and traditions of 785–7
and use of term 768, 784
and violence 776–7 see also frames; ideas; language; narratives
discursive opportunity structure, and framing 194
displacement, and political action 548–9
dispute settlement, and discursive practices 388
disruptive events, and repetition in history 485
dissent, and free spaces 196
dogma, and scientific knowledge 65
domestic technologies, and gender politics of design 712
dominant groups, and democratic consolidation 230
dominant ideologies 70–1, 74
Dragnet (tv show) 58
dramas, and political communication 403
drink‐driving, and framing 199
Duchamp's urinal 778, 793
Duverger's Law 9
dynamic properties, and repetition in history 484
Earth First! 333, 336
Eastern India Rainfed Forest Program 580–1, 588
economic voting 131–2 see also interests; rational choice theory
Eindhoven 587–8
elections:
campaigns, contextual understanding of 7
Duverger's Law 9
electoral systems 660
geography 514–16, 524–5
and Howard Dean's post‐Caucus speech 490–2, 497, 501–2
(p. 840)
and social movements 430
Voting Rights Act (USA, 1965) 287 see also democracy; voting
electronic games, and gender politics of design 712–13
elites:
and deception 248
and dominant ideologies 70–1, 74
and place politics 516
and psychology 148–9
and use of popular conceptions of objectivity 59, 71–2, 74–5
emotions:
and affective allegiances 162–3
and hope 558–9
and ideas 228, 268–9
and moods 163–5
and moral sentiments 165–7
and reflexes 161–2
and role of 160
and urges 160–1 see also affect; psychology
employment legislation, and path dependency 455
engineering, and male identity of 709, 710
England:
and national memory 218 see also United Kingdom
environmental mechanisms 16
Environmental Protection Agency (USA) 294
epistemology 36, 57–77
and benefit of novelty 68–9
and bias 62–3
role of 65–7
civic 751–2
and co‐dependency 65
concerns of 83
and credulity 66, 67–8
definition of 83
and dominant ideologies 70–1
and knowledge‐seeking approaches 63–4
and logical positivism 61
criticism of 61–2
and marking expertise 69–70
and methodology and aims 60–1
and naive inductivism 61, 63–4
and naturalized epistemology 62
and naturalizing study of knowledge 60–5
and ontological assumptions 83–5
and standpoint theory 70–1
and values 53 see also explanation
ETC Group 753
ethics, see morality; norms; values
ethical constraint, and technology 747, 759
and politics of 757–8
Ethiopia 655
ethnic identities/ethnicity:
and census categorization 628, 666–7, 668–9
and cleansing 118
and constructivist view of 363, 366–7
and democratic consolidation 370–2
and exclusion 118, 367
and identities 290, 292–3
and instrumentalist view of 364
and language 377–81
and politics of 360–1
threat to democracy 361
and poverty 770
and primordialist view of 363–4
and protection of minorities 362
and segregation 118, 367
and social construction of 364, 367, 368–9
Europe:
and food protests 540, 541
and political space 537
European Commission 641
European Union 529, 555
and Europe‐wide public 389
and immigration 638, 641, 643
and language 377, 379, 380
and minority rights 362
and risk 750
(p. 841) eventful temporality 459
events:
and ambiguous contours of 492–3
and causal explanation of 498
and cultural politics of “eventing” 492, 502
and dynamic process of “eventing” 498, 500–1
audience 501–2
configurations 501
narrative contestation 499–501
technical considerations 502
and historicity of 497–8
and Howard Dean's post‐Caucus speech 490–2, 497, 501, 502
and interpretation of 492
and making sense of:
cultural resources 495–6, 497
narrative 497
theoretical considerations 493–5
understanding and using 496–7
and theoretical commitments 494 see also narratives
everyday, politics of the 561
evidence:
historical 438
underdetermination of theory by 114 see also epistemology; explanation
evil, and situational explanation of 139–41
exclusion, and liberal democracy 367
exemplars, and influence of 202
experimental method 116–17, 121–2 see also behavioralism; explanation
expertise:
and marking of 69–70
and technocracy 690
experts:
and bioethics 757–8
and democracy 759
and risk 751
and risk assessment 749
and technology 683, 747, 759
explanation:
and comparative method 121–4
and compromise approaches to 23
and conceptions of 422
and explanatory logic 13–14
law‐seeking 12–13
mechanism‐based accounts 13
propensity analyses 13
skepticism 12
systemic analyses 13
and explanatory stories 17–19
and fact and theory 114–17
and general laws 7–8
and mechanisms:
classification of 16
and episodes 15–16
identification of 14–15
and processes 15
rational choice theory 16–17
and mixed strategy 9
and models 117–21
and ontologies:
holism 10
hybrid approaches 11–12
methodological individualism 10
phenomenological individualism 10
relational realism 11
and political science 7
and postmodern skepticism 8
and puzzle‐solving 20–2
explanatory stories 17–19
extraction‐resistance‐settlement cycle, and state transformation 423
Exxon oil spill 299
eyewitness accounts 494–5
fact:
and comparative method 121–4
and “Dragnet objectivity” 58
and explanation by model 117–21
and theory 114–17, 125 see also epistemology; explanation
fairness:
and Ultimatum Game 166, 176–7
cross‐cultural study 177–9 see also emotions; ideas; morality; values
(p. 842) Falkland Islands 519
false analogy, and repetition in history:
case demarcation 479–80
definitional variants 477–8
thick description 478–9
false consciousness, and impact of ideas on actions 285–6
falsification:
and scientific knowledge 87, 800
fantasy documents 298
feminist standpoint theory 70–1
feudalism:
Black Death and end of English 599–603
law of master and servant 24
model of 119
field theory:
and person‐situation controversy 134–5
and social psychology 133–4 see also psychology
Filartiga v Pena‐Irala (US Court of Appeals, 1980) 254, 260
film, and technological apartheid 708
Finland, and center‐periphery differences 515
First World War, and chemical weapons 257
Florence, and rise of as a city‐state 603–8
folk psychology 21, 37, 39–40
food:
agricultural biotechnology 754–5, 757
Gene Revolution 754
Green Revolution 754
protests over supply 426, 540–1
Ford Foundation 417
Franco‐Prussian War 9
frames 22, 187–209, 267–8
and appeal of concept 188
and choice of:
institutional factors/conventions 196–7
organizational and political conditions 193–5
political/ideological traditions 195–6
and claim‐making 196–7
and collective identity 192
and discourses 191
and features of effective 190, 200–1
and ideas 238–40, 249
and identity 190, 192
and ideologies 191–2
and impact of:
coherence/incoherence of frames 200–1
credibility of 201
on preferences 104–6
redefining authoritative knowledge 202–3
relationship with mobilizing networks 199–200
relationship with political opportunity 198–9
role of media 201–2
target's acceptance of frame 202
and importance of 188
and master frames 190
and nuclear power industry 187–8
and origins of concept 189–90
and political culture 402–3
and problems with application of concept 191
and psychological experiments 104–6
and shortcomings of literature on 188–9
and technological 685, 696
France 21
and abolition of slavery 432
and censuses, origin of 664–5, 666
and electoral geography 515
and immigration 638, 641, 642, 643
and League of Nations Mandates system 273
and nuclear power 687–8
and nuclear weapons 728
and political elites 516
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
Franck report (1945) 727
(p. 843) Frankenstein myth, and technology 747
free spaces, and dissent 196
freedom, and philosophical approach to 36, 38
French Revolution, and demographic thinking 622
Friends of the Earth 188
functionalism:
and Parsons' theory 235
and systemic analyses 13
fundamental attribution error, and social psychology 138–9
game theory
and fairness 166
and non‐cooperative choice 98, 106–9
and strong reciprocity 173
Prisoners' Dilemma 183–4, 332
public goods game 179–81
Ultimatum Game and fairness 166, 176–9 see also decision theory; rational choice theory
gay rights movement, and framing 194, 195, 290–1
gender:
and economic voting 131–2
and equality 242
gay rights movement, and framing 194, 195
social construction of 59 n
and technology 690, 708–9, 717–19
cyberfeminism 715–17
cyberspace 713–15
educational biases 710
gender politics of design 711–13
as male culture 709–10
sexual divisions in labor market 710–11 see also masculinity; women
gender‐swapping, and Internet 716
Gene Revolution 754
general laws:
and approach to 20
and explanatory logic 12–13
and political processes 7–8 see also explanation; laws in social science; positivism, logical
general will 49
generative processes against correlations:
and repetition in history 485
disruptive events 485
robust mechanisms 485–6
generative processes with correlation:
and repetition in history 483–4
dynamic properties 484
process tracing 484
geography:
electoral 514–6, 524–5
and place 552
and theory 550 see also place; space
geopolitics 523–4, 529
Germany:
and choice of capital city 518–19
and immigration 640, 641, 642, 643
and Lutheran Reformation 611–14
and macroeconomic policy 229, 240–1
germs 63
ghetto revolts, and space 569
global cities 524
globalization:
anti‐globalization movement 754
and citizenship 555–6
and development theory 803
and governance 554–5
and immigration 639
and place 511
and polarization 782–3
goodness, and rightness 53
(p. 844) governance:
and global system of 554–5
and military technological developments 735
Greece:
ancient Greece and the polis 509
and immigration 638, 644
Green Revolution 754
grievances, and interpretation of 189
Gromyko Plan 727
groups, and customs of 406
gun control, and Million Mom March 714
Hague, the 527
Hague Declaration (1899) 257
Haiti 431
Health Council (Netherlands) 691
hegemony 234
and identity formation 367
and local knowledge 586–7
and political culture 395–6
Helsinki 526
heteroglossia 381, 383
higher‐order beliefs 42
Hindu philosophy 328
historical institutionalism 92
history:
as context 474–5
and explanation of political processes 420–3, 433
and historical knowledge and evidence:
archival research 439–40
method 447
motivation 440–1, 442
postmodern skepticism 450–1
quantitative history 447–9
reliance on evidence 444, 445
selection of material 443, 444
story‐telling 442–4, 450
and political development 417–20
and the present 490–502
and revisionist history 499
and social movements 425–6
anti‐slavery 431–2
claims‐making performances 426–8
historical development of 429–33
signalling systems 428–9
temperance movement 430–1
and state transformation processes:
civilian control of armed forces 423–4
extraction‐resistance‐settlement cycle 423
and temporal dimensions of 473–4 see also path dependency; repetition, and history
holism 10
and political ontology 89–90 see also explanation
Holocaust, and memory 216, 218
homeless mobilization, and framing 199–200
homo economicus 158
and limitations of concept 172
hope, and affective politics 558–9
Hopi 383
hostile media phenomenon 137
Human Rights Watch 737
ideal speech environments, and human cognition 100–2
ideas:
appreciative 230–1
and autonomy of 246
and categories of 228
cognitive 230
and definition of 228
and democratic consolidation 230
and elementary social theory 231–2
and emotion 228, 268–9
and expectations from 236–7
and explicit ideas 227–8
and holders of 228–9
and ideational‐material relationship 92–3
and impact of:
difficulty in assessing 248–9
interaction with other factors 240–1
political and social movements 243–5
sequencing of different factors 241–2
(p. 845)
and impact on actions 284–5
creation of interests 289–92
historical context 292–3
institutional context 293–4
justifying interests 287–9
leadership context 294
overriding interests 285–7
path dependency 293–4
and implicit beliefs 228
and importance of 227
and influence of previous ideas 266–7, 269, 280
feelings associated with 268–9
institutionalization of 267–8
as preexisting discourse 267
as premises 267
and interpretation of 237–8
and macroeconomic policy 229, 240–1
and misleading ideas 297–9
fantasy documents 298
military planning 298
proclamation/action mismatch 298–9
reduction of uncertainty 298
system failure 297–8 see also nuclear war planning
and nationalism 230
normative 230
as organizational frames 268
and persuasive power of 266
and social thought 232, 235–6
Marxism 232–4
Parsons' theory 234–5
programmatic convergence 236
and status and role of 252–3
and structural protection of 245–7
and theoretical frames 238–40, 249
and transformation of social science 243
and truth and deception 247–8
and women's movement 230, 242
identity:
collective:
and frames 190, 192
and political culture 404–5
constructivist view of 366–7, 369, 371
and groups 397
and hegemony 367
instrumentalist view of 364
imagined communities 756
and interests 290–1
primordialist view of 363–4
situational influences on 142–3
identity enlargement, and mechanisms 15
identity formation:
and census categorization:
affirmative action model 670–1
American Indians 670
India 670
India under British rule 629–30, 667–8
language rights 672
Pakistan 671–2
Soviet Union/Russian Federation 673–5
territorial threshold model 671–2
and cyberspace 715–16
and hegemony 367
imagined communities 756 see also identity
ideology:
Communist Manifesto 568–9
definition of 228
dominant 70–1, 74
false consciousness 285–6
and frames 191–2
impact of ideas on actions 285–6 see also frames; ideas
IKEA, and local knowledge 589
illusion, and politics 247–8
imagined communities 756
(p. 846) immigration, and control of 638–42
immigration in Western democracies 645
and contradictory attitudes towards 637–8
and control of:
asylum seekers 639
distinct national regimes 642
nation states' failure 638–9
policy convergence 641
policy variations 639, 641
preconditions of 639
self‐limited sovereignty 640
and European Union 638, 641
and factors encouraging 637
competition for skilled workers 640
and globalization 639–40
and immigrant incorporation 642–4
challenge of 642
citizenship 644
integration 643–4
multiculturalism 642–3, 644
and Islamic fundamentalism 642, 643
and population change 636
and reversal of migration flows 636–7
and transnational institutions 639
impact assessments, and weapon innovations 729, 730
implicit beliefs 228
impression formation 149, 150
impression management 149, 150
In These Times (magazine) 72
increasing returns, and self‐reproducing sequences 465–6
India:
and censuses:
under British colonial rule 629–30, 667–8, 669
post‐independence 670
pre‐colonial 668
and Chipko movement 570
and contentious politics 574
and Eastern India Rainfed Forest Program 580–1, 588
and identity 670
and language 379
and religious divisions 361
Bharatija Janata Party (BJP) 574
Kerala 21
individual‐centered analysis, and choice 97
individual‐group relationship, and political ontology 88–90
individualism 10–2, 79
and political ontology 89–90
and rational choice theory 90
individuals, and political behavior:
and contingent effects of personality 146–7
and influence of personal attributes:
perceptual biases 136–7
personality traits 134, 135–6
political awareness of 137–8
and influence of situational/personal interactions 144
authoritarianism and threat 147–8
formation of public opinion 144–6
leadership 148–9
and situational influences on behavior 138
influences on identity 142–3
leadership 142
obedience and evil 139–41 see also behavioralism; voting
industrial democracy 692–3
Industrial Revolution 616, 723
and modernization theories 695
and path dependency 454–5
industrialism, and local knowledge 582
inequality 286
inference theory, and philosophical presuppositions 38
information, and impact on preferences 103–4
information and communication technologies (ICT):
and cyberfeminism 715–17
and gender 713–15
(p. 847) innate ideas 62
innovation:
and co‐evolution of technology and society 733–4
impact assessments and weapon innovations 729, 730
and national systems of 699
and politics 548
and sociotechnical networks 736–7 see also ideas; military technology and innovation
Institute of Economic Affairs 334, 335
institutionalization, and ideas 267–8
interest‐based negotiation 541–2, 543
interests:
and ideas:
creation of interests 289–92
justifying interests 287–9
overriding interests 285–7
and identity 290–1
and motivation 158
and local knowledge 588–9
and place 542–4
and political behavior 131–2, 319
and the census 626
social construction of collective interests 244–5 see also identity; preferences; rational choice theory
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 336
International Campaign to Ban Landmines 737
International Committee of the Red Cross 737
International Court of Justice (ICJ), and determination of customary law 260
International Criminal Court (ICC) 252
International Institute for Strategic Studies 731
International Labour Organization 588
international law:
and chemical weapons 256–7
and increasing scope of 252
and international legal norms 253
anti‐personnel (AP) landmines 261–3, 737
consent to 254
constructivist view of 255–6, 258
customary law 254–5
identification of 253–4, 259–61, 263–4
positivist approach to 257–8
prisoners of war 258–9
violation of 258
and state obligations under customary rules 255 see also international relations; trusteeship
International Monetary Fund, and local knowledge 579
international relations:
and international norms 253–64, 737
and political elites 149
and realism 13
self‐limited sovereignty and immigration 640
International Typographical Union 461
Internet:
and cyberfeminism 715–17
and women 713–15
interpretation 776
and discourse 780, 783, 785
and role of 769
interpretive sociology 323
Inuit 323
invention, and politics 548 see also ideas; innovation
investiture requirements, and coalition formation 108
(p. 848) Iowa Caucuses, and Howard Dean's post‐Caucus speech 490–2, 497, 501–2
Iran, and destruction of illegal dwellings 564–5
Iraq:
Coalition Provisional Authority 277
and ethnic and religious representation 361
Interim Governing Council 361
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
Iraq war 523
and censorship 74
and justification of 72
and limited controversy over 72–3
Irish Land War, and narrative 404
Isfahan 521
Islamic fundamentalism 775
and immigration 642, 643
Israel:
and census classifications 628–9
and national memory 218
Italy:
and immigration 638, 642
and rise of Florentine city‐state 603–8
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
Jakarta, meaning of 520
journalism, and bias 73–4 see also mass media; objectivity
Kenya, and Islamic courts of 388
Kerala 21
keyboard formats, and contingency 462
Keynesianism 21, 229, 240–1
kinship 5, 25, 591
knowledge:
contextualist theory of 151
historical 438–51
“knowing how” vs “knowing that” 9
and naturalizing the study of 60–5
and situatedness of 60
social situatedness of 60, 65 see also beliefs; epistemology; explanation; local knowledge
“Knowledge Bank” 580, 582
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 336
labor market:
American Federation of Labor, and framing 193
employment legislation 455
fairness experiment 175, 176
and framing 195
history of 369–70, 427
industrial democracy 692–3
International Labour Organization 588
International Typographical Union 461
and sexual divisions in 710–11
and strong reciprocity 174–6
land rights, and local struggles 4–5, 570
language:
and census categorization 672
and discourse analysis 387–8
and ethnicity 377–81
and heteroglossia 381, 383
and ideologies of 376–7
and indexical patterns 383–5
and language rights 383, 672
and linguistic nationalism in state systems 377–81
and migrants 384
and minority/non‐standard languages 381–4
and multilingualism 642–3, 644
and naturalization of institutional power 386–90
and politics 376
and social identities 384–6
and standardization 380–1, 382–3 see also communication; culture; narrative
language games 285, 323
language rights 383
and census categorization 672
Latinos (US):
and political courting of 361
(p. 849)
and political identity formation 369
as racial or ethnic group 291–2 see also ethnic identity; race
law:
customary 253, 260
and Islamic courts of Kenya 388
international 253–64, 737
of master and servant 24
positivism 257–8
of war 255–7, 258 see also norms; social control
laws in social science:
Duverger's Law 9
and explanatory logic 12–13, 20, 422
as local knowledge 8
Phillips Curve 9
Plato's law 121
of supply and demand 121 see also context; contingency; determinism; explanation
layering, and path dependency 464–5
leadership:
and influence of personality 148–9
and situational influences on 142
League of Nations, and Mandates system 271–3
Lebanon:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and power‐sharing 672–3
“lesser evil,” and explanatory models 117–21
Lima 521
living tradition of cultural resources, and making sense of events 495–6, 497
lobbying 432
local knowledge 26, 579
and administrative, corporate and expert driven projects 588–91
and AES Corporation 590–1
and “buying‐in” of 590–1
and characteristics of 579–80, 581
and contradictions within 580
and cultural hegemony 586–7
and decentralization 579
and discovery of 591–2
and Eastern India Rainfed Forest Program 580–1, 588
as global business 579, 589–90
and global conditions 581–2
and hidden transcripts 585–6
and IKEA 589
and industrialism 582
and interests involved 588–9
and “Knowledge Bank” 580, 582
as negotiated project 582–3
and Philips electronics 587–8
and political nature of 581
and radical democratic projects 583–8
as relational and practical learning 581, 582
and resistance 584–5
and space and place 587–8
and subaltern knowledge 584–5 see also beliefs; epistemology; knowledge
local struggles, and experiences of politics 4
lock‐in, and path dependency 463–5
logic:
and comparative method 121–4
and explanation by model 117–21
and fact and theory 114–17, 125 see also explanation
logical positivism 9, 493, 800
and criticism of 61–2
and scientific knowledge 61
loyalties, and manipulation of 768 see also identity
Luxembourg, and immigration 644
MacDonald's 753
machine politics, model of 120
Machu Picchu 510
macroeconomic policy, and role of ideas 229, 240–1
Malaysia 527–8
Malthusianism 616, 651
(p. 850) Manhattan Project 727
manipulation, and personal relationships 44–5
maps 523
marginality, and standpoint theory 70–1
market integration, and behavioral variation 178 see also globalization
Marxism 782–3
and culture 320, 321
and ideas and social thought 232–4 see also ideologies
masculinity:
and epistemic authority 70
and technology 709–10, 712–13 see also gender
mass media 556
ABC television network 74
and affective politics 558
Columbus Dispatch (newspaper) 73
and coverage of Howard Dean 490–2, 501–2
Dragnet (tv show) 58
and economic voting 132
and framing 202
film, and technological apartheid 708
hostile media 137
In These Times (magazine) 72
journalism and bias 73–4
Nation, The (magazine) 72
Nationwide (tv program) 396
and political culture 396–7
Sinclair Broadcasting Group 74
and social movements 201–2
and standardization 756 see also communication; news
materialism, and ideational‐material relationship 92–3
meaning, and context 780–1
mechanism‐based accounts, and explanatory logic 13
mechanisms:
and explanation of social/political processes 14–17, 237
classification 16
and episodes 15–16
identification of 14–15
and processes 15
rational choice theory 16–17
and repetition in history 485–6 see also explanation
megacities 652
memory 210–24
and collective memory, skepticism over 222
and cultural memory 220–1
active memory 220–1
archival memory 221
compared with political memory 221
and experiential/existential distinction 222
and individual memory 211–13, 222
episodic memory 212–13
fallibility of 211–12
indispensability of 212
repressed memories 212
and new interest in 210
motivations for 210–11
and plurality of memory‐systems 223
and political memory 215–20
academic approach to 215
compared with cultural memory 221
dangers of 221
influences on strength of 216
mediated character of 216
memory activists 220
mutual forgetting 219
national memory 216, 217–19
new forms of 219
organizing and elaborating 216–17
selection/exclusion 217
shared remembering 219–20
transgenerational nature of 215
and remembering/forgetting interaction 220
and social memory 213–15
academic approach to 215
commemoration 214–15
(p. 851)
family memories 213–14
generational memory 214 see also identity; mind; psychology
Mercosur 529
methodology, definition of 83 see also behavioralism; epistemology; explanation
Mexico, and aboriginal population loss 597
Miami, and demonstrations 566–7
microscopes, and Galileo 446
Microsoft 753
Middle East studies, in United States 75
middle range, theories of the 151, 237
migrants, and language 384
military culture, and Kier's approach 348–50
military technology and innovation 686–7, 722–3, 739–40
and control of 732, 736–7, 740
dual use technology 737–9
and dual use 728, 730, 737–9
and dynamics of technological arms race 731–2
and impact assessments 729, 730
and impact on nation states 724
and impact on warfare 723–4
and politics 722–3, 740
arms control 727–8, 731
coevolution 724, 726, 733–4
role of policy/defence analysts 731
role of scientists/engineers 729–30
weapons innovation 725
weapons innovation as subject of 726–8
and research and development 724–5
dual use technology 738–9
institutionalization of 726
scale of 725
and sociotechnical networks 736–7 see also nuclear war planning; war
Million Mom March 714–15
mind:
and choice 98
and conceptual problems with 99–100
and human cognition 100–2
and philosophy of 37 see also brain; psychology
minority governments 108
minority rights, protection of 362 see also affirmative action; rights
misleading ideas 297–9
and fantasy documents 298
and military planning 298
and proclamation/action mismatch 298–9
and reduction of uncertainty 298
and system failure 297–8 see also beliefs; frames; ideas; nuclear war planning
mobile phones 718
models, and explanation by 117–21 see also explanation
modern art, discourse on 777–8, 793
modernization:
and globalization 803
and political science 799, 801–3
and technology 694–5
Monsanto 753
moods 163–5 see also emotions; urges
morality 37
consequentialism 53–4
ethical constraints on technology 747, 757–9
evil, situational explanation of 139–41
goodness and rightness 53
moral panics 164–5
moral sentiments 165–7
and motivation 158
non‐consequentialism 53–4
and responsibility 36 see also norms; philosophy; rights; values
Moscow, and Red Square 522
(p. 852) motives/motivation 157–71
and diverse explanations of 157–60, 168
and emotion 160
affective allegiances 162–3
moods 163–5
moral sentiments 165–7
reflexes 161–2
urges 160–1
and interests 158
motivated reasoning 136–7
and rationality 159
and reputation 158
and sociological explanations of 158
and speculation over 158 see also emotions; norms; preferences; values
Movement for the Restoration of Democracy (Nepal) 571–2
Movement of Rural Landless Workers (Brazil) 570
Mozambique 658
“mulatto,” as American census category 628, 629
Mueller‐Lyre illusion 62 n
multiculturalism 642–3, 644
multilingualism 378, 379
Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles (MIRVs) 308–9, 729
Munich, and meaning of 519–20
myths, and power of ideas 248
NAFTA 529
naive inductivism 61, 63–4
naive realism 137
Namibia, and United Nations transitional administration 276
narrative 388–9
and causal inference 468
and credibility of stories 201
and discourse communities 789–90
and discourse theory 772–3, 783–5
and explanatory stories 17–19
and history 442–3, 497
and making sense of events 497
and mimetic narration 788–9
and political communication 404
and political narratives 789–90
and political science 774
Nation, The (magazine) 72
National Academy of Sciences (USA) 691
national identity, and political memory 217–19
National Rifle Association 714
national statistics, and faith in 666 see also censuses
nationalism:
and census category construction 671–2
and language 377–81
and model of 120
and political space 522
and role of ideas 230
and sacralization of territory 519 see also identity
nation‐building, see state formation
Nationwide (tv program) 396
naturalist political science, and challenges to 92
nature:
and constrained relativism 331–2
and philosophy of 37 see also political ontology
Nauru:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
Nepal:
and collective action 573–4
and Movement for the Restoration of Democracy 571–2
Netherlands, and immigration 642, 643–4
network analysis 11
actor‐network theory and technological design 752
(p. 853) networks
and frames 199–200
policy networks 735
social movements mobilizing 199–200
sociotechnical networks 734–5
neuropolitics 560–1
New Delhi 518, 520
New Guinea:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
new institutionalism 106
and culture 322
and historical institutionalism 92
and rational choice analysis 90
and social movements 196–7
and social solidarity 328
new states, and supposed crises of 418
New World, and post‐Colombian population loss 597, 598
New Zealand, and United Nations trusteeship system 274
news:
Nightline (tv news programme) 74
and political culture 396–7 see also mass media
Nigeria 658
Nightline (tv news programme) 74
Non Proliferation Treaty (1971) 730
non‐consequentialism 53–4
normalcy 771
norms:
and definition of 258
and international law 253
anti‐personnel (AP) landmines 261–3
consent to 254
constructivist view of 255–6, 258
customary law 254–5
identification of 253–4, 259–61, 263–4
positivist approach to 257–8
prisoners of war 258–9
violation of 258
normative ideas 230 see also morality; motives; values
Norway:
and center‐periphery differences 515
and immigration 642
nuclear power:
and framing of 187–8
and risk assessment 699
and technology 687–8
nuclear war planning:
and declaratory policy 300, 301, 302, 303–4
and deterrence 300–4
flexible response 302–3
massive retaliation 301–2, 303
misleading rhetoric of 311
“no cities” doctrine 302
and doctrine 300, 301, 303–4
and first strike 299, 300, 303, 306
incentive for planning for 310–11
and mistakes in:
command and control infrastructure 312
neglect of nuclear winter 311–12
neglect of nuclear‐induced fire 298, 312
and operational behavior 300
and poor coordination 310, 311
and Presidential Directive 59(Carter) 309
and proclamation/action mismatch 299–300, 312–13
and role of policy/defence analysts 731
and second‐strike 303
and Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) 306, 307–8
and stability 303
and Strategic Air Command 304–5, 307
and technological changes 306
and constraints imposed by 310–11
Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles 308–9
obedience to authority, and situational influences on 139–41
objectivity:
and bias 61
role of 65–7
and competition of ideas 69
and dominant ideologies 70–1, 74
and Dragnet Objectivity:
bias complaints 73–4
flaws with 58–9
ruling elite's use of 59, 71–2, 74–5
and marking expertise 69–70
and naive realism 137
and perceptual biases 136–7
and popular conception of 58
and possibility of 59–60
and scientific research 61
and situatedness of knowledge 60
and social ecology of 65–75
as social norm 69 see also biases; epistemology; explanation
observation, and theoretical mediation of 493
Office of Scientific Research and Development (USA) 724
Office of Technology Assessment (USA) 684, 697–8
Olson's law 121, 244 n
ontology 78–96
and criticism of ontological reflection 84–5
and definition 80
and epistemology and methodology 84, 87
and holism 10
and hybrid approaches 11–12
and individualism 10
and relational realism 11
and significance of 82–4
and status of ontological claims 84–8 see also political ontology
Organization of African Unity 655
organized crime, and model of 119–20
other‐regarding preferences 173
and explanations of 182–3
Ottawa 527
outcome‐regarding preferences 172
Pakistan, and census categorization 671–2
Palestine 293
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
Panopticon, and technology as design 746, 752
paradigms, and scientific knowledge 63, 64–5, 68, 800 see also biases; epistemology; frames; objectivity
Paris 516
and city planning 520
Paris Commune (1871) 535
parish registers, and demography 621–2
participant values 54
participation:
and civic groups 406–7
and cyberspace 714–15
and emotions 164
and psychology 144
in technological design 759 see also political behavior; voting
participatory poverty assessments 591–2
path dependency:
and causal effect of initial conditions 459–61
and consequences of 462
and contingency 461–3
and critical junctures 460, 461
and definitions of 456–8, 469
and disagreements over concept 456
and employment legislation 455
and historical lock‐in 463–5
and impact of ideas on actions 293–4
and Industrial Revolution 454–5
and layering 464–5
(p. 855)
past affects the future 458–9
and Polya urn experiment 464
and political processes 421
and QWERTY keyboard 462, 698
and reactive sequences 455–6, 467–8
and self‐reproducing sequences 456, 465–7
and social movements 425, 428
and technology 698 see also history
Pavia, Battle of (1525) 614
Pearl Harbor, and meaning of 520
peasant behavior, and explanations of 22
Peasants Revolt (1381) 601–3
people, the:
as corporate body 48–9
as mere aggregate 50 see also censuses; demography; identity
performance
and political culture:
claims‐making repertoires 426–8
collective identity 404–5
dramas 403
narrative 404
and rituals in the legitimization of power relations 386–90
and theatre‐state in Bali 346–7 see also framing; narratives
personal relationships:
and decision‐theoretic adaptation 43–5
and discourse‐theoretic co‐reasoning 45–6
personality traits:
and contingent effects of 146–7
and leadership 142, 148–9
and political behavior 134, 135–6 see also psychology
personhood, and concept of 134
persuasion:
and argumentation 266
and formation of public opinion 144–6
and overestimation of clarity 201 see also beliefs; communication; frames; ideas
Peru, and aboriginal population loss 597
phenomenological individualism 10
Philips electronics 587–8
Phillips Curve 9
philosophy 35–56
and domains of enquiry 36–7
nature of 35
and nature of persons 38
decision‐theoretic image 39–40
discourse‐theoretic image 40–3
and the people 47
as corporate body 48–9
as mere aggregate 50
and personal relationships 43
decision‐theoretic adaptation 43–5
discourse‐theoretic co‐reasoning 45–6
and politics 36, 37–8, 47
pragmatism 11
and presuppositions 35–7
and responsibility 36
and role of values 52–5
skepticism, and explanatory logic 12
and the state and democracy 51–2 see also epistemology; explanation; morality; ontology
photography, and technological apartheid 708
place:
and aspects of social being:
contiguity 511
distinctiveness 511
fixity of location 510–11
and beliefs 542–4
and city vs state 529
and consequences of action 522–5
elections 524–5
geopolitics 523–4, 529
war 523
world system analysis 524
and contemporary significance 529–30
and creation by human activities 538–9
and definitions of 512, 535–6
and formation of actors 513–16
center‐periphery differences 515
(p. 856)
coastal‐inland differences 514
economic differences 514
electoral geography 514–16
political elites 516
trust levels 513–14
urban‐rural difference 514
as geographical location 537–8
and geography 552
and globalization 511
and horizontally structured space 540
and interest‐based negotiation 541–2, 543
and interests 542–4
and language of territory 552–6
and local knowledge 587–8
meaning of 517, 552
place‐orientations 517
places of discursive reference 519–20
places to be in 517–19
places to defend/liberate 519
places to visit 519
as outcomes of action 525–8
creation of capitals 526–8
location 525–6
and political control 539–40
political problems of 544–5
and political processes 534–5
and politics 509–10
role of 528–9
as setting of action 520–2
civic space 521
political space 521–2
religious space 522
voting 522
and social action 512–13
and structure‐agency relationship 512
as symbolic form 536
and trust 513–14
and vertically structured space 540 see also capital cities; city planning; space
Plato's law 121
plots, and Aristotle on 18
“pocketbook voting,” see economic voting
policy networks 735
polis 509
political action, as symbolic capital 777–8
political behavior:
and contingent effects of personality 146–7
and influence of personal attributes:
perceptual biases 136–7
personality traits 134, 135–6
political awareness of 137–8
and influence of situational/personal interactions 144
authoritarianism and threat 147–8
formation of public opinion 144–6
leadership 148–9
of peasants 22
and personality 134, 135–6
and self‐interest 131
and situational influences on behavior 138
influences on identity 142–3
leadership 142
political culture 392–3, 408
and The Civic Culture (Almond and Verba) 394
criticism of 394–5
and class‐based ideologies 398
and counter‐hegemonic projects 396
and cross‐national surveys 394–5
and cultural hegemony 395–7
and culture as structure 398–9
and definition of 392
and everyday communication/action 405–6
claims‐making 407–8
customs of civic life 406–7
and Geertz 398–9
and mass media 396–7
as performance:
collective identity 404–5
dramas 403
narrative 404
(p. 857)
and power 397–8
as shared representations 399–400
codes of politics 401–2
strategic framing 402–3
vocabularies of politics 400–1
and Tocqueville's influence 393–4 see also culture
political development, and state formation 417–20
political machines, and characteristics of 553–4
political memory, see memory
political movements, and role of ideas 243–5 see also social movements
political ontology:
and ideational‐material relationship 92–3
and impact of 93–4
and individual‐group relationship 88–90
and issues of 81–2
and meaning of 80–1
and ontological choices 79
and significance of 78–80
and structure‐agency relationship 85–7, 90–2 see also constructivism; ontology; realism
political opportunity structure, and choice of frames 193
political parties:
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (India) 574
Democratic Party (USA) 289, 291
and “frozen cleavages” 24
identification with 136–7, 291
machine politics, model of 120
Republican Party (USA) 289, 291
Shiv Sena Party (India) 574
and urbanization in developing countries 659 see also democracy; elections; voting
political processes:
and context 6
and description of 6
and explanation of 7
compromise approaches to 23
explanatory logics 12–14
explanatory stories 17–19
mechanisms 14–17
mixed strategy 9
ontologies 10–12
postmodern skepticism 8
puzzle‐solving 20–2
search for general laws 7–8
and historical explanation of 420–3, 433
and impact of demographic change 615–17
and place 534–5
political science:
and description 6
and discourse analysis 773–4
and explanation 7
as narrative 774
naturalist 92
post‐war development of:
area studies 800–1
behavioralism 797–8
Chicago school 797–8
Committee on Comparative Politics 801–2
comparative politics 798–9
contextualization 804
democratic transition 803
descriptive analysis 804
doubts over 803–4
fragmentation of 802
globalization theory 803
modernization theory 801–3
national development 799
universal vs contextual knowledge 799–800
Polya urn experiment 464
population, see demography; censuses
Portugal 432
and immigration 638
positivism, legal 257–8
positivism, logical 9, 61–2, 493, 800 see also explanation; general laws; laws in social science
(p. 858) postmodernism 328, 800
and antinomianism 114, 125
and culture 717
and feminism 715
and history 450–1
and Internet 716
and linguistic analysis 290, 450–1
and ontology, epistemology and methodology 84–5
and place 511, 523
and power 325 n, 405
and reflexivity 341
skepticism 6–8, 325 n, 451
poverty, and political conflict 769, 770
power:
and constructivist approach to 365–6
and emotion 166
and instrumentalist theories 364
and language and legitimization of 386–90
and motivation 158
and objects 708
and political culture 397–8
power‐sharing:
and census category construction 672–3
Soviet Union/Russian Federation 674
pragmatism 11
Prague 526
precautionary principle 700–1, 750
preferences 172–86
and choice 98
and contextual effects:
impact of framing 104–6
impact of information 103–4
and cultural factors 177–9, 184
and decision theory 39, 40
and definition of 102–3
and diversity of 174
exogenous 173
formation of:
memory‐based model 103
on‐line model 103
and motivated reasoning 136–7
and ontology 82 n
other‐regarding 173
explanations of 182–3
outcome‐regarding 172
and Prisoners' Dilemma game 183–4
process‐regarding 172–3
and public business 52
and public goods game 179–81
and rational choice theory 90
self‐regarding 173
and labor market experiment 175, 176
and public goods game 179–80
and Ultimatum Game 177
social formation of 173
and strong reciprocity 173
labor market experiment 174–6
and Ultimatum Game 176–7
cross‐cultural study 177–9 see also interests; rational choice theory
primate cities 653
primordialism:
and fallacy of 675
and race, ethnicity and religion 363–4 see also ethnic identities; identity; race; religion
Prisoners' Dilemma game 183–4, 332
prisoners of war, and international legal norms 258–9
probability, and general laws 12 see also contingency; determinism; explanation
process tracing, and repetition in history 484
process‐regarding preferences 172–3
propensity analyses, and explanatory logic 13
property:
Proudhon on 6
rights 5–6
psychology 131–56
attention 557
authority, obedience to 140–1
authoritarian personality 147–8
“bystander effect” 141
definition of 132
(p. 859)
and field theory 133–4
folk psychology 21, 39–40
and fundamental attribution error 138–9
importance of 150–1
and individuals:
naive realism 137
perceptual biases 136–7
political awareness of 137–8
and personality traits:
contingent effects of 146–7
and political behavior 134, 135–6
and personhood concept 134
and person‐situation controversy 134–5
and situational influences on behavior 138
influences on identity 142–3
leadership 142
obedience and evil 139–41
situational/personal interaction and political behavior 144
authoritarianism and threat 147–8
formation of public opinion 144–6
public goods game, and preferences 179–81
public opinion:
and formation of 144–6
and impression formation 149, 150
and impression management 149, 150
and political awareness 137–8 see also ideas; political behavior; preferences
public reasons 51–2
public understanding of science 749–50
punctuated equilibrium 294
Putrajaya 527–8
puzzle‐solving, and explanation of social/political processes 20–2, 25
Quebec, and national memory 218
Quito 521
QWERTY keyboard 698
and contingency 462 see also path dependency
race:
cancellation of 362–3
and census categorization 628, 666–7, 668–9
and constructivist view of 363, 366–7
and democratic consolidation 370–2
and exclusion 367
instrumentalist view of 364
politics of 360–1
threat to democracy 361
and primordialist view of 363–4
social construction of 364
state creation of category 367, 368–9 see also ethnic identities; identity
racial segregation 287
and city planning 520–1
radical democratic projects, and local knowledge 583–8
RAND Corporation 731
rational choice theory 22, 231, 232, 770, 780–1
and agency 91
and assumptions of 172–3
and attractiveness of 172
and culture 320, 321
and economic voting 131–2
and explanation of social life 16–17
and homo economicus 158, 172
and individualism 90
and institutionalism 90
and philosophical presuppositions 38
rationality 159, 767–94
reactive sequences, and path dependency 455–6, 467–8
realism:
and international relations 13
naive realism 137
neo‐realism 92–3
(p. 860)
relational realism 11 see also constructivism; explanation; political ontology
reason:
and discourse 775
and philosophy of 36 see also explanation; logic; philosophy; rational choice theory
reciprocity, strong 173–6
recurrence, and repetition in history 476, 477, 480
reference group theory 237
reflex emotions 161–2
Reformation, and impact of Black Death 611–14
relational mechanisms 16
relational realism 11
religion:
and church/state separation 361
and constructivist view of 363, 366–7
and democratic consolidation 370–2
and discourse 775
and exclusion 367
and impact of Black Death:
Lutheran Reformation 611–14
witchcraft 609–10
and instrumentalist view of 364
Islamic fundamentalism 775
and immigration 642, 643
and politics of 360–1
threat to democracy 361
and primordialist view of 363–4
and privatization of 361–2
Roman Catholic Church, and impact of Black Death 608–9
Lutheran Reformation 611–14
witch‐finding 609–10
and sacred places 519, 536
and social construction of 364
and state creation of category 367, 368–9
religious space 522, 536
Renaissance, and rise of Florentine city‐state 603–8
repertoires, and claim‐making 426–8, 573
repetition, and history 472, 486–7
and analogies 472
and causal pattern vs fortuitous coincidence 480–1
and correlational approach 482–3
and explanation 472–3
and forms of:
recurrence 476, 477, 480
replication 476, 477, 480
reproduction 476, 477, 480–1
and generative process against correlations 485
disruptive events 485
robust mechanisms 485–6
and generative process with correlation 483–4
dynamic properties 484
process tracing 484
and history as context 474–5
and legitimate repetition vs false analogy 477
case demarcation 479–80
definitional variants 477–8
thick description 478–9
and skepticism about 476–7
and temporal dimensions of history 473–4
replication, and repetition in history 476, 477, 480
representation, politics of, and language 386–7 see also democracy; elections
repression, and destruction of illegal dwellings 564–5
reproduction, and repetition in history 476, 477, 480–1
Republican Party (USA) 289, 291
reputation, and motivation 158
resistance, and local knowledge 584–5
resource mobilization 189
responsibility:
philosophical approach to 36
of researchers 355
(p. 861) revisionist history 499
revolution:
American 622
French 622
Gene Revolution 754
Green Revolution 754
Industrial 454–5, 616, 695, 723
model of 120–1
in Paris (1848) 122
and spatial environment 569 see also contentious politics; war
right to life movement, and framing 193
rightness, and goodness 53
rights:
animal 197
civil rights 195, 196, 198, 287, 404, 571, 574–5
and context 6
creation and re‐creation of 4
and framing 190
gay rights 194, 195, 290–1
Human Rights Watch 737
land rights 4–5, 570
language rights 383, 672
to life 193
minority rights 362
property rights 5–6
voting rights 286–7
women's rights 198–9, 290 see also citizenship; morality
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 700
riots, and spatial dimensions of 569
risk:
as constructed phenomenon 750
and democratic response to 750–1
expert/lay disagreements 751
lay expertise 751
precautionary principle 750
public participation 750
and discourse 787–9
and narrative 788
and politics of 748–51
and risk society 693–4, 749
precautionary principle 700–1
risk assessment 699–700, 749
and technocratic approach to 749
public understanding of science 749–50
and technology 746, 759
robust mechanisms, and repetition in history 485–6
Roman Catholic Church, and impact of Black Death 608–9
Lutheran Reformation 611–14
witch‐finding 609–10
Roman Empire, and place politics 509
Romania, and land privatization 3–5
Roslin Institute 747
Ruanda‐Urundi, and League of Nations Mandates system 272
Rural Advancement Foundation International 753
Russian Federation, and census category construction 673–5
Rwanda 523
sacred places 519, 536
Salvation Army 431
Samoa:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
Santiago del Estero, and social upheaval 566
scale 548
and increasing irrelevance of 554
Scandinavia, and immigration 641
science:
and institutionalization of 245–6
National Academy of Sciences (USA) 691
(p. 862) scientific knowledge:
and benefit of novelty 68–9
and dogma 65
and knowledge‐seeking approaches 63–4
and logical positivism 61
criticism of 61–2
and naive inductivism 61, 63–4
and naturalized epistemology 62
and nature of 800
and paradigms 63, 64–5, 68, 444–5, 800
and social situatedness of 65
and sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) 684 see also epistemology; explanation; knowledge
Second World War, and scientists' involvement in 724
self‐interest:
and economic voting 131–2
and political behavior 131
self‐regarding preferences 173
and labor market experiment 175, 176
and public goods game 179–80
self‐limited sovereignty, and immigration 640
self‐reproducing sequences, and path dependency 456, 465–7
Senegal 21
Seoul 521
September 11terrorist attacks 748
Serbia 293, 523
and national memory 218
Sévres, and meaning of 520
shared representations, and political culture 399–400
codes of politics 401–2
strategic framing 402–3
vocabularies of politics 400–1
Shining Path movement 351
Shiv Sena Party (India) 574
shoe bomber 748
Siena 604
signalling systems, and social movements 428–9
Sinclair Broadcasting Group 74
singularism:
and the people as mere aggregate 50
and the state and democracy 51
skepticism, and explanatory logic 12
slave trade 271
slavery, abolition of
anti‐slavery movement 431–2
Brazil 431, 432
France 432
Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade 431
social action:
and place 512–13
as politics 512
and space 567
social capital 328, 590
“bowling alone” 756 see also civil society
social class, see class
social constructivism 59
and norms of warfare 255–6 see also constructivism
social control 542
and Panopticon 746, 752
and technology 752–3 see also law; norms
Social Darwinism 523
social memory, see memory
social movements:
animal rights movement 197
anti‐globalization movement 754
anti‐nuclear movement 187–8, 195, 198
anti‐slavery movement 431–2
anti‐war movement 397
and Argentina 572
and Brazil Movement of Rural Landless Workers 570
and China 522, 536, 539–40, 543, 565–6, 571
(p. 863)
Chipko movement 570
civil rights movement 195, 196, 198, 404, 571, 574–5
and claims‐making 426–8
and collective identity 404–5
and democratization 425
and elections 430
and food protests 540
gay rights movement 194, 195
historical development and explanation of 425–33
and ideas 243–5
labor movement 195
and local knowledge 584–5
and mass media 201–2
Million Mom March 714–15
Nepal Movement for the Restoration of Democracy 571–2
and networks 199–200
and new institutionalism 196–7
and path dependency 425, 428
and rhetorics of the public good 400
right to life movement 193
and role of ideas 243–5
Shining Path movement 351
and signalling systems 428–9
and spatial environment 569
temperance movement 430–1
Western 543
women's movement 70–1, 196, 197, 198–9, 230, 242 see also social movements, and frames
social movements, and frames:
choice of:
institutional factors/conventions 196–7
organizational and political conditions 193–5
political/ideological traditions 195–6
features of effective 190
impact of:
coherence/incoherence of frames 200–1
credibility of 201
redefining authoritative knowledge 202–3
relationship with mobilizing networks 199–200
relationship with political opportunity 198–9
role of media 201–2
target's acceptance of frame 202
master frames 190
and political culture 402–3
social psychology, see psychology
social relations, and relational realism 11
Social Science Research Council (USA):
Committee on Comparative Politics 801–2
and state formation study 417–20
social sciences:
and data criticism 445–6
and data mining 440
and making sense of situations 493–5
and quantitative approach 449
and scientific paradigm of knowledge 444–5
and selection of material 443, 444
and Social Science Research Council (USA), 417–20, 801–2
social systems, theory of, and Parsons 231–2, 234–5
social theory, and ideas 231–2
social thought, and role of ideas 232–6
society, and philosophy of 37
Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade 431
sociology:
action theory 512–13, 567
constructivism 59, 255–6
cultural 392–3
and ideas 232–6
(p. 864)
interpretive 323
and motives 158
and philosophy 37
pragmatic 392–3
reference group theory 237
of scientific knowledge 684
social capital 328, 590, 756
social control 542, 746, 752
social relations, and relational realism 11
Strong Program 59
structure and agency 85–7, 88, 90–2, 512
sociotechnical networks 734–5
and weapons innovation 736–7
solidarism:
and the people as corporate body 48–9
and the state and democracy 51
solidarity, social:
and affective allegiances 163
and constrained relativism 328–30
and culture 324–5
and “demokaraasi” in Senegal 21
and Hindu philosophy 328
and new institutionalist framing 328
and status to contract transition 326–8
Somaliland, and United Nations trusteeship system 274
South Africa 274, 276
and census classifications 628
South West Africa 274
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and United Nations transitional administration 276
South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) 276
sovereignty:
and immigration 640
and trusteeship 281, 282 see also international law; nationalism; state
Soviet Union:
and census category construction 673–4
and nuclear war planning 301, 302
space 547–8
and collective action 567, 568–9
and contentious politics 567–70, 575–6
built environment as obstacle/facilitator 571–2
as depository of social relations 570
spatial routines 573–4
symbolic spaces 574–5
and generation of affect 557
and language of territory 553–6
and local knowledge 587–8
and nature of 549–52
and political theory 559
and social phenomena 567 see also place
Spain 432
and electoral geography 515
and immigration 638
speed, and politics 556
squatters, and demolition of homes 564–5
St Petersburg 526
stabilization, and social construction of technology (SCOT) 685
Stalingrad 523
standardization, and technology 746–7, 759
and politics of 755–7
standpoint theory 70–1
Stanford Prison Experiment 140–1
state, the:
and creation of social categories 367, 368–9
and democracy 51–2
and linguistic nationalism 377–81
and singularism 51
and solidarism 51
state consolidation, and urbanization 650, 656
state formation:
and SSRC study of 417–20
(p. 865)
and supposed crises of 418
state transformation:
and historical explanation of 420–3
processes of:
civilian control of armed forces 423–4
extraction‐resistance‐settlement cycle 423
Statistical Society of Paris 666
statistics:
and faith in 666 see also censuses
status, and emotion 166
Stockholm 526
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 256–7, 731
stories, explanatory 17–19
and credibility of 201
and discourse theory 773
and history 442–3, 450 see also narratives
Strategic Arms Limitation Agreements 730
Strategic Defense Initiative 687
Strong Program sociology 59
strong reciprocity 173
and labor market 174–6
structuration theory 88
structure:
and structure‐agency relationship 85–7, 90–2
and place 512 see also agency; political ontology
student protests:
Beijing 565–6, 571
and framing 200, 201
subaltern 122–3, 584–6
subjectivity, and discourse 780
supply and demand, law of 121
surveillance 553
Sweden:
and center‐periphery differences 515
and immigration 642, 643–4
Swiss Confederation 421
Syria, and League of Nations Mandates system 272
systems
failure 297–8
systemic analyses, and explanatory logic 13
theories 770–1
voting 660
world 524
Tanganyika:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
technocracy 690
technofeminism 709
and gender politics of design 711–13
technology:
as activities 682
as artefacts 682
and co‐evolution with society 733–4
and conceptions of 682–3
constructivist view 684–5
standard view 683–4
as contested space 758
and democratization 695
and design 746, 759
politics of 752–5
and digital democracy 686, 696–7
and ethical constraint 747, 759
politics of 757–8
and experts 683, 747, 749, 751, 757–8, 759
and gender 690, 708–9, 717–19
cyberfeminism 715–17
cyberspace 713–15
educational biases 710
impact on design 711–13
male technological culture 709–10
sexual divisions in labor market 710–11
as knowledge 682
and meaning of:
fears of 745–6
liberating nature of 745
(p. 866)
and military technology 686–7
and nuclear power 687–8
and political machines 553–4
and politics 686, 688, 701–2, 718, 759
industrial democracy 692–3
as knowledge and expertise 690
large technical projects 692
modernization theories 694–5
precautionary principle 700–1
public participation 691–2
risk assessment 699–700
risk society 693–4
as scientific advice 690–1
shaping means of political debate 696–7
shaping of political world 695–6
as system of modern democracy 689–90
technocracy 690
technology assessment 697–9
technology policy 699
technopolitical regimes 695–6
and power 708
and risk 746, 759
politics of 748–51
and significance of 681–2
and social construction of technology (SCOT) 684–5
closure 685
stabilization 685
technological frames 685, 696
and social shaping of 684
and sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) 684
and standardization 746–7, 759
politics of 755–7
and technological determinism 683–4, 707
Technology Assessment Act (USA, 1972) 697–8
technopolitical regimes 695–6
telephones, and technological subversion 713
telescopes, and Galileo 446–7
television:
and coverage of Howard Dean 490–2, 501–2
and political culture 396–7 see also communication; mass media
temperance movement 430–1
Tenochtitlán 510
territory, and language of 552–6 see also place; space
terror, war against, and prisoners of war 258–9
terrorism 748, 776
testimony 66
and credulity 67–8 see also epistemology; narrative
Texas, and political memory 218
theory:
and comparative method 121–4
and explanation by model 117–21
and fact 114–17, 125
and falsification 115–16
and field disciplines 549–50
and geography 550
of the middle range 25 see also explanation
thick description 323, 804
and Geertz 22, 345, 346
and repetition in history 478–9 see also anthropology; culture; explanation
think tanks, and military technology 731
threat, conditions of:
and authoritarianism 147–8
and emotion 166–7
Three Mile Island nuclear accident 187, 188, 699
time 547–8
and language of territory 553–6
and nature of 549–52
and political theory 559
Togo 654–5
(p. 867) Togoland:
and League of Nations Mandates system 272, 273
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
tourism 519
transitional administration:
and shortcomings of 279–80
and United Nations 275–8, 279
Transjordan, and League of Nations Mandates system 272
transnational institutions:
and immigration 639
and resistance to 754
tribalism, and model of 119
trust 66
and place 513–14
trusteeship, international:
as benevolent administration 269
and calls for return of 278–9
and colonialism 269–70
nineteenth‐century Africa 270–1
and decolonization 270
and development of idea of 270
and emotional legacy of 279, 280, 281
and evolution of discourse of 280–1
and League of Nations Mandates system 271–3
as paradoxical institution 281
and sovereignty 281, 282
and transitional administration:
shortcomings of 279–80
United Nations 275–8, 279
and United Nations trusteeship system 273–5, 281 see also international law; international relations
truth:
and ideas 247–8 see also bias; epistemology; objectivity
Tuscany, and rise of Florentine city‐state 603–8
Uganda, and Bujagali falls dam 590–1
Ultimatum Game:
and fairness 166, 176–7
cross‐cultural study 177–9 see also game theory
understanding, and events 496–7 see also events; explanation; interpretation
unintended consequences 22
Union for Concerned Scientists 188
United Kingdom:
and center‐periphery differences 515
England, and national memory 218
and immigration 640, 641, 642, 644
and nuclear weapons 728
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
United Nations:
Declaration on Non‐Self‐Governing Territories 273–4, 275
Framework Convention on Climate Change 336
and transitional administration 275–8, 279
shortcomings of 279–80
and trusteeship system 273–5, 281
United States:
and capital city 518
and censuses 666
American Indians 670
“mulatto” as a census category 628, 669
race/ethnicity classification 628, 666, 668–9
and cities 514
and city locations 526–7
and counterfeit consensus 71
and demonstrations 566–7
and electoral geography 515
and ethnic and racial minorities 361
and immigration 638, 642
and inequality 286
and Iraq war: (p. 868)
censorship 74
justification of 72
limited controversy over 72–3
and Iraqi Coalition Provisional Authority 277
and Middle East studies in 75
and political discourse 779
and politics of, controlling for context 23–4
and United Nations trusteeship system 274
universities, and military research and development 726
urbanization 649
and state consolidation 650, 656
and urban population growth:
developing countries 651–3
megacities 652
relative decline of primate cities 653
and voting systems 660
challenge of 660–1
control of capital city 654–5
democratization 658–60
political parties 659
political implications of 649–50
potential inter‐city conflict 656–8 see also capital cities; cities
urges 160–1 see also emotions; psychology; will
utility:
and decision theory 39–40
and rational choice theory 90 see also preferences; rational choice theory
values 52–5
and culture 324
and philosophy of 37
and philosophy of politics 52–5
and social analysis 234 see also morality; motives; norms
ventriloquation 389
Versailles, Treaty of (1919) 271
Vichy, and meaning of 520
video games, and gender politics of design 712–13
Vietnam Memorial Wall 215, 404
Vietnam War, and anti‐war movement 397
violence:
and anthropological approaches to 355–6
and discourse 776–7 see also contentious politics; revolution; war
Vlaicu (Romania) 3–5, 25
voting:
economic voting 131–2
place and 552
systems, and urbanization 660
Voting Rights Act (USA, 1965) 287 see also democracy; elections; public opinion
war
anti‐war movement 397
Franco‐Prussian War 9
and international legal norms 255–6, 258
anti‐personnel (AP) landmines 261–3
chemical weapons 256–7
prisoners of war 258–9
Iraq war 72–4
Irish Land War 404
law of 255–7, 258
Pavia, Battle of (1525) 614
and place 523
Vietnam War 397
Waterloo 519
World War I 257
Washington DC 518, 526
Watergate 401
Waterloo, and meaning of 519
Westphalia, treaties of (1648) 421
will 102–6
and choice 98
(p. 869)
and conceptual problems with 102
and preferences 102–3 see also choice; mind; preference
wired home 712
wishful thinking 247
witchcraft, and impact of Black Death 609–10
women:
and technology 717–18
and cyberfeminism 715–17
and cyberspace 713–15
and education under‐representation 710
and gender politics of design 711–13
and sexual divisions in labor market 710–11
women's movement:
and framing 70–1, 196, 197
and role of ideas 230, 242, 290
women's suffrage mobilization, and framing 198–9 see also gender
working class, and formation of 369–70
World Bank 336, 754
as “Knowledge Bank” 580
and local knowledge 579, 590
and participatory poverty assessments 591–2 see also globalization
world system analysis 524
World Trade Center terrorist attacks 748
World Trade Organization 754
Worms, Diet of (1521) 611
Yugoslavia, and ethnic divisions 361
Zaire 655
Zionism 293
zoon politikon 173