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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 929) Subject Index

(p. 929) Subject Index

abortion 701
accountability:
and challenge of 794
and parliamentary systems 834
and personalization of politics 580
and political institutions 836–8
and representation 836
activism gap, and gender 724, 738–9, 788–9
and cross‐national comparisons 729
and electoral reform 738
and explanations of 739, 788–9
cultural attitudes 733–5
demand‐side factors 730, 731, 735–8, 739
feminist approaches 731–2
gendered institutions 736–8
mainstream approaches 731, 732–3
methodological tools 732
mobilizing agencies 735–6
resources 733–4
sex‐role socialization 730–1, 733–5
socialization 733–5
supply‐side factors 730, 731, 733–5, 739
transformationalist approaches 731–3
and number of women politicians 729–30
and organizational membership 729
and persistence of 727–8
and positive action strategies 738
and post‐industrial societies 728, 729
and postmaterial value change 734 see also gender
adolescents:
and formative socialization 192, 224–5
and political socialization
changing world order 32–3
community service 31–2
cross‐national studies 37–8
family influence 38–9
immigrants 39–40, 150
renewed interest in 33–5
school curriculum 31
voluntary associations 31
within‐country studies 35–6
advertising, political:
and election campaigns 755–6
and emotional manipulation 84–5
and political communication research 130
advocacy democracy 794
affect:
and affective intelligence 83–4
and biased information processing 87–8
and definition 81
and political choice 81–2 see also emotion
Africa:
and cleavages in 548
and colonial legacies 512
and democratization 263
breadth and depth of 264, 265
and internet access 772
and political elites 825
Afrobarometer 4, 885–6, 901
and democratization 270
institutional supply 276–8
support for democracy 271–5
and political culture 8 see also research resources
age:
and political party membership 642
and protest politics 716
and turnout 630
agency, and social movements 702–3
agenda setting:
and mass belief systems 446
and news coverage 128
and political communication 131–2, 153–4
(p. 930) aggregation of individual attitudes, and political culture 173–4
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (USA) 376
Algeria 34
and elections 263
and left–right classification 209
alienation:
and ethnic electoral engagement 508
and modernization 5
Al‐Jazeera 134
Allgemeine Bevölkerungsumfrage der Sozialwissenschaften (ALLBUS) 877, 902
ambivalence, and public opinion surveys 385
American National Election Studies 590
American National Science Foundation 893
American Revolution:
and citizenship 404
and religion 483
Amnesty International 717
amoral familism 689–90
Andean Pact 246
Anglican Church 484
anomie 696
anti‐globalization protest 717 see also protest politics
anxiety, and affective intelligence 83, 84
Arab Human Development Report 2002 496–7
archives, and research resources 889–92
Archivo de Estudios Sociales (ARCES) 891
Argentina:
and class voting 546
and democratization 262
and political party membership 639
and political socialization 32
Asia:
and civil society 686
and class voting 469–70
and cleavages in 547–8
and democratization 262–3
breadth and depth of 264
and election campaigns 750, 752
and internet access 772
and political culture 7–8, 161
and political party membership 639
and regional identity 245–6
and social capital 248
Asia Barometer 4, 886, 901
and regional identity 245
and religiosity 243–4
and social capital 248 see also research resources
Attac 717
attitudes, political:
and biased information processing 86–91, 151
and civic community 172
and genetics 94
and media 125
and path dependence 285
and persistence among generations 286
and political culture 162–3, 165–6
aggregation problem 173–4
and public's political abilities 812
belief systems 46
contradictions in literature 56–61
conventional view of 45, 46–8, 125
downbeat revision of 49–50, 56
foreign policy preferences 54
ideology 54
inaccurate beliefs 49
informed citizenry 52–3
issue instability 48
preference (in)stability 48, 51–2, 124
really downbeat revision of 51–2, 56
Receive‐Accept Sample model 51
resistance to change 49–50
revised views of 46, 55–6
true beliefs/attitudes 53–4, 148–50
understanding left‐right ideology 47–8, 55, 154–5, 442
upbeat revision of 52–5, 56
updating of beliefs 53, 54, 450–1
and socialization 179–80
Australia:
and class voting 460
and compulsory voting 625
and elite network studies 923
and liberal values 249
and personalization of politics 574–5
and regional identity 246
and representation 839–40
(p. 931) Australian Social Science Data Archive (ASSDA) 891
Austria:
and immigration policy 513
and political elites 825
and political party membership 637
and turnout 626, 627
authoritarian personality 189
authoritarianism:
and closed belief systems 189
and modernization 188
and social capital 665
autonomy:
and citizenship 409, 410, 412–13, 414
and liberty aspirations 197–8
and value change 314
Bangladesh, and democratization 263
Bayesian learning:
and belief updating 450–1
and information processing 89–91
behavioral economics:
and political choice 438–9
and premises of 439
behavioral revolution 590
Beijing:
and elite beliefs 74
and political participation 16
Belarus, and cleavages in 544
Belgium:
and citizenship 412
and class voting 466
and economic voting 529
and left–right classification 209
and religion 497
and representation 841
belief systems:
and open‐ and closed‐ 189
and threat perceptions 189–90
Benin, and democratization 263
Berlin:
and political socialization 34
and protest politics 715, 789
bias, and information processing 86–91
bicameralism, and turnout 626
blogging 123, 153
Bolivia 246
and class voting 546
and democratization 262
Bosnia and Herzegovina, and political socialization 32
bounded rationality, and behavioral economics 439
Brazil 246
and democratization 262
civil society 684
and race/ethnicity 515
Brezhnev doctrine 684
British Social Attitudes Survey (BSA) 877, 902 see also research resources
Bulgaria:
and class voting 469
and democratization 263
and political socialization 32
and representation 845
California, and tax revolt 371
Cambodia 245
campaigning, election 745–9, 758–60, 787
and aims of 744–5
and Americanization of 746
and Asia 752
and candidate‐centered 752
as central feature of democracies 744
and changes in 749
and characteristics of 759
and competitive pressures 751
and cross‐national convergence 746
and effectiveness of 753–7, 759
activation and reinforcement 753
advertising 755–6
balance 758
communication strategies 756
conversion 754
indirect persuasion 756
intensity 758
key events 754
late‐deciders 758
local campaigns 755
minimal effects model 753
negativism 757
political awareness 758
(p. 932)
political predispositions 758
preconditions of 757–8
priming 756
resources available 755
skepticism over 753
television 755
type of decision event 757–8
unintended effects 756–7
unpredictable effects 754
and electoral systems 750
and electorate 750
and hybridization 751
and importance of 744
and Latin America 751
and legal regulation of 750
and media systems 750
and modern campaigns 745–6
and party members 647–8
and party systems 750
and political culture 750
and political marketing 746
and political systems 750
and postmodern campaigning 746
and pre‐modern campaigns 745
and professionalization of 752
and Russia 751
and shopping model of 749–53
and Third World 752–3
and trust 787
and United States:
candidate‐centered 746, 747
grass roots activities 749
influence of 746
narrowcasting 748
negativism of 747
political marketing 747
priming 747
professionalization of 746
rationalization of 747
scientification of 746
shopping for techniques from 749–50
spending on 748–9
talkshow campaigning 748
targeting 747
televised debates 578–9, 748
use of media 747–8
and west Europe 752 see also personalization of politics
Canada:
and class voting 460
and liberal values 249
and political choice 450
and political party membership 647, 648
and representation 839
and turnout 629
candidate choice:
and evaluation factors 574–5
and political party members 649–50
and predictors of 82
and role of emotion 84
and spatial reasoning 447
candidate‐centered voting 11
Catholic Church 484
Center for the Study of Public Opinion (CESOP) 891
Center for the Study of Public Policy 883–4
central and eastern Europe:
and citizenship 412, 414
and civil society 676
and class voting 468–9
and cleavages in 543–5
and community formation 676
and democratization 263, 785
breadth and depth of 264–5
democratic consolidation 690
emergence of civil society 684–5
and election campaigns 751
and European integration 603–4
and personalization of politics 577, 584
and political culture 7, 161
and political party membership 639
and television 579
Central Archive for Empirical Social Research 889
Central Asia, and regional identity 245
Chad 512
Chicago Council on Foreign Relations 393
childhood, and political socialization 30
Chile 246
and class voting 470–1, 546
and cleavages in 545, 546
and democratization 262
civil society 684
(p. 933)
and protest politics 717
China 248
and civil society 686
and elite beliefs 73–4
and information technology 766
and political culture 8
and political elites 825
and political participation 16
and regional identity 245, 246
and trust 247
choice sets:
and choice overload 441
and political choice 438, 449
framing 442–3
number of alternatives 440–2
polarization of alternatives 442–4
political signaling 444–8
role of political parties 439–40
citizens:
and decision making 6, 9–10
and democratization 260
authentic support for 274–5
demand for 275–6, 278
experience of 276–8
involvement in 266–8
measurement of support for 269–70
nature of support for 269
normative support for 270–1
practical support for 271–3
support for democracy 268–70
and government 8–9
and liberal approaches to 405
and limited interest in politics 293
and political abilities of 4–6, 812
contradictions in literature 56–61
conventional view of 45, 125
downbeat revision of 49–50, 56
foreign policy preferences 54
ideology 54
informed citizenry 52–3
really downbeat revision of 51–2, 56
revised views of 46, 55–6
true beliefs/attitudes 53–4, 148–50
upbeat revision of 52–5, 56
updating of beliefs 53, 54, 450–1
and public policy 293–5 see also citizenship
citizenship 403–6
and citizenship capacity 113
and communitarian approach 406
and community membership 405
and conflicts of interest 405
and definition 402
changes in 415
and democracy 403–4, 406
and education 103
and engagement in public affairs 405, 406
and individual rights 404–5
and “monitorial citizen” 415–16
and networks 100–1
and norms of 402–3, 406–7, 415
autonomy 409, 410, 412–13, 414
citizens7#x0027; notions of a “good citizen” 407–9
focus group Wndings 407–9
importance of 403
international studies 409
obeying law 409, 410, 412–13, 414
participation 409, 410, 412–13, 414
political activity 410–11, 412–13, 414
preferred society 412
solidarity 409, 410, 412–13, 414
support for 409–15
voluntary associations 410
and ownership of the state 404–5
and renewed interest in 402
and republican approach 406
and revised model of 415
and rights and obligations 404, 406
and social democratic approach 405–6
and state power 405 see also citizens
Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy project (CID) 409–14
Citizenship Survey 2003 (UK) 414
civic culture:
and democracy 305
and individual modernity 186–7
and modernity and tradition 187
and variety of 9 see also civil society; culture; political culture
civil liberties, and tolerance 336
(p. 934) civil rights, and citizenship 405
civil society:
and concept of 677–80
complexity of 172
diversity of approaches 677
emergence of civil society 679–80
levels of 680
neglect of 675
re‐emergence of 785
sources of difference over 677
statehood 678
state‐society relations 679
and definition 677
and democracy 675–6
quality of 176
and democratization 266–8, 676, 679–80, 785
Asia 686
central and eastern Europe 684–5
democratic consolidation 690
emergence of civil society 683
post‐autocratic citizens 686–7
and functions of 680–2
articulative function 681
control function 681
control of state power 681
educational function 682
formation of public sphere 681
integrative function 682
mediating role 681–2
protection from state arbitrariness 681
socialization 681
and historical thought on 676
and institutional performance 170
and nationhood 678, 688
and political attitudes 172
and political culture 169–72
impact on quality of 689–90
and social capital 170–1
institutional performance 171
and voluntary associations 675
explanations of membership 687–8 see also citizens; citizenship
civilizations:
and clash of 241, 420
values 253–4
and culture clash 254–5, 308
and definition 241
and globalization and democracy 250–1
and happiness 252–3
and regional identities 244–6
and religiosity 243–4
and role of government 249–50
and social capital 247–9
bonding/bridging 248
trust 247–8
and world patterns of values 242–3
class:
and analysis of:
labor market cleavage 458–9
Lipset and Rokkan 458–9
Marxist conception 458
Weber's conception 458
and class schemas 461–2
and class voting 103, 152, 475–6, 613
comparative studies of 465–6, 474–5
cross‐national differences 460
decline in 234, 235, 236, 369, 464–6, 475–6
eastern Europe 468–9
economic prosperity 472, 475
economic transformation 471–2
employment patterns 472–3
France 466–7
future research on 476
Germany 467
income inequality 473, 474
Latin America 470–1, 546
left–right polarization 474
measurement of 462–3
new political issues 474
new politics 475
persistence of 464–5
political party strategies 475
religion 473, 474
Scandinavia 467–8
secularism 473–4, 475
service class 463–4
three generations of studies of 459–60
total class voting 460–1
unemployment 472, 475
union density 473, 474, 475
working class size 473, 475
and depoliticization of 617
(p. 935)
and electoral politics 10
and left–right classification 213, 219
and welfare state attitudes 368–70
cleavage 538, 613
and conceptual model of 539–40
difference 539
divide 539–40
full cleavage 540
and consequences of 552–3
democracy 552–3
impact on outcomes 553
and definition 539
and gender 725
and imprecision of term 538–9
and issue divides 541–2
and new contours of 541–2
advanced industrial democracies 542–3
Africa 548
Asia 547–8
Latin America 545–6
Middle East 546–7
patterns and trends in 548–50
post‐communist Europe 543–5
and new explanations for 550–2
causal mechanisms 550–1
elites 551–2
institutional factors 552
political agency 551
social divisions 551
structural accounts 551
and political difference 539, 541
and structural elements 541
and typologies of 541
clientelism, and voting 550
cognitive dissonance, and false consensus effect 108
collective action, and networks 114–15 see also protest politics; social movements
collective memory, and political socialization 35
collective representation, and opinion‐policy nexus 801–5
and policy congruence 804–5
and policy consistency 802–3
and policy covariation 803–4
collectivism:
and liberty 424
and value structures 191–2
Columbia, and left–right classification 209
communication, political 151–2
and agenda setting 131–2, 153–4
media 128
and cross‐national research 134
and digital divide 124, 137
and European Parliament elections 134–6
and framing 133–4, 154
and media 123–4, 136–7, 153
impact on attitudes 125
impact on public opinion 129
selective exposure 137
and networks 108–9
network heterogeneity 111–12, 153
spatially diffuse communication 116
and new technology 123–4
and news coverage:
access 127
impact of 128
internet 128
soft news 127–8
television news 126–7
use of visuals 129
and political communication research 130
and politicians and citizens 11
and priming 132–3, 154
and public opinion research 125
and referendums 128
and research methods:
experiments 130
internet 130
surveys 129
and research on 125–6
changing focus of 136–7 see also campaigning, election; networks
Communism, and collapse of 161, 307
communitarianism 316
and citizenship 406
and state–society relations 679
community:
and individualism 315–16
and specific trust 348
community service, and political socialization 31–2
comparative opinion surveys 906–7
and analysis of data 905–6
(p. 936)
and benefits of 898
and comparing individuals in context 290–2
and comparison of aggregate data 289–90
and country coverage, benefits of extensive 903–4
and impact of varied circumstances 897–8
and national context data 904–5
and overcoming problems with 900–3
international collaboration 902–3
limiting range of countries 900–1
organizational structure 901–2
regional surveys 901
standard survey practice 900
and problems with 898–900
measurement error 899
survey practices 899
and role of 897
and statistical inferences from 896–7
and usefulness of 896 see also research resources
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) 4, 613–14, 792–3, 878–9, 902 see also research resources
competence, and self‐esteem 187
compulsory voting, and turnout 625
conflict avoidance, and false consensus effect 108
conformity:
and authoritarianism 190
and intolerance 326–7, 336
congruence theory, and democratization 261–2, 278
constitutions, as bearers of political culture 180
constructionism, and protest politics 711
contexts:
and behavior 590–1, 593, 604–5
contingent effects 595–7, 605
and cross‐national research 295–7
and economic voting 528–9, 530–1, 598–600
and modeling structures and behavior 592–3
and networks 102
relationship between 105–6
self‐selection 107
and political opportunity structure 698
and protest politics 718
and socialization 35–6, 37–8, 150
contingent consent 372
cooperation:
and networks 115
and reciprocity 115
and trust 660
corruption:
and social capital 666, 667
and social distrust 354
Council of European Social Science Data Archives (CESSDA) 887, 891, 892
Counterculture, and cyber‐democracy 767
creative destruction 286–7
crisis, and intolerance 336
Croatia, and cleavages in 544
cross‐national surveys, see comparative opinion surveys; research resources
crowd behavior:
and protest politics 710
and social movements 695, 696
cultural change:
and individual modernity 186
and postmaterial value change 230–3
cultural congruence 9
cultural diversity:
and European integration 307–8
and religion 494–6
and social capital 669
culture:
and culture clash 254–5, 308
and European integration 307–8
and explanatory power of 306
and importance of 307
and multiculturalism 308
and renewed interest in 306–7
and social movements 700–2
and value structures 191–2 see also civic culture; political culture
cyber‐democracy:
and digital divide 124, 137, 771–2
between nations 772–4
within nations 774
and e‐government, advantages and dangers of 777–80
and participative democracy, hopes for 765, 769–70, 771
(p. 937)
and political uses of the internet 768, 769–70, 774–5
control over government use of 779
government exploitation of 777–8, 778–9
institutional arrangements for 779–80
limitations of 776
retrospective judgement of government 777
strengthening of executive 777
supplement to traditional methods 776
and roots of 767–70
Counterculture 767
early online communities 769
hopes for empowerment 769–70
identity 769
internet politics 768–9
New Left 767–8
and virtual communities 770–1
exclusionary nature of 771 see also internet
Czech Republic:
and class voting 469
and cleavages in 545
and Czech Right 208
and democratization 263
and political party membership 639
and political socialization 32
and representation 841, 845
and Right Block 208
data archives 889–92
decision‐making:
and biased information processing 86–91
and electoral choice 10
and elites 77
and motivation 49
and networks 113
and role of information 95–6
and voters 6, 9–10 see also political choice
deference, and shift away from 232
deindustrialization, and class voting 471–2
deinstitutionalization, and modernization 316
delegation, and representation 834–5, 836
deliberation, and networks 112
deliberative democracy 176
and conformity 336
and tolerance 334
democracy:
and adaptability of 793
and citizenship 403–4, 406
and civic community 169–72
institutional performance 170, 171
quality of democracy 172
social capital 170–1
and civic culture 305
and commitment to democratic values 167–9
cross‐national comparisons 167–9
measurement of 167
and conceptions of 422–4, 429–31
differences in support for 430–1
and dissatisfaction with 793–4
and economic theory of 100–1
and electoral choice 10
and equality 421–2
and expansion of 694
and freedom 421–2
and functional democracy 259–60
and globalization 250–1
and immigrants 791
and liberal democracy 424
and libertarianism 423
and liberty 421
and meaning of 421–2
and modernization 188
and open belief systems 189
and participation 791
and persistence of 177
transformation research 178–9
and political participation 13–15
and political tolerance 324–7
constraints on freedom 326–7
marketplace for ideas 325–6
political minorities 324–5
and power of leaders 823–4
and public's political abilities 5
and representation 833
and social capital 666
and socialism 423–4
and statehood 678
(p. 938)
and support for 271–5, 419–21, 431
and trust 356, 793
and typologies of 423
and voluntary associations 688 see also democratization
Democracy for America (DFA) 775
Democracy Survey Database 891
democratic deficit, and political value changes 318–19
democratic elitism 76–7, 150
and commitment to democratic values 66, 76
formerly non‐democratic regimes 70
post‐authoritarian context 73–4
and democratic character of elites 66, 76
formerly non‐democratic regimes 70
post‐authoritarian context 73–4
and guardianship of democracy 65, 76
elite behavior 72–3
impact of socialization 67–8
political tolerance 69–70
threat level 73
and non‐Western countries 73–4
and pillars of thesis:
consensus pillar 66, 67–8
constraint pillar 66
guardianship pillar 66, 67–8
mass–elite pillar 66
and political tolerance 68–73
divergence within elites 69–70
elite behavior 72–3
formerly non‐democratic regimes 70
mass–elite differences 68–9, 70–1, 323–4
threat level 73
and research techniques 76–7
and sources of elite beliefs 66, 67–8
self‐interest 67
socialization 67
strategic calculations 75–6
and structured democratic attitudes 66, 74, 76
and Western Europe 73
democratic personality:
and characteristics of 188–9
and individual modernity 187
and open‐mindedness 188–90
democratic values:
and commitment to 167–9
cross‐national comparisons 167–9
elite beliefs 66, 70, 73–4, 76
measurement of 167
political culture 165, 167–9, 179
and conceptions of democracy 422–4, 429–31
diffusion 430–1
institutional learning 430–1
and democratic governance 418
and equality 421–2
support for 426–9
and freedom 421–2
and legitimacy 418–19, 432
and liberty 421, 422
support for 424–6
and meaning of democracy 421–2
and popular sovereignty 422, 423
and rule of law 422, 423
and state intervention 428–9
support for 429
and support for 271–5, 419–21, 431
and tolerance 333
democratization 9, 240, 278–9
and breadth and depth of 264–5
regional classification 265
and citizens:
attitude of 260
authentic support from 274–5
demands from 275–6, 278
experience of 276–8
involvement in 266–8
measurement of support 269–70
nature of support 269
normative support from 270–1
practical support from 271–3
role of 260
support for democracy 268
and civil society 266–8, 676, 679–80, 785
Asia 686
central and eastern Europe 684–5
democratic consolidation 690
emergence of 683
Latin America 684
post‐autocratic citizens 686–7
southern Europe 684
(p. 939)
and congruence theory 261–2, 278
and elites 683
and failures of 266
and functional democracy 259–60
and institutional supply of 276–8
and nature of 694
and notion of 260–2
dynamic process 261–2
incomplete democracies 261
meaning of 260–1
multifaceted phenomenon 261
multi‐level phenomenon 261
process of 261
stages of 261
and phases of 261, 682–3
and political behavior 4
and political culture 7, 162, 268
support for democracy 268–70
and processes of 682
and research opportunities 18
and spread of 792
and third wave 4, 259, 262
diffusion of 262–3
trends 265–6
Denmark:
and class voting 466, 467–8
and economic voting 529
and elite research 916–17
and immigration policy 513
and party identiWcation 559, 564
and political party membership 637, 648, 650
and religion 499
and representation 839, 841
dependency, and social capital 689
deprivation:
and protest politics 710
and social movements 696
deservingness, and welfare state attitudes 373
dictatorships:
and political elites 828
and power of leaders 823
difference, and cleavage 539, 541
diffusion, and democratic values 430–1
digital divide 124, 137, 771–2, 790
between nations 772–4
within nations 774
direct action, see protest politics
direct democracy 776, 777, 790, 794
disagreement:
and consequences of 109–10, 111–12
and networks 108–9
and persistence of 110–11
discourse, and social movements 700–2
disengagement, and modernization 5
distributive justice, and welfare state attitudes 373–4
divides, see cleavage; issue divides
dual utility function 372
dyadic representation 836
and opinion‐policy nexus 800–1
dynamic representation, and opinion‐policy nexus 804–5
East Asia Barometer 4, 886–7, 901
and democratization 270, 271
institutional supply 276–8
support for democracy 271–5 see also research resources
eastern Europe, see central and eastern Europe
ecological fallacies 284
and interdependence 102–3
Economic and Social Research Council 891
economic development 240
and postmaterial value change 233–4
and quality of life issues 315
and trust 659–60
and voluntary associations 687–8
economic security:
and class voting 472, 475
and liberty aspirations 195–6
economic voting 518–20, 530–2, 612
and cross‐national studies 527–9
and economic context 531
and factors affecting 531
and France 525–7
and future research on 531–2
and globalization 529, 531
and pocketbook voting 519
France 526
United Kingdom 525
United States 521
and political context 528–9, 530–1, 598–600
(p. 940)
and process of 530
and prospective voting 519, 531
France 526, 527
United Kingdom 525
United States 522
and Real Disposable Income 522
and retrospective voting 519, 531
France 526, 527
United Kingdom 524, 525
United States 521, 522
and reward–punishment hypothesis 518, 520, 523, 530, 600
credible alternatives 599
robustness of theory 530
and selection of studies 520–1
and sociotropic voting 519, 530
France 526, 527
political/institutional context 529
United Kingdom 524, 525
United States 521, 523
and strength of effects 530
and United Kingdom 523–5
and United States 521–3
economics, and limited explanatory power of 307
Ecuador, and democratization 262
education:
and citizenship 103
and elite beliefs 67–8
and intolerance 333–4
and mass belief systems 154, 155
and national context 296
and political interest 631–2
and political party membership 642, 643
and political socialization 31, 179–80
and protest politics 715
and religion 489
and tolerance 425, 426
and turnout 630–1
and value change 314
egocentric networks, and network analysis 104, 115, 116
e‐government 790–1
and advantages and dangers of 777–80 see also cyber‐democracy; internet
Egypt:
and elections 263
and internet access 773
elections:
and agenda setting 131
and central role of 792
and expansion of democratic 621
and media coverage of European elections 134–6
and public policy 799–800
and representation 833
and research resources 887–9
and studies of 792
comparative 792–3
and television news 126–7
and winners and losers 602 see also campaigning, election; turnout; voting
electoral choice:
and changes in 10–11
and emerging democracies 12–13
and left–right classiWcation 219
electoral politics:
and changes in 10–11
and religion 481, 487, 491–3, 496–500, 501
impact of religious commitment 492–3 see also elections; turnout; voting
electoral reform:
and gender gap 738
and New Zealand 286
electoral studies, and expansion of 12
electoral systems:
and election campaigns 750
and opinion‐policy nexus 809
and personalization of politics 576–7
and representation 837, 839–40
and turnout 601, 625–6
and voting behavior 593, 600–1, 605–6
elite beliefs 76–7, 150
and benefits of 66
and claims of democratic elitism thesis:
consensus pillar 66, 67–8
constraint pillar 66
guardianship pillar 66, 67–8
mass–elite pillar 66
and commitment to democratic values 66, 76 (p. 941)
formerly non‐democratic regimes 70
post‐authoritarian context 73–4
and comparison with mass belief systems 65
and democratic character of elites 66, 76
formerly non‐democratic regimes 70
post‐authoritarian context 73–4
and guardianship of democracy 65, 76
elite behavior 72–3
impact of socialization 67–8
political tolerance 69–70
threat level 73
and ideological polarization 86
and non‐Western countries 73–4
and political tolerance 68–73
divergence within elites 69–70
elite behavior 72–3
formerly non‐democratic regimes 70
mass–elite differences 68–9, 70–1, 323–4
threat level 73
and research techniques 76–7
and sources of 66, 67–8
self‐interest 67
socialization 67
strategic calculations 75–6
and structured democratic attitudes 66, 74, 76
and theoretical debates on 820–1
and Western Europe 73 see also elite research; mass belief systems
elite research 910–11, 924–5
and data collection:
anonymity problems 922
methodological problems 921–2
national and comparative surveys 918–21
published data sources 916–18
and elite concept 910–11
and elite identiWcation 912–16
combined methods 915–16
decisional method 913, 915
positional method 913–14, 915
reality of methodological differences 914
reputational method 912–13, 915
and elite network studies 922–4
collective actor relations 924
elite structures 923–4
organizational state 924
problems with 923
and elite–mass dichotomy 911
and Welds of 911–12
access 912
elite careers 912
social background studies 911–12
values and attitudes 912
and power and influence 911 see also elite beliefs; elites, political
elites, political:
and characteristics of 821–2
internal differentiation 824–5
power of leaders 823–4
recruitment 825–6
relation with socioeconomic elite 824
renewal of 827
social composition 822–3
turnover rates 826–7
and cleavages 551–2
and concept of:
as battleground 818–19
usefulness of 830
and consensual system 829
and decision making 77
and democratization 266, 267, 683
and divisions within 828–9
and gender gap 729–30, 734
and ideological consistency 47
and relations with population 829–30
and relations within 829–30
and research on 818
distinctiveness of political elites 819
elite/mass dichotomy 819
empirical/theoretical balance 818–19
gaps in 819
western bias of 819
and role of 827–8
difficulties in assessing 827–8 see also elite beliefs; elite research
emancipative values 201–2
and authority orientations 202–3
emerging democracies:
and electoral choice 12–13
and party identiWcation 565–6
and political participation 15–16
(p. 942)
and political socialization 32 see also democratization
emotion:
and distinction from attitudes 82
and political choice 81, 151
affect 81–2
affective intelligence 83–4
difficulties in assessing role in 85–6
manipulation 84–5
mood 82
survey method research 82–3
and social movements 702–3
English revolution (1688), and democracy 422
Enlightenment:
and happiness 252
and religion 482–3
enthusiasm, and affective intelligence 83
equality:
and democratic values 421–2, 426–9
and distributive justice 373
and freedom 362
and left–right classiWcation 213, 220
and public opinion 811
and social capital 666
and support for 426–9
and trust 355, 356
and welfare state attitudes 364, 365
equilibrium:
and disruptions to 286
and dynamic framework for 285–6
equity, and distributive justice 373
Estonia 499, 840
Ethiopia 512
ethnic conflict 317, 688
and social capital 659
ethnicity:
and academic research on 509–10
behavioral frameworks 512–13
institutional frameworks 512–13
and cleavages 549
and electoral engagement 505–9
alienation 508
France 508
immigrants 506
racial discrimination 507–8
turnout data 509
United Kingdom 506–8
United States 505, 506
voting behavior 511
and European politics 317, 319
and non‐Western contexts 514–15
and political behavior 504–5, 514
and political difference 504
and power relations 511–12
and trust and ethnic homogeneity 355
and voting behavior 504
and welfare state attitudes 377–8 see also race
Eurobarometer surveys 4, 881–2 see also research resources
European Commission:
and Eurobarometer surveys 4
and Spiritual and Cultural Dimension of Europe 307–8
European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) 784
European Election Studies (EES) 883 see also research resources
European integration:
and citizen support for 603–4
central and eastern Europe 603–4
impact of domestic institutions 603
impact of skill levels 604
and cultural diversity 307–8
and narrowing of political options 215
and political priming 581
and public mood 389–91
and regional identity 244, 245
European Parliament:
and media coverage of elections 134–6
and policy representation 843
European Quality of Life Survey (2003) 293 see also research resources
European Social Forum 717
European Social Survey (ESS) 4, 882–3
and citizenship 409–14
and left–right classiWcation 209
and protest politics 713
and survey practice 900 see also research resources
European Union 124
and comparing individual behavior 291
(p. 943)
and internet access 773
and public mood 389–91
and regional identity 245
European Value Systems Study Group 295
European Values Study (EVS) 4, 871
and cultural diversity 307
and equality 427–8 see also research resources
evolutionary approaches, and social movements 703–4
evolutionary psychology 94
expectations, and welfare state attitudes 373
experiments 19
and political communication research 130
and political psychology 92–3
exploitation, and social capital 689
expressive voting 178
extremist parties, and rise in support for 317
false consensus 108
family, and political socialization 38–9
fantasy sports 156
fear, and dictatorships 823
feedback effects:
and policy representation 856–7
model of 857–60
and welfare state attitudes 375–6
Finland:
and political party membership 637
and representation 839, 841
foreign policy:
and political priming 581
and public mood
European integration 389–91
US defense spending 386–9
and public opinion 54, 383–4, 398
coherence of 392–4
irrationality of 391
limited value of single question surveys 384–6
mood of 386
reactions of 394–5
stability of 392
support for military intervention 395–8
universality of patterns of 395, 396–7
formative socialization 192, 224–5
framing:
and political choice sets 442–3
and political communication 133–4, 154
and social movements 701
France:
and class voting 465, 466–7
and economic voting 525–7, 528, 529
and ethnic electoral engagement 508
and ideological understanding 154–5
and immigrants 701–2
and immigration policy 513
and political elites 825
and power of leader 823
and protest politics 713, 716–17
and representation 839, 840, 842, 843, 844
and secularism 483
and social movements 698
and trust 247
free rider problem:
and collective action 114
and social movements 697
freedom:
and democratic values 421–2
and democratization 266
and equality 362
Freedom House 240
and democratization 260, 264, 265
citizen involvement 266–7
freedom of the press 124
freeholder societies, and values 198
French Revolution:
and citizenship 404
and democracy 422
and left–right classiWcation 212
and religion 483
Gallup‐International 386, 879–80
and Millennium Survey 880
and religion 489
and Voice of the People Project 269–70, 880 see also research resources
gender:
and cleavage 725
and deWnition 725
and gender politics 727
and growth in gender studies 725–7
(p. 944)
and growth in studies of 725–7
and left–right classiWcation 212
and political attitudes 152, 155
and political behavior 725–7
and political party membership 642–3
and positive action strategies 738
and postmaterial value change 232, 236–7
and protest politics 716, 728
and sex 725
and social capital 732, 739
and social movements 732
and transnational advocacy networks 732
and turnout 728
and voluntary associations 732, 739 see also activism gap, and gender
General Social Survey (USA) 877, 902
and defense spending 386
and measurement of intolerance 327–8 see also research resources
genetics:
and political attitudes 94
and political socialization 40
German Marshall Fund of the United States 394
Germany:
and class voting 466, 467
and democratic values 430–1
and economic voting 527, 528, 529
and election campaigns 752
and elite network studies 923, 924
and elite research 916–17
and immigration policy 513
and party identiWcation 563
and political party membership 647, 648, 649–50
and political socialization 34
and political tolerance 70
and poverty policies 374
and protest politics 713, 715, 717, 789
and religion 492
and representation 839, 840, 841, 842, 843, 844
and social movements 698, 701
and television news 126–7
and trust 662
and voluntary associations 662
and welfare state attitudes 367, 369, 375
global justice movements 717 see also protest politics
globalization:
and anti‐globalization protest 717
and culture clash 255
and democracy 250–1
and economic development 240
and economic voting 529, 531
and impact of 616, 791–2
and scope of political options 215, 616
and value change 315, 318
government:
and increasing demands on 316–17
and the internet:
need for control over use of 779
potential exploitation of 777–8, 778–9
and outputs of 293–5
and religion 483–4
and responsibilities to voters 615
and role of:
left–right orientations 207, 312, 363–4
regional/civilizational differences 249–50
Greece:
and democratization 262
and left–right classiWcation 209
and religion 484
and representation 840
Green politics, and left–right classiWcation 208, 212
Greenpeace 708
groups, and role in modern politics 115–17 see also networks
Gulf War (1991), and support for military intervention 397
happiness:
and civilizations 252–3
and culture clash 255
and religiosity 252
history:
and the end of 240, 419
and political behavior 286–9
Hong Kong, and happiness 252
human development, and debates on 8
Human Rights Watch 717
(p. 945) humanitarian solidarity, and threats to 317
Hungary:
and class voting 469
and democratization 263
and political party membership 639
and political socialization 32
and representation 840, 841, 845
Iceland:
and representation 839, 841
and turnout 626, 627
ideas, and marketplace for 325–6
identity:
and deffinition 241
and European politics 317
and political culture 241
and regional identities 244–6
and welfare state attitudes 377–8
ideology:
and belief systems 46, 47–8, 54, 55, 145–7
ideological consistency 442
and decline in salience of 314–15
and ideology by proxy 444
and partisanship 54
and party identiWcation 86
and political attitudes 45
and political party membership 644–5
and understanding of left‐right 47–8, 55, 154–5, 442 see also left–right orientations
immigrants:
and challenge for democratic governance 791
and electoral engagement 506
and immigration policy 513
and political socialization 39–40, 150
and protest politics 716–17
and social movements 701–2
implementation 284
income inequality, and class voting 473, 474
indexing, and news coverage 133
India 248
and caste 616–17
and class voting 470
and cleavages in 548
and deviant case analysis 292
and happiness 252
and race/ethnicity 514
and regional identity 245, 246
and religion 500
individual modernity:
and characteristic attitudes/orientations 186
and civic culture 186–7
and cultural change 186
and deffinition 185
and democratic personality 187, 188–9
and focus of 185–6
and liberty aspirations 195
economic security 195–6
fluctuations in 199–200
freeholder societies 198
generational shifts 200
individual autonomy 197–8
inflation 199–200
oil‐exporting countries 198
and open‐mindedness:
personality strength 190–1
regime orientations 189–90
and personality changes 186
and regime type 186–8
and universality of psychological orientations 191–2
and values:
authority orientations 202–3
continued relevance of materialism 193–5
emancipative values 201–3
postmaterial value change 192–3
rational values 201–2
theories of value change 192–3
value structures 191–2
individualism 173
and community 315–16
and democracy 190
and equality 426–7
and liberty 424
and other value systems 792
and value structures 191–2
individualistic fallacies 284
and interdependence 103
and political culture 173
individualization 615
and humanitarian solidarity 317
(p. 946)
and value change 314, 318
Indonesia 245
and left–right classiWcation 209
Industrial Democracy 768
Indymedia 717
inequality:
and class voting 473, 474
and social capital 666
inflation, and value change 199–200, 227
information:
and affective intelligence 83
and biased processing of 86–91, 151
Bayesian learning 89–91
partisanship 86–8, 89
and eYcient collection of 100–1
and rational choice 95
and role of 95–6
and selective exposure 137
information technology:
and authoritarian regimes 766
and strengthening of executive 777 see also internet
infotainment 127
initiatives 6
institutional learning, and democratic values 430–1
institutions:
as bearers of political culture 180
and conWdence in 344
and deWnition 592
and economic voting 598–600
and European integration, impact on support for 603–4
and gendered practices 736–8
and issue congruence 843–5, 846
andmodeling structures and behavior 592–3
and party identiWcation 600
and political behavior 593, 604–5, 606
contingent effects 595–7, 605
and political choice 438
and renewed interest in 591
and representation 836–8, 839–40, 846
and social capital 664–7
and trust 351–2, 354–5, 357
and voting behavior 594–7, 616
contingent effects 595–7, 605
direct effects 594
indirect effects 594–5
legitimacy 601–2
multivariate analyses 597
vote choice 601–2
interdependence 100, 101
and consequences of ignoring 102–3
ecological fallacies 102–3
individualistic fallacies 103
interest groups, and welfare state attitudes 368
International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement 37
International Committee for Research into Elections and Representative Democracy (ICORE) 887
International Federation of Data Organizations (IFDO) 892
International Monetary Fund 717
International Political Science Association (IPSA) 29, 783
International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 4, 877–8, 902 see also research resources
internationalization, and impact of 791–2 see also globalization
internet:
and access to news 128
and authoritarian regimes 766
and commercial use of 778
and digital divide 124, 137, 771–2, 790
between nations 772–4
within nations 774
and dominance by established parties 765–6
and e‐government, advantages and dangers of 777–80
and electronic voting 776
and established news media 771
and government output 776
and government use of 766
and intra‐net politics 768, 769
and meetup.com 774–5
and participation, hopes for 765, 769–70, 771
and political communication 123, 153
and political communication research 130
(p. 947)
and political participation 766
and political uses of 768, 769–70, 774–5, 790–1
control over government use of 779
government exploitation of 777–8, 778–9
institutional arrangements for 779–80
limitations of 776
retrospective judgement of government 777
strengthening of executive 777
supplement to traditional methods 776
and politics affecting 768–9
and real world politics 770, 775–6
and social capital 774–5
and virtual communities 770–1
exclusionary nature of 771 see also cyber‐democracy
Inter‐University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) 889
intolerance 337
and change in 333–5
civic education 333–4
deliberation 334
research methods 335
sober second thought experiment 334
threat perceptions 333
and consequences of 335–6
political conformity 326–7, 336
public policy 335–6
and crisis 336
and deWnition 324
and McCarthy era 323–4, 425
and measurement of 327–9
breadth of intolerance 328–9
General Social Survey 327–8
least‐liked approach 328, 425
problems with 328
tolerance as a dichotomy 329
as obstacle to democratic consolidation 324
and origins of 331–3
beliefs about democracy 333
personality traits 332
predictors of 331–2
threat perceptions 332–3
and pluralistic intolerance 329–30
and political violence 324
and prejudice 330–1
and repressive legislation 325–6
and threat perceptions 331, 332–3 see also tolerance
Iran 497
Iraq war:
and public opinion surveys 384–5
and support for military intervention 397–8
Ireland:
and class voting 466
and economic voting 529
and liberal values 249
and political party membership 646, 648, 650
and religion 484, 497
and turnout 626
irrationality:
and protest politics 709–10
and social movements 695, 696
Islam, and secularization 496–7
Islamic fundamentalism 161
and secularism 483
Israel:
and cleavages in 546–7
and democracy 263
and election campaigns 750
and internet access 772
and political socialization 32–3, 37
and political tolerance 72–3
and religion 499
issue congruence, and policy representation 842–5, 846
issue divides:
and advanced industrial democracies 542–3
and Africa 548
and Asia 547–8
and cleavage 541–2
and Latin America 545–6
and Middle East 546–7
and patterns and trends in 548–50
and post‐communist Europe 543–5 see also cleavage
issue voting 11
(p. 948) Italy:
and civic community 170
and class voting 466
and economic voting 527–8, 529
and immigration policy 513
and protest politics 717
and religion 497
and representation 839, 840, 841, 842
Japan 248
and class voting 469–70
and cleavages in 547
and conservative values 249
and election campaigns 750
and elite network studies 924
and happiness 252
and internet access 773
and regional identity 245, 246
and religion 499–500
and social capital 248
and trust 247
and turnout 629
and voluntary associations 662, 687
Jordan:
and elections 263
and left–right classiWcation 209
Korea 248
and civil society 686
and cleavages in 547
Kuwait:
and elections 263
and internet access 772
and women 730
labor market, and class cleavage 458–9
Latin America:
and civil society 676
and class voting 470–1, 546
and cleavages in 545–6
and democratization 262
emergence of civil society 684
and economic voting 528
and election campaigns 751
and party identiWcation 566
and political party membership 639
and regional identity 246
Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP) 885 see also research resources
Latinobarometer 4, 884–5, 901
and democratization 270
institutional supply 276–8
support for democracy 271–5
and political culture 8
and regional identity 246 see also research resources
law obeying, and citizenship 409, 410, 412–13, 414
leadership, and political elites 823–4 see also personalization of politics
learning, and belief updating 450–1
Lebanon, and democracy 263
left–right orientations:
and blurring of distinctions 214–17
change in character of parties 216
convergence on consensual center 215–16
new ideological left 215, 219–20
party alignment in post‐Communist Europe 216–17
right‐wing populist parties 217
and class voting 461, 474
and electoral choice 219
and notion of:
development of 206–7
flexibility of 219
lack of realism 207
usefulness of 207, 208–9
and origins of distinction 212
and political parties:
attitudes towards 207–8
use of classiWcation 211
and political values 311–12
and referents of 211–14
class 213, 219
economic policy conflicts 213–14
(in)equality 213, 220
lack of common meaning 211–12
shifts in meaning 212–13
and researchers' use of term 209–11
and resilience of term 217–19
effectiveness of 218–19
lack of competing referents 217–18
(p. 949)
postmaterialism 218
and role of government 207, 312
and social/moral issues 311–12
and state economic intervention 207
and understanding of left–right
ideology 47–8, 55, 154–5, 442
and voters' self‐location 209
and welfare state attitudes 363–4
legitimacy:
and democratic values 418–19, 432
and institutions 601–2
and participation 793, 794
and political culture 165
and religion 482
and stability 419
liberal democracy 424
and political tolerance 324–7
liberalism 311
and citizenship 405
and state–society relations 679
libertarianism, and democracy 423
liberty:
and democratic values 424–6
and meaning of democracy 421
and support for 424–6
Libya 824
lifestyle issues, and postmaterial value change 236
Lithuania 840
Luddites 710
Luxembourg, and representation 840
Maastricht Treaty (1992) 389, 390
majoritarian systems:
and opinion‐policy nexus 809
and representation 835
Malaysia 245, 248
and information technology 766
Manifesto project 856
Marxism, and class 458
mass belief systems:
and education 154, 155
and evolution in modern electorates 154–7
and foreign policy preferences 54
and ideological consistency 442
and ideology 46, 54
understanding left–right distinctions 47–8, 55, 145–7, 442
and inaccurate beliefs 49
and informed citizenry 52–3
and issue instability 48
and policy agendas 446
and political attitudes 46
and preference (in)stability 48, 51–2, 124
and public's political abilities 812
contradictions in literature 56–61
conventional view of 45, 46–8, 125
downbeat revision of 49–50, 56
really downbeat revision of 51–2, 56
revised views of 46, 55–6
upbeat revision of 52–5, 56
and Receive‐Accept Sample model 51
and resistance to change 49–50
and true beliefs/attitudes 53–4, 148–50
and updating of beliefs 53, 54, 450–1 see also elite beliefs
mass psychology:
and protest politics 710
and social movements 695, 696
McCarthy era:
and legacy of 327
and political intolerance 425
and political tolerance 72, 323–4
media:
and agenda setting 128, 131–2, 153–4
and election campaigns 747–8, 750
and European Parliament elections 134–6
and framing 133–4, 154
and indexing 133
and infotainment 127
and news coverage:
access 127
impact of 128
impact on voters 582
internet 128
referenda 128
soft news 127–8
television news 126–7
use of visuals 129
and personalization of politics 572–3, 578–80
and political attitudes 125
and political communication 123–4, 136–7
and priming 132–3, 154, 580–2
(p. 950)
and protest politics 716
and public opinion, impact on 129
and selective exposure 137
meetup.com 774–5
Mercosur 246
Mexico:
and class voting 546
and democratization 262
and political party membership 639
middle class:
and class voting 463–4
and welfare state attitudes 368–9, 371 see also class
Middle East:
and cleavages in 546–7
and democratization 263, 265
and internet access 772
and political elites 825
military intervention, and public support for 395–8
minorities, and political tolerance:
and constraints on freedom 326–7
and marketplace for ideas 325–6 see also intolerance; tolerance
mobilization:
and activism gap 735–6
and media's impact on 134–6
and participation 632
and protest politics 710
and repression 699
and social movements 696–8
modernization 9
and authoritarianism 188
and community 315–16
and decline of values 308
and deinstitutionalization 316
and East Asia 161
and homogenizing effect of 291
and impact of 18
and open‐mindedness 187
and party identification 563–4, 612
and political behavior 4
and political culture 7
and political disengagement 5
and political outcomes of 283
and political value changes 313–16, 318, 319
and regime type 187–8
and religion 494–6, 500
Islam 496–7
secularization theory 485, 487–8
supply‐side theories 489–90, 494
and welfare state attitudes 367 see also individual modernity
Mongolia, and democratization 262
Monitoring the Future project 34
mood of public 386
and changes in 394–5
and coherence of 392–4
and European integration 389–91
and irrationality of 391
and political choice 82
and stability of 392
and US defense spending 386–9
moral economy 372
Morocco:
and elections 263
and left–right classification 209
motivation, and political attitudes 49–50
multiculturalism 308, 791
and European politics 319
multi‐level models 589–90
multi‐party systems:
and party identification 559, 560
and rational expectations 449
and turnout 601, 625–6, 627–8
and voting behavior 600–1
Myanmar 248
and happiness 252
NAFTA 246
name generators, and network analysis 105
nation state:
and civil society 678, 688
and continued relevance of 784
and reduced scope of 215, 616, 791–2
National Opinion Research Center (NORC) 877
nationalism:
and communism's downfall 688
and European politics 317, 319
and issue divides 544
and revival of 317
need, and distributive justice 373
(p. 951) neo‐institutionalism 165
Nepal, and democratization 263
Netherlands:
and citizenship 412, 414
and class voting 466
and economic voting 529
and immigration policy 513
and party identification 559, 564
and Pim Fortuyn List 217
and political elites 825
and political party membership 647, 648
and political socialization 34
and religion 499
and representation 840, 843, 844
and social movements 698
and trust 662
networks 152–3
and citizenship 100–1
and citizenship capacity 113
and collective action 114–15
and communication effectiveness 108–9
and conformity 336
and construction of 106–7
self‐selection 107
stochastic processes 106–7
and contexts 102
relationship between 105–6
self‐selection 107
and diffusion of political expertise 113–14
and disagreement 108–9
consequences of 109–10
and elite network studies 922–4
and false consensus effect 108
and interdependence 100, 101
consequences of ignoring 102–3
ecological fallacies 102–3
individualistic fallacies 103
and methodological approaches:
egocentric networks 104, 115, 116
name generators 105
relationship analysis 104
sample surveys 104
snowball surveys 105, 153
and political heterogeneity 109–10
consequences of 111–12
persistence of 110–11
political communication 111–12, 153
tolerance 112
and relationships 101
and role in modern politics 115–17
and social capital 657, 667–8
and social movements 697
and theoretical roots in political science 101–2
and voting behavior 612–13
New Baltic Barometer (NBB) 883–4 see also research resources
New Democracies Barometer (NDB) 245, 883–4 see also research resources
New Europe Barometer (NEB) 4, 245, 883–4
and citizen involvement in political decisions 293
and democratization 270, 271
institutional supply 276–8
support for democracy 271–5 see also research resources
new institutionalism, and feedback effects 375
New Left:
and class voting 461
and cyber‐democracy 767–8
new politics:
and class voting 474, 475
and new political values 313, 318
New Right, and class voting 461, 472
New Russia Barometer surveys:
and political socialization 36
and support for regime 287–9 see also research resources
New Zealand:
and electoral reform 286
and liberal values 249
and political party membership 637
and regional identity 246
news:
and agenda setting 128, 131–2
and election campaigns 747–8
and framing 133–4
and impact of 128
and indexing 133
and priming 132–3, 580–2
and soft news 127–8
and television news 126–7
(p. 952)
and use of visuals 129 see also media
Nicaragua, and class voting 546
Nigeria 512
non‐democracies, and political participation 16
Nordic countries:
and class voting 460, 466
and left–right classification 209
and representation 841
and social democratic values 249
Northern Ireland:
and deviant case analysis 292
and political socialization 32
Norway:
and class voting 467–8
and elections 622
and left–right classification 208, 212–13
and party identification 559
and political party membership 637, 646, 647, 648
and religion 499
and representation 839, 841
Norwegian Social Science Data Services (NSSD) 891
oil‐exporting countries, and values 198
oligarchy, and iron law of 820 see also elites, political
Oman, and women 730
open‐mindedness:
and democratic personality 188–90
and measurement of 189
and modernization 187
and personality strength 190–1
and regime orientations 189–90
and threat perceptions 189
Operation Black Vote 508
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 291
organizational state 924
Orthodox Church 484
overload theory, and welfare state attitudes 367
oversight, and representation 837–8
Pakistan:
and democratization 263
and left–right classification 209
Palestine 497
and elections 263
and political socialization 33
Palestinian Authority 263
parents, and political socialization 38–9
parliamentary systems:
and accountability 834
and opinion‐policy nexus 810
and personalization of politics 574–5, 576, 584
prime ministerial autonomy 576
and policy responsiveness 806
and political elites:
career background 825
power of leaders 823
recruitment 826
and political priming 581
and representation 834
participation 13–15
and citizenship 409, 410, 412–13, 414
and comparative research 793
and decline in electoral turnout 583
and democratic process 791
and education 103
and emerging democracies 15–16
and ethnic minorities 505–9
alienation 508
France 508
racial discrimination 507–8
turnout data 509
United Kingdom 506–8
United States 505, 506
and legitimacy 793, 794
and limited extent of 293, 693
and mobilization model 632
and network diversity 111
and new forms of 662–4, 794
and non‐democracies 16
and paradox of 14
and psychological engagement model 631–2
and public's political abilities 5
and rational choice theory 594, 632–3
and resource model 631
and strong democracy 794
(p. 953)
participatory democracy, and protest politics 720
partisanship:
and biased information processing 87–8, 89
Bayesian learning 89–91
and decline of 10
and difficulties in measuring 86–7
and ideology 54, 86
and political socialization 37
and trends in 86 see also party identification
party identification:
and approaches to concept 566–7
and changes in 560–2, 563
and cognitive mobilization 563, 564
and criticism of concept 559
and cross‐national variations 563–4
and debate over 557, 611–12
and emerging democracies 565–6
and impact of 562
and importance of 557
and increases in 563–4
and institutional features 600
and meaning of 558–60
alternative definitions 558–9
and measurement of 560
difficulties in 86–7
and modernization 563–4, 612
and origins of concept 557
and party polarization 563, 564
and persistence of 444
and political considerations 563
and rational choice theory 558, 559
and reference group theory 558
and social identity theory 558
and social psychology 558
and socialization 562–3, 582
and spatial reasoning 447
and stability/volatility 559–60
and trends in 86
as unchanging characteristic 562–3
criticism of notion 563
and updating of beliefs 451–2
and vote choice 86 see also partisanship
party systems:
and election campaigns 750
and political socialization 37
and turnout 627–8
path dependence, and political behavior 285
Peoples' Global Action 717
performance evaluations, and welfare state attitudes 366–7
personalism, and voting 550
personality strength, and openmindedness 190–1
personalization of politics 571
and accountability 580
and consequences of 584–5
and decline in electoral participation 583
and decline in party identification 582
and decline of mass parties 583
and institutional arrangements 571, 575–8
central and eastern Europe 577
electoral systems 576–7
leaders' autonomy 576
parliamentary systems 574–5, 576, 584
presidential systems 574, 575
terms of office 576
and leaders:
electoral appeal of 573–4
importance of 572, 583
media visibility of 572–3
voter evaluation of 574–5
and media 572
impact on voters 582
priming 580–2
television 578–80
and origins of 571
and political parties 580
and socialization 582 see also campaigning, election
Peru:
and class voting 546
and democratization 262
Pew Global Attitudes Project 269–70, 879
and religion 489 see also research resources
Philippines 245, 249
and civil society 676
and democratization 262
(p. 954) Pim Fortuyn List (LPF) 217
Plaza Accord 240
pluralistic intolerance 329–30
pocketbook voting 519
and cleavages 550
and France 526
and United Kingdom 525
and United States 521
Poland:
and civil society 676
emergence of 685
and class voting 469
and democratization 263
and political socialization 32
and representation 845
policy balancing, and political choice 448–9
policy representation 833, 850
and anticipatory model 851
and cross‐national 855–6
and cross‐sectional 852–3
and cross‐temporal 853–5
and distinctive districts 853
and feedback effects 856–7
and gyroscopic model 851
and impact of institutions 808–9
electoral systems 809
government responsiveness 810–11
and issue congruence 842–5, 846
and issue salience 807–8
and mechanics of 805–7
and models of process 853
and normative issues 851
and policy responsiveness 805–6
and preference movements 808
and promissory model 851
and public responsiveness 812–13
and responding to which public 811
and responsive members 853
and selective voters 853
and surrogate model 851
and systems of 856–7
model of 857–60 see also representation
Political Action Project 442, 793
and left–right classification 212 see also research resources
political change 9
political choice:
and behavioral economics 438–9
premises of 439
and biased information processing 86–91, 151
and choice sets 438, 439–40, 449
choice overload 441
framing 442–3
number of alternatives 440–2
polarization of alternatives 442–4
political signaling 444–8
and coherence of 439
alternatives offered 441–2
and consistency in 443–4
and explanations of 437
and external factors 438
and institutional theory of 437–8, 452–3
and internal processes of 438
and political parties:
choice sets 439–40
focusing of attention by 449–50
number of alternatives 440–2
polarization of alternatives 442–3
political signaling 444–8
updating of beliefs 451–2
and psychological explanations 437
and rational choice 437
and rational expectations 448–9
multi‐party systems 449
policy balancing model 448–9
status quo hypothesis 448
and role of emotion 81, 151
affect 81–2
affective intelligence 83–4
difficulties in assessing 85–6
manipulation of 84–5
mood 82
and role of information 95–6
political culture:
and applicability to non‐democratic regimes 179
and bearers of 179–80
and causality 175–7
attitudes 175
durability of democracies 175–6
persistence of democracy 177
political institutions 176
(p. 955)
quality of democracy 176–7
and citizen orientations to government 8–9
and civic community 169–72
institutional performance 170, 171
quality of democracy 172
social capital 170–1
and civil society 689–90
quality of 169–72
and commitment to democratic values 167–9
cross‐national comparisons 167–9
measurement of 167
and concept of 6–7, 305
core assumptions of 162–4, 179–80
and content of 164–6
commitment to democratic regime 165–6, 179
commitment to democratic values 165, 179
individual institutions 165
institutional structure 165
political attitudes 165–6
and criticism of concept 162, 177
evaluation standards 178
imprecision of 163
reference point for evaluation 177–8
and definition 164, 241, 268
and democratization 7, 162, 268
persistence of democracy 178–9
support for democracy 268–70
and election campaigns 750
and human development 8
and identity 241
and key dimensions of 241
and modernization 7
and political attitudes 162–3
and political behavior 174–5
and political structure 305–6
and political values 305
and postmaterial thesis 8
and problematic nature of 7
and problems with concept aggregation of individual attitudes 173–4
attitudes to be considered 174
definition of collectivity 174
and process culture 170
and regional studies 7–8
and revival of concept 161
reasons for 161–2
and satisfaction 241
and socialization 175
and system culture 164, 169
and trust 165, 241
political opportunity structure, and social movements 698–700, 702
political parties:
and accountability 838
and centrality of 636
as coordinating devices 447
and emerging democracies 12
and left–right classification:
change in character of parties 216
development of notion 206–7
parties attitudes towards 207–8
use of 211
and maneuvrability of party elites 448
as membership associations 636–9, 787–8
advent of mass parties 636–7
attracting members 652
continued importance of 651
decline in membership 637–41, 651, 788
emerging democracies 639
political stability 640–1
and party as brand name 445, 448
and personalization of politics 580, 583
and political choice:
choice sets 439–40
focusing of attention by 449–50
number of alternatives 440–2
polarization of alternatives 442–3
political signaling 444–8
updating of beliefs 451–2
and social capital 657
and weakening of partisan ties 10 see also party identification; party systems; political party members
political party members 787–8
and advent of mass membership parties 636–7
and attracting 652
and continued importance of 651
and decline in 637–41, 651, 788 (p. 956)
lack of interest in recruiting 640
lifestyle factors 640
and demographic characteristics 642–3
political consequences of 643
and emerging democracies 639
and political participation 645–6
activity levels 646
campaigning 647–8
candidate recruitment 649–50
between election activity 648–9
financial commitments 646–7
informal outreach 650
internal decision making 650–1
and political views of 644–5
and research interest in 636, 641–2
political process theory, and social movements 698–9, 700, 702
political rights, and citizenship 405
political science:
and common frames of reference 784
and democratic governance 783
and internationalization of 784
and longitudinal studies 784–5
and scope of academic research 783
political values 318–19
and critical/discontented citizens 316–17
and definition 309–10
and left–right classification 311–12
and modernization and changes in 313–16, 318, 319
and new political values 312–13, 318, 319
libertarian/authoritarian dimension 313
materialist‐postmaterialist dimension 313
new politics 313, 318
and old political values 311–12, 318, 319
and persistence of 310–11
and political culture 305 see also values
poor, and deserving/undeserving 373
popular sovereignty, and democratic values 422, 423
Portugal:
and democratization 262, 684
and left‐right classification 209
positive action policies:
and gender gap 738
and women candidates 826
post‐communist Europe:
and cleavage in 543–5
and election campaigns 751
and personalization of politics 577, 584 see also central and eastern Europe
postmaterial value change 8, 192–3, 223–4, 237–8
and changing political alignments 234–7
implications for 235–6
lifestyle issues 236
quality of life issues 234–5
self‐expression 235
and continued relevance of materialism 193–5
and controversies over 228–30
life‐cycle effects 228–9
one‐dimensional model 229
and cultural change 230–3
and demanding citizens 316–17
and emancipative values 201
authority orientations 202–3
and existential conditions 223–4
and existential security 224, 225
and gender equality 236–7
and intergenerational value change 237–8, 734
cohort analysis 226–8, 235
scarcity hypothesis 224, 225
socialization hypothesis 224, 225
socioeconomic development 233–4
surveys of 225–6
and liberty aspirations 195
economic security 195–6
fluctuations in 199–200
generational shifts 200
individual autonomy 197–8
inflation 199–200, 227
and other attitudes 232
and political values, changes in 313–16
and rational values 201–2, 230
and self‐expression values 230–2, 235
and socioeconomic development 233–4
and survival values 230
and traditional values 230
(p. 957) postmaterialism, and left–right classification 218
poverty:
and explanations of 375–6
and support for poverty policies 374
power mobilization hypothesis, and welfare state attitudes 368
power relations:
and race 511–12
and welfare state attitudes 376
predispositions, and political behavior 292
preferences:
and belief updating 450–1
and centrality of 307
and political behavior 292
and stability of 48
and welfare state attitudes 365–6 see also policy representation
prejudice, and intolerance 330–1
presidential systems:
and economic voting 599
and election campaigns 750
and opinion‐policy nexus 810
and personalization of politics 574, 575
presidential autonomy 576
term limits 576
and policy responsiveness 806
and political elites:
career background 825
power of leaders 823
recruitment 826
and political priming 581
and representation 834
and turnout 626
priming:
and election campaigns 747, 756
and political communication 132–3, 154
and television 580–2
privatization, and religion 487
procedural justice, and welfare state attitudes 373, 374
process culture, and political culture 170
proportional representation:
and opinion‐policy nexus 809
and representation 835
and turnout 601, 625–6
prospective voting 519, 531
and France 526, 527
and United Kingdom 525
and United States 522
protest politics 789–90
and changes in 719–20
and contextual factors 718
and Counterculture 767, 768
and definition 708
and determinants of 718
and diversity of 709
and impact of 718–19, 790, 793
and legitimacy of 720
and methodological approaches 711–13
case study approach 712
interviews 712
participant observation 711
protest event analysis 712
representative surveys 712
and New Left 767–8
and normalization of 720, 793
and protest actors 708
and role of audience for 709
and spread of:
age 716
education 715
forms of action 715–16
frequency 713
gender 716, 728
global justice movements 717
immigrants 716–17
issues 714
participation in 713–14
social groups involved in 715
territorial coverage 716–17
and theoretical perspectives on 709–11
constructionist theories 711
cultural approaches 711
diversity of 711
irrationality 709–10
rational choice theory 710–11
relative deprivation 710
resource mobilization 710
social movement theories 711
as triangular communication process 709 see also social movements
(p. 958) Protestantism:
and trust 355
and voluntary associations 688
psychological engagement, and participation 631–2
psychology, political 80–1, 151
and biased information processing 86–91, 151
Bayesian learning 89–91
partisanship 86–8, 89
and central concerns of 80
and emotion and political choice 81
affect 81–2
affective intelligence 83–4
difficulties in assessing 85–6
distinction from attitudes 82
mood 82
survey method research 82–3
and methodology:
bona fide pipeline (BFP) 93–4
criticisms of 92
evolutionary psychology 94
expansion of repertoire 92–3
experiments 92–3
implicit association test (IAT) 93–4
limitations of self‐reports/introspection 92
neuroscience 94
psycho‐physiological approaches 94–5
and role of information 95–6
public opinion:
and citizenship:
citizens' notions of a ‘good citizen’ 407–9
support for norms of 409–15
and diffusion of political expertise 113–14
and fluidity of 11
and impact of 16–17
and importance of 799
and media's impact on 129
public opinion surveys 283–4
and cross‐national 3–4, 297–8, 591
potential problems 614–15
and data quality and comparability 614
and expansion of 3–4, 297, 613–14
and internationalization of approach 591
and limited value of single question surveys 384–6
and mood of public 386
European integration 389–91
US defense spending 386–9
and policy responsiveness 807 see also comparative opinion surveys; research resources
public policy 293
and elections 799–800
and impact on citizens 293–5
and the internet 776
and intolerance 335–6
and political behavior 293–4
and welfare state attitudes 362 see also policy representation
public sector, and welfare state attitudes 371
public spending, and welfare state attitudes 364, 368
quality of life issues:
and economic development 315
and European Quality of Life Survey 293
and new political values 313
and postmaterial value change 234–5
Quatar, and women 730
race:
and academic research on 509–10
behavioral frameworks 512–13
institutional frameworks 512–13
as exclusionary variable 510–11
and immigration policy 513
and non‐Western contexts 514–15
and political behavior 504–5, 514
and political impact of 513
and power relations 511–12
and voting behavior 511 see also ethnicity
racial discrimination:
and ethnic electoral engagement 507–8
and rise of 317
rational choice theory 161
and criticism of 178
and dominance of 306
(p. 959)
and electoral choice 11
and generalized trust 349
and information 95
and limitations of 306
and party identiWcation 558, 559
and political choice 437, 438
and protest politics 710–11
and social movements 702
and turnout 594, 632–3
rational expectations, and political choice 448–9
and multi‐party systems 449
and policy balancing model 448–9
and status quo hypothesis 448
rational values 201–2
and authority orientations 202
and postmaterial value change 230
and world patterns of values 242–3
Real Disposable Income, and economic voting 522
reciprocity:
and cooperation 115
and social capital 170, 657, 658, 659, 689
reference group theory, and party identification 558
referenda 6
and media's coverage of 128
regional choice theory 250
regional identities 244–6
and culture clash 254
regulatory focus theory 200
relative deprivation:
and protest politics 710
and social movements 696
religion:
and class voting 473, 474
and cleavages 549
and cultural diversity 494–6
and culture clash 254
and denominational numbers 481
and electoral politics 10, 481, 487, 491–3, 496–500, 501
impact of religious commitment 492–3
and Enlightenment thought 482–3
and France 483
and government 483–4
and importance in people's lives 482
and influence of 482
and modernization 494–6, 500
and politics 490–3
impact of religious commitment 492–3
and satisfaction 252
and secularization theory 484–9, 500
ambiguity of “secular” 484–5
challenges to 487–8
criticisms of 486
decline in religious involvement 486
definition of secularization 485
differentiation of secular/religious society 486–7
education 489
Human Development Index 488–9
Islam 496–7
modernization 485, 487–8
privatization of religion 487
proponents of 485–6
revision of 488–9
variants of 486
and secularization/desecularization 493–4
geographical variations 493–4
and supply‐side theories 489–90, 494, 501
and trust 355
and United States 483
and values:
comparison across religions 243–4
multidimensional religiosity 244
and voluntary associations 688
representation:
and democracy 833
and elections 833
and focus of 838–40
district magnitude 840
political parties 839–40
role orientations 838–9, 846
and norms and models of 833–6
accountability 836
delegation 833–4, 836
diamond model 835–6
independent deputy conception 835
instructed delegate 835
majoritarian systems 835
parliamentary systems 834
presidential systems 834
proportional systems 835
(p. 960)
and political institutions 836–8, 846
electoral systems 837, 839–40
oversight 837–8
political parties 838
and representation gap 317
and responsiveness 833
and style of 840–2
independence 840–1
institutional inXuences 841–2
party representation 841, 842 see also policy representation
repression, and mobilization 699
republicanism:
and citizenship 406
and republican virtues 161
and state–society relations 679
research resources 865, 892–4
and archives 889–92
and cross‐national survey projects 866–71
and global surveys 871
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems 878–9
European Values Study 871
Gallup‐International 879–80
International Social Survey Program 877–8
Pew Global Attitudes Survey 879
United States Information Agency 880–1
World Values Surveys 871–7
and national election studies 887–9
and regional surveys 881
Afrobarometer 885–6
Asia Barometer 886
East Asia Barometer 886–7
Eurobarometers 881–2
European Election Studies 883
European Social Survey 882–3
Latin American Public Opinion Project 885
Latinobarometer 884–5
New Baltic Barometer 883–4
New Democracies Barometer 883–4
New Europe Barometer 883–4
resource mobilization:
and protest politics 710
and social movements 696–8
resources, and political activity 631
retrospective judgement, and government performance 777
retrospective voting 519, 531
and France 526, 527
and United Kingdom 524, 525
and United States 521, 522
rights, and citizenship 404–5
risk, and trust 348, 352
role orientations, and representation 838–9, 846
Romania, and democratization 263
Roper Center for Public Opinion Research 889–91
rule of law, and democratic values 422, 423
Russia:
and class voting 469
and election campaigns 751
and elite beliefs 73
and party identiWcation 565–6
and personalization of politics 577
and political elite 823
and political socialization 36
and representation 841
and support for regime 287–9
and television 579
and trust 247
sample surveys:
and electoral politics 104
satisfaction:
and definition 241
and political culture 241
and religiosity 252
Saudi Arabia:
and elites 824
and women 730
Scandinavia:
and class voting 467–8
and party identiWcation 559
and political party membership 637–8
(p. 961)
and religion 499, 501
and representation 839
and trust 667
and turnout 662
and voluntary associations 687
scarcity hypothesis, and intergenerational value change 224, 225
schools, and political socialization 31
secularism:
and class voting 473–4, 475
and Enlightenment thought 482–3
and France 483
and geographical variations 493–4
and Islam 496–7
and secularization theory 484–9, 500
ambiguity of “secular” 484–5
challenges to 487–8
criticisms of 486
decline in religious involvement 486
definition of secularization 485
differentiation of secular/religious society 486–7
education 489
Human Development Index 488–9
modernization 485, 487–8
privatization of religion 487
proponents of 485–6
revision of 488–9
variants of 486
and United States 483
and world patterns of values 242–3
security:
and postmaterial value change 224, 225
and welfare state attitudes 365
selective exposure, and political communication 137
self‐esteem:
and competence 187
and democratic orientation 190
and regime acceptance 188
self‐expression values:
and modernization 314
and postmaterial value change 230–2, 235
and world patterns of values 242–3
self‐interest:
and decline of values 308
and demanding citizens 317
and elite beliefs 67
and rational‐choice trust 349
and welfare state attitudes 370–2
self‐selection, and networks 107
Serbia, and cleavages in 544
service class, and political orientations of 463–4
sex:
and definition 725
and political behavior 725–7
Sierra Leone 512
signaling, and political choice sets 444–8
Singapore 248
and deviant case analysis 292
and happiness 252
and information technology 766
and internet access 773
single‐issue politics 11
skill levels:
and support for European integration 604
and welfare state attitudes 370–1
Slovakia:
and cleavages in 544
and democratization 263
and political party membership 639
social capital 655, 670
and civic attitudes 658
and civilizations 247–9
bonding/bridging social capital 248
trust 247–8
and conceptions of 656, 785
Coleman's view of 656–7
collective/individual good 658
contrast between 658
Lin's view 657
Putnam's view 657–8
and consequences of 658–60
collective advantages 659–60
individual advantages 659, 660
interest in concept 658–9
and culture clash 254–5
and decline in, debate over 660–4, 786, 793
American exceptionalism 661–2
broad conception of social capital 661
criticism of Putnam's view 661–2
new forms of participation 662–4
(p. 962)
Putnam's view 660, 661, 663
and definition 247, 657
and ethnic conXict 659
and gender 732, 739
and institutional performance 171
and the internet 774–5
and networks 113
and political culture 170–1
and political participation 14
and political parties 657
and political values 311
and reciprocity 170, 657, 658, 659
and sources of 656, 657, 664
attitudinal approaches 667–8
bottom‐up approaches 664–5
bridging ties 668–9
causal direction 667
democratic government 666
historical 664–5
impact of diversity 669
institutions 664–7
networks 667–8
political systems 665–6
role of state 665
social interactions 667–9
socialization 669
top‐down approaches 664, 665
voluntary associations 667–9
welfare states 666
and trust 170–1, 247–8, 342, 657–8, 659
and voluntary associations 171, 657, 662, 667–9
social change, and welfare state attitudes 367
social constructionism, and social movements 702–3
social democracy 311
and citizenship 405–6
social identity theory, and party identification 558
social imbeddedness 100, 101
social justice, and welfare state attitudes 372–4
social learning, and political socialization 38
social movements 790
and abortion 701
and changing character of 315
and demands of 700
and democracy 694, 704
and framing techniques 701
and gender 732
and immigrants 701–2
and introduction of new issues 694–5
and new social movements 704
and political science 704–5
and political struggles 694
and theoretical perspectives on
agency and emotions 702–3
classic approaches 695–6
culture and discourse 700–2
evolutionary approaches 703–4
mechanisms 700
political opportunity structure 698–700
political process approach 698–9, 700
resource mobilization 696–8
social constructionism 702–3 see also protest politics
social psychology:
and generalized trust 349–50
and party identiWcation 558
and procedural justice 374
social relations:
and generalized trust 350–2
and social capital 657
social rights, and citizenship 405
Social Science Research of Japan Data Archive (SSJDA) 892
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) (USA) 376
social structure, and electoral choice 615–16
socialism 311
and democracy 423–4
socialization, political 29, 150–1
and childhood 30, 224–5
and civil society 681
and contextual eVects 35, 150
cross‐national studies 37–8
within‐country studies 35–6
and education 179–80
and elite beliefs 67–8
and family's role 38–9
and formative socialization 192, 224–5
(p. 963)
and gender activism gap 733–5
and generalized trust 349–50
and genetics 40
and immigrants 39–40, 150
and impact of external developments 31
changing world order 32–3
decline in civic virtue 31–2
and intergenerational value change 224
and party identiWcation 562–3, 582
and path dependence 285
and political culture 175
and political interest 631–2
and political perceptions 582
and renewed interest in 33–5
and social capital 669
and timeless behavior 285
and welfare state attitudes 370
society:
and bringing back in 297
and generalized trust 350–2
socioeconomic development, and postmaterial value change 233–4
sociotropic voting 519, 530
and France 526, 527
and political context 529
and United Kingdom 524, 525
and United States 521, 523
solidarity, and citizenship 409, 410, 412–13, 414
Solidarity movement 676
South Africa:
and democratization 263
and internet access 773
and political socialization 32, 33
and race 511, 512, 514
South African Data Archive (SADA) 892
South Asia, and cleavages in 547–8
South Asian Regional Cooperation 246
South Korea:
and civil society 676
and democratization 262
and happiness 252
and internet access 773
and left–right classiWcation 211
Southeast Asia, and cleavages in 547
Soviet Union:
and collapse of 263
and modernization 188
Spain:
and citizenship 411–12
and democratization 262
emergence of civil society 684
and economic voting 527, 528
and protest politics 718
and representation 840
Spanish Social Science Archive (ARCES) 891
spatial location:
and comparative studies 289–90
and comparing individuals in context 290–2
and comparison of aggregate data 289–90
and impact on research 289, 298
and political behavior 284
spatial reasoning, and candidate choice 447
spectator sports 156
Sri Lanka 248
state intervention:
and democratic values 428–9
and left–right orientations 207, 312, 363–4
and support for 429
status, and welfare state attitudes 368–70
status quo hypothesis, and political choice 448
Stockholm, and voting behavior 103
strong democracy 794
structural‐functionalism, and social movements 696
Student League for Industrial Democracy (SLID) 768
Students for Democracy Society (SDS) 767–8
subsidiarity, and state–society relations 679
survival values:
and postmaterial value change 230
and world patterns of values 242–3
Sweden:
and class voting 467–8
and party identiWcation 559, 564
and political party membership 637
and religion 497, 499
and representation 839, 840, 841, 842, 843, 844
and voluntary associations 662
and welfare state attitudes 369, 375
(p. 964) Switzerland:
and citizenship 412, 414
and direct democracy 794
and political party membership 637
and social movements 698
system culture, and political culture 164, 169
Taiwan:
and cleavages in 547
and democratization 262
and happiness 252
and internet access 773
taxation, and welfare state attitudes 364, 367
technology:
and digital divide 124, 137
and political communication 123–4, 153
research on 130
television:
and election campaigns 747–8
and impact on voters 582
and news coverage 126–7
agenda setting 128, 131–2
impact of 128
priming 580–2
referenda 128
soft news 127–8
and personalization of politics 578–80
and protest politics 716 see also media
Thailand 249
and cleavages in 547
and democratization 262
Third World, and election campaigns 752–3
threat perceptions:
and belief systems 189–90
and democratic personality 189
and intolerance 331, 332
change in 333
and open‐mindedness 189
time:
as context 285
and equilibrium 285–6
and impact on research 285, 298
and political behavior 284
changes over time 286–9
timeless behavior 285–6
and political socialization 36
tolerance 337
and civil liberties 336
and democratic theory 324–7
constraints on freedom 326–7
marketplace for ideas 325–6
political minorities 324–5
and democratic values 333
and education 425, 426
and network heterogeneity 112
and pliability of 334
and postmaterial value change 232, 236
and research on 68–73
divergence within elites 69–70
elite behavior 72–3
formerly non‐democratic regimes 70
mass–elite diVerences 68–9, 70–1, 323–4
threat level 73 see also intolerance
totalitarianism:
and modernization 188
and social capital 665
Townhall 775
trade unions:
and class voting 473, 474, 475
and turnout decline 630
and welfare state attitudes 368
traditional values:
and decline of 314
and postmaterial value change 230
and world patterns of values 242–3
transformation research, and democracy 178–9
transnational advocacy networks, and gender 732
trust:
and conceptual dificulties 356
and contingent nature of 345
and cooperation 660
and definition 241
academic definition 344
controversy over 343
working definition 343–4
and democracy 356, 793
and dificulties in explaining 356–7
and distributive justice 374
and economic development 659–60
(p. 965)
and election campaigns 787
and empirical research cross‐national 353–5
individual‐level 352–3
and generalized trust 349
ethnic homogeneity 355
good government 355
monitoring and regulation of institutions 351–2
national wealth 355
rational‐choice trust 349
religion 355
social‐psychological theories 349–50
societal theories 350–2
and individual benefits of 660
and institutions 351–2, 354–5, 357
and measurement of 345–8
and multidimensionality of 356
and networks 115
and particularized trust 348
and policy performance 366
and political culture 165, 241
and political trust 344
cross‐national research 353–5
individual‐level research 352–3
and postmaterial value change 232
and quality of democracy 176
and risk 348, 352
and social capital 170–1, 247–8, 342, 657–8, 659, 689
and social goods 355–6
and social trust 344
cross‐national research 353–5
individual‐level research 352–3
and tradition of interest in 342
and types of 344–5
confidence in institutions 344
in people 344
political/social distinction 344
thick/thin trust 344–5
and variability of 344
and voluntary associations 351, 353, 356
Turkey:
and cleavages in 546–7
and left–right classification 209
and religion 497
turnout:
and aggregate level 621
and cross‐national variations 622, 624–8, 786–7
closeness of election 628
compulsory voting 625
electoral systems 625–6
importance of election 626–7
institutional set‐up 625–7
party system 627–8
socioeconomic environment 625
voting facilities 627
and decline in 583, 624, 628–30, 786–7
character of election 629
declining group mobilization 630
election decisiveness 629–30
generational replacement 628–9
younger voting age 629
and election type 624
and electoral systems 601
and ethnicity 509
and gender 728
and individual decisions to vote 621, 622, 630–3, 787
age 630
education 630–1
mobilization model 632
psychological engagement model 631–2
rational choice model 594, 632–3
resource model 631
and interpretations of 786
and measurement of 622
and patterns and trends in 622–4
and rational choice theory 594
Uganda 512
Ukraine:
and cleavages in 544
and elite beliefs 73
unemployment:
and class voting 472, 475
and welfare state attitudes 368
United Arab Emirates:
and internet access 772
and women 730
United Kingdom:
and activism gap 728
(p. 966)
and citizenship 407–9, 414
and class voting 460, 464–5, 466
and economic voting 523–5, 527–8,