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date: 29 May 2020

(p. 629) Index

(p. 629) Index

A&P 409
Aachen 585
Aalders, G. 154–5
AASCB (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) 595
ABC (activity‐based costing) 449, 458, 463
Abé, Takeshi 221 n.
Abegglen, J. 77 n.
Abel, Heinrich 567 n.
Abernathy, William 352
Abrahamson, E. 103
absorption cost 457
abuse 279
Academy of International Business 104
acceptable behavior 263
acceptance services 329
account books 607
accountability 450
accounting standards 451
international 452
national 450, 452
Accounting Standards Board (UK) 451
accounting systems 285–6, 585, 586
conventions 131
methods 22 see also AICS
accreditation 595
Acemoglu, Daron 560, 565–6
acquisitions, see mergers and acquisitions
adaptation 12, 160, 181, 183, 225
creative 20
deliberate 127
economic and social problems of 531
model worthy of 358
mutual 259
new technologies 559
adjustment 132–3
Adler, Paul S. 257
administration science 100
adoption 205
Adriatic coast 233
adverse selection 341
advertising 126, 155, 398, 403, 406, 414
associational 397
changing the form and function of 25
characters in 402–3
consumer 399
drawings be used in 379
efficacy questioned 413
emotive/emotional 397, 403, 408
expenditure on 409
greater opportunities for 400
history of 22
innovative 397
intensive 398, 411
mass 402, 405
pervasive notions of modernity in messages 613
pervasiveness of 405
potential impact of rising expectations on 415
television 410, 413
advertising agencies 414
influential 408
US influence on role and function of 415
AEG 179, 181, 202, 283, 615
AEI (Associated Electrical Industries) 182
aerospace 181, 182
aesthetics 612, 615, 616
affiliates 160, 250, 339
cross‐border flows of trade between 153
diversified business groups 254
financial ties with 260
foreign, dissemination of techniques learned from 159
knowledge transfer to 153–4
manufacturing firms begin research and development in 157
sequestrated 147
Africa 5
business schools 596
colonial 5, 512, 513
English‐speaking 14
extended family 197
indigenous business systems less able to absorb foreign capabilities 159
multinational investment widely spread in 157
(p. 630) Africa (cont.)
penetration of personal care products into 613
political risk 156
post‐colonial 5, 14
servicing colonies 545
transporting of humans to the Americas 143
uncertainties regarding property rights and enforcement of contracts 152 see also South Africa; West Africa
African‐Americans 403
entrepreneurship 508–9, 609
after‐sales service 413
Agence Havas 414
agency theory 45, 51, 103
top‐down models of 46
agglomerations 149, 256
regional 502
specialized 219, 222
aggregate tracking mechanism 356
aggregation 131
sectoral forms of 306
aging 27
AGIP (Azienda Generale Italia Petroli) 532, 544
agricultural sector 50
sharecropping 51
solidarity 17
strong periphery 336
ahistorical thinking 69
Ahmedabad 159
Aichi Horo 258
Aichi Industries 258
AICS (accounting, information and communication systems) 447–69
AIM (Asian Institute of Management) 596
Air France 545
air transport 182
socio‐political dimensions 545
aircraft industry 82, 391
alloys 354
big companies 387
more interest in new design than in mass production 389
Airline Deregulation Act (UK 1978) 544
airlines 280, 533
American, out‐competition by 545
deregulation 544
early and pervasive privatizations 548
economic organization of 545
expensive, but widespread travel 148
financial struggle 545
protected by subsidy 588
telecommunications, privatization and 544–9
airspace 545
Ajinomoto seasonings 406
Alaimo, Aurelio 221 n., 225 n.
Alaska 148
Alchian, A. A. 244 n.
Alcoa 270, 277, 352, 355
alcoholic beverages 160
Aldi 416
Alemann, U. von 300 n.
Alfa Romeo 26
Allen, Michael Thad 132 n.
Allevard & Le Creusot 455
alliances 127, 154, 285
ability to build 21
intraclass 300
making and breaking of 133 see also strategic alliances
Allied Suppliers 400
allocation of resources 12, 19, 74, 75, 78, 183
control over 72
deliberate 73
financial 88
innovative investment strategies 87
optimal 68
role of the firm in 69
strategic 76
alternative technologies 232
altruism 209
aluminium 270, 280, 354, 460
Aluminium Industrie AG (Swiss‐German) 277
amalgamations 227, 230
Amatori, F. 13, 29, 50, 120 n., 130 n., 221 n.
Amdam, Rolv P. 50, 107, 582, 583
American Academy of Management 100, 101
American business schools 590, 591–2
first 584
flagship of 589
late adopters of the model 590
leading, number of international students 152
main provider of graduates for managerial positions 583
transferring knowledge internationally from 589 see also HBS
American Can 178
American Cereal Company 402
American Challenge, The (Servan‐Schreiber) 185
American Federation of Labor 81
“American menace” 382
American Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education 389
American Tobacco 177, 178, 409
Americanization 18, 97, 107
business education 581, 582, 588–91, 597
Amin, Ash 223 n.
“Amos and Andy” (radio program) 409
Anderson‐Skog, L. 529, 550
angel investors 518
Anglo‐European banks 329
Anglo‐Florentine buyers 234
Anglo‐Persian Oil (Anglo‐Iranian Oil) 155, 182, 543
Ankara 587
Annales (journal) 9
anonymous relationships 342
Ansaldo 13
Ansell, Christopher 231 n.
anthropology 101
anti‐cartel policy 272
anti‐entrepreneurial culture 506
anti‐merger policy 271
antitrust 4, 268, 279, 281, 351
advent of 284
consent decrees 229
fear of homegrown actions 278
immunity from IATA 545
law favors horizontal merger over cooperation 484
legislation 228, 282
policies 126, 272
prominent jurists 229
prosecution 355
troubles 253
unified field theory of corporate development constructed around 282 see also Clayton; Sherman
antitrust regulation 273, 274
changing, impact of 103
form and intensity of 231
Aoki, M. 82 n., 87 n.
AOL 188
apparel 416
Apprenticeship Law (Denmark 1889) 573
apprenticeships 229, 381, 389, 561, 563, 567
collective arrangements for strengthening 568
contribution to economic efficiency 569
destruction of 572
gender stereotyping 560
imposing restrictions on training 571
in‐plant 564
overall decline in 571
regulation of 573
strong 573
survival and upgrading of training 570
well‐developed programs 560
Arab diasporas 509
architectural principles 616
Argentina 151, 278
Arisawa, H. 454
Arita pottery 230
Armani 200
Armour 178
arms trade 13, 14
Armstrong, P. 450
Arrighetti, Alessandro 227
artels 490
Arthur, W. Brian 12
artisans 200, 301, 302, 425, 608
independent 224, 570, 572, 573
master 571
protection of 329
skilled 222
Arts and Crafts Movement 615
Arve Valley 222, 224
ASEA 460
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 205
Ashton, David 559 n., 565 n., 568
Asia 106, 146, 151, 606
antisocial characters 263
business schools 596
challenge to Europe and America 605
colonial 5, 512
cultural forces 206
emerging markets 5
ethnic entrepreneurs 513
evolution of large business groups 206
firms catching up with the West 257
global firms analyzed 257
indigenous business systems less able to absorb foreign capabilities 159
intricate holding company structures 195
low‐wage producers 531
M‐form firms 247
multinational investment widely spread in 157
post‐colonial 5
procurement of commodities in 143
servicing colonies 545
voyages of discovery to 143 see also East Asia; South Asia; Southeast Asia
ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) 391
aspirations 397
middle class 403
ASQ (Administrative Science Quarterly) 99–100
assembly‐line methods 46, 151, 159, 428
first manufacturer to introduce 181
Ford‐type 421
interchangeable parts 176, 177
spread of 429
asset specificity 47–8, 123 n., 259
(p. 632) assets 172, 173, 178, 179, 180, 336
balance sheet 451, 397
bank 89
cash or money 332
confiscation of 181, 249
de‐specifying 125 n.
diversifying risks without selling 486
family 203
financial 334, 340
financing investments in 327
foreign ownership virtually eliminated 148
intangible 209, 212
key, ownership and control of 252–3
knowledge 75
liquid 332
mobilizing 12
overseas, total loss of 148
potentially illiquid 337
responsibility for managing 253
short‐term 332
using for benefit of promoters and shareholders 187
valuable 85
ASSI (Associazione di Studi e Storia dell'Impresa) 29
association 245
Association of American Draftsmen 381
Association of Business Historians in Great Britain 29
associationalism 273, 274, 305, 306, 397, 476, 478
associations 351
artisanal 566, 573, 574
Astra 415
asymmetric information 56, 149, 232, 234, 329
problems of 340, 341, 511
AT&T 354, 355, 529, 546
break‐up/divestiture 544, 547
Atlantic and Pacific 403, 416
Atlantic crossings 545
Atlantic economy 143
Atlas intercontinental missile 385
atomic bomb 385
attitudes 202, 206, 208
balanced 210
cultural 397
family 205
nationalistic 593
ordinary postwar consumer 415
political 278
social 506
striking contrasts in 204
Auchan Groupe 416, 435
auditors 450, 477
Augsburg 378
austerity 411
Austin Motors 182, 461
Austin, B. 582
Australia 5, 48, 50, 56, 251, 252
accounting 451
business education 596
cartels 278
education 562
foreign‐owned corporate sector 160
large firms 173
universal banking 331
Austria 14, 68, 405
apprenticeship combined with part‐time classroom‐based vocational training 563
banks 334
business education 586, 587
cartels 275, 278
chambers of commerce 304
financial intermediaries 326
market capitalization 333
universal banks 331
vocational education and training 562
autarky 20, 125, 130, 381, 388, 533
promoting 531
authoritarian regimes 308
business enterprises tolerant of 154
financial support of 14
industrialization under 571
authority 26, 603, 609
decentralization and devolution of 231
hierarchical 81
auto parts 230
suppliers of 250, 259, 261
automation 81
world leaders in 83
automobile industry 44, 148, 151, 157, 270
big companies 387
coming to terms with organized labor 429–32
development of production methods in 106
international 160
large firms recognized unions 430
productivity gains at expense of product innovation 390
suppliers 152
threats and incentives designed to encourage foreign firms to create 156 see also under various company names, e.g. Daimler; Ford; General Motors; Honda; Nissan; Opel; Renault; Toyota; Volkswagen
autonomy 19, 20, 154, 350, 353
decision‐makers 257
fiscal 227
(p. 633)
local government 227, 231
manager 473
subsidiaries 153
subunits enjoy 245
aviation industry 544–5
Axelrod, Robert 264
Azienda Autonoma delle Ferrovie dell Stato 536–7
Azienda di Stato per i Servizi Telefonici 546
Baccarat Crystalworks 455
bachelor degrees 594
backlashes 142, 147
“backshadowing” 129
backward induction 46–7, 55
backwardness 324, 340, 415
economic, catching up 513
relative 413
stigma of 415
Baden‐Württemberg 224
Baethge, Martin 567 n.
balance of power 422, 471
balance sheets 451
restructured 86, 87
Balanced Scorecard approach 463, 464
Balderston, C. Canby 490 n.
Baldwin Locomotive Works 379, 390
Balfour Williamson 179
ball bearings 460
ballistic trajectories 387
Baltimore fire (1904) 271
banana republics 158
bank‐based financial systems 323
bank loans 87, 89
unsecuritized 88
Bank of America 184
Bank of England 337
Bank of France 228
Bank of Italy 228
Bank of Japan 87, 88
Bankers Trust 189
Banking Acts (US 1933/1935) 337
banking system 51, 319–46
central to industrial finance 88
highly concentrated 511
history 30
multinational 149
regional, multi‐tiered 228
regionally decentralized and fragmented 472
regulations 126
some governments structure 90
bankruptcy 201, 607
banks 77, 87, 188, 206, 208, 253, 404
business groups were restructured around 249
close relationships with entrepreneurs 517
conservative 337
country 517
dominating role of 189
economic research by 28
escape from governments 149
expansion limited 179
financial condition of 89
financial control by 487
for‐profit 342
giant firms 179
government reliance to provide with credit 511
holding equity stakes in firms 474
importance of 322
improved position of 481
industrial corporations much less dependent on 89
main 477–8, 486
military government control of 478
multinational 329, 330
non‐profit 342
overseas 145, 329
persistence of 228
private 175, 519
promotional and developmental role of 517
public 328
relationships with 206
relative job security 435
role of 88
rural 227
semi‐public 328
shifts in the power of 475
short‐term role in industrial finance 472
significant role in entrepreneurial finance 518
small 337
state role in directing lending 477
strategies that strengthen the hand of 481
strong 481
Banque de Paris et des Pays‐Bas 175
banto 253
bar code technology 448
Barbero, María Ines 5
(p. 634) Barcelona 595
Barclays Bank 180, 184
“barefoot researchers” 11
bargaining:
complex relations among national states 277
constant 270
enhanced clout 283
industry‐level 566
informal 430
bargaining power:
political 206
significantly affected 422 see also collective bargaining
Baring Brothers 175, 179, 329
Barnes, J. A. 255
Barnes, W. 582
Barnes and Noble 111
Barney, J. 111
barriers 54, 151, 286
Barsoux, J.‐L. 582, 592
Bartlett, Christopher 257
BASF 177, 181
Basic Law (West Germany) 475
Baskin, J. 86 n.
BAT (British‐American Tobacco) 159
batch production 25
Bauer, Clemens 490 n.
Baumol, William J. 510, 521
bauxite 280
Bayer 177, 181
beauty industry 24, 160, 618
Becattini, Giacomo 219, 222, 232, 234
Bechtel, W. 453
Bechtel (company) 200
Becker, Gary 562
Beckert, Sven 608
Beecham 182, 400
behavioral economics 131
Behrens, Peter 615
Behr, Marhild von 567 n.
Beitz, W. 374
Belgium 231, 533
banking and finance 153, 329, 331, 332, 334, 335, 337
business education 586, 588
cartels 278
coal deposits 541
government revenues from privatization 548
loss of total foreign investment 147
market capitalization 333
new state (1830) 536
pioneering relations between university and industry 19
railroads 536
state formation 535
Bell 352, 547
Bell Brothers 174
Bell Laboratories 229
benchmarking 125 n.
collective 234
open systems 235
benchmarks 173, 194, 199
Benetton 200, 415–16
benevolence 618
Bengalis 159
Benington, John 231 n.
Berg, Maxine 132
Berg, Peter B. 561
Bergisches Land 224
Berk, Gerald 121 n., 229, 235, 453, 457, 540
Berlanstein, Lenard 26
Berle, Adolf 74, 98
Berliet 460
Berlin 405, 414
banks 338, 340
Handelshochschule 585
Bernstein, Michael André 128–9
Bessemer converters 177
best practice:
adoption of 284
drawings 380
help to spread 453
Bethlehem Steel 178
Betriebwirtschaftslehre 591
beverages 151, 409
alcoholic 160
BHC (Business History Conference) 39, 42, 51, 52, 365
Bhimani, A. 447, 463
BI Norwegian School of Management 597
Bianchi, Ronny 225 n.
Bibendum 405, 415
big business 3, 171–93, 275, 280
active role in shaping form and content of higher education 75
analytical basis for assessing performance of 91
Chandler's framework for understanding the rise of 515
curtailment of power of 540
dominant sectors 405
engineering graduates to 456
growth in manufacturing 2
growth of 200
international variation in dominant forms of organization 101
(p. 635)
legislation against 540
rise of 47
Big Science model 357, 359
Big Six enterprise groups 88
Bigazzi, Duccio 26
Biggart, N. W. 101
bilateral agreements 277
bill discounting services 335
binational firms 16
Binda, V. 103
biographies 503, 504, 505, 509
biomedical equipment 233
biotechnology 130 n., 359
Birkett, W. P. 464
Birmingham 132
Jewelry Quarter 226
Birmingham University 586
birth‐death ratio 208
Bismarck, Otto von 176
Bjarnar, O. 107
black‐and‐white production plans 383
blacks 508, 609
Blaich, F. 157
Blair, Margaret 472 n.
blast furnaces 177
Blaszczyk, Regina 24, 614
Blaszczyk, Regina 614
Blauband margarine 414
Bloch, Marc 9
blockholders 471
Bloom, H. 595
blue‐collar employees 24, 75, 437
employment security 83
enterprise unions 83
militant labor movement 83
reliance on skills of 568
skill formation 567
temporary 85
Blue Funnel Line 251
blueprints 380, 391
BNP (Banque Nationale de Paris) 189
Board of Trade (UK) 269
boarding schools 583
boards of conciliation and arbitration 226
boards of directors 74, 332
family member percentage of 253
need to balance interests of shareholders 211
power to appoint members 197
Boccaletti, E. 508
Bocconi University 593
Boch, Rudolf 25, 133 n., 224 n.
Boddewyn, J. 100
Bolckow Vaughan 174
Bologna, Sergio 223 n.
Bologna (packaging machinery cluster) 222
Bombay 159
Bon Marché 405, 614
bond markets 327, 328, 483
effective abolition of 478
bonds 75, 86, 326, 327, 328, 337, 472
securitized 88
Bonin, Hubert 50
Bonnet, Clarence 293 n.
Bonsack, James 177
bookkeeping 450, 452
double‐entry 448
industrial 454
booms:
cartel 275, 281, 285, 288
consumer 398, 408, 409, 411, 412, 413, 415, 416
cycles of 545
railroad 175
stock market 8, 87, 326
Boot, Arnoud W. A. 472 n.
Booth, Alison L. 559
Boots 182
Borders 111
Borneo Co. 251
Borsalino 406
Borum, F. 112
Bosch Company house journal 389
Boston Associates 204, 206
Boston Consulting Group 130 n.
Boston Manufacturing Company 455
boundaries of the firm 125
diminishing importance of 257
effective 130
bounded rationality 131
Bourdieu, Pierre 13, 583
bourgeois society 10, 20
aspiring 405
dynasties 173
industrial 310
interaction of 19
Bourguignon, A. 464
Bouvier, Jean 31
Bouyx, Benoit 563
Bowden, S. M. 44
Bowman, J. R. 297
Boyce, Gordon 50
Boyer, Robert 125 n.
Braczyk, Hans‐Joachim 126 n.
branch networks 331
Brand, D. 297
brand management 150
brand names 146, 285
(p. 636) Brandeis, Louis 229
brands:
advertised 402, 406
American 414
challenges of building 151
distinctive 402
family 212
foreign‐owned 414
global 160
local 160
major 402
national 160, 617
own‐label 416
personalities representing integrity, reliability or wholesomeness of 402
products converted into 397
proprietary 410, 411
regional 160
well‐known, re‐establishing 411
Braudel, Fernand 11, 13
Brazil 28, 29, 151, 152
automobile industry 156
predatory price wars against new competitors 280
requirements for development of banking lacking 330
breakfast cereals 402
Brescia 235
Bretton Woods Agreement 337
breweries 253, 281, 404, 414, 455
bribes 77
bricolage 607
Brinkley, D. 391
Brioschi, Francesco 232 n.
Brisbane 251, 252
Britain 147, 223
access to raw materials 549
accounting 449 n., 451, 453, 454, 455–6, 457, 460, 461, 462
alliance of unions and independent artisans 572
anti‐industrial spirit 507
apprenticeship 569
armament firms 13
banking and finance 175, 179, 184, 329, 330–1, 332, 334, 335, 336, 338, 339, 340, 341, 473, 517, 518, 519
best performing companies 180
BIAs 297, 299, 300, 301 n., 302
big business 172, 173, 176, 178, 179, 180, 181–2, 184–9
business education/schools 582, 583, 586, 589, 590, 594, 597
business elites 109
business history 29, 44, 48, 49, 51, 56
business‐state relations 536
cartels 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 281, 282, 284
chemicals 181–2
chronic undersupply of training 561
coal deposits 541, 542
colonial administrators/policy 155, 606
comparison between US, Germany and 2, 44
control of sea transport 549
corporate governance 109, 471, 472, 473, 478, 479, 480, 482, 483, 484, 485, 489
decline 198, 199, 506, 605
deregulation 544
design 381, 382, 388, 389, 391, 392
development of outdoor trade 110
diversification and divisionalization 99
dominions of 330
economic growth 508
education 568, 586, 594, 605
eighteenth‐century merchants 608
electricity companies 550
entrepreneurship 44, 506, 507, 508, 509, 513, 518
factories 605–6
family control of business 203, 204
FDI (1914) 146
flexible labor markets 560
foreign firms 157
free‐standing firms 146, 251
GDP 326, 407, 413
government revenues from privatization 548
guilds 303
historically unitary polities 231
ideological lead on privatization 532
ideological surges 549
imposed international law 145
industrial districts 221, 227
industrial research 359
Industrial Revolution 12, 25, 174, 207, 455, 462
industrialization 570
industrialized R&D 354
innovation 354, 361, 364
interwar, contraction of gross profits 325
labor management 423, 424, 425, 429, 430, 432, 433
lagging economic performance 353, 361
large companies set up new research laboratories 359
largest companies 180, 435
leverage 321
mainstream economic history 103
management of labor 421
(p. 637)
manufacturing production 324, 327, 531, 532
marginal costing 459
market capitalization 333, 480
marketing and distribution 398, 399–400, 401, 402, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 410–11, 414, 415, 416
mergers and acquisitions 177–8, 187
motor cars 181
multidivisional structure 183
multinationals 104, 105
nationalization of coal companies 542
natural gas 543
negative effects of lock‐in 359
oil 543, 544
organizational centralization 306
overseas marketing 50
ports 285
private sector 533
public ownership 531
rail network/railroads 175, 539
research and development centers 154
self‐financing 325, 326
sequestration of affiliates 147
shipping 537
skills 559, 561, 568
technology 354
telecoms 546
tobacco 177
trading companies 153, 246, 250, 251–2
training 567–8, 570
unfavorable cultural habits 605
union membership 429, 430, 432, 439
voluntarist tradition 569
wholesale shift to private enterprise 548
British Airways 529, 544, 545
British Commonwealth 562
British Empire 15, 153, 155, 184, 403
commercial presence eroded 159
lost 411
organizing and financing operations in 179
persistence of 184
special strategic concerns arising from 546
British Engineering Employers' Federation 298
British India 147
colonial regime 512–13
British National Oil Corporation 544
British Petroleum 182
British Rail 536, 547
Brody, D. 74 n., 79 n.
bromine 285
Brown, John 210, 378, 379
Brown, Phillip 559
Brown, R. A. 147
Brown‐Boveri Company 376, 384, 385
brownfield plants 16
Brunt, Liam 517
Brusco, Sebastiano 219
Brussels 589
BSA 416, 461
BSN‐Danone 433
BT (British Telecom) 187, 544, 547
Bubble Act (UK 1720) 202, 337
Bubble Economy burst (1990) 78, 89
Buchheim, G. 384
budgeting 460–2, 585
Buick 410
Bulgaria 278
Bundesrepublik 227
bureaucracies 152, 254
associational 311
coordinating mechanisms in place of 353
efficient 20
robust 491 n.
bureaucratization 24
Bureaux d'Études 384
bureaux techniques 384
Burhop, Carsten 50
Buridan's ass 131
Burke, Timothy 613
Burnham, J. 98
Burroni, Luigi 225 n., 232 n.
Burt 245 n.
business administration 19, 31, 176
business culture 209, 211, 603–28
cooperative 226
lack of trust and social cohesion within 226
business cycles 350
business elites 14, 109, 583, 585, 586
technical universities as main provider of new members 595
business enterprises 150
global 156
heterogeneity of 146
limited ability to learn and absorb new technologies 159
mechanisms by which capital funneled into 49
national identities 147
railways and the rise of 426–8
tolerant in relationships with authoritarian regimes 154
business groups 2, 5, 244–67
ad hoc or permanent 174
centered 258
evolved into conglomerate forms 263
(p. 638) business groups (cont.)
large 153, 206
powerful 159
Business History (journal) 3, 44, 48–52
special issues 49, 112
Business History Review (journal) 3, 51–2
Business History Society of Japan 43
business interest associations 3, 293–316, 473
cross‐national differences in organization 4
business models 79
New Economy 82
business schools 48, 582, 595–6
accreditation of 595
cross‐national partnership agreements 596–7
history of 18
services previously provided by 592 see also American business schools; European business schools
business strategy 101, 122
business studies 183
business success 4, 264
business systems 397
comparative/national 101
indigenous, less able to absorb foreign capabilities 159
Bussière, Eric 225 n.
Butterfield & Swire 251
buy‐ins 209
buyouts 189, 209
leveraged 76, 187
Bygrave, W. 86 n.
Byrkjeflot, H. 583
Byrt, W. 589
C&A 200
CAB (US Civil Aeronautics Board) 545
Cable and Wireless 546
cable industry 284
cabotage rights 548
cachet 407, 408, 411
CAD (Computer‐Aided Design) 376, 387
Cadbury 400, 404
Cadbury Report (UK 1992) 211
Cadillac 410
Calabria 536
calculators 386, 448
Calcutta 159, 514
California 519
call centers 422, 435
management systems 435
Callon, Michel 127 n.
Calomiris, Charles 51, 339
camaraderie 260
Camembert cheese 617
cameras 403
Campania 536
Campari 406
Campsa 543
Canada 5, 11, 146, 153, 231
accounting 451
cartels 278
decentralized government 534
education 562
foreign‐owned affiliates 154
higher business education 588
canals 41, 535, 539
canned food 280, 415
Canon 84
canonical model 222, 224, 232
capabilities 159, 247
BIAs properties and 299
combinations of knowledge and 232
conglomerates take advantages of 248
consumer product sectors 399
creative 150
distributing 177
dynamic 111
early development of 411
family company 199
firm‐specific, international transfer of 49
foreign 159
frequently needed 248
functional 79
historical development of 111
import‐export 249
innovative 76, 77, 79, 133, 233, 361
integrated 82
internal production 259
limited 245
managerial 122, 150, 205, 248, 259
marketing 404
organizational 78–9, 103, 105, 156, 185, 205, 257, 271, 285
physically and organizationally centralized 256
productive 83, 88
productivity‐enhancing 255
purchasing 177
relationship‐based 264
research 160
resource‐based 264
capacity 126
excess 284, 544–5
growth encouraged 283
important to utilize 286
lost incentive to expand 284
(p. 639) Capecchi, Vittorio 222
Capie, F. 340–1
capital 249, 251, 259, 260, 296, 330
access to 508, 609
allocation of 323, 324, 337, 338
cost of 286
cross‐border flow of 144
cross‐class strategic alliances between labor and 299
debenture 327
destruction of 17
fixed 335
foreign 538
free flow of 487
growth from internal sources of 324
high cost of 339
increasing requirements 479
large‐scale needs 480
long‐term financial strategies 210
long‐term risk 517, 518
markets depth and liquidity 473
massive external requirements 325
mechanisms by which funneled into business enterprises 49
misallocation of 324
mobility of 145
nationalized 482
opportunity cost of 457
ownership of a crucial element of 197
paid‐up 175
physical 85
pooling 518
preference 327
ratio of deposits to own 332
reliance on banks to mobilize 336
resources for funding growth 253
scarce 324, 336
share 179, 196
shortage of 148, 536
surplus 343
systems to plan and control the use of 461
trading firms prospered without raising a lot of 246
women lack legal right to 203
working 341 see also human capital; venture capital; also under following headings prefixed “capital”
capital‐adequacy ratios 78, 89
capital equipment 122
depreciation of 457
capital flows 144, 152
cross‐border 148, 486
international 184, 337
restricted 486
capital‐intensive industries 198, 199, 220
attempt to form cartels 270
large firms expanding in 181
small‐batch production 283
capital investments 400
capital markets 227, 294
absence of foreign competition in 487
conflicting interests in 297
debt‐equity ratios 321
enabled to play significant role in corporate control 327
fragmentation of 336
funds raised for free‐standing firms on 251
global/world 141–2, 143, 147
group successfully insulated from pressures of 252
hindered development of 338
neoclassical 324
opening up of 78
regional and interregional integration 51
regulations 126
unified and centralized 336
well‐functioning 336
capital transfers 325
capitalism 311, 530
Anglo‐Saxon 187
attempt to manage its excesses 269
autonomous and spontaneous action of 301
BIAs' significant impact on evolution of 293
class inequality of 296
collaborative 16
collective action 295, 297, 309
conventional distinctions between socialism, fascism and 532
cooperative 184, 282, 286
counter‐intuitive affinity between Protestantism and 614
development of 304, 306, 310, 456–7
differing ideologies about performance under 532
diversification of interests 298
entrepreneurial 311
family 195, 199, 208, 210, 282
global 149, 150
initial phase of 480
intermediate phase of 480
intraclass conflicts 297
logic of action 296
managerial 180, 185, 282, 311, 353, 611
national, attempt to create peaceful cross‐border relationships 309
national identities 147
personal 198
proprietary 200
(p. 640) capitalism (cont.)
Protestantism and 508
Rhineland model of 189
shift from traditional to corporate 201
spirit and practice of 608
stop‐go, boom‐and‐bust volatility under 288
strict link between nation‐state and 309
welfare 51, 423 see also varieties of capitalism
Cappelli, Peter 130 n.
car dealerships 412
car owners 409
careers 25, 74
bottom‐up 380, 381
lifetime 435
Cargill 149
Caribbean 512
Carlos, Ann M. 50, 51
Carmaux 26
Carnegie, Andrew 504
Carnegie (firm) 428
Carnegie Foundation 588
Carnevali, Francesca 121 n., 226, 227 n.
Carpenter, M. 86 n.
Carrefour 410, 416, 435
Carron ironworks 455
cartels 3, 5, 20, 44, 53, 174, 268–92, 485
coal, powerful 178
creation of new 127
frustration over failed attempts to form 54
increasingly severe controls on 189
manufacturing 253
monitoring 55, 286
prohibiting 229 see also international cartels
case‐law decisions 478
cash 325, 332
cash‐flow requirements 341
cash orders 403
Casino 416
Casper, Steven 130 n.
Cassis, Y. 2, 16, 41, 102, 225 n.
Casson, Mark 48, 49, 53 n., 105, 507
Castel Goffredo 227
catalogue purchasing 403, 409
Catalonia 329
catalytic converters 353
catch‐up 257, 258 n., 513, 517
Cathay Pacific Airways 251, 252
Catholics 224, 508, 596
CATIA 387
causal performance models 464
causality 320, 505, 508, 605
Cayman Islands 149
CBI (UK Confederation of British Industry) 300, 302
CEIBS (China Europe International Business School) 596
cement cartels 279
Cemex 151
Central America 158
central banks 182
Central Electricity Board (UK) 543
Central Europe 147
Central Union of German Cooperative Societies 405
centralization 46, 152, 178, 256, 306–8, 336
administrative 231
associative 300
banking system 227
industrial policy and labor relations 228
rigidity created by 341
CEOs (chief executive officers) 610
associations of 612
graduates from grandes écoles 595
power to appoint 197
ceramics 406
certification 563
CGE 182
chaebols 151, 201, 205, 255
chain stores 401, 403, 405, 409, 414
low cost 410
chambers of commerce 10, 18, 21, 230, 304, 586
separating BIAs from 298 see also ICC
Champagne 617
Chandler, Alfred D. 1, 12, 13, 16, 24, 31, 39–44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 52–3, 55, 69–70, 71, 74 n., 82, 96–9, 101, 102–3, 104, 106, 110, 111, 113, 120, 121, 122, 130, 131, 172, 173, 176, 181, 183, 194, 198, 199, 228–9, 246, 247, 256, 262, 282, 348–9, 400, 404, 450, 456, 457, 461, 479, 480, 481, 486, 487, 504, 515, 604
Chandlerian firms 178, 180, 489–90
fully‐fledged 178
further development of 185
now‐extensive historical record on 516
widespread in Europe (1990s) 189
Chandlerian paradigm 2, 38, 50, 171
alternatives to 3, 31
decline of 51
dominance of 174
preoccupation with 491 n.
reliance on 489
spread of 43
studies motivated by 362
(p. 641) change 414
acceleration in pace and volatility of 232
adapting to 12
ambiguous and uncertain 478
challenge of managing 210
cultural 609
demographic 422
dynamics of 15–18
entrepreneurs often act as agents of 507
environments militating against 452
gradual 17
historical 503, 520
important driver of 144
industrial 134 n., 397, 503
institutional 112, 181, 204, 544
organizational 98, 202, 311, 531
positive view of 17
social 604
Channon, D. F. 99
chaos/randomness 256 n.
Chaplin, Joyce 607
Chappe flag‐waving telegraph 545
character 607
charitable foundations 227
Charlton Mills 455
charter flights 545
charts of accounts 452–3
Chase Manhattan Bank 184
Chatfield, M. 454
cheap labor 207, 571 n.
cheating 270, 271, 273
Cheffins, Brian 483–6
chemical engineering 27
chemicals 122, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 185, 405, 456, 460
heavy 414
chemistry 354
Chen, M. 205
Chessel, Marie 22
Chevrolet 410
Chick, Martin 49, 541, 550
chief engineers 380
children 423, 425
Chile 596
China 5, 14, 28, 29, 143, 148, 151, 606, 607
business schools 596
challenges of doing business in 153
cigarette business 159
coastal 251
commercial diaspora 147
consolidated under communist rule 251
entrepreneurship 514, 518
export‐orientated industries 151
growth 151, 233
industrial clusters or specialized towns 233
labor management 426
market‐oriented policies and opening to foreign investors 150
national product standards 257
opium trade 147
rapidly adapting firms 257
re‐entry of Western firms into 151
requirements for development of banking lacking 330
responsibility accounting 462 n.
shipping lines from Japan to 533
social values and attitude to family 205
software firms 507
uncertainties regarding property rights and enforcement of contracts 152
China Navigation Co. 251
Chinese communities 5, 513, 514
diasporas 509
entrepreneurs 518
chocolate 400, 404
choice(s) 46, 47
associational 295
collective 133
consumer 160, 410, 613
consumer culture based on 407
consumption 399
deliberative 128
designs of organizations involve an element of 99
economic 133
managerial 312
political 540
product 398
“right” 132
small everyday 128
technological 506 see also strategic choices
Cholet 132, 224
Christensen, Clayton 349
Chrysler 185, 189, 248, 258
Church, Alexander Hamilton 457, 458
Church 301
Cincinnati machine tool makers 229
cinema 148
Cinzano 406
“circular flow” theory 68
Cirio 415
(p. 642) Cisco Systems 189
Citic (China International Trust & Investment) 252
Citicorp 188
Citigroup 188
Citroën 182, 414, 431
city banks 230, 249
City of London 179, 154, 206, 223, 225
international activities weakened by two world wars 184
knowledge advantage of 330
Civil Aviation Board (UK) 544
civil law 278, 323, 335, 483, 510
economic rules 511
civil servants 21, 545, 586
top 20
Clark, J. B. 459, 460
Clark, P. 109
Clark, T. 107
Clarke, Alison 616
class, see social class
class conflict 295 n.
associationalism led by 306
intraclass 297, 299, 300
new investment schemes as alternatives to 618
class consciousness 20
class divide 572
class struggle 603
Clayton Antitrust Act (US 1914) 262, 263, 337
cleanliness 613
clearing banks 329
large 341
passive 339
clerical labor 26, 80
Cleveland 360
Cleveland refinery 53
cliometrics 11, 40, 103
“cloaking” strategies 155
closed innovation system 353–4, 364
clothing 410
clusters 2, 106, 130 n., 207, 219–43, 249, 359
growing 208
hi‐tech 208
linked to software end users 250
Clyde, River 251
CMEs (coordinated market economies) 560, 562, 563, 565, 566
CNPF (Conseil National du Patronat Français) 302
coal 26, 182, 271, 535, 542
control of production 282
key economic role of 541
modest supplies 530
output 543
safety issues 541–2
strategic significance 533
Coase, Ronald 47 n., 51
Coca‐Cola 155, 252, 402, 409, 414
Cochran, S. 153
Cochran, Thomas 505, 603–4
COCOM (Consultative Group Coordinating Committee) 14
co‐coordinating goods and services 2
codes of conduct 20
co‐determination legislation 475
codification 451
Coenenberg, A. G. 454
co‐evolutionary processes 111, 353, 360, 364, 470
systems and institutions 348
training and collective bargaining institutions 567
Coffee, John C. 471
coffee 50
cognition 504–5, 520
cohesion 257, 306
economic 206
social 206, 226
structural equivalence vs. 245 n.
cold storage 251, 252
Cold War 280, 617
battle against communism 589
Cole, Arthur 503, 505, 515, 520
Coleman, Donald 43
Colgate 402, 403
collaboration 15, 16, 18, 364, 473
cartel 285
interfirm 153
leading firms with Nazi Germany 154–5
more formalized 232
pragmatic 125 n.
collateral 89, 334, 341, 511
stock sometimes accepted as 473
collective action 302
capitalist 296, 297, 302, 309
costs of 296
logic of 295–6, 297, 299
problems 297, 562
worker 296
collective bargaining 75, 274, 295, 307, 420, 423, 439, 566
conducted mainly at enterprise level 431
constrained 432
contracted 432
declined in coverage and content 430
escape from 433
extensive 427
(p. 643)
foundations for 81
industry‐wide 430
informal and spasmodic 429
multi‐level 431
national 426
rare 427
recognition of 429
regional 426, 430
regulated labor markets 473
structure of 299
underdeveloped 429
collective deliberation 133
collective services:
necessary 227
provision of 226, 229, 230
collectivist training system 574
college degrees 75
colleges 208
high quality 569
junior 590
undergraduate 584, 593
Colli, A. 2, 5, 106, 203, 205, 221 n., 235 n., 254, 502
collieries 177, 178
Collins, M. 340–1
collusion 270, 282, 284, 422
aluminum MNCs and governments 280
facilitated 286
illegitimate 268, 274
interfirm 189
most notorious 278
oligopolistic, tacit 271
strengthened 287
co‐location and separation 366
Cologne 223, 585
Colombia 514
colonialism 5, 28, 514
close relations with authorities 159
competition and conflict, firms and local enterprises 15
economics literature on 512
empires 146, 155
multifaceted impact of 512–13
role in explaining slow growth 512
trading systems 143
colors 380
Columbia Gramophone 403
combined cycle gas turbines 547
“command centers” 149
Commentry‐Fourchambault 462
commerce:
and culture 618
identity and 618
international 142, 144
commerce faculties 30
commercial and technological intelligence 235
commercial banks 182, 229, 320, 329
debt finance by 324
distinction between public or semi‐public banks and 328
domestic behavior of 330
for‐profit 336
long‐term and intimate relations between clients and 473
restrictive rules on development of 337
separation of investment and 184, 322
short‐term lending 336
support for industry 341
Commercial Codes 451
commercial gentry 608
commercial intermediaries 328
commercial service districts 223
commitment 81, 83, 207
cultural 480
family members 209
financial 85–6, 87, 342
long‐term 327
political 480
“politically correct” 352
potential, to family control 208
commodities 145, 146
agricultural 157, 280
for‐profit 617
giant trading firms 149
international trade in 152
major exporters of 157
vertical integration weakened or eliminated in most 148
world trade in 149
commodity cartels 280
commodity chains 145
commodity markets:
global, disintegration of 147
world 143
commodity producers' cartels 276
common adversaries 30
common currency 343
common law 278, 323, 335, 451, 483, 510
economic rules 511
common shares 246
Commons, John 422
communication(s) 386
advances 246
cheap and fast 464
distinction between data processing and 547
network industries in 27
(p. 644) communication(s) (cont.)
new methods between design and manufacture 379
revolution in 145
vested interests of state and business 535 see also AICS
communication technology 82, 255
extensive use of 435
new 254
Communism 148, 224, 251, 431
battle against 589
collapse/fall of 150, 452
intellectuals 31
spread of 155
Communist Party 155, 182
“communitarian market” 232
community‐based strategies 204
commuting 412
Compagnie Française des Pétroles 182, 543
Companies Act (UK 1948) 204
company law 202, 203
company physicians 19
company schools 574
company towns 19, 158
comparative advantage:
changes in 19
flouted theory of 363
fluid, international division of labor based on 287
soil and climate give 512
comparative history 15–16
comparative‐static tests 40, 41
compensation 612
group schemes 46
stock‐option 86, 87
straight‐wage schemes 46
competences 146, 152
specific 160
competition 4, 18, 202, 244, 540
active financial markets 338
acute desire to limit 270
associational 309
barriers against 303, 480
benefits and risks of 269
cartels and 269, 286
colonial firms and local enterprises 15
compromises that fundamentally restructured the nature of 285
cooperation and 132, 220, 262, 263, 264, 276, 283
cultural commitment to 480
cut‐throat 573
degree of 422
dynamics of 54
dysfunctional market 283
excessive 276, 484
fair 262
foreign 90, 487
future 269
global 256
grand scale 539
greenfield and brownfield plants 16
humiliating 359
incorporating research into innovation for the purpose of 362
increased levels of 464
institutional mechanisms for regulating 230
interfirm 397
internal 271
labor market 78
legislation forbidding regulation of 299
market 71
national 310, 381
perfect 91, 126
political commitment to 479, 480
primacy of freedom of 278
product market 429, 433
productive 133
provinces 534
rechanneled 283
regulated 229
“ruinous” 453
Schumpeterian 72
second‐best forms of 269
simultaneous 351
small‐numbers 45
studio 617
unfair 262, 303
competition authorities 281
competition policy 274, 548
competitive advantage 19, 54, 72, 78, 79, 111, 126
flexibility the main source of 199
global firms unlikely to realize 256–7
international, loss of 81
key to 206
logistics, bulk purchase and price 411
reliant on quality of information flow 199
savings of materials costs 83
source of 90
temporary 208
competitive disadvantage 78
competitive pressures 104, 255
competitive pricing 284
(p. 645) competitiveness:
enhanced 233, 488
international 106
regeneration of 133
sustaining 132
complacency 506
complaints 382
components 250
compulsory organizations 230, 303
computer companies 359
computers 188, 189, 211, 357, 386, 387
advent of 448
development of 463 see also Sun
Computervision 387
concentrated ownership system 471, 474, 475, 478, 480, 481, 482–3, 486, 488, 489
concentration 150, 227, 284, 332, 334
fragmented sectors 230
growth of 229
industrial, promotion of through mergers 227
speeded up 272
concurrent engineering 384
Condon, Edward U. 355
confectionery 400
confederations 300, 301
important 309
more inclusive 306
Confindustria 301, 302
conflict 26, 195, 226, 306
capitalists, with one another 297
colonial firms and local enterprises 15
death leading to 211
families and businesses 209
family solidarity and profit maximization 254
generational 210
industrial, reduction of 307
intensity and regularity of 209
internal 132, 133
intrasectoral 297
labor 25
leadership succession in family business 210
military 309
scope for 132 see also class conflict
conflict of interest 339, 570
conflict resolution 125
institutional mechanisms for 230
conformity 209
Confucian philosophy 205, 514, 606, 610
conglomerates 75–6, 205, 247, 325
business groups evolved into 263
component businesses of 248
intensive advertising approaches 411
widespread forming of 187
conglomerations 332
Congresses of the International Economic History Association 30
conjuncture 11, 13
consanguinity 205
consciousness 604, 605, 615
Conseil des federations industrielles 309
Conseil d'État 534
conseils de prud'hommes 226
conservatives 614
Consett Iron Co. 174, 455
Consolidated Goldfields 187
consolidation 74, 150, 182, 247, 487
BIAs 297, 298, 302, 303, 306–8
conspicuous consumption 401
conspiracy 268, 269, 285
constant returns to scale 126, 541
constraints:
creative responses to 123
market 68, 72
technological 68, 72
Constructing Corporate America (Maclean et al.) 109
construction industry 279
consultancy services 107–8, 195, 342 n.
disputes frequently settled by 210
growing volume on family business 209
consumer culture 415
consumer durables 176, 410
consumer expenditure on 409
consumer expenditure 409, 410
consumer goods 400, 404
demand for 406
economic dynamism from 410
emergence of 398
fast‐moving sector 432–4
lack of large‐scale producers 407
limited growth of indigenous manufacturers 405
undifferentiated 406
consumer industries 182
consumer markets:
hyper‐segmentation of 160
optimization of 396
psychological aspects of 397
strong differences between 160–1
consumer revolution 413
consumers 27, 613
access to 401
aspirations and social circumstances 397
cognizant and hidden wishes of 408
greater understanding of 408
(p. 646) consumers (cont.)
instinctive reassurance amongst 402
interaction of producers and 615
invention of 399
nation of 400
new, perceived potential of 415
poor 122
priority to wishes of 397
self‐awareness of 614
wise choices by 613
women as 25
consumption 155, 296 n., 405, 608, 612, 613–15, 616, 617
business history of 24
culture of 406–8
expanded 414
expanding into countries with different culinary traditions 160
gender segmentation of 24
individual 415
mass 148, 396–9, 613
new opportunities 412
numerous and important centers of 414
per capita 411
personal 198, 415
transformed patterns 410
contacts 209, 518
direct, with the public 608
contagion models 245 n.
container services 281
contexts 124, 520
business 421, 424
economic 431
historical 505, 515
institutional 126
legal 423
market 422
national 564
political 421, 423, 431, 439
social 365, 423, 424, 505
technological 421
Conti, Giuseppe 228, 232 n.
Continental model 451
contingency 128–9, 133, 612
contingency theory 98, 99
contingent markets 126
contract law 259
contracting paradigm 50
contracts:
complexity of writing for complex technologies 146
cost‐plus 357
employment 478
enforceable 126
financial 320
government 454, 544
“lease‐back” arrangements to firms 285
long‐term 271, 273
multiple bidding for 539
shorter‐term 564
uncertainties regarding enforcement of 152
contribution margin accounting 460
control 255
computer 435
direct, tight and coercive systems of 425
indirect methods of 259
managerial 183
manufacturing conception of 282
sales conception of 282 see also corporate control; ownership and control
convergence 319, 339, 436, 464, 606
global 343
cooking oil 402
Cooper, R. 463
cooperation 311
competition and 132, 220, 262, 263, 264, 276
economic 288
family 480
interfirm 269–74, 480
international 288
legitimate, illegitimate collusion and 268, 274
long‐term 353
necessary but insufficient precursors of 270
organized 244
peace and 288
simultaneous 351
strengthened 287
subsidiaries 233
theorizing 286
trust and 226, 254
cooperative associations 329
cooperative banks 231, 328, 329, 340
promoting 336
Cooperative movement 400
cooperative ventures 50, 244
cooperatives:
producer 490
rural 329
Coopey, Richard 519
coordination 129, 259, 363
complex problems 245
facilitating among employers 563
global 281
industry, hindered 284
(p. 647)
managerial 130 n.
mechanisms 226
coordination costs 257
COPA (Confederation of Professional Agricultural Associations) 309
Copenhagen Business School 112
copies 380, 386
copper 280, 517
core companies 88
core‐competencies 111
Corley, T. A. B. 49
Corning 351, 355, 515
Cornish copper mines 517
corporate control:
active market for 477
capital markets enabled to play significant role in 327
exerting 323
market for 471
corporate culture 414, 611
rational decisions deeply embedded in 22
transfer processes shape 22
corporate governance 4, 255, 470–98
central issues 274
comparative 109
defined 211
efficient 323
labor systems shaped by 423
reform of 211
social and nonrational bases of 13
corporate intranets 260
corporate laboratories 352, 354, 355, 356
laboratories promoted to 359
problems surfaced for 357
corporate law 248, 474, 476
corporate property relations 471, 472
corporate strategy 350
successes and failures of 30
corporatism 297, 307, 569 n.
state 308
corruption 540
armament 21
developmental constraint for developing countries 161–2
oil 21
cosmetics 24, 160, 416
cosmopolitanism 415
cost accounting, see cost/management accounting
Cost Accounting Standard (Japan) 453, 454
Cost Accounting Standards Board (US) 454
cost calculation practices 453, 454, 455, 456
keeping separate cost accounting and 460
cost control 383
cost drivers 463
cost efficiencies 283
cost/management accounting 390, 448 n., 457, 458, 465
impact of war on 453
literature on 454
new approach to 459
single chart for financial and 452
six major phases in development of 449
standards 235, 453
cost savings 53
Costa Rica 158
costing 448 n.
theory and practice 454–64
Coté, L. 110
cottage industry 17
Cottereau, Alain 133 n., 221 n., 226, 228 n.
cotton 159, 204, 219, 270, 406, 531
cartels 276, 277
finished goods 251
importing merchants 251
spinning 87, 276, 425
weaving producing centers 230
Cotton Acts (UK 1948 & 1959) 531
Cotton Spinners Association 285
Council of Ministers (EU) 452
Courault, Bruno 223 n., 224 n.
Courlet, Claude 222, 224 n., 232 n.
Courtaulds 532
coverage ratios 332
Cox, Howard 49
craft guilds 227, 303
abolished 229
craft industries 133, 426
communities 427
musical instrument‐making tradition 609
craft unions 567, 571, 573
emergence of 570
survival of 573
craft workers 379, 389
craftsmanship 609
Cramer‐Klett 378
craving 617
creative destruction 68, 503, 614
creative regions 360
creative work 380, 384
creativity 18
cautious reflections on changing patterns of 377
stifling 350
technological 208
(p. 648) credit 51, 88, 132, 322, 409
access to 230
endorsing applications 229
government reliance on banks to provide 511
guarantee schemes 230
installment 341
privileged 328
short‐term 338, 340, 341
trade 335
widely available and transparent 607
credit checks 226
credit houses 330
Crédit Lyonnais 179, 330, 332
Crédit Mobilier 175, 331
credit organizations 518
credit professionals 330
Crédit Suisse 330
Crédit Suisse First Boston 188
creditors 323, 341, 479
legal protection for 483
provision of information for 451
creditworthiness 607
criminal investigations 279
criminalization 281, 287
Crisco 402
crises 13, 232 n., 280
economic 297, 324, 337, 338, 593
eruption of 12
financial 184, 331, 334, 451, 532, 548
fiscal 536
inventory 461
social 338
source of 14
critical industries 276
Crocker‐Hefter, Anne 130 n.
crop growing 512
crop performance 157
cross‐border activities 3
cross‐licensing 351
cross‐national comparisons 16
cross‐national differences:
education 559
training regimes 559, 567, 570
cross‐shareholding 77, 186, 249, 475
highly complicated, stock bound up in 478
large‐firm 486
significant, managers engaged in 474
cross‐subsidization 550
“crossings” 18
Crouch, Colin 125 n., 126 n., 127 n., 222, 225 n., 227, 559 n., 560, 561, 563, 564, 569 n., 574
Crouzet, François 12
crowding‐out 322
Cruikshank, J. L. 582
Crystal Palace exhibition (1851) 616
Cuba 51
Cuevas, Joaquim 50
culinary traditions 160
Culpepper, Pepper D. 561
cultural determinism 605 n.
cultural factors 388
national 506
cultural history 17, 18, 21–3, 24
advance of 28
Cultural Revolution (China 1966–76) 251
culture 20, 109, 196–7
informal rules of the game 203–6
locally determined system of 207
material 615–16
currency 86, 87
custom production 382, 390, 391
customer cartels 273
customer magazines 22
customer orientation 382
customized products 121
Cusumano, M. 82 n.
cutlery 25, 133, 219
cybernetics 385
Cyfarthfa ironworks 455
Czechoslovakia 275, 278
Daems, Herman 42, 52
Daewoo 201
Daft, R. L. 100
Dagenham 126
Daiei 414
Dai‐Ichi Kangin (Dai‐Ichi Kangyo Bank) 88
Daimler Benz 189
Daimler Motoren 172
Dalian Institute of Technology 596
Danone 433
Darlington 175
Darmstädter Bank 179
Dartmouth College Amos Tuck Business School 584
data processing 547
databases 387
Daum, Arnold R. 54 n.
Daumas, Jean‐Claude 223 n., 235
David, Paul 12, 127 n.
Davidoff, Leonore 213, 608
Davis, Natalie 607
Deakin, B. M. 276, 280–1
death duties 203
(p. 649) De Beers 270, 271
debenture capital 327
debt 76, 86, 325
bank 89, 474
institutions needed to force firms to repay 323
primary, non‐financial enterprises do not directly access 327
requirements that guarantee recovery of 341
write‐downs 229
debt‐equity ratios 88, 321–2
high 342 n.
debt finance:
bank‐intermediated 324
preference for 253
debt‐monitoring hypothesis 342 n.
decartelization 279
devastating effect of 284
Decazeville ironworks 455
decentralization 40, 98, 125, 129, 130, 132, 183, 221 n., 226, 252
authority 231
commercial banking system 229
excessive, disadvantages of 185
full 612
high 257
industrial development 340
interfirm networks 245
labor management 434
regional economies 227
specialty trades 229
decision 12, 13
decision‐making 282
compressed time‐frame for 448
concern with what costs were relevant for 449
consensus 160
family firm 202
declining industries 44
decolonization 280
anticipated 15
understanding 14
Deeg, Richard 228, 336
default 341
defense 278
defense contractors 358, 530
“defensive” model 297
De Haviland 182
Dei Ottati, Gabi 232, 233
Delany, W. 100
Delaware 612
Demag 178
demand 17, 24, 25, 258, 356, 401
adjusting employment to fluctuations in 79
consumer goods 406
efficiency assessed relative to particular patterns of supply and 126
flexibility in adapting to changing patterns 220
fragmentation and specialization 130
future 411, 461
how to balance supply and 125
innovative products 90
instability of 270
labor 422
market 98, 283
outstripped 413
shifting 122
demand‐side variables/factors 336, 339
demergers 187
Deming, W. Edward 606
democratic theory 296
democratization 306
demographics 207, 400, 408
changes 422
characteristics 404
factors 401
surveys 415
Demsetz, H. 244 n.
Deng Xiao‐ping 596
Denmark 147, 278, 230, 331, 548, 570
agriculture 133
business education/schools 582, 583
calculation principles 453
cartels 278, 281
industrial districts 224, 225, 230
privatization 548
railroads 536
survival of craft‐based unions with strong apprenticeship 573
telecoms 546
vocational education and training 562
dental hygiene 402
department stores 400, 401, 403, 404, 406, 409
control over clothing sales 415
custom of urban middle class 412
dream‐world displays of opulence 614
established 405
installment plan 414
operation on national scale 414–15
departmental surrogates 351
deposit banks 320, 336
depreciation 325, 457, 477
capital equipment 457
(p. 650) depressions 311, 409, 430
cycle of 406
cycles of 545
late 19th‐century 332
world 24 see also Great Depression
deregulation 133, 150, 529, 532, 547
pervasive pattern of 544
policy instruments and 548
underlying problems which prompted 547
way paved for 545
Deregulation Act (US 1978) 545
derivative localities 223
Derrida, J. 109
design:
major figures in 615
material culture and 615–16
modernism in 616
design and engineering 374–95
design function 362
designers 618
boundary between draftsmen and 380, 381, 386
chief 384
deskilling 379
Dessaux, P. A. 28
destabilization 339
detergent producers 409, 433
determinism 12, 99, 121–2, 128
Deutsch‐Luxemburg 177
Deutsche Bank 179, 188, 189, 330
Deutsche Bundespost 547
Deutsche Reichsbahn 537
Deutsche Techniker‐Verband 381
Deutz 178
deux cents familles 173
developing countries 5, 148
corruption a major developmental constraint for 161–2
emerging clusters in 233 n.
foreign‐owned plantation companies 157
higher prices than customers in wealthy countries 280
highly urbanized 406
hostile environment for foreign firms 155
important element in context of 529
knowledge spillovers from foreign firms to 158
labor management 426
developing countries political rule‐making 512
progressively closed to international trade 148
significant leverage over wealthy countries 280
trade flows between developed and 145
transfer of knowledge to 158
unpredictable political and economic conditions 153
development finance 88
development teams 384
developmental associations 457
developmental borrowers 330
deviant behaviors 27
devolution 231
De Wendel 175, 180
Dewerpe, Alain 228 n.
diachronic approach 324
diamonds 270, 271
diaspora communities 3, 146, 147, 509, 518
dictatorship 14
Dictionary of Business Biography (Jeremy) 509
Dienel, H.‐L. 545
diesel‐powered ships 537
Diet (Japanese parliament) 538
Dietl, Helmut 323, 324
differentiation 328, 329, 331, 433
financial systems 326
legal and organizational axes of 330
manufacturing base emphasizing 415
promoting among capitalists 298
structural 301 n. see also product differentiation
diffusion 302, 304–6, 488
business education 586–8
international 386
knowledge 154
management education ideas 591
marketing approaches 397
stock ownership 327
technological 273
territorial 300–1
“Dinah Shore Show” 410
diplomacy:
business 287
economic 277
geopolitical 277
direct costing 449 n., 459
relative 460
Dirty Harry (film) 263
disclosure:
low 471
opposition to 211
regulations 195, 204
rigorous standards 471
discontinuation/discontinuities 17, 142
Disconto‐Gesellschaft 179
discount stores 410
(p. 651) discounting policies 228
disease 143, 158
Disney, Walt 504
dispersed ownership system 471, 478, 481, 482–3, 489
disposable income 397, 401
disputes 210
frequently settled by consultants 210
institutions for resolution of 226
disruptive innovation 352–3
dissemination of ideas 107
distortions 269, 283
distress prices 54
distribution 178
gender segmentation of 24
history of 22
ingenious strategy 271
international networks 148
marketing and 396–419
mass 2, 3, 41, 48, 121
retail 231
single product 183
storage and 543
superior 285
three‐pronged investment in production, management and 2
vertically linked networks 250 see also size distribution
distribution networks 177, 396, 400, 409
international 148
Ditz, Toby 607
divergence 436, 452
cross‐national 488
diversification 40, 98, 157, 189, 247, 250 n., 252, 253–4, 433
associated with ineffective governance and poor monitoring 185
bank 331
capitalists' interests 298
close family control of 205
conglomerates characterized by 187
constrained and related strategies 255
far more pronounced 186
financing sources 325
largest 100 industrial firms in US 99
linked or technology‐related 251
merchant houses 179
new products 183
owner/investor strategies 488
product 282, 402
risk 485, 486
sizeable discount 248
strategic 350
via acquisition 252
diversity 17, 125, 248, 435
cultural 611
dealing with 432–4
management of 424
organizational 111
divestiture 547
divestment 189
dividend payments 75, 86
dividends:
laws outlawing 477
payments missed 487
division of labor 121, 208, 385, 422
extended 223
gender 126
hierarchical and functional 72, 78, 79
how to organize 425
interfirm 223
internal 262, 425
international 287, 423
marker of 618
quasi 30
redefined 285
divisionalization 99, 103
divisions 433
divorce rate 197
DKB 249
Dobbin, F. 530, 539, 540
Docker, Dudley 504
dōgyō kumiai 229
dollar shortage 150
dominant logic 110
dominant price‐setting 282
Donaldson, L. 99
Dore, R. 82 n., 605–6
Dosi, Giovanni 130 n.
Douglas, Mary 604 n.
Douglas, Y. 112
Dow Chemical 285
Dowd, T. 530, 539, 540
Dowlais Iron Company 174, 455
downsizing 75
downstream command 255
downstream trading relationships 286
downturns 8
attempt to manage macroeconomic fluctuations during 287
tendency for firms in LMEs to respond by laying off workers 565
drafting machines 386
draftsmen 374, 377, 379, 391
boundary between designers and 380, 381
crowded together with designers 386
school 381
(p. 652) draftsmen (cont.)
sharp distinction between professional engineers and 381
strong competences in generating and reading engineering drawings 389
Dragonair 252
drainage systems 158
drawings 374, 375, 376, 379, 381, 387, 391
best‐practice 380
dimensional 380
documentation and communication with suppliers 391
flow production of 384
microfilm representation of 386
multiplied 380
reading and interpreting 383
record offices for 385–6
rough 378
strong competences in generating and reading 389
systems for generating 387
Dresdner Bank 179
Drucker, P. F. 98
drugs and toiletries 409
drugstores 416
Dubbel 383–4
Duisburg 223
Duke 177
dumping 283
Dun and Bradstreet records 509
Dunlavy, Colleen A. 470 n., 534, 550
Dunlop 182, 461
Dunning, J. H. 105, 144
DuPont (automobiles) 27, 39, 40, 98, 183, 212, 273
MDF developed at 456
DuPont de Nemours (chemicals and health care) 178, 354, 355, 516, 612
DuPont Powder Company 461
durability 15, 208, 388, 390
Dutch catchword 382 see also Netherlands
Dutta, S. 205
dye products 111, 177, 279, 351, 355
Dyer, W. G. 100
dyestuffs firms 278
dynamic accounting 456
dynasties 14, 173, 200
desire to found 204
dysfunction 283, 285, 604
Earle, Peter 608
early industrialization 202, 206, 324, 377–8, 398
American patenting system in 511
artisanal sector 572
importance of family business in 197
securities markets little utilized by domestic firms for much of 473
East Asia 3, 147, 159
extended family 197
family and business culturally inseparable 201
“great divergence” between Western Europe and 143
large firms 205
literature in Chinese on 5
local and regional production systems 220 see also China; Japan; Taiwan
East India Companies 143
Eastern Europe 11, 14, 50
charts of accounts 452
collapse of Communism 150
expansion of business education 594
Jews 507, 609
uncertainties regarding property rights and enforcement of contracts 152
Eastman, George 351
Eastman Kodak 178, 351, 403
Eck, Jean‐François 221 n.
eclectic paradigm 105
eclecticism 503, 504
Écoles des Arts et Métiers 381, 392
econometric data 361
economic activity 49–50
economic agents:
capacity to imagine and weigh up alternative courses of action 123
reasons for their actions 131–2
economic change 204, 502, 503, 603, 606
internal conflicts over challenges posed by 133
mainsprings of 128–9
rejected frameworks for understanding of 127
uncertain relationship between identity and 608
economic cycles 311
economic development 40, 67–95, 324, 336, 347, 477
banks outperform markets at low levels of 323
business and government in 90–1
business groups facilitate 254
business groups identified as playing crucial roles in 244–5
desire to promote 534
government promotion of 529
national, crucial roles in 274
natural resources could restrict 388
policies 478
(p. 653)
positive correlation between financial wealth and 320
public 476
rapid 406
rejecting the idea of an underlying logic of 133
rejection of “narrow track” models of 121
successful 360
whether international cartels promoted 284
economic geography 106, 149
economic governance 125–6
economic growth 14, 415, 609, 613
cartels have not damaged 269
channels through which the emergence of financial systems affects 320
culture as adjunct to 603
explaining patterns of 510
fostered by patent system 511
importance of creation of large‐scale, managerially directed firms 42
internally generated driving force in 347
knowledge about how to achieve and sustain 158
long‐run 320, 323, 506, 510
modern, advent of 144
national patterns (c.1990) 323
phases of 310
promoted 613
Protestantism and 508
railroad's most important contribution to 41
rapid 513
slow 506
sustained 538
economic history 29, 39, 40, 69, 97, 103
business and 30, 42–4
marginalization within economics 109
economic integration 231
European, proponents of 150
world 144, 145
economic performance 254, 506, 507, 533
best 323
commitments to broad ideological stances about 530
differing ideologies about 532
financial systems and 338–43
lagging 353
long‐run 505
mining companies 542
national, culture and 605–6
relative decline in 339
stubborn interest in 30
economic policies 299, 309
liberal 145
major 307 n.
economic power 151
economic recovery 362, 363, 477
economic restructuring 219
economic theory 30, 37–66, 69, 271
developmental 69
relationship between cost and 459 see also neoclassical theory
economics faculties 585
economies of scale 54, 78, 122, 176, 246, 283, 511
achievement of 79, 177, 178, 400
banks prevented them from benefiting from 339
distribution, manufacturers needing quickly to build 412
external 434, 532
increasing the need for 79
lack of 405
large 545, 546
less important in promoting technological innovation 515
potential, exploitation of 130 n.
pursuit of 122
realized 259
theoretical 126
urban retailers' gains in 403
economies of scope 17, 176, 246, 511
achievement of 79, 177, 178
aiding the development of 517
arising from use of common materials 122
banks could not benefit from 339
cooperative competition in 283
distribution, manufacturers needing quickly to build 412
important information 322
lack of 405
large 546
needed to carry products over large distances 401
potential, exploitation of 130 n.
realized 259
urban retailers' gains in 403
economies of variety 122
ecosystems 158
Edeka 405, 416
Edison, Thomas A. 112, 348, 353
education 263, 363, 389, 477, 569–70
business 581–602
changing opportunities 209
collective vocational systems 226
cross‐national differences 559
differences in 609
engineering 381, 382
government investments in 90
(p. 654) education (cont.)
greater participation of women in 560
high school 80
history of 18
level improved 183
mass 593
national systems 562
positive relationship between wages and 559
primary and secondary 82
professional 364
scientific 569
technical 568
university 80, 392, 565
allocative 323
assessed relative to particular patterns of demand and supply 126
begetting market power 55
competition essential to 288
diversity of routes to 4
financial 342
ideal 91
internalizing innovation in pursuit of 350
management 453
market power begetting 53, 55
persistent, family firm 207
processes aimed at achieving manipulated by employees 462
productive 618
technical 286
technological 120
efficiency movement 383
efficiency theory 103
EFMD (European Foundation for Management Development) 592, 595
Egypt 158
Ehrmann, H. W. 298
EIASM (European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management) 589, 592, 593
Eisenhardt, K. M. 98
Elbaum, Bernard 44, 569
electric arc furnaces 235
electric lighting/lamps 112, 270
Electric Railway 412
electrical companies:
economic research by 28
stress on technology, product quality and advertising 413
electrical domestic appliances 408–9
electrical engineering 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 183, 284, 378, 453
companies 84
electrical equipment 181, 185, 377
electrical goods 432
expensive 20
electrical industry 405
electrical machinery 375
Électricité de France 541
electricity 145, 151, 181, 182, 186, 354, 428, 529, 615
interstate transmission of 542
key economic role of 541
municipal ownership 542
privatization of transmission grids 547
run by private enterprise under concession systems 534
technological advances in supply 547
technological changes in 532, 544
electrification 350
electrochemical industries 353, 354, 360
electronic age 284
electronic data interchange 448
electronics 160, 208, 356, 359
consumer 20
rapid growth of firms 360
regional 229
salaried managers in 78
solid‐state 357
transition from vacuum tubes to transistors 353
elites 617
corporate 415
economic 206
financial 534
indulgent 401
investors 487
political 568
privileged 587
ruling 568
small, power in the hands of 512
state 568 see also business elites
e‐mail 448
embeddedness 20, 22, 564–6, 605–10
embezzlement 226
emerging markets/economies 5, 150, 151, 264
business groups found in 248, 254, 258
constraint on 152
minimizing the gap between advanced and 257 n.
self‐financing 325
tolerance of risks of 156
Emilia Romagna 207, 233
Emirbayer, Mustafa 123 n.
(p. 655) empirical variables 125
empiricism 22, 509, 520
causal 505, 508
wide‐ranging 503
employee ownership 358
employer associations 294, 295, 306, 309, 424, 426, 566
birth and development of 298
effectiveness vis‐à‐vis interlocutors and membership 299
TAs' pivotal role in founding 297
employment:
adjusting to fluctuations in demand 79
bureaucratic 427
contingent 434
high degree of insecurity 82
lifelong 80, 83, 84
long‐term commitments 564
permanent 83, 84, 87
some of the largest bureaucratic systems of 427
starting age of 423
territorial pacts 231
variegated and flexible 434
women's 437
employment relations 244 n., 420, 426
externalization of 439
how to organize 425
internalization of 439
employment security 75, 83
enemy nations 14
enemy‐owned companies 147
energy:
companies and the state 541–4
exhaustion of forests as a source of 12
network industries in 27
privatization of 548
Energy Policy Act (US 1992) 547
Engerman, Stanley L. 512, 530
engineering 151
American system of manufactures 428
applied 569
design and 374–95
superior professional education in 364
well‐recognized expertise in 414
engineering colleges 380
engineering departments 355, 356
engineering drawings 374, 375, 376, 379, 380, 384, 385–6
making 381
minor role 390
reading and interpreting 381, 383, 389
engineering journals 386
engineering schools 19, 380, 389
engineers 26, 82
design office the most important occupational branch for 381
military 13, 14
possessing no practical experience 380–1
preference for 585
specialized 83
training for 567 n.
England 144, 613
country banks 517
sixteenth‐century 508
England and Wales 175, 330
businessmen active in 509
Englander, Ernest 612
Engwall, L. 107, 108, 582, 583, 590
ENI (Ente Nazionale Idrocaruri) 532, 543–4
Enlightenment 607
Enron 211, 452
enterprise groups 88, 184, 249, 273
interconnected 477
Enterprise & Society (journal) 3, 52
Enterprises et Histoire (journal) 3
entertainment 23, 188, 617
entertainment districts 225 n.
entrepreneurship/entrepreneurs 4, 37, 50, 268, 285, 501–28
behavior in peasant activities 207
corporate methods 617
cost‐conscious 13
creative regions more likely to develop complementary services that sustained 360
diaspora 3
dynastic 205
effervescence 208
ethnic 609
family nurture of 608
foreign women 24
functions 353
how American values encouraged 603–4
immigrant 609
importance of 142
indigenous 15, 531, 537
initiatives 106
innovative 324, 502
inventors 352
new investment schemes as alternatives to class conflict 618
organization 348
powerful 610
Schumpeter's notions of 43, 68, 502, 503, 515
small ventures 146
start‐ups 2
strategies 295
studies of 109–10
(p. 656) entrepreneurship… (cont.)
successful 159, 506, 508, 509, 610
valuable employees 358
weakness of 336
entry:
ease of 226
rapid 208
entry barriers 303
competitive 397
environmental policy 5
EPA (European Productivity Agency) 589, 592
epochs 128
equality 560
equilibrium 69, 347
competitive 503
disruption of 68
EQUIS (European Quality Improvement System) 595
equity 145
direct holdings 475
equity financing growth 423
equity issues 321
sharp increase in 327
equity markets:
emergence of 324
stunted development of 337
undeveloped 253
well‐developed 322
world, faltering 150
equity shares 247
equity stakes 88, 332
Erba toothpaste
ergonomics 19, 28, 386
Ericsson 160, 460
Erie Canal 539
error detection/correction 125 n.
“root cause” 234
ESCP (École Supérieure de Commerce) 585
Esso 544
Estée Lauder 200
Estevez‐Abe, Margarita 560, 566
Estonia 548
ethics 159
labor 207
professional 31
ethnic minorities 513
ethnicity 147, 514, 609
access to resources by 509
functional and instrumental view of 609
tight immigration controls based on 147
EU (European Union) 231, 423, 474, 548, 596
attempts to encourage harmonization of financial reporting 452
energy market liberalization 548
pressures from the drive to single market 532
significant role in privatization process 548–9
Eurobond markets 330
Eurodollar markets 149, 330
European Association for Banking History 30
European Association of Management Training Centres 593
European Business History Association 29, 50
European business schools 101, 583, 585–8, 589, 593, 594–5
active cooperation with 593
stronger international profile 594–5
strongly influenced by American role models 597
success of MBA programs at 594
traditional 590–1
European Coal and Steel Community 278
European Commission 231
European Economic Community 279
European empires 147
European Single Market 343, 532
consolidation of 548
Europeanization 309
evaluation techniques 234
evening courses 381
evolutionary branching points 128
evolutionary economics 38, 53 n., 103, 109, 131
heritage of 105
evolutionary ideas/theories 111, 127, 516
based on path‐dependent firm innovations 516
exchange controls 153, 155
exchange rates:
efforts to influence 152
varying 195
executives 25, 74 see also top executives
exigencies 398
exit 208
expansion:
covering costs of 479
financing 339
foreign 104
geographical 283
global/international 142
higher education 593, 596
limited 179
linked closely to marriage strategies 203
overseas 617
expatriates 158
Scots 402, 514
expenditure patterns 398
(p. 657) experience 16
technological 82
experimental workshops 230
experimentation 260, 490
controlled 433
hybridizing 132
labor management 433
expertise 81, 351, 359, 611
major source of 209
noted in collaborative product development 123 n.
strategic decision‐making 76
well‐recognized 414
explanatory variables 304
exploitation 47, 130 n., 132
of opportunities 513
self or family 132
world resources 145
exploration 148
Explorations in Economic History (journal) 49
Explorations in Entrepreneurial History (journal) 503, 504
explosives 180
export cartels 274, 276
exports 148
cloth 531
commodity 157
promoting 280
expropriation 14, 148, 477
compulsory 535
high risk of 512
potential 277
extended family 197, 198, 224
elderly people revered as part of 209
specialization among 208
external finance 326–32, 340, 472
robustness of markets for 483
externalities 126
locational 400
poaching 562
externality principle 48
extractive industries 174
trading firms in 246
Exxon 185, 188
fabriques collectives 220–1, 228
faceless bureaucrats 80
factor‐market conditions 91
factor supplies 122
Factory Accounts (Garcke and Fells) 454
factory dormitories 426
factory labor 26
factory system 425
management 160
Fagerberg, J. 71
failure 17, 196–7, 365, 605
entrepreneurial 507, 509 see also market failure
Fair Trade Commission (Japan) 279
Fairchild 358
Fairchild Semiconductor 504
family structure 126, 611
family business 2, 5, 19–20, 146, 183, 194–218, 245, 253, 254, 607
cartelized 274, 282
closely held 472, 473, 474–5
conservative 531
durability 15
gender and 23–4
high levels of ownership and control 250
predominance of 15
transformation into public companies 327
vibrancy of 44
Family Business Magazine 195
Family Business Review (journal) 195
family wealth:
dilution of 203
preserving 252
protecting 203, 205, 209
Far East 530
Farjoun, M. 110–11, 112
Farr, J. R. 303
Farrell, Henry 227
Fascists/Fascism 228, 302, 415, 430, 530
autarkic policies 533
conventional distinctions between socialism, capitalism and 532
differing ideologies about performance under 532
manufacturing under 530–1
fashion 25, 411, 415–16
international hub of 150
locally mediated and adapted 618
male 402
“fashion intermediaries” 614
fast‐food restaurants 422
low‐level mundane work in 435
fast‐to‐market ambitions 264
Faure, D. 5
FCC (US Federal Communications Commission) 546, 547
FCI (Finance Corporation for Industry) 519
FDI (foreign direct investment) 144
American, in Europe 185
creating attractive conditions for 363
early pioneer of 146
new outflows 148
political risks of 148
(p. 658) FDI (cont.)
stock reduced of to zero 147
world 146, 150
Fear, J. 5, 102, 253, 450, 605 n., 612, 620 n.
Febvre, Lucien 9
Federal Express 130 n.
Federal government powers 534
federal systems 231
Federal Trade Commissioners (US) 229
federalism 227
federations 301, 309
coordinated 153
interindustry 249
intermarket 249 n.
long‐lasting 244
more inclusive 306
Federico, G. 529
Feilden Report (UK 1963) 384
Fellmann, S. 583
female liberation 614
feminist theory 213
Ferguson, T. 531
Ferrera, Maurizio 231 n.
Ferrero Barilla 200
Ferri, Giovanni 228, 232 n.
Fiat 200, 211, 225, 415, 431
fiber optics 516
fiduciary systems 481
Filipino trading communities 514
film 617
American industry (1895–1920) 111
cameras and 403
finance 28, 72, 79, 85–9
access to 532
banking and 319–46, 475
bridging 475
entrepreneurial 516–19
insider 423
international 200, 330
network industries in 27
start‐up 230
sustained 91 see also external finance
Financial Accounting Standards Board (US) 451
financial centers 149
world 179
financial distress 77 n., 328, 341
financial districts 223, 225 n.
financial history 30, 328, 335, 336
Financial History Review 30
financial institutions 88, 327, 328, 405, 618
apparent harmony with securities markets 475
different types of 86, 332
efficient, development of 324
equity stakes 472
non‐profit 342
Paris‐centric 228
political concern to limit concentrated economic power 481
powerful 323
private sector 519
regulated 184
role of 208
specialized 230, 324
transformation of 75
financial intermediation 149, 320, 326–32, 334
financial markets 103, 196, 323
actions undertaken to improve efficiency of 337
development of 336, 452
efficient, lack of 326
families raise resources on 196
fully‐fledged, some countries early in developing 338
globalization of 478
international, physical location of 149
labor systems shaped by 423
maturity 334
predominance of 322
pressure for development 486
recovery of 326
share of 326
specialized 322
stunted 336
take‐off of several 327
well‐developed 322, 334, 335
financial reporting 449
convergence in respect of 464, 465
development of standards 450
fraudulent 451
harmonization of 452
subservience to 458
financial returns 73, 85, 90
financial sector:
diversified 476
structure of 320
financial services 323, 424
patterns which have long existed 435
financial statements 450, 451–2
financial systems 4, 319–38, 517
and economic performance 338–43
evolution of 487
historical evolution of 486
shaped 510
variations in 335–8
(p. 659) Financial Times top 100 business schools 596
financiers 179
Finanzkapital 173
Fincham, R. 107
Findlay, R. 144
Fine, Ben 44
Fine Cotton Spinners' and Doublers' Association 178
Finegold, David 130 n., 561, 571
fines 281
Finland 233, 278
business schools 583, 591
telecom firms, joint ventures 548
Finlay (James) 179
Finnish Institute of Management 591
fire insurers 271
First Industrial Revolution 12, 17, 25, 174–6, 197–8, 207, 374, 455, 462
early forms of labor management 425–6
understanding the causes of 503
first‐mover advantage 329
long‐lasting 400
first‐movers 2, 271, 584
First National City Bank 184
first‐tier firms 260
First World War 13, 147, 180, 307–8
impact of 311
industries weakened as a result of Germany's defeat 181
strengthened position of unions 429
fiscal conditions 149
Fisher Body 51, 123 n.
fisheries 112
restructuring initiatives for 280
Fishlow, A. 330
fishmongers 274
fixed costs 72, 73, 91, 92, 274, 546
determinants of 460
development of productive resources entails 78
distinction between semi‐fixed, variable and 459
flexible use of labor enables firm to avoid 79
high 177, 275, 535, 540
fixed‐price stores 414
flashbacks 128
Fleischman, R. K. 461
flexibility 17, 257, 350, 433
access to information needed for 200
adapting to changing markets and demand patterns 220
charts of accounts 453
dark side of 132–3
flexibility dealing with 432–4
era of 128
job 433
key to 206
lack of 357
main source of competitive advantage 199
source of 341
flexible regional economies 132, 134 n., 228
institutional supports for 231
flexible specialization 97, 106, 121, 124, 129, 134 n.
boundaries between mass production and 130
new organizational framework for 220
flight and hotel packages 545
Fligstein, N. 103, 282
Florida, R. 106
fluid dynamics 386
Fogel, Robert 40, 41
Fogelson, Robert 615
Fohlin, Caroline 332, 342 n., 470 n., 476
food and drink 144, 151, 178, 181, 182, 183, 185, 402–6, 409, 415, 432, 433
branded 410
leading firms 411
most important family‐owned multinationals 203
one of the world's largest multi‐brand companies 416
foodstuffs cartels 277
Ford, Henry 382, 391, 403, 618
Ford Foundation 588, 589, 591, 592
Ford Motor Company 10, 14, 46, 126, 153, 156, 181, 182, 185, 198, 200, 204, 409
aircraft building 391
car dealerships 412
centenary 212
international expansion 142
research and development centers 154
union recognition 430
Fordism 97, 128, 352, 439
foreign banks 330
foreign exchange 329
foreign firms 145, 147, 151, 188–9
collaboration 155
gender implications of employment policies 158
governments blocking 148
historical impact on developing countries 157
importance of 157
knowledge spillovers to developing countries 158
large employers of labor 158
local entrepreneurial responses to 162
(p. 660) foreign firms (cont.)
local response to 157
openness towards 154
reactions against 155
sensitivities towards 155
strategies and ethical responsibilities in repressive regimes 156
transfer of organization and technologies across borders 159
widespread decline in receptivity to 148
foreign influence 18
foreign investment 28, 328 see also FDI
foreign investors 157
foreign occupation 430
foreign policy 277
foreign practices 124
foreign trade 534
asymmetries 254
foreign workers 572
foreknowledge 45
Foreman‐Peck, James 44, 508, 509, 529
foremen 81, 83, 379
“foreshadowing” 129
forests:
exhaustion of 12
jungle, cutting down 158
“formal monism” 452
Forsyth, Douglas J. 231 n., 336
Fortune 500 listing 200, 247
Foucault, M. 106, 456, 611
Fox, Alan 427
FPC (US Federal Power Commission) 542
fragility 124
France 26, 31, 147, 176, 178, 537, 538, 613
accounting 451, 452, 455, 460, 461–2, 463, 464
advertising 22
apprenticeship 563
armament firms 13
banking and finance 175, 331, 332, 334, 335, 336, 337, 343, 474, 518
best performing companies 180
BIAs 298, 299, 302, 305
big business 173, 175, 179, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189
blueprint for most nationalizations 26
electricity companies 550
business education/schools 582, 583, 584, 585–6, 589, 590, 591, 594, 595, 597
business history 17, 29
capital guarantees 536
cartels 274, 276, 278, 279
central government power 534
centralization 306
chambers of commerce 304
coal 541, 543
consumer product sectors 399
corporate governance 109, 471, 472, 474, 478, 480, 481, 483, 487, 489, 491
design 376, 378, 381, 382, 384, 389, 392
diversification and divisionalization 99
economic performance 506
education 586
energy policy 541
engineering schools and commerce schools 19
entrepreneurship 506
external finance 326
fabriques collectives 220–1, 228
government attempts to reduce strategic weakness 530
government revenues from privatization 548
grand patronat 172
guilds 303, 304
historically unitary polities 231
holding companies 183–4
ideological radicalism mainly involving SMEs 311
industrial districts 222, 225, 226, 232 n.
industrial research 359
industrialized R&D 354
innovation 365
interest groups 543
labor management 423, 428, 429, 431, 432, 433
large companies set up new research laboratories 359
largest companies 180, 435
les trentes glorieuses 228
loss of total foreign investment 147
management of labor 421
market capitalization 333, 487
marketing and distribution 404, 405, 407, 410, 414–15, 416
mixed banks 153
motor cars 181
multidivisional structure 183
nationalization of coal companies 542
negative effects of lock‐in 359
North Africa interests 544
prime concern (from 1860s) 533
rail network 175, 536
railroad conventions (1883) 536
rejection of British mass production methods 616
savings banks 329
school‐based training systems 574
(p. 661)
securities markets 451 n.
sharecropping in early modern agriculture 51
state control 182
telecoms 546
textile industry 173
training dominantly school based 563
union membership 429, 430, 432, 439
university degrees 183
uproar caused by entry of Coca‐Cola 155
vocational education and training 562, 564
wine industry 617
women in offices 24
franchises 146, 413, 416
Franco dictatorship 533
Franco‐German cooperation 278
Franco‐Prussian War (1870–1) 536
Frankfurt 175
Frankfurt School 603
Franks, Julian 484
fraudulent activity 451, 452
free enterprise 21
free riders 54 n., 125, 296, 561, 565
free‐standing companies 49, 104, 146, 251
clustered in business groups 153
funds raised for 251
free trade policies 512
Freeland, Robert F. 51, 104, 123 n., 612
“freeters” 84
freight shipments 41, 274
French Empire 15, 403
French Popular Front 11
French Revolution 228
Freyer, Tony A. 282, 512, 530
Frick, Carole 317
frictionless adjustment 127
Fridenson, Patrick 5, 365, 606
Friedman, David 230
Friuli 227
frontier spirit 506
Fruin, W. M. 2, 153, 255, 610
Fry 400
Fudan University Department of Business Administration 596
Fuji Conference 29
full costing 449, 453, 458, 459–60
determining 462
modern variant of earlier methods 463
full employment 431
functional design 381–2
functionalism 12
Futagi 414
Fuyo (Fuji Bank) 88, 249
GAAP (Generally Agreed Accounting Principles) 451, 452
Galambos, Louis 30–1, 40, 102, 108, 353, 538, 539
Galeries Lafayette 405, 414
Gallman, R. 530
Gallup 408
Galunic, D. C. 257
game theory 46–7, 51, 55, 297
gangmasters 428
Ganne, Bernard 228 n.
Gardey, Delphine 24
Garner, S. P. 454
gas 26, 182
field exploration