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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 976) Index

(p. 976) Index

Abbasid 265, 268–9
Abbasid dynasty 948
Abbasid glass 459
Abd al-Malik 44
Abdera, fortifications 382
Abraham 68
Abramios, John, astrologer 813
Abu Maʻshar 812
Abydos 144
acclamations 145, 514, 515, 674, 681, 783, 927, 928
Achaemenid empire 940
Achaia, Prince of 283
Achaia, Principality of 280, 286
acheiropoietos (-ai) 744, 754, 761
Acheiropoietos;
Achilleis 800, 902
Achilles Tatius, Leukippe and Kleitophon 832
Achilles, ekphrasis of 722
Acre, Holy Land 671
Acta of martyrs 863
Acta Pauli et Thecla 863
Acta Sanctorum 868–9
Adam, Sin and Fall of 706
Adapazari 305
Adata 951
ADC;
see Candia
adelphopoiia (spiritual blood-brotherhood) 657, 663, 664
administration 539 ff.
after 1204 545
after Herakleios 518–19
career possibilities in 542–3
departments of 542
role of emperor in 541–2
under Basil II 521–3
under the Komnenoi 523, 543–5
under the Palaiologoi 524–6, 545
adoption 656
law on 653–5
obligations of 657
Adramyttion 300
Adrianople (Edirne) 222, 240, 290, 296, 522
Adrianople, Pamphylia 623
Adriatic Sea 54, 220, 222, 265, 296, 297, 445, 560, 672
Adulis 449
Advanced Papyrological Information System 124
Aegean 939, 946
Aegean Islands 141, 147, 264, 279, 425, 672
Aegean region 313, 554
Aegean Sea 220, 243, 286, 291, 430, 483, 488, 560, 638
Aegean theme 559
Aegean ware, types of 436–7
Aelian 788
on tactics 907
Africa 220, 253, 254, 539, 574, 585
North Africa 243, 254, 311, 455
African Church, canons of 590
African red slip ware 430
Africans 778
Agathias, of Myrina 385, 483, 838, 839
Agatho, pope 586
Aghlabids 265
agorai;
agoronomoi 40
agriculture 397 ff,
crops 400–1
expansion of 634–4
harnesses, for horses and oxen 398
irrigation methods 403–5
mills, types of 402–3
muscle power 398
plough types 398–9
ploughing techniques 398
presses for wine and olives
sickle types 399
terraces 399
tools for 399–400
Ahmad ibn Yusuf 812
Ahmed the Persian 812
Ainalov, D. V. 771
(p. 977) Aischylos 102, 106
Persians 101
Persians, Prometheus Bound, Seven Against Thebes 788
Akakian Schism 585, 593, 616
Akakios, patriarch 585, 593
Akathistos hymn 725, 859, 895
icons of 735
Akindynos, Gregory, letters 887
Akoimetoi (Sleepless Monks) 918
Akolouthia tes Kaminou 924
Akolouthia ton Akoimeton 604
Akoulouthiai (Orders of Service) 926
Akritic Songs 929
Akropolites, Constantine 79
and hagiography 868
Akropolites, George, historian 846
al Khazini, Zij as-Sanjari 807
Alahan 50
al-Andalus (Spain) 422
Alans 558
Alaric 241
Albania 49, 200, 221, 222
Albanians 313
alchemy 813
Alemanni 239
Aleppo 226, 269
Alexander III, pope 596
Alexander the Great 687, 779
life of 379
Alexander, emperor 266–7
Alexander, prince of Gothia 35
Alexandria 120, 159, 445, 449, 454, 484, 490, 494, 528, 573, 586, 588, 601, 608, 624, 744, 779, 812, 821
and Neoplatonic philosophical schools 712, 713, 803
Era of 33
Museum 821
patriarchate 599
population estimates for 310
prosodic signs 922
see of 241, 574
Serapeum 821
theology
Alexios and Ioannis, founders of Pantokrator monastery, Mt Athos 766
Alexios I Komnenos 129, 166, 206, 212, 273, 274–5, 312, 523, 543, 560, 564, 634, 635, 637, 806, 811, 812, 844
Alexios II Komnenos 34, 276
Alexios III Angelos 276, 282
Alexios IV Angelos 276
Alexios Philanthropenos 287
Alexios, homo dei, vita of 862
Alexios, patriarch 605
Alexios, translator from Arabic 812
al-Fahhad, Zij al-Alaʻi 807
al-Hakim 607
al-Khwarismi 805
Allen's scriptorium 106
al-Maʻmun, caliph 806
Almyros 635, 636
Alphonsine Tables 808
Alps 183
Alypios, saint 622
Alypius, on musical notation 917
Amalric of Jerusalem 274
Amastris 300
Ambelakia, Schwartz House 184
Ambrose of Milan 573, 876
American Numismatic Society 160
Amida 403
Amisos 300
Ammianianus, historian 838, 839
Ammonas, letters 885
Ammonios, philosopher 713
amophorae, types and production of 434
Amorian dynasty 264
Amorion 53, 265, 300
Amphipolis 376
Anacharsis 832
Analecta Bollandiana 869
Anastasia/Anastasios, vita of 864
Anastasiopolis 574
Anastasios I 244, 250, 957
and coinage 161
Anastasios of Sinai 25
Anastasios, scribe 108
Anastasios, silk merchant 151
Anastasioupolis, walls of 382
Anastasis 153, 212
Anatolia 21, 48, 50, 52, 53, 167, 219, 220, 226, 229, 230, 265, 275, 300, 312, 360, 557, 778, 846, 939, 946
geography of 223–5
Anatolic theme 519
Anazarbos 144, 445
Anderin 339
Anderson, P. 16
Andrew of Crete 834, 835, 859, 875, 878, 920
Great Kanon 897
Andrew Palaiologos, a ‘Zealot’ 288
Andrew the Fool, vita of 866
Andriotes, lexicon of Modern Greek 98
Andronikos I Komnenos 273, 276, 525, 666
(p. 978) Andronikos II Palaiologos 167, 287, 289, 525, 846, 868
Andronikos III Palaiologos 285, 287, 289, 426, 525
Andronikos IV Palaiologos 291
Andronikos Kallistos 625
Andronikos, Kamateros, and Sacred Panoply 596
Andros 410, 425
Anemourion 496
Angeloi, the 276, 523, 666
Angevins 545, 945
Ani 272, 273, 951
Anicia Juliana 210, 648
Ankara 50, 291, 338
Ankyra 52, 148, 298
Ankyra, council of;
Anna Dalassene 274
Anna Komnene 34, 379, 811, 812, 815
and Alexiad 13, 82, 781, 833, 844, 848
and commentaries on Aristotle 714
Anne of Savoy 289
Annonios (philosopher) 717
Annunciation 67, 153, 725, 727
Annus Domini 31, 32
Annus Hegirae 32
Annus Mundi 33
Anomoeans 876
Anselm, translated into Greek 714
Antaiopolite 120
Anthemios of Tralles 208, 805, 811
Anthemios, praetorian prefect 242, 243
anthithesis in art 726–7
Anthologia Palatina;
Anti-Lebanon 226
Antioch 42, 238, 239, 253, 272, 304, 339, 374, 446, 498, 528, 573, 574, 586, 588, 596, 601, 608, 624, 625, 790, 840, 874, 951
Golden Octagon 341
council of;
patriarchate 599
population estimates 310
see of 241
theology of 703, 704
Antioch-on-the-Orontes;
Antiochos, praepositus sacri cubiculi 242
Antiochos;
Antiphonarion 924
Anti-Taurus mountains 226, 257, 269
Antwerp 868
Apamea 573
Aphrahat, the ‘Persian sage’, Demonstrations 613
Aphrodisias 147, 375, 381, 681
Aphrodites, kome of 123
Aphthartodocetism 958
Aphthonios, of Antioch 829, 830, 831
APIS Project 124
Apocalypse of the Prophet Daniel 812
Apokaukos, Grand Duke Alexios 289, 290, 464
Apokaukos, John, bishop of Naupaktos 378, 623, 653, 655
Apollinarianism 703, 704
Apollinaris of Laodikeia 703
Apollonia (Aulona) 296
Apollonia, Libya 375
Apollonios Rhodios 102, 106, 109
Apollonios, mathematician 803
Apollos, father of Dioskoros 123
apophatic theology 701–2
apophthegmata patrum 857, 863
Apostles 841
Apostles Peter, Paul and John 744
Apostolic Canons 588, 589
Apostolic Constitutions 529, 531
apparatus criticus 90
Apulia 949
Apulia, Duke of 273
aqueduct of Hadrian;
aqueduct of Valens;
aqueducts 336, 338, 376, 380–1, 383, 635
Aquinas, Thomas 158
De Regimine Principum 158
translated into Greek 714
Arab armies 625
Arab attacks 632
Arab conquests 455, 781, 961
Arab fleets, successes of 947
Arab invasions 300, 571, 841
Arab military threat 754
Arab power 229
Arab raids 519
Arab warship 555
Arab weights 44
Arab world 496
Arabia 229
Arabian desert 227
Arabic 21, 98, 803, 814, 909
Arabic astronomical tables 805
Arabo-Turkish makamlar 923
Arabs 45, 229, 255, 256, 261, 265, 269, 311, 331, 359, 409, 422, 479, 518, 520, 704, 790, 803, 805, 911, 946, 959
Aragon 285, 286
Aramaic 779
(p. 979) Arapkir Çayi 306
Aratos, Phainomena 789
Arbogast 241
archaeology 23, 26
Byzantine 47–56
Byzantine, approaches to 48–9, 51
Byzantine, national agendas 49–51
Byzantine, periodization 49
of landscape 55
archiatroi 627
Archimedes 109, 803
Archimedes screw 404
architecture, ecclesiastical, approaches to 353–4
early Christian 355–7
in sixth century 357–8
later periods 358–63
interaction with liturgy 732–3
archival sources 22, 27
Archives de lʻAthos 137, 139, 140
Arethas of Caesarea 106, 714, 822, 886
letters 886
scholia on Aristotle's Categories 717
Argolid 154
Argos 380
Argyroi, the 519, 522
Ariadne, empress 244, 250, 648
Arian musical propaganda 919
Arianism 238, 240, 575, 584, 589, 863
Arians 252, 253, 876
Aristaenetos, letters 886
Aristenos, commentary on nomokanones 694
Aristides Quintilianus, music theorist 917, 927
aristocracy, activities of 519–21
under Basil II 522
under the Komnenoi 523–4
under the Palaiologoi 525
Aristophanes 106
Wealth, Clouds, Frogs 788
Aristotelians 716
Aristotle 158, 707, 715, 716, 718, 815
and logic 714, 717
and philosophy 712
Art of Rhetoric 828
Categories 717
Categories 823
De Interpretatione 717
Latin versions of 110
On Categories 884
Politics 158,
Ethics 158
Prior Analytics 717
Aristotle, pseudo-, De Mirabilibus Auscultationibus 496
Aristoxenos, music theorist 917, 927
arithmetic 804–5
Arius 583–4
Arizona mesas 183
Arkadios 197, 205, 236, 241, 242
Armatova, in Eleia 380
Armenia 11, 35, 170, 225, 229, 240, 271, 272, 273, 312, 337, 358, 444, 459, 575, 779, 951, 953, 954
Armenia, Cilician 170
Armeniakon theme 567
Armenian language 21, 116, 462, 814, 909
Armenian as literary language 779
Armenian colophons 462
Armenian Lectionary 920
Armenians 34, 271, 275, 520
armies, seventh to eight centuries 554–5
changes in 521–2
in tenth-century 269
structures in fifth and sixth centuries 554
under the Komnenians 557
under the Palaiologoi 558
Arrian 839
Arsamosata 951
Arsenios Autoreianos, patriarch 846
Arsinoe 123
art history, Byzantine, formalist approaches 60, 70
approaches to after 1980 62–3
approaches to before 1980 59–62
current approaches to 13
theoretical approaches to 62
art, early Christian 68
Arta 323
church of Paregoritissa 362
Artabasdos 260
artillery, types of 478–80
Artsruni prince 951
ascetic theology 706–7
Asemus 572
Asia Minor 22, 147, 166, 254, 257, 258, 265, 275, 280, 282, 286, 287, 291, 293, 296, 301, 311, 312, 313, 322, 331, 333, 335, 337, 338, 340, 341, 425, 426, 429, 447, 448, 473, 495, 521, 523, 554, 557, 567, 602, 639, 780, 781, 949, 961
routes in 298–300
Asiana, diocese of 574
Asianic style, in homilies 874
Asiatic aggression 958
Asklepios (god of healing) 455
Asklepios (philosopher) 713
Askra, Boeotia 430
(p. 980) Asmatike Akolouthia 604
Asmatikon 924, 925
Aspar 243, 249
Aspendos 341
Aspromonte 780
Assyrian Church of the East 584, 591, 592
Astrolabe, Brescia 450, 810
astrology 809, 811–13
astronomy 99, 788, 789
mathematical 805–9
Aswan High Dam 115
Athanasios I, patriarch, letters 887
vita of 868
Athanasios of Emesa, Syntagma 692
Athanasios, bishop of Alexandria 238–9, 575, 589, 590, 703, 704, 705, 829, 863
Life of Antony 612–13
letters 885
Athanasios, of the Great Lavra, Athos 605
vita of 866
Athens 5, 33, 47, 49, 159, 313, 484, 524, 578, 632, 770, 790, 821, 827
agora 375, 403, 459
and Neoplatonic philosophical schools 712, 713
Byzantine Museum 184
Catalan Duchy of 288
Eletheris Venizelos airport museum 52
Erechtheion 148
Hephaistion 148
National Numismatic Museum 159
Panagia Lykodemou 148, 360
Parthenon 33, 47, 148
Propylaea 148
Atrani;
Attaleia 322
Attaleiates, Michael, historian 379, 522, 626, 815, 843–4
Attic Greek 780, 782, 828, 848, 885, 895;
see also Greek
Attila 223, 243
Augusti 233, 235
Augustine 960
letters 885
translated into Greek 714
Augustus (27 bce—14 ce) 233, 305
Aurelius Isidorus 120
Aurelius Victor, historian 839
Aurelius, bishop of Carthage 590
autobiography 80
Autolykos, mathematician 789, 803
Avars 223, 228, 254, 255, 297, 320, 473, 474, 475, 608, 625, 632
Axouch, John 273
Axum 449
Aydin 289
emir of 286
Babylon 31
Babylonic Great Year 31
Baghdad 223, 264, 464
Baikal, Lake 222
Bakchos Geron, on musical notation 917
Balboura, Lycia 430
Baldwin II 286
Balearic Islands 220, 559
Balis-Barbalisso (Eski Meskene) 339
Balkan mountains;
see Haimos
Balkans 16, 21, 22, 219, 220, 223, 225, 228, 230, 240, 241, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 272, 273, 275, 280, 285, 287, 293, 312, 336, 338, 339, 473, 539, 554, 557, 559, 567, 632, 734, 773, 774, 940, 944, 945, 946, 947, 949, 951
geography of 220–2
numismatics of 169, 170
provinces of 242, 243
routes in 296–8
Ballana, Nubia 449
Balsamon, Theodore 596, 694, 695, 921
Baltic region 183, 185
Banias 39
banquet etiquette 673–4
Bapheus 287
baptismal sponsorship 657–8
baptisteries 356
Barber Institute, Birmingham 161
Bardanes Tourkos 566
Bardas Phokas 268, 269
Bardas Skleros 268, 269
Bardas, Caesar 664, 790
Bari 269, 273
Barlaam and Joasaph, Romance of, illustrations 70
Barlaam of Seminara, Calabria 716, 807, 809
and philosophy 714
Logistics 895
barrels 434
Barsanouphios 858
Basil I the Macedonian 27, 205, 207, 209, 266–7, 268, 274, 298, 381, 507, 594, 663, 664, 665, 692, 832, 842, 877, 949, 950
Basil II the ‘Bulgar-slayer’ 268, 269, 271, 312, 520, 521, 522, 556, 560, 566, 567, 578, 665, 954
981
(p. 981) Basil of Caesarea 615, 616, 623, 625, 626, 702, 703, 706, 733, 736, 758, 811, 874;
also known as Basil the Great, St Basil
letters 885
Liturgy of 603
Longer and Shorter Rules 858
monastic Rules of 533
To Youths on How to Profit from Greek Literature 786
vita of 862
Basil of Seleukeia 874
Basil the parakoimomenos, son of Romanos II 268, 458, 506, 667, 908;
also known as Basil Lekapenos, Basil the Nothos
Basil the Younger, vita of 866
Basil, judge of the Peloponnesos and Hellas 154
Basilakes, Nikephoros 79
Bagoas 832
Basilica 27, 692
and scholia 692–3
basilica 354–5, 357, 359
basilikos logos 832
Basiliskos, usurper 243
Bast, F. J., and Commentatio Palaeographica 102
baths 377, 381, 499–500
Baumstark, A. 608
Bayezid Yildrim 290, 291
Baynes, N. 958
Beirut 790, 821
Beirut Law School 790
Belarus 459
Belisarios 252, 253
Belisarios, Song of 902
Bell, Gertrude 48
Bellinger, Alfred 160
Belting, H. 12
Benʼay Qyama (children of the covenant) 613
Benakis, Antonis 159
Bendall, S. 39, 159
Benedictines 101
Beowulf 91
Beqa valley 226
Berlin 5, 124
Beroea 304
Berry, Duke de 158
Bertelè, Thomas 159
Berti Alessandro Pompeo 159
Berytus;
see Beirut
Bessarion, Cardinal 102, 714, 822
Bethelehem 355
Nativity Basilica 741
Bet-Shean, Israel 42, 497
Bible 33, 92, 799, 820, 840, 854, 960
Bibliographie Papyrologique 124
Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris 136
bilingualism 778
Binbirkilise, Lycaonia 48, 52, 340, 342
Bintliff, J. 53
Birmingham 6
Spring Symposium 62
University of 159
bishoprics, finances of 573–4, 579–80
bishops, and philanthropy 623–4
career paths of 577–8
duties of 529–30
herarchy of 528
meetings of 574
number of 578
ranks of 529
relationships with monasteries 580
role in ecclesiastical administration 571
role of in cities 374
secular and ecclesiastical duties of 572–3
supporting staff of 573
Bithynia 287, 303, 376, 624
Bitlis Pass 223, 226
Blachernai, Church of the Virgin Mary;
Blachernai, Palace of;
Black Death 285, 290, 313–14
Black Sea 170, 183, 186, 220, 221, 223, 225, 300, 434, 444, 445, 473, 483, 557, 961
Blan, François le 158
Blastares, Syntagma alphabeticum 694
Blemmydes, as philosopher 714
on logic 717
Blemmyomachia 118
Bliss, Mr and Mrs Robert 6
Blue faction 145, 680
board-games 683
Bobbio ampullae 742, 746
Bodmer Papyri 118
Bodrum Camii (Myrelaion) 211
Boeotia 313
Boethius, translated into Greek 714
Boğasköy 52
Bogomils 274, 857
Bohemond 275, 596
Bolland, Jean 868
Bollandists 868, 869
bone-clad boxes 456
Bonfils, Emmanuel, Six Wings 808
Boniface of Montferrat 281
Boniface VIII 158
Bonn Corpus 13
Book of Ceremonies 244, 450, 459, 681;
see also De Cerimoniis
Book of Kings, illustrations 70
Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini 388
Book of the Eparch 267, 322, 402, 410, 423, 463, 671;
also known as Book of the Prefect
book production, processes of 463
sources on 462
books
availability of 25
binding of 469
construction of 463–4, 469
fabric of 463
images in 466–8
inks and decorations 466
languages of in Byzantium 462
market for 465–6
rulings in 465
storage of 469
Bosporos 194, 202, 227, 235, 260
Bosra 342
Bossuet, Histoire des variations des églises protestantes 857
Bostra 445
botany, study and uses of 813–14
Boukellarion theme 544
Boukoleon;
Boullotes 656
Bozburun ship 485
Breasted, Henry 226, 227
bricks and brick structures 337–9
brickstamps, nature of 193
bridges 303, 305–6, 336, 376, 563
Brindisi 222, 273, 296
Britain 430, 445, 447, 449, 530
British Museum 160, 744
British School of Archaeology in Athens 10, 49
bronze doors 448
Brown, P. 15
Brumalia 512
Brusa 287
Brussels 159, 868
Bryas, palace of 265
Bryennios, Manuel, Harmonics 809
on music 927
bucellarii (bodyguards) 662
Bucharest 159
Buchthal, H. 12
buckets, brass 449
Budapest, Hungarian National Museum 725
Buddhism 747
buildings, decoration of 385
secular, after the ninth century 378–9
secular, types of 373–4
Bulgaria 49, 50, 52, 167, 200, 265, 269, 271, 276, 280, 282, 283, 285, 286, 287, 292, 293, 312, 522, 578, 594, 949, 950, 951
architecture of 360, 362
museums 50
Bulgarian Church 266
Bulgarian empires 50
Bulgarians 267, 283, 289, 297, 522, 945
Bulgars 228, 257, 258, 260, 261, 558, 559, 625, 940, 944, 954, 959
Burgundio of Pisa 110
burial practices 356
burials, and urban space 321
Buridan, Jean 158
Burning Bush, site of 744
Bursa, Bithynia 449
Bury, J. B. 6, 958, 961
Byron, R. 12
Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 6
Byzantine anonymous;
Byzantine architectural history, approaches to 11
Byzantine art
approaches to 10
collections of 6
exhibitions of 4
origins of 11
Byzantine art history, approaches to 10
Byzantine coinage 160
Byzantine Commonwealth 16, 959
Byzantine Empire in world history 957
Byzantine Era 31, 33, 34, 36
Byzantine History, non-written sources 26
Byzantine History, primary sources for 22–8
Byzantine Institute, Istanbul 12
Byzantine manuscripts
collections of 5
study of 11
Byzantine Question, the 12
Byzantine red wares 429
Byzantine rite
definition of 599
spread of 607–8
Byzantine Studies
approaches to 9–10
Byzantine Studies in Australia 6
Byzantine Studies in Austria 6
Byzantine Studies in Britain 6, 10
Byzantine Studies in France 5, 10
(p. 983) Byzantine Studies in Germany 5, 10
Byzantine Studies in Greece 8
Byzantine Studies in Russia 5, 10, 11
Congresses 5
contemporary state of 6–7
current debates in 14
international nature of 17
methodologies 23
multidisciplinary nature of 22
reasons for interest in 6–7
sub-fields in 9
theoretical approaches to 14
Byzantine-Arab relations 948
Byzantinische Zeitschrift 5, 6
Byzantinoslavica 6
Byzantion, developed by Septimius Severus 202
Byzantion;
Byzantium passim
a feudal state? 17
academic centres for study of 4–5
and preservation of Greek classics 960
and preservation of Greek language 961
as totalitarian ideology 958
attitudes of Orthodox Church to 7, 8
current scholarly attitudes to 15–16
definitions of 4–5
general histories on 15
government 4
heir to Christian Roman empire 952
literary culture 4
modern attitudes to 4
Western historiansʼ views on 958
Caballo, Antonietto 35
Cabasilas, Nicholas 807
Cacicin Grad 357
Caesarea 53, 105, 154, 273, 403, 405, 574, 578, 821
Caesarea in Palestine 449, 790
Caesaropapism 575
Caesars 233
Caffa, Crimea 35, 671
Cairo Museum 449
Calabria 183
Caliph 261
Cambridge 6
Cambridge Medieval History 958
Canada 60
Candia 142
Archives of the Duke of 141, 142
Duke of 141
Notai di Candia 142
Cange, Charles du 159
Canicattini Bagni;
Çanli Kilise, Cappadocia 54, 359
canons, issued by ecumenical councils 587–8
canticles, biblical 859
Cappadocia 10, 55, 225, 272, 380, 386, 405, 522, 607, 611, 615, 623, 755, 771
rock-cut churches 360, 361
Cappadocian Fathers 615, 702, 834, 864, 874, 878
letters 885
Caracausi, G. 99
Caria 144
Çark Suyu (Melas) 305
Carolingian theorists (music) 923
Carthage 220, 252, 254, 377, 446, 559, 574
Carthage, council of;
carts 300–1
Caspian Sea 225, 427
Cassianus Bassus 814
Cassiodorus, letters 886
Castra Praetoria, Rome 337
Castro, Fidel 36
Catalan Company 287
Catalans 288, 558
Catalonia 285
catechetical homilies 875
catenae (commentaries) 854
Catherine of Courtenay 286
Catholicism 292
Catulinus 40
Caucasus 22, 225, 358, 427, 479, 558, 773, 774, 943, 953
Caucausia 939, 943, 952
cavalry, equipment of 474–5
in tenth century 476–7
Celsus 715
Celts 779
cemeteries 354
Cencreae, church at 531
Central Asia 229
Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire 124
centre-periphery, a valid model for art history? 771–5
ceramics, architectural uses of 433–4
as storage containers 438–9
chronological phases of 429
definition of 429
Islamic influence 435
regional glazed styles 439
types for use at table 436
usefulness for archaeology 56
ceremonial music 928
ceremonial, daily, in Great Palace 511–12
Cervantes 32
Chaadayev, P. 959
Chalcedon 298
council of;
Chalcedonians 252, 585m, 586, 593
Chalcis 304
Chaldia 544
Chalkidike 291, 401
Chalkidike, Syria 404
Chalkonkondyles, Leonikos, historian 847
Chalkoprateia;
chancery, Cretan 142
chants in liturgy 600
chariot races 680, 681
Charlemagne 261, 265, 593, 949
Charles Martel 959
Charles of Anjou 286, 288, 596
Charles of Valois 286
charter
great charter of privileges 129, 130, 132, 134
small charter of privileges 130, 132
Chartres notation 922
Chatzidakis, M. 12
Chaucer 91
chelandia 488
Cheroubikon hymn 600, 601, 919
Cherson 223, 265, 380, 488
Cherubim 600, 726
Cheynet, J.-C., and Pouvoir et contestations 178, 180
Chicago 124
Chilandar, Mt Athos 136
China 170, 222, 223, 410, 473, 478, 495, 940, 945
Chinese military influence 477
Chioniades, George/Gregory 807
Chios 559
Panagia Krina 361
Chi-Rho symbol 161
chlamys 411
Choiroboskos, George 789, 834
Choirosphaktes, Leo 832
Chomatianos, Demetrios 653, 655, 695
letters 886
Choniates brothers, letters 886
Choniates, Michael 524, 770, 822, 830
Choniates, Niketas 81, 275, 524, 770, 812, 830
Histories 524, 834, 845–6, 848
Chortasmenos, John 830
letters 887
Chosroes I 252
Chosroes II 253–4, 255, 575
Choumnos, Nikephoros 287–8, 715
as philosopher 714
Christ 69, 145, 152, 153, 167, 169, 209, 242, 250, 258, 266, 385, 393, 716, 726, 736, 743, 754, 755, 853, 857
Christ Antiphonetes, icon 209
Christ as High Priest 734
Christ Emmanuel 457
Christ Pantokrator 70
Christ, icons of 70, 751, 752
Christ, nature of 701, 702
Christ's Passion, relics of 206
Christian Church, hierarchy of ministers in 527–8
Christian psalmody 917–18
Christianity 4, 145, 161, 229, 255, 261, 520, 528, 583, 715, 753, 755, 779, 853, 855 ff. passim, 863, 872, 876, 912, 944, 953, 961
and education 785–6
and philosophy 715–16
effect of on city plans 373
Orthodox 16
Christianization of cities 624
Christmas 31
Christograms 339
Christological Definition 704, 705, 854
Christological Orthodoxy 705
Christology 701, 703, 704, 856
Christopher of Mytilene 147
and epigrams 898
Christophoros of Grottaferata 830
Christoupolis (Kavala) 380, 382
chronicle 853
Chronicle of Monemvasia 848
Chronicle of Morea 783, 848
multiple versions of 902
Chronicle of Zuqnin;
chronicles in verse 899, 902
chronicles, of world history 840–1
Chronicon ad annum 1234 842
Chronicon Paschale 33, 840
Chrysaphes, Manuel, composer 926, 927
Chrysaphios, praepositus sacri cubiculi 242
Chrysobergai 522
chrysoboulla 150
chrysoboulla sigillia 130, 150
chrysoboullos logos 130
chrysobulls 138
Chrysokokkes, George, Persian Syntaxis 807, 812
Chrysokokkes, Michael 808
Chrysoloras, Demetrios 808
Chrysopolis 298
(p. 985) Chrysostom, John 79, 208, 535, 624, 625, 626, 679, 733, 736, 854, 855, 874, 878
and cathedral psalmody 919
Homilies 496, 854
letters 885
Liturgy of 603
on Anomoeans 876
on ‘Judaizing Christians’ 876
On Statues 876
Chrysotriklinos;
Chrysoupolis, aqueduct at 635
Chufut Kale 35
church as cosmos 600
church designs, variations in 359–61
Church of the East 704
Church Slavonic 959
Church, Anglo-Saxon 579
Church, Byzantine, structures of 575–6
under Alexios I 577–8
under Justinian 575
Church, social role of 318
churches
archaeology of 54–55
decoration of 385–6, 733–4
separation of 592–3
Cicero 960
translated into Greek 714
Cilicia 144, 145, 275, 276, 336, 340, 376, 401, 484, 544, 557, 773
Cilician Gates 223, 304, 305;
circus factions 145
cisterns 376–7
cities, abandonment of 321–2
administrators of, in Palaiologan period 324
affected by cultural changes 319–20
and economic activity 322
and fortifications 321
and Italian colonies 323
as kastron 321, 379
centres of provincial administration 323
changing administration of 318–19
changing architectural appearance 319
Christianization of 317–18
city layout, changes in 378–81
city walls;
civil officials, increase in 522
civil wars
effect on army 559
in fourteenth century 289
classicizing histories, characteristics of 839–40
cleanliness 685–6
Clement of Alexandria 715
Cleomedes, mathematicisn 803
Cleonides, music theorist 927
clergy
definition of 527
fees paid to 579–80
minor orders 531–2
regulation of 538–9
threefold hierarchy of 528
cloisonné technique, enamel 458
cloisonné technique, brickwork 339, 360
clothing
artistic representations of 408–9
ecclesiastical 413
for men 412
for women 411
functions of 407
monastic 413
production of 408
survival of 408
trends in 411
varieties of 410–11
washing of 500
written evidence for 408
Clovis 252
codex 103
Codex Iustinianus 253, 292, 302, 691–2
Codex Sinaiticus 821
Codex Theodosianus 124, 302
Codex Vaticanus 821
codices, papyrus 118
coenobitic monasticism 615
coin circulation 632–3
coinage
and art 167–8
and the economy 168–71
Coislin notation 922, 923
Collectio Tripartita 694
Columbus, Christopher 36
comes sacrorum largitionum 40
Common Era 32
Communion of the Apostles 736
compendia, in script 108
compendium on logic 717
concordances 97
confraternities 535
Congress, Second International Congress of Byzantine Studies 137
Constable, G. 14
Constance, daughter of Frederick the Great 281
Constans 237, 238, 589
Constans II 220, 256, 257
(p. 986) Constantine I 3, 4, 69, 158, 207, 208, 232, 235, 239, 341, 345, 373, 377, 455, 478, 498, 528, 572, 574, 575, 583, 584, 590, 623, 624, 673, 678, 679, 741, 839, 841, 917;
and administrative change 235
and centralized bureaucracy 237
and conversion 236
and founding of Constantinople 235
and theological disputes 236–7
Arch of 71
Constantine II 237, 238
Constantine IV 257, 586
Constantine IX Monomachos 138, 154, 206, 271, 272, 386, 393, 522, 843, 723, 790, 815, 823, 834
Constantine Monomachos, Crown of 725
Constantine Lips;
Constantine Manasses 899, 900
Constantine of Rhodes 770
and ekphrasis 899
Constantine the Alan 448
Constantine V 27, 207, 258, 260, 261, 358, 505, 519, 520, 633, 693, 751, 752
and iconoclasm 259
Constantine VI 260, 586
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos 207, 267, 268, 271, 455, 478, 505, 506, 509, 514, 755, 790, 814, 832, 838, 842, 910, 911, 917, 948, 949, 953
and pro-Macedonian histories 268
De Administrando Imperio 268, 271, 272, 478, 947, 953
De Ceremoniis 487, 505, 506, 508, 509, 510, 831, 832, 948, 953
Excerpta 83, 842–3
On Themes 781
Constantine VIII 271, 272
Constantine X Doukas 271
Constantine XI Palaiologos 168, 292, 525
Constantine, ‘leader of the philosophers’ 714
Constantinople 3, 4, 32, 47, 144, 145, 147, 149, 159, 167, 168, 176, 222, 223, 227, 228, 229, 232, 235, 241, 243, 249, 252, 256, 265, 267, 273, 287, 298, 302, 322, 336, 374, 423, 425, 427, 429, 434, 446, 484, 496, 497, 518, 524, 525, 528, 554, 596, 624, 640, 666, 671, 713, 770, 771, 773, 774, 807, 811, 842, 845, 859, 865, 874, 910, 922, 939, 959
aqueduct of Hadrian 213, 376, 402
aqueduct of Valens 213, 311, 321, 322, 376, 497, 952
Arab sieges of 257
art of 11
as developing imperial capital 238–9
Avar siege of 895
baths, Constantinianai 377
baths, of Zeuxippos 207, 338, 377, 499
bricks 339
brickstamps in 193, 194–6
built on site of Byzantion 202
churches 207–10
Christ Pantepoptes (Eski Imaret Camii) 339
Christ Pantokrator (Vefa Kilise Camii) 338
Christ Philanthropos 339
Church of the Virgin Mary, Blachernai 210
Hagia Eirene 207, 344, 357, 358, 752
Hagia Sophia (Great Church) 11, 12, 34, 208–9, 267, 337, 338, 341, 344, 345, 346, 357, 386, 388, 445, 447, 455, 505, 506, 508, 513, 528, 595, 600, 604, 627, 723, 751, 751, 772, 773, 899, 952, 953, 958:
apse mosaic 391, 393, 876;
as mosque 598, 672–3;
cathedral rite of 918, 919;
didaskaloi, role of 577–8;
effect of liturgy in 708–9;
focus for sacred travel 741;
mortar in 336;
Patriarchate 752;
Room over the Ramp 751;
staff of 531, 573, 576
Holy Apostles 208, 210, 356, 367, 671, 771, 831, 899;
music lessons 927;
school in 208, 791, 805
Nea Ekklesia 210
St Euphemia 210
St George in the Mangana 338, 359, 342, 343
St Polyeuktos (Saraçhane) 148, 210, 313, 337, 344, 357, 432, 433, 459
Sts Karpos and Papylos 341
Sts Sergios and Bakchos 148, 210, 338, 344, 357, 509
Theotokos in the Chalkoprateia 209, 338
Theotokos Pammakaristos 148, 212, 338, 359, 361
Virgin Kyriotissa 210, 313, 338, 347
cisterns 344
Basilike (Yerebatan Sarayi) 341, 376
of Aetios 338, 376
of Aspar 338
of Philoxenos (Binbirdirek) 341, 376
columns
of Arkadios 71
of Constantine 203
of Helena 203
of Marcian 204
of Theodosios 71
(p. 987) councils;
embolos of Domninos 445
fall of in 1204 276, 280, 593, 714, 782, 807, 945
fall of in 1453 36, 292–3, 363, 592, 687, 847, 868
Fatih Camii;
Fenari Isa Camii;
Fetiye Camii;
food supplies 632
forum
of Arkadios 204
Bovis 204
of Constantine 204, 374, 375
of Theodosios 275, 375
Forum Tauri 204, 374
Forum Tauri, Nymphaeum Maius 498
foundation of 202
gates
Golden Gate 203, 205, 347, 515
Maritime Gate 347
Porta Polyandraion 203
Golden Horn 202, 203, 205, 212
granaries 213, 376
Great Church;
Great Palace 202, 210, 337, 374, 381, 403, 509, 770, 952
Apsis 508
Augustaion 345, 505
Augusteus 508, 513
bath of Leo VI 499
Boukoleon 508
Chalke (Brazen Gate) 508
chapel of St Theodore 509
chapel of the Theotokos of the Pharos 512, 513
Chrysotriklinos 508, 509, 511
crowns, relics and vestments 513
feasts and receptions 513–14
Great Triklinos;
Hall of the Nineteen Couches 508, 673, 674
Hippodrome, Kathisma 508
Ioustinianos 509, 511
Koiton 508, 511, 514
Lausiakos 509, 511
layout 506–9, 512–15 passim
Magnaura 508, 512
Magnaura, school in 790
officials of 505–6, 512–13
Phylax (Treasury) 509
Skyla 511
structures in 205–6
walls of Phokas 508, 516
Gülhane 341
harbours 205
Neorion 213
of Julian 213
of Sophia 213
of Theodosios 57, 213, 322;
of Theodosios, ships in 485
Prosphorion 213
Hippodrome 71, 336, 338, 341, 377, 381, 385, 674, 678, 681, 811
Delphi monument 207, 678
Masonry Obelisk 345
Obelisk of Theodosios 207
role of 206
structure of 206–7
tenth-century ceremonial in 515
hospitals
Christodotes Xenon 627
of Samson 625, 627
Sts Cosmas and Damian 626
hostels 377
impact on economy 632, 633
imperial library 821, 822
imperial mausoleum 341
imperial statues 204
Kalenderhane Camii;
Kariye Camii;
Kastellion of Chryseia 379
Kynegion 682
liturgical life 732
Milion Aureum 203
monasteries 211–13
Chora 12, 147, 212, 344, 362, 386, 388, 459, 615, 766, 830
Coenobion of Dalmatou 616
Constantine Lips 148, 211, 361, 339, 342, 346, 359
Hodegon 109, 211, 466
Kosmidion 865
Myrelaion 211, 336, 341, 359
Pantokrator (Zeyrek Camii) 212, 338, 342, 344, 346, 360, 361, 380, 459, 634
Pantokrator, and hospital 626, 627, 814
Pege, miracles of 868
Prodromos-Petra, library 824
(p. 988) St John Stoudios (Imrahor Camii) 103, 195, 198, 211, 338, 346, 580, 603, 618;
and writing of kanons 897;
centre of book production 466;
library of 867;
penalties for scribes 462
St John the Prodromos 865
St Mamas 618
nymphaea 498
obelisk of Theodosios I 71
Orphanage of St Paul (Orphanotropheion) 154, 617, 623, 625, 627, 634, 787
palaces
Antiochos 210, 338, 341
Blachernai 206, 273, 379, 509, 516, 675
Boukoleon 205–6
Hormisdas 206, 210
Lausos 508
Mangana 206, 379, 634, 723
St Mamas 664
Tekfur Sarayi 206, 339, 379, 675
Philadelphaion 203
plague 310
population estimates 310, 313
Queen City 3
recapture in 1261 282
sea attacks on 947
streets, Mese 203, 204, 208, 375, 376, 445
tetrapylon 345
tomb of Constantine 344
Tower of Theophilos 148
tzykanesterion 381
walls 148, 205
Anastasian Long Walls 336, 382;
see also Land Walls 339, 341
of Constantine I 382
Theodosian walls 242, 310, 382, 952
zoo 815
Constantinopolitan White Wares;
Constantius 208, 233, 235, 237, 238, 240, 575, 589, 821
Constantius II 623, 957
cooking 494–5
cooking pots 430–1
Copenhagen 159
copper mines 444
copper, uses of 448–50
Coptic 22, 116, 118, 125, 462, 779, 857
Coptic Era of Martyrs 31
Coptic merchants 44
Coptic papyri 821
Copts 613
Cordova, Great Mosque 393
Corinth 42, 53, 313, 322, 379, 380, 410, 425, 435, 449, 450, 459, 494, 497, 578, 632, 633, 635, 636, 672
Skaranosʼ estate 402
Corippus 446, 508
Coron 279
Corpus Fontium Byzantinae Historiae (CFHB) 13, 99
Corpus Iuris Civilis 124
Corpus philosophorum Medii Aevi—Philosophi Byzantini 712
Corrigan, K. 62
Corsica 220
Cortona 456
Cosmas of Maiouma 734
cotton 409–10
councils, church 528, 529
councils, ecumenical 583–7, 857
councils, regional 583, 588–91
councils
Ankyra (314) 588–9
Antioch (341) 589
Carthage (419) 590
Chalcedon (451) 241, 242, 250, 574, 575, 580, 584, 585, 588, 590, 592, 615, 704, 705, 841, 854
Constantinople (1341, 1351), on Hesychasm 597
Constantinople (869–70) 298
Constantinople (879–80) 586–7, 594
canons of 594–5
Constantinople I (381) 240, 574, 584, 587, 588
Constantinople II (553) 586, 705
Constantinople III (680–1) 586, 856
Ephesos (431) 242, 584, 588, 592, 704, 856, 895
Ephesos (449; Robber Council) 242, 250, 584, 585
Ferrara-Florence (1438–9) 590, 597–8
Gangra (325/81) 588, 589, 615
Hieria (754) 260, 578, 602, 751
in Trullo (Quinisext) 33, 529, 588, 593, 607, 682, 694, 754, 874, 921
Laodikeia (343/82) 589, 917
Lyons (1274) 590, 596
Neocaesarea, Pontos (314–25) 588, 589
Nicaea I (325) 237, 530, 574, 584, 587, 588, 589, 590, 592, 703
Nicaea II (787) 529, 530, 531, 578, 586, 587, 593, 595, 602, 750, 751, 755, 759
Serdica (342) 575, 588, 589
Tyre (335) 589
(p. 989) counterpoises 45
court titles 505–6
Creation 33
Cretans 559
Crete 141, 143, 265, 312, 328, 449, 484, 560, 567, 619, 638, 797, 947
Crete, and Malvasia wine 672
Crete, Venetian 12
Crimea 35, 42, 49, 223, 265, 445, 484, 939
Crim-Tatars 35
cross-in-square church 359
Crown of Thorns 742
Crucifixion 458, 728, 742, 752, 764
Crusade, First 274, 945
Crusade, Fourth 167, 264, 280, 426, 448, 456, 498, 508, 557, 593, 596, 602, 638, 782, 807, 822, 886, 945
Crusader armies 298, 301
Crusader painters at Sinai 765
Crusader States 275, 276
Crusaders 264, 312
Crusades 17, 276, 300, 496, 608
Ctesiphon 238, 250, 575
Cuba 36
Cumans 275, 558, 959
cursus publicus 300, 302
Curzon, Robert 10
Cyclades 55
Cyprian 527
Cypriot red slip ware 430
Cyprus 12, 32, 49, 109, 186, 269, 276, 280, 312, 376, 401, 405, 459, 484, 578, 619, 672, 765, 887
and astronomy 808
Cyril (Constantine), apostle of the Slavs 266, 595
Cyril, bishop of Alexandria 242, 573, 584, 585, 586, 704, 705, 841, 855
Cyril of Jerusalem 859, 876, 878
Cyril of Skythopolis 864
Lives of the Palestinian Monks 612
Cyrilline Chalcedonianism 705
daily life, Christian 534–5
Dain, A. 908, 909
Dalmatia 275, 445
Dalton, O. M. 48
Damascus 223, 226, 393, 445
Damaskios 713
Danielis 380, 663, 664
Daniel and the Four Kingdoms 957
Daniel in the lionsʼ den 455
Danishmendids 944
Danube 21, 185, 220, 221, 222, 228, 238, 239, 242, 254, 255, 257, 271, 272, 376, 473, 554, 566, 950, 952
Danubian coast 484
Dara 403
Dardanelles 376
David (philosopher) 713
David 725, 726
Psalms of 788
scenes of on casket 455
David, Symeon and George, vita of 866
De Administrando Imperio;
De Obsidione Toleranda 912
De Re Militari;
De velitatione bellica;
deaconesses, duties of 531–2
deacons, duties of 531
Deesis 209, 212, 457, 734, 762
Definition of Chalcedon 585
Dekapolis 298
Delphi, Serpent Column;
Delta (Nile) 115, 120
Demetrios, Peri Hermeneias 883–4
demography, and Byzantine Empire 309
Demokritos, Pseudo-, alchemist 813
Demosthenes 108, 788
Demus, O. 12, 60–1, 70, 172
Dendrochronologia 187
dendrochronology 34, 358
and Byzantium 186–7
and Europe 188
and the Aegean 188, 189
and the Near East 188, 189
and wiggle-matching 189
definition of 182
techniques 184–6
Derinkuyu 499
Descent into Hell, icon 765
Desert Fathers, Lives and Apophthegms of 611
desert monasticism 614
Dexippos, historian 838
Dhiorios, Cyprus 431
Diadochos of Photike 707, 808
dialect, Pontic 99
diastematic notation 925
Diatessaron 821
Dictionary of National Biography 176
didactic poetry 899
Didascalia 531
(p. 990) Didron, A. N. and Manuel dʼiconographie chrétienne 10
Didymoteichon 291
Didymus Caecus 118
Diegesis Merike 140
Diehl, C. 49
Figures byzantines 643
diet and malnourishment 686
attitudes to 671
Byzantine 669–70
Digenes Akrites 81, 379, 781–2, 901–2
Digest 691–2, 693
Dinaric Alps 220, 221
dining customs 674–6
Dio Chrysostom 79
dioceses, ecclesiastical 574
Diocletian 31, 116, 125, 233, 235, 338, 678, 842
Price Edict 454, 463, 494
Persecution 841
Diodorus Siculus 824
Diomedes, monastery of 663
Dionysios of Tel-Mahré 842
Dionysios the Areopagite 700–1, 702, 707, 858
Dionysios Thrax, Techne grammatike 789
Dionysios, astrologer 813
Dionysios, Praetorian Prefect 144
Dionysius Exiguus 590
Dionysius of Fourna 10, 385
Diophantos 803, 804
Dioskorides 496
Dioskorides, De Materia Medica 465, 814
Dioskoros of Aphrodite 118, 120, 123
Dioskoros, patriarch of Alexandria 242, 584
diplomacy 101, 947–8
diptychs in ivory 454
diseases prevention 687–8
retrospective diagnosis of 686
sources on 685–6
Dishna papers 821
Divine Office of St Sabas 925
Djurić, J. 12
Docheiariou, Mt Athos 136
documents, imperial, types of 129, 132–4
Dodekaorton 762
dome, antecedents of 11
Don, river 265, 496
Dor, shipwreck 450
Dormition 153
Dorotheos illoustrios 151
Dorotheos of Gaza 858
Dorotheos of Sidon 812
Dorylaion (Eskişehir) 298, 300
Döžeme 304, 305, 306
Douglass method in dendrochronology 185
Doukas family 267, 272;
see also Doukai 519
Doukas, historian 847, 848
Doukas, John 300
dowries 656
Doxapatres, John 829, 830
Doxompous, Macedonia 330
Dragoman pass 222
dramatic performances in Byzantium 682–3
Drava region 254
Dreambooks 671
dromons, structure and development of 487–8
water supply of 489
Du Cange 5
and Glossarium 95
Dubrovnik 188
Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri 124
Dumbarton Oaks 6, 12, 159, 160, 161, 386, 456
Dumbarton Oaks Papers 6
Dura Europos 11, 342, 375
Durrès (Albania) 338
Dyrrachion 222, 296, 298, 377
Easter computations 33
ecclesiastical (church) history 841, 853
eckphonetic notation 922
eclipse 34
Ecloga 27, 257, 693
economy, expansion in eleventh and twelfth centuries 636–7
fourth to sixth centuries 632–3
in fourteenth century 639–40
in tenth century 271
role of state 632
seventh and eighth centuries 632
state's role after 1204 638
tenth-century recovery 633–4
Edessa 271, 294, 951
Hagia Sophia 447
local chronicles of 842
editing methods for texts 91
education 24–5
and Christianity 785–6
for women 786
primary 785, 788
secondary 785, 788–9
Egeria 744, 872
Egypt 44, 45, 49, 105, 116, 120, 123, 125, 219, 226, 227, 229, 230, 239, 242, 249, 254, 255, 269, 272, 275, 311, 318, 341, 356, 449, 533, 575, 585, 611, 624, 632, 704, 779, 783, 917, 946
Egyptian desert 863
(p. 991) Egyptian hagiography 864
Egyptian hermit saints 863
Egyptians 616, 778, 867
Eid-al-Fitr 35
Eirene Doukaina, empress 844
Eirene of Trebizond 34
Eirene, empress 27, 261, 264, 586, 647, 648, 649
Eirene, sevastokratorissa 900
Eirene, wife of John II 212
Eisagoge 693
ekdikoi of Hagia Sophia 153
ekphraseis 62, 887
a guide to works of art? 721
critical vocabulary in 723
in poetry 898–9
use of topoi in 723–4
Elaeusa-Sebaste 338
Elburz mountains 943
electronic publication 90–1
Eleusios, bishop of Kyzikos 624
Eleutherios Elios, astrologer 813
Eleutherios, harbour of;
Elian 815
Elias (philosopher) 713, 717
Elijah (prophet) 744, 745
elite, changes in 519
Emesa, Syria 859, 895
empire, Byzantine, extent of 312–13
empresses, power of 647–9
enamel
uses of 458–9
construction techniques 457–9
encaustic icons 759
England 285, 459
Enlightenment, attitudes to Byzantium 7
Entombment (of Christ) 727
Ephesos 50, 154, 298, 300, 579, 632, 681, 682
councils of;
Harbour Baths 338
houses 385
St John 339, 357
Ephrem (the Syrian) of Amida 573, 859
epi ton ktematon 153
epigrams 898
and works of art 724–5
epigraphic script 148–9
epigraphy, definition of 144
Epiphaneios stratelates 151
Epiphanios of Salamis, Panarion 623, 856
Epiphanios, Ps.- 578
Epiros 145, 160, 167, 312
Epiros, Despotate of 280, 282, 283, 287
Epiros, despots of 150
episcopal organization, framework of 578–9
episkopeion 374
epistemonarches, emperor as 576
epistolograhy, Byzantine theoretical models for 883–5
Epitaphios textile 736
Epitome 839
Epstein, A., Tokali Kilise 772
Era of Coptic Martyrs 35
Era of Second Temple 33
Eras 31–2
eratapokriseis 858
Erechtheion;
see Athens
Ergani Pass 223
Esphigmenou, Mt Athos 136
Ethiopia 31, 815
Ethiopic 857
ethopoiia 832
Etymologicum Gudianum 95
Euboea 280, 425
Eucharist as symbol of Christ 602
Euclid 106, 789, 803, 804, 805
Elements 806
on harmonics 917
Eudoxia 648
Eugenianos, Niketas 832, 900
Eugenikos, John 722
Eugenius, usurper 241
Eugenius IV, pope 597
Eunapios, historian 839
eunuchs 8, 140, 506, 521, 543, 648, 921
Euphrates 226, 227, 271, 300, 379, 399, 404
Eurasia 939, 943
Eurasian steppes 22
Euripides, Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenician Women 788
Europe 159, 170, 943
Eusebios of Caesarea 32, 208, 237, 673, 715, 841, 842,
and library 821
Arianianizing tendencies 841
Armenian translation of 840
Chronici Canones 840
Proof of Apostolic Teaching 853
Vita Constantini 832
Eustathios of Sebaste 533, 615, 634
Eustathios of Thessalonike 95, 111, 494, 822, 833
account of the fall of Thessalonike 848
letters 886
Eustathios Romaios 27, 655, 656
Eustolios, House of 377
Eustratios of Nicaea 714, 717
(p. 992) Euthymios of Sardis, vita of 866
Euthymios the Great, vita of 864 (Syrian)
Euthymios, patriarch, vita of 862
Eutropios, praepositus sacri cubiculi 241
Eutropius (harbour) 336
Eutropius, historian 840
Eutyches of Constantinople 250, 584, 585, 616, 704
Eutychians 856
Evagrios Pontikos, on prayer and human psychology 706, 707
On Prayer 858
Evergetinos 858
Evergetis monastery, liturgical typikon 731–2
exegetical homilies 875
exhibitions 13
expenditures, calculation of 566–7
fabrics for clothing 409–10
factiones (retinues) 663
factions
in chariot races 680, 681
role in ceremonial 681
Fainan, copper mines 444
faith, role in Byzantium's thought-world 953
Falier, Doge Ordelafo 459
family
as model for relationships 652
sources on 653
Farmer's Law 331, 403
Fascist Era of 1922 31
Fatimids 269, 271, 951
Fayyum
funerary portraits 759
Ptolemaic and Roman 123
feasting, cultural role of 673
Felicitas, martyrion of 863
Felix III pope 58, 593
feminism 643
Fertile Crescent 226, 227, 229
festal homilies 876
festivals, Graeco-Roman 677–8
Festus, historian 840
filioque 594, 595, 597, 598, 702, 856
financial administration, changes in eighth century 540
fiscal reform under Alexios I 637–8
Fiscal Treatise 329
fixing mark 130
Flavian, patriarch 584, 585
Flavii Apiones 120
Florence 292, 887
Florence, council;
Florilegia 25, 855
follis 166
Fondation Égyptologique Reine Élisabeth 124
food preparation and storage 494
food, supplies of 670–1
foreign policy 949–50, 952
Forest of Belgrade 213
fortifications
archaeology of 54
types of 381–3
France 285, 292, 958
Frankish influence on music 926
Frankish merchants 675
Frankokratia 379
Franks 229, 261, 280, 523, 783, 944, 949
Fravitta 242
Frederick Barbarossa 845
Frederick II 129, 281, 285
French 98, 147
French Army, Photographic Section 136
French Revolutionary Era 31
French School at Athens 136
fresco-painting 387
Frigidus, river 241
Frourio Vardari;
funerary literature 79–80
Gabras, Michael, letters 886
Gabriel of Xanthopoulos, on music 927
Gabriel, son of Lampedenos 656
Gagik II 34
Gainas 241
Gaius 233
Institutes 691
Galata 638
Galatia 328, 574, 670
Galen 670
Galerius 233, 235, 374
Galla Placidia, mausoleum in Ravenna 337
galleys 489
Gallipoli 290, 559
Gallus 238
Gangra, council;
Ganos, Mt, monasteries of 580
(p. 993) Ganos, Thrace 434
Gardthausen, V., and Griechische Paläographie 102
Garland, L., Byzantine Empresses 643
Gasmouloi 558
Gaudentius, on musical notation 917
Gaul 238, 252, 573, 840
Gauls, the 539
Gaza 236
church of St Sergios 342
Gazes, Manuel, composer 926
Geertz, C. 62
Gelasios, historian 841
Geld of, B. 31
Gelveri 499
Geminos 803
gender 643
Genesios, historian 482, 842
Genghiz Khan 223
Gennadios II Scholarios 36, 292, 714, 715
commentaries on Aristotle 717
Genoa 288, 289, 290–1, 559, 672
Genoese 282, 283, 285, 313, 638, 639, 847, 945
coinage 167
merchants 425, 426, 635
genre, concepts of 79
geography of Byzantium, strategic 228–30
geography, religious and scientific 810–11
Geometres, John 829, 831, 884
and epigrams 898
geometry 805
Geoponica 399, 400, 493, 814
George III, and British MPs 176, 177
George Kalliergis, painter 766
George Monos 829
George of Nikomedia 873
George of Trebizond, Introduction to the Almagest 805
George Pisides 895, 898, 899
George pragmateutes 151
George the Monk 959
George, bishop of Alexandria 623
George, hieromonk 33
Georgia 170, 337, 358, 459, 947
Georgian 22, 138, 139, 462, 520, 522, 857
Geraki 53
Gerasa 459, 497
German field forces 249
Germanic peoples 944
Germanic successor kingdoms 16
Germanikeia 951
Germanos I, patriarch 601, 602, 751, 834, 859, 873, 924
Historia Ecclesiastica 385
Germanos of Kosinitza 400
Germany 275, 958
ghazi warriors 287
Gibbon, Edward 7, 8, 10, 32, 643, 959
Giros, C. 137
Glabas, Isidore 809
Glabas, Michael Tarchaneiotes 212
glass 347–8
for mosaics 390
for tesserae and windows 459
Islamic influences on 459
production of 390–1
technology 497
Glykas, Michael 901
chronicle 844
Verses Written While Held Imprisoned 782
Glykys, Michael patriarch
Glykys, Ioannes, composer 924
God, in Byzantine theology 701–2
gold, uses of 446
Golden Horde 285, 286
Goldene Tafel, Schloss Nymphenburg 458
Golgotha 341
Goodacre, Hugh 159
Gorgonia, vita of 862, 864
Gospel lectionaries 736
Gospels, illustrations 70
Gothic 462
Gothic boots 475
Gothic force 249
Goths 228, 241, 243, 253, 572, 558, 559, 946
Goths as Getae 839
Gotland, Sweden 448
Grabar, A., contributions to art history 60
Gracanica, Serbia 362
Graeco-Roman art 11
Graeco-Roman romance 455
granaries 376
Grand Logothere 386, 845, 846
Gratian 239, 240, 241
Great Deesis 762
Great Palace;
Greece 10, 12, 47, 49, 52, 147, 183, 186, 200, 220, 261, 264, 266, 280, 285, 290, 336, 338, 339, 342, 429, 430, 484, 607, 779, 780, 939
Greek 7, 21, 22, 116, 118, 123, 125, 138
areas spoken 779–80
as element in Byzantine identity 781
conventions of 780
dominant language 777, 779
evidence for spoken language 783
preserved by Byzantium 961
translations of Latin authors into 714
use of in law 692, 696
vernacular in writing 782–4
Greek Anthology (see also Anthologia Palatina, Palatine Anthology) 13, 145, 148, 385, 483, 496, 898
Greek Documentary Texts, on CD-Rom 97
Greek fire 479–80, 498
Greeks 482
Greek-Spanish Dictionary 96
Green faction 680, 681
Greens 145
Greg-Bowers, and copy text 92
Grégoire, H. 147
Gregoras, Nikephoros 716, 807, 809, 812
historian 846
letters 887
Gregorian calendar 32
Gregorian chant 923, 929
Gregorian neumes 922
Gregorian reform 592
Gregory of Corinth 830
De Dialectis 102
Gregory of Cyprus 111
Gregory of Nazianzos (the Theologian) 615, 617, 624, 702, 703, 705, 718, 788, 835, 855, 858, 864, 874, 876, 877
Homilies 12, 485
on letter-writing 884, 885
Gregory of Nyssa 702, 703, 715, 811, 862, 864, 874
Gregory of Tours 573
Gregory Pardos 834
Gregory X, pope 596
Gregory XIII 32
Greuthingi 239
Grierson, Philip 159, 160
Grottaferrata 108
abbey of, and kanon-writing 897
Günsenin, N. 57
gymnasium, disappearance of 679
Haci Musular 53
Hadrian I, pope 586
Hadrian II, pope 298, 594, 595
Hagedorn, D. 97
haggadah, a parallel to homilies 873
Hagia Eirene;
Hagia Sophia;
hagiography 23, 24
definitions of 862
hagiopolite (Jerusalem) liturgy 604, 920
Haimos mountains 221, 222, 265, 272, 276
Haines, Geoffrey 159
Haithabu 188
Haldon, J. 62
Hama 404
Hamburg 5
Hamdaninds 269
Harald Hardrada 556
harbours;
Harmenopoulos, Hexabiblos 498, 499, 693
harmonics 917
in the quadrivium 809
Harold Godwinsson 556
Harun ar-Rashid 260, 948
Harvey, A. 15
Hasluck, F. W. 49
Hauran 337
Hauteville kings 775
Hawkins, Ernest 388
Hay, Lord John 32
healing and healers 688
hearth tax 563
Hebdomon, outside Constantinople 244
Hegesippos 856
Heidelberg 124
Heirmologion 925, 926
Helen of Serres 766
Helena, mother of Constantine 741
Helena, wife of Romanos I 514
Helladios 101
Hellas 154, 176, 559
Hellenic culture 778
Hellenism 61
Hellenistic koine 780
Hellenization 779
Hellespont 144
Hendy, M. 160, 229, 636
Henotikon 244, 252, 585, 593
Hephaestion of Thebes 812
Hephaistion;
see Athens
Herakleia 300
Herakleios 27, 34, 147, 158, 205, 220, 253, 254, 255, 505, 518, 519, 528, 540, 576, 586, 601, 654, 692, 705, 919
Herculaneum 183, 188
(p. 995) heresy, implications of 957–8
Hermogenes of Tarsos 828, 829, 830
On Ideas, On Staseis 828
commentators on 829–30
Hermopolis 123
Hermos river 223
Hero of Alexandria 811;
see also Heron 803, 804, 805
Hero of Byzantium 478
Herodotos 838, 847
Herul weapons 475
Hesiod 483, 788
hesychasm 290, 580, 597, 867, 886
Hesychast controversy 289, 597
hesychasts 708
Hetaireia, guards 544
Hexabiblos;
Hexamilion 382
Hiereia 336
Hiereia, council;
Hiermologion 920
Hierophilos the Sophist 671
Hierrissos 328
higher education 790–1
Hindhuism 747
Hippocrates 464, 465
Hippodrome;
hippodromes 319, 374, 377, 678
Hippolytos 856
Hispellum, Italy 678
histamenon 166
Historia monachorum in Aegypto 864
histories, audience for 848
historiography 23–4
in Syriac world 842
nature of 838
History of the Monks of Egypt 857
Ho Monogenes 600
Hodegetria;
see icon
Hodegon monastery;
Holland 42
Holton, D. 783
Holy Apostles;
Holy Apostles;
Holy Land 298, 355, 872
Holy Mountain;
Holy Mountains 580
Homer
commentaries on 95
Iliad 788
Homeric epics 899
homiletics
development of 874–5
in collections 878
origins of 873
varieties of 872–3, 875–8
homily 854
Honorius 44, 241, 243
Honorius I, pope 345, 586
Honorius III, pope 280
horismos 130, 132, 134, 150
Hormisdas, palace of;
Hormisdas, pope 593
Horrocks, G. 783
Hosios Loukas 261, 342, 359, 361
Hosios Meletios 361
hospices 621
Hospitallers, and Commanderia wine 672
hospitals 377, 617, 621, 624, 688
nature of 626–7
hostels 617
Hôtel-Dieu, Paris 627
house church (domus ecclesiae) 354
houses
multi-storey 378
types of 375, 380
housing, Byzantine and Ottoman 53
Hsiung-nu (= Huns) 940
Hugh of Lombardy 459
Hugh of Provence 566
Hulagu, Ilkanid leader 286, 807
human as microcosm 700
Humbert of Silva Candida, cardinal 595
Hundred Years War 285
Hungarian 961
Hungarian plains 222
Hungarians 945, 950
Hungary 275, 301, 362
Hungary, Holy Crown of 458
Hunger, H. 6
Hunnic weapons 475, 477
Huns 223, 228, 239, 242, 254, 778, 943, 946
Huns as Scythians 839
Hydatius, chronicles 840
Hyderabad 35
Hygeia 455
hygiene, Byzantine attitudes to 687
hymns, genres of 920
Hypotyposis of Athanasios of the Great Lavra 605
Hypatia 648
Hypatios of Rouphinianae, vita of 865
(p. 996) hyperperon 166, 167
Hyrtakenos, Theodore 786
Ibas, bishop of Edessa 253, 573, 586
Iberia (Georgia) 271
ibn al-Aʻlam 806
ibn al-Muthanna 806
ibn Ezra 805
icon painters 766
icon painting, in egg-tempera 759
icon, definition of 758–9
Iconium 281
Iconoclasm 69, 152, 153, 258, 260, 265, 455, 586, 600, 601, 602, 603, 743, 747, 759, 762, 763, 866
and architecture 358–9
and theory of images 69
causes of 753–4
definitions of 750
impact of 754–5
Iconoclast controversy 702, 856
Iconoclasts 519, 741, 761
Iconodules 519
iconographical analysis, criticisms of 67–8
iconography 67–72
Christian 68–70
imperial 71
interpretations of 67
of pagan gods 71–2
of saints 71
iconology 67
Iconophiles 761
icons 13, 184, 761
and liturgy 734–6
as ‘living paintings’ 765
as focus of pilgrimage 743
bilingual Greek and Arabic 772
Blachernitissa 743
collections of 763
Cuenca diptych 764
Hodegetria 211, 457, 743, 744, 761
in ritual 762, 763
Nikopoios 743
Poganovo 766
restoration of 265
size, materials and revetments 764–5
St Peter, from Chora monastery 766
Triumph of Orthodoxy 744
Virgin Arakiotissa 766
Virgin of the Don 766
Virgin of Vladimir 743
Ignatios the Deacon (of Nicaea) 866, 886
Ignatios, patriarch 594
Ihidaya (solitaries) 613
Ikhsidid Egypt 951
Ikonion (Konya) 53, 298, 300, 301
Iliad 101, 379
Ilias Ambrosiana 484, 487
Ilkhanids 285, 286
illiteracy, definitions of 797–8
Illyrians 778
Illyricum 539
Imberios and Margarona 800
Imbros 847
imperial documents;
Incarnation 31, 33, 584, 702, 703, 704, 705, 726, 733, 744, 745, 879, 896, 952, 957
India 34, 409, 445, 815, 948
Indian astrology 812
Indian ciphers 805
Indian ragas 923
indictions 33
infantry, equipment of 473–4, 475, 476–7
information gathering 947–8
Innocent III 596
Institutes 603, 691–2, 695
International Tree Ring Data Bank 187
Ioannikios, scribe 110–11
Ioannina 287, 292, 323
Ioasaph, scribe, of the Hodegon Monastery 109, 466
Ionian islands 280, 672, 927
Ionian Sea 22, 297
Ionopolis 154
Iran 11, 225, 410, 575, 943, 945
Iraq 226, 227, 943, 945
Ireland 430
Irenaeus of Lyons 527
Irish bog oaks 185
Iron Gates 221
iron mines 445
iron, uses of 450
Isaac (son of Abraham) 68
Isaac Argyros 808, 809
Treatise on the Square Root 805
Isaac ben Salomon, Paved Way 808
Isaac I Komnenos 212, 271, 273, 579
Isaac II Angelos 276
Isaac Komnenos, brother of John I 274, 634
Isaurians 243, 244
Isidore I Boucheir, patriarch 867
(p. 997) Isidore of Miletos 208, 805
Isidore of Pelousion, letters 885
Islam 219, 229, 254, 255, 518, 541, 601, 754, 812, 856, 911, 912, 939, 943, 945, 948, 953, 959
Islam, discussion of 856
Islam, rise of 255–6, 754, 911
Islamic conquest 123, 125, 554, 592, 608, 842
Islamic numismatics 169, 170
Islamic power 614
Islamic silks 424
Islamic year 32
Isokrates 110, 788
Israel 49, 853
Istanbul 3, 12, 159, 186, 188, 506
Istanbul, Archaeological Museum 203, 207
Istanbul, Atik Mustafa Pasa Camii 358
Italian 98, 814
Italian merchants 416, 565, 635, 638
Italian Renaissance 715
Italians 778
Italikos, Michael 79, 833
letters 886
Italos, John 714, 715, 716, 717
Italy 12, 49, 220, 222, 254, 256, 261, 265, 271, 272, 312, 336, 359, 430, 447, 602, 632, 780, 840, 948, 958
Exarchate of 261
Itinerarium Antonii 296
Itinerarium Burdigaliense 296, 302
Ivan Assen II 167
Iviron, Mt Athos 136, 139
ivories, subjects depicted on 455–6
ivory caskets 455–6
ivory, African 454
ivory, uses of 453–6
Jacob Baradaeus 252
Jacob ben David Yom-Tob, Cycles 808
Jacob of Nisibis 572
Jacobite Church 252
Jacob of Serugh 859
Jahrbuch der Österreichischen Byzantinistik 6
James, L. 722
Jamestown colony 187
Jar, port of Medina 939
Jenkins, R. 884
Jerash 342
Jerash, church of St John's 342
Jerome 960
translation of Eusebius 840
Jerphanion, G. de 10
Jerusalem 226, 355, 393, 528, 586, 601, 726, 919, 922
Aedicula 742, 743
Anastasis Rotunda 341
Basilica of the Anastasis 607
Dome of the Rock 342, 344
Golden Gate 341
Holy Sepulchre 607, 742, 746, 919
king of 275
Kingdom of 12
patriarchate 599
see of 574
Jesus 35, 584, 601, 611, 613, 622, 703, 708, 853
Jesus Christ 583, 592, 593, 708, 750
Jesus Healing the Blind 455
Jesus prayer 708
Jewish astronomical tables 805
Jewish Era 32
Jewish tables 808
Jews 752, 778, 779, 803, 805
as silk workers 424
jihad 949, 950, 954
Jobert, Louis 158, 159;
and La science des médailles 158
John Doukas 655
John I, bishop of Thessalonike 865
John II Asen 281
John II Komnenos 212, 273, 274, 275, 380, 626, 844, 845
John III Doukas Vatatzes 281, 426
John Italos 714
John IV Laskaris 282
John Klimakos (of Sinai), Ladder of Divine Ascent 858
John Klimakos (of Sinai), Ladder of Divine Ascent, illustrations 70
John Komnenos (not the emperor) 212
John Lydus 446, 812
John Mavropous 147
John of Antioch, chronicler 840
John of Damascus 487, 702, 713, 727, 734, 751, 755, 758, 812, 835, 859, 873, 878, 910
De Fide Orthodoxa 806
Dialectica 712
on defence of images 877
On Heresies 856, 858
On Orthodox Faith 855, 858
writer of kanons 897
John of Epiphaneia, historian 839
John of Sardis 829
John of Skythopolis 713
(p. 998) John Philoponos 496, 713
John the Almsgiver 574
Life of 572
John the Grammarian 752
John I Tzimiskes 138, 268, 269, 506
John Ugljesha 290, 291
John V Palaiologos 167, 289, 291, 292
John VI Kantakouzenos 167, 168, 287, 289–90, 382, 525, 667, 833, 834
historian 847
John VII Palaiologos 291, 292
John VIII Palaiologos 212, 292, 597
John VIII, pope 595
John, metropolitan of Serres 153
John, patriarch of Antioch 704
John, the ‘Other Old Man’ 858
John, usurper 243
Jordan 49, 226, 342
Joseph Philagrios, scholia on
Categories 717
De Interpretatione 717
Isagoge 717
Joseph Rhakendytes 830
Joseph the hymnographer 925
Jovian 239
Judaean Desert 864
Judaeo-Christian subjects (on ivory) 454
Judaism 229, 255, 256
Julian calendar 32, 808
Julian of Askalon 498
Julian of Laodikeia 812
Julian, emperor 40, 42, 238, 239, 841
and education 786
letters 885
Julian, harbour of;
Juliana Anicia 357
Julius Africanus 842
Chronographies 840
Julius Argentarius 386
Julius, pope 575
justice, administration of 544
Justin I 209, 250, 252, 593
Justin II 42, 205, 254, 255, 508, 566
Justinian I 40, 69, 153, 161, 196, 207, 208, 210, 220, 250, 252, 253, 302, 303, 310, 345, 357, 358, 373, 374, 376, 377, 382, 386, 421, 573, 575, 586, 600, 621, 622, 625, 632, 654, 713, 805, 812, 821, 919, 939, 968
Digest, Institutes, Code 691, 692, 693
foreign policy 252–3
Novels 692, 693
religious policy 250–2
statue of 204
Justinian II 145, 169, 256, 488, 588, 754
Justiniana Prima 374, 445
Kaaba 255
Kabasilas, Nilos 856
Kaffa, Black Sea 638
Kainourgion;
Kaisariane, monastery 381
Kalekas, patriarch John 289
Kalenderhane Camii;
Kalikala (Erzurum) 229
Kallikles, Nicholas, and epigrams 898
Kallimachos
of Alexandria 105, 821
Hekale 822
Kalojan, of Bulgaria 280
kalophonic musical style 926
Kamariotes, Matthew 808
Kamateros, John, 812
Kamouliana icon 761
kanon (hymn) 859, 895–6, 920
Kanonarion 924
kanones (ecclesiastical law) 694
Kantakouzenos;
Kaplan, M. 15
Karacadağ 52
Karahissar, Trabzon 110
Karaite Hebrews 35
Karamağara Küprü 306
Karanis 459, 497
Karanlik Kilise, Cappadocia 496
Kars 52, 951
Kasia, hymnographer 925
Kassandra peninsula 639
Kassandra, walls of 382
Kastamonitou, Mt Athos 136
Kastoria, fortifications 382
Katakalon, strategos of Thessalonike 153
kataphatic theology 701–2
Kataphloroi 522
Kazhdan, A. 5, 14, 15, 176, 958
Kekaumenos 78, 81, 665, 667, 830, 834, 908
Kekaumenos Katakalon 843
kephalaia 858
Keramion icon 761
Kerularios, Michael, patriarch 272, 595
Khazars 257, 265, 473, 555, 940, 953
Khirbet Mird 116
Khludov Psalter 485, 752
Khurasan 943, 945, 948, 952
Kibyrrhaiotai 544, 559
(p. 999) Kiev 266, 269, 272, 390, 450, 773
Destyatinnaya church 338
St Sophia 360
Kievan Rus 925
Kilise Tepe 52
Kinnamos, John, historian 845
kinship networks 653, 657
‘arranged’ (syntekniai) 644, 654, 656, 657, 658
terms for 654
through baptismal sponsorship 657–8
Kiti, Cyprus 386
Kitzinger, E. 12, 60, 61, 753
Kladas, Ioannes, composer 926
Kleidion, battle of 271
Kleinbauer, E. 353
Kleterologion, of Philotheos 266, 673
Klokonitsa, battle of 283
Kodinos, Pseudo-, Treatise on Dignities and Offices 832
Kokkinobaphos Homilies 467, 726
Kokkinobaphos, James of 78, 726
Koloneia (Aksaray) 298
kommerkiarioi, roles of 541
kommerkion 565
Komnenian court 782
Komnenian dynasty 545, 649
Komnenian period 781
Komnenian wares, types and decoration 435–6
Komneno-Doukas 523
Komnenoi 288, 522, 544, 602, 666, 814
Komnenoi, Megaloi 167
Komnenos family 634
Kondakarion chant 922
Konstantinos Maniakes 663
kontakion 859, 895, 919, 920
Kontostephanoi 522
Konya 53, 275
Konya basin 225
Koraes, A. 7
Korone 638
Korones, Xenos, composer 926
Korykos 145
Kose Dagh, battle of 945
Kosmas Indikopleustes 14
Christian Topography 699, 810, 815, 960
Kosmas the Methodist, of Maiouma 859, 897, 920
Kosmosoteira monastery 634
Kosovo Polje, battle of 291, 945
Kotyaion (Kütahya) 298
Koukouzeles, John 926
Kourion, Cyprus 377
Koutloumousiou, Mt Athos 136
Krautheimer, R. 353
Kriaras, E. 96, 98
Kritoboulos, Michael, historian 847
Kromna, Paphlagoina 153
Kroustoulas 79
Krumbacher, K. 5, 8, 895
Küçük Çekmece 303
Kuhn, T. S. 9
Kur valley 225
Kurbinovo, St George 733
Kurds 555
Kursanakis, Mikelis 160
Kursuklija, St Nicholas 359
Kurtz, E. 869
Kuwait 449
Kydones, Demetrios 833, 887
as translator 714
Kydones, Prochoros 714
Kyranides, magical recipies 814
Kyrenia ship 485
Kyzikos 490
Lagoudhera Valley, Cyprus 444
Laiou, A. 632
laity, definition of 534
Lake Van 226
Lake, K. 137
Lakonia 53, 57
Lampadenos, kyr Perios 656
Lampe, Patristic Greek Lexikon 96, 98, 124
Lampsacus, Cyprus;
land tax 563
language levels, and implications for literature 895
language, of Byzantine texts 88
Laodikeia 300
Laodikeia, council of;
Lapithes, George 808
Lascarides, the 523
Lascaris, Janus 111
Laskarid court 78
Laskarid dynasty 283
Laskaris, Constantine 823
Last Judgement 36, 866
Last Supper 33, 733
Latakiya;
late Roman C (ware) 430
late Roman D (slip ware) 430
Lateran fastigium 741
Latin 21, 116, 123, 362, 803, 960, 961
Latin America 961
Latin astronomical tables 805
(p. 1000) Latin Christendom 943, 945, 949, 954
Latin elite 425
Latin Empire of Constantinople 280, 282, 312
Latin errors 856
Latin mercenaries 558
Latin Romania 426, 427
Latin terms avoided 839
Latin West 485, 489
Latin West, and rediscovery of Aristotle 714
Latin, dominant in West 778
Latin, in military terminology 909
Latin, use of in law 692, 696
Latin-Greek church conflic 272
Latinization of Western Church 593
Latins 524, 525, 579, 616, 803
Latins in Constantinople 322, 945
Latmos 361
latrines 498–9
Latros, Mt 614
monasteries of 580
Laurion mines, Greece 444
Lausanne, Treaty of 50
Lausos, palace;
Lavra of St Sabas 619
Lavra, monastery of 330
Lavra, Mt Athos 136
lavriotic monasticism 614
Law School 522
law, codification of 692
law, secular 692
Lazaropoulos, John, hagiographer 868
Lazaros of Galesion, vita of 866
lead, uses of 450
Lebanon 226, 445
Lecky, W. 8
Ledja 337
legal handbooks, of Leo VI 267
legal literature and legal practice 695–6
legal literature, characteristics of in Byzantium 696–7
legal literature, ecclesiastical 694
legislation
imperial 26
tenth-century 268–9
Lekapenos family 267–8
Lembiotissa monastery 797
Lemnos 672
Leo Bible 797
Leo I 42, 209, 243, 244, 249, 515, 958
Leo I, pope 585
Leo II 243, 249, 515
Leo III 27, 257, 505, 693, 751, 959
and iconoclasm 258
Leo IV 261
Leo IX, pope 595
Leo Mangentinos (philosopher) 714
Leo of Synada 301, 670
Leo the Deacon, historian 667, 843
Leo the Great, pope 587
Leo the Mathematician 714, 811
Leo the Philosopher 812
Leo V 265, 519, 566, 751
Leo VI 62, 78, 169, 267, 381, 455, 458, 488, 653, 656, 657, 692, 812, 863, 878, 899, 950
bath of 499
on warfare with Arabs 911
Taktika 267, 478, 487, 907, 911
Leo, pope (d. 461) 704
Leo, pope, Tome of 575
Leonardo of Pisa 805
Leontios of Constantinople, preacher 874
Leontios, bishop of Antioch 624
Lesbos 484
Lethaby, H. W. and The Church of Sancta Sophia 10
Letter of the Three Patriarchs to the Emperor Theophilos 761
letter-collections 885
letters 23
interpretation of 887–8
varieties of 882–3
Leuven Database of Ancient Books 124
Leuven Homepage of Papyrus Collections 120, 124
Levant 219, 229, 429, 484, 638, 939, 945, 961
geography of 226–7
lexicography, problems of 98
Lexikon of the Greek and Roman Periods 95
Lexikon zur byzantinischen Gräzität (LBG) 96, 98, 99
Libadenos, Andrew, Periegesis 811
Libanios 625
letters 885
Liber Pontificialis 447
libraries 469–70
library catalogues, paucity of 823
monastic 822
private 822
under Justinian 821
Libya 585
Libya, Upper 539
Licinius 235, 446, 583
Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexikon 96, 98, 99, 124
life expectancy 313
Life of the Empress Theodora 833
(p. 1001) lighting devices 448–9
Limburg reliquary 447, 458
Limoges enamel at Sinai 745
linen 409
Lips monastery;
liquid fire projector 479–80
Litani river 226
literacy 23, 24, 25
literary criticism, and Byzantine texts 77
literary criticism, in Byzantium 79
literary studies, approaches to 13
literary theory, and Byzantine literature 80–3
literary theory, modern, varieties of 80–3
litra (Byzantine pound) 39
liturgy of Constantinople 604
Liturgy of St James 608
liturgy, ‘imperial phase’ 919
and architecture 602
and manuscript illustrations 736
evidence for development of 731
impact of Iconoclasm on 603
influence on art 732
interpretations of 601–2
monasticization of 606–7
Stoudite synthesis 603
Livadhia, Cyprus 386
Ljubarskij, J. 14
logic
Byzantine originality in 718
study and teaching of 716–18
logothete 386, 511, 512, 513, 514, 540, 544, 830, 845, 846
Lombards 160, 254, 261, 265, 269, 271
London 5, 6, 159
loros 411
Lossky, V. 702
Louis II 298
Louis IX of France 286
Loukas of Stiris, vita of 866
Louloudies 200
Low Countries 183
Lucca 426, 427
Lucian 724, 788
Lucius Verus 233
Luidprand of Cremona 567, 674, 954
Antapodosis and Legatio 514
on retsina 672
Lycaonia 360
Lycia 53, 304, 484
Lyons
council of;
Union of 285–6, 287
Mabillon, J., and De Re Diplomatica 101
Macedonia 139, 222, 290, 313, 328, 333, 339, 544, 633–4, 639, 653, 779, 944
Macedonia, theme 567
Macedonian dynasty 312, 602, 842, 940
Macedonian renaissance 456, 781
Macrobius, translated into Greek 714
Madrid 5
Maeander river 300, 223
Maeander Valley 404
Mafraq, Jordan 42
Magnentius 238
Magnesia 153, 426
Magnus Maximus 241
Maguire, H. 13, 61
Magyars 228, 473
Main river (Germany) 185
Makarian Homilies 706–7
Makarioi, monks of the Egyptian desert 706
Makarios Chrysokephalos 867
Makrembolites, Eumathios/Eustathios 99, 832, 900
Makrina, vita of 862, 864
Maksim Grek, St 36
Malakes, Euthymios, letters 886
Malalas, John, chronicler 81, 444, 834, 840, 959
Malchos, historian 839
Maleas, Cape of 221
Maleinoi, the 519, 522
Man of Sorrows icon 457, 735, 764
Manasses, Constantine 99, 831, 832, 834
Manchus, the 223
Mandylion of Edessa 743
Manfred 286
Mangana, see Constantinople, palaces
Mangentinos, paraphrase of De Interpretatione 717
Mango, C. 353, 722
Mani Codex, Cologne 118
Mani, Cape of 221
Maniakes, George 272
Manichaeism 855, 856
Mann, M. 15,