Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 28 January 2020

Abstract and Keywords

In 313, Constantine reached an agreement with Licinius on a policy of religious toleration, at a time when Christians were deeply divided on the Person of Jesus Christ. The controversy arose when Arius (d. 336), a popular preacher in Alexandria, taught that the Son of God was not eternal but created before the ages by the Father. In an attempt to restore unity to the Church, Constantine convoked a council of bishops from all over Byzantium. This article focuses on the assemblies of bishops and other church representatives that took place in the East. These universal synods came to be called ecumenical councils. There were also regional councils attended by the bishops of a region to decide questions of discipline. The article examines the first of all the seven ecumenical councils that took place between 325 and 787 during the Byzantine Era, and also considers the canons on church discipline promulgated by both ecumenical and regional councils. These canons formed the basis for church law in the East and in the West.

Keywords: religious toleration, Jesus Christ, Arius, bishops, synods, ecumenical councils, regional councils, Byzantium, canons, church discipline

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.