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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 962) Rulers

(p. 962) Appendix 1 Rulers

Eastern Roman rulers, 324–1453

Eastern Roman rulers, 324–1453

(p. 963) (p. 964)

Constantine I

324–337

Constantius II

337–361

Julian

361–363

Jovian

363–364

Valens

364–378

Theodosios I

379–395

Arkadios

395–408

Theodosios II

408–450

Marcian

450–457

Leo I

457–474

Leo II

474

Zeno

474–475

Basiliskos

475–476

Zeno (restored)

476–491

Anastasios I

491–518

Justin I

518–527

Justinian I

527–565

Justin II

565–578

Tiberios II Constantine

578–582

Maurice

582–602

Phokas

602–610

Herakleios

610–641

Constantine III and Heraklonas

641

Constans II

641–668

Constantine IV

668–685

Justinian II

685–695

Leontios

695–698

Tiberios III

698–705

Justinian II (restored)

705–711

Philippikos Bardanes

711–713

Anastasios II

713–715

Theodosios III

715–717

Leo III

717–741

Constantine V

741–775

Artabasdos

741–742

Leo IV

775–780

Constantine VI

780–797

Eirene

797–802

Nikephoros I

802–811

Staurakios

811

Michael I

811–813

Leo V

813–820

Michael II

820–829

Theophilos

829–842

Michael III

842–867

Basil I

867–886

Leo VI

886–912

Alexander

912–913

Constantine VII

913–959

Romanos I Lekapenos

920–944

Romanos II

959–963

Nikephoros II Phokas

963–969

John I Tzimiskes

969–976

Basil II

976–1025

Constantine VIII

1025–1028

Romanos III Argyros

1028–1034

Michael IV the Paphlagonian

1034–1041

Michael V Kalaphates

1041–1042

Zoe and Theodora

1042

Constantine IX Monomachos

1042–1055

Theodora (again) 1055–1056

Michael VI Stratiotikos

1056–1057

Isaac I Komnenos

1057–1059

Constantine X Doukas

1059–1067

Eudokia

1067

Romanos IV Diogenes

1068–1071

Eudokia (again)

1071

Michael VII Doukas

1071–1078

Nikephoros III Botaneiates

1078–1081

Alexios I Komnenos

1081–1118

John II Komnenos

1118–1143

Manuel I Komnenos

1143–1180

Alexios II Komnenos

1180–1183

Andronikos I Komnenos

1183–1185

Isaac II Angelos

1185–1195

Alexios III Angelos

1195–1203

Isaac II (restored) and Alexios IV Angelos

1203–1204

Alexios V Mourtzouphlos

1204

Constantine (XI) Laskaris

1204 (Nicaea)

Theodore I Laskaris

1204–1222 (Nicaea)

John III Doukas Vatatzes

1222–1254 (Nicaea)

Theodore II Laskaris

1254–1258 (Nicaea)

John IV Laskaris

1258–1261 (Nicaea)

Michael VIII Palaiologos

1259–1282

Andronikos II Palaiologos

1282–1328

Michael IX Palaiologos

1294–1320

Andronikos III Palaiologos

1328–1341

John V Palaiologos

1341–1391

John VI Kantakouzenos

1341–1354

Andronikos IV Palaiologos

1376–1379

John VII Palaiologos

1390

Manuel II Palaiologos

1391–1425

John VIII Palaiologos

1425–1448

Constantine XI (XII) Palaiologos

1448–1453

Empire of Nicaea

Constantine (XI) Laskaris

1204

Theodore I Laskaris

1204–1222

John III Doukas Vatatzes

1222–1254

Theodore II Laskaris

1254–1258

John IV Laskaris

1258–1261

Michael VIII Palaiologos

1259–1282 (from 1261 at Constantinople)

Principality (Despotate) of Epiros

Michael I

1204–1215

Theodore

1215–1230 (emperor from 1224 in Thessalonike)

Thessalonike

Manuel

1230–1237

John

1237–1244

Demetrios

1244–1246 (defeated by John Vatatzes in 1246)

Thessaly

John I

1271–1296

Constantine

1296–1303

John II

1303–1318

Epiros

Michael II

c.1231–1271

Nikephoros I

1271–1296

Thomas

1296–1318

Nicholas Orsini

1318–1325

John Orsini

1325–1335

Nikephoros II

1335–1340

Grand Komnenoi of Trebizond

(p. 965)

Alexios I

1204–1222

Andronikos I

1222–1235

John I

1235–1238

Manuel I

1238–1263

Andronikos II

1263–1266

George

1266–1280

John II

1280–1297

Alexios II

1297–1330

Andronikos III

1330–1332

Manuel II

1332

Basil

1332–1340

Eirene

1340–1341

Anna

1341

Michael

1341

Anna (again)

1341–1342

John III

1342–1344

Michael (again)

1344–1349

Alexios III

1349–1390

Manuel III

1390–1416

Alexios IV

1416–1429

John IV

1429–1459

David

1459–1461

Despotate of the Morea

Manuel Kantakouzenos

1348–1380

Matthew Kantakouzenos

1380–1383

Demetrios Kantakouzenos

1383

Theodore I Palaiologos

1383–1407

Theodore II Palaiologos

1407–1443

Constantine and Thomas Palaiologos

1443–1449

Thomas and Demetrios Palaiologos

1449–1460

Latin emperors at Constantinople

Latin emperors at Constantinople

1204–1205

Baldwin I of Flanders

1206–1216

Henry of Flanders

1217

Peter of Courtenay

1217–1219

Yolande

1221–1228

Robert of Courtenay

1228–1261

Baldwin II (1231–1237 John of Brienne)

The Bulgars

The Bulgars

First Bulgarian empire 681–971

(p. 966)

Asparuch

681–702

Tervel

702–718

Anonymous

718–725

Sevar

725–739

Kormisoš

739–756

Vinech

756–762

Teletz

762–765

Sabin

765–767

Umar

767

Toktu

767–772

Pagan

772

Telerig

772 (c.)–777

Kardam

777–c.803

Krum

c.803–814

Dukum, Dicevg

814

Omurtag

814–831

Malamir

831–836

Presiam

836–852

Boris I Michael

852–889

Vladimir

889–893

Symeon

893–927

Peter

927–969

Boris II

969–971

The Bulgars' ‘Macedonian’ empire 976–1018

Samuel

976–1014

Gabriel Radomir

1014–1015

John Vladislav

1015–1018

The second Bulgarian empire 1186–1396

Asen I

1186–1196

Peter

1196–1197

Kalojan

1197–1207

Boril

1207–1218

Ivan Asen II

1218–1241

Kaloman Asen

1241–1246

Michael Asen

1246–1256

Constantine Tikh

1257–1277

Ivailo

1278–1279

Ivan Asen III

1279–1280

George I Terter

1280–1292

Smiletz

1292–1298

Čaka

1299

Theodore Svetoslav

1300–1322

George II Terter

1322–1323

Michael Šišman

1323–1330

Ivan Stephen

1330–1331

Ivan Alexander

1331–1371

Ivan Šišman

1371–1393 (at Trnovo)

Ivan Stracimir

1360–1396 (at Vidin)

Grand Zupans/Kings of Serbia (from 1168)

(p. 967) Grand Zupans/Kings of Serbia (from 1168)

Štefan Nemanja

c.1168–1196

Štefan I

1196–1217

Štefan Radoslav

1217–1227/28

Štefan Vladislav

1227/28–1234

Štefan Uroš I

1234–1276

Štefan Dragutin

1276–1282

Štefan Uroš II

1282–1321

Štefan Uroš III

1321–1331

Štefan Uroš IV Dušan

1331–1355 (emperor from 1345)

Štefan Uroš V

1355–1371

Islamic rulers

Islamic rulers

Caliphs

The four ‘rightly-guided’ Caliphs, direct descendants of the Prophet

Abu Bakr

632–634

Umar I

634–644

Uthman

644–656

Ali

656–661

Umayyad dynasty

Muʼawiyya I

661–680

Yazid I

680–683

Muʼawiyya II

683–684

Marwan I

684–685

Abd al-Malik

685–705

Walid I

705–715

Suleiman

715–717

Umar II

715–720

Yazid II

720–724

Hisham

724–743

Walid II

743–744

Yazid III

744

Marwan II

744–750

Ibrahim

744

Abbasid dynasty

(p. 968)

as-Saffah

750–754

al-Mansur

754–775

al-Mahdi

775–785

al-Hadi

785–786

Harun ar-Rashid

786–809

al-Amin

809–813

al-Maʻmun

813–833

al-Muʻtasim

833–842

al-Wathiq

842–847

al-Mutawwakil

847–861

al-Muntasir

861–862

al-Mustaʻin

862

al-Muʻtazz

862–866

al-Muhtadi

866–869

al-Muʻtamid

869–892

al-Muʻtadid

892–902

al-Muqtafi

902–908

al-Muqtadir

908–932

al-Qahir

932–934

al-Radi

934–940

al-Muttaqi

940–943

al-Mustakfi

943–946

al-Muti

946–974

at-Taʼi

974–991

al-Qadir

991–1031

al-Qaim

1031–1075

al-Muqtadi

1075–1094

al-Mustazhir

1094–1118

al-Mustarshid

1118–1135

ar-Rashid

1135–1136

al-Muqtafi

1136–1160

al-Mustanjid

1160–1170

al-Mustadi

1170–1180

an-Nasir

1180–1225

az-Zahir

1225–1226

al-Mustansir

1226–1258

al-Mustaʻsim

1258

Seljuk Sultans of Rum

(p. 969)

Suleiman I

1077–1086

Kilij Arslan I

1092–1107

Malik Shah

1107–1116

Masud I

1116–1156

Kilij Arslan II

1156–1192

Kaikhusraw I

1192–1996

Suleiman II

1196–1204

Kilij Arslan III

1204

Kaikhusraw I (again)

1204–1210

Kaikawus I

1210–1220

Kaikubad I

1220–1237

Kaikhusraw II

1237–1245

Kaikawus II

1246–1257

Kilij Arslan IV

1248–1265

Kaikubad II

1249–1257

Kaikhusraw III

1265–1282

Masud II

1282–1304

Kaikubad III

1284–1307

Masud III

1307–1308

Ottoman Sultans to 1453

Osman

1288–1326

Orhan

1326–1362

Murad I

1362–1389

Bayezid I

1389–1402

Mehmet I

1402–1421 (sole ruler from 1413)

Suleiman

1402–1410

Musa

1411–1413

Murad II

1421–1451

Mehmet II Fatih ‘the Conqueror’

1451–1481

Armenia from 885 (until its incorporation into the Byzantine empire in 1042–1045)

Armenia from 885 (until its incorporation into the Byzantine empire in 1042–1045)

Ashot I the Great

885–890

Smbat I the Martyr

890–914

Ashot II the Iron

914–928

Abas I

928–952

Ashot III the Merciful

952–977

Smbat II the Conqueror

977–989

Gagik I

989–20

John-Smbat III

1020–1040

Ashot IV the Valiant

1021–1039

Gagik II

1042–1045

Note: The Armenian princes who ruled or governed Armenia or parts thereof nominally for the eastern Roman emperors and for the Persian kings in the fifth–seventh centuries, or for the Byzantine emperors and Caliphs from the seventh to ninth centuries, are not included.

Georgia

Georgia

Iberia

Adarnase IV

888–923

David II

923–937

Smbat I

937–958

Bagrat II

958–994

Gurgen I

994–1008

Bagrat III

1008–1014

(p. 970) Abasgia

Leo II

767–812

Theodosios II

812–838

Demetrios II

838–873

George I

872–879

John Šavliani

878–880

Adarnase Šavliani

880–888

Bagrat I

888–899

Constantine III

899–917

George II

916–961

Leo III

961–970

Demetrios III

970–977

Theodoios III

977–979

Bagrat III of Iberia

979–1014

Georgia (Abasgia and Iberia together)

(p. 971)

Bagrat III

1008–1014

George I

1014–1027

Bagrat IV

1027–1072

George II

1072–1089

David III

1089–1125

Demetrios I

1125–1156

David IV

1155

George III

1156–1184

Thamar ‘the Great’

1184–1212

George IV

1212–1223

Rusudan

1223–1245

Interregnum

1245–1250

David V

1250–1258 (secedes in Imeretia/Abasgia)

David VI

1250–1269

Interregnum

1269–1273

Demetrios II

1273–1289

Vakhtang II of Imeretia

1289–1292

David VII

1292–1301

Vakhtang III

1301–1307

George V

1307–1314

George VI

1314–1346

David VIII

1346–1360

Bagrat V ‘the Great’

1360–1395

George VII

1395–1405

Constantine I

1405–1412

Alexander I ‘the Great’

1412–1442

Vakhtang IV

1442–1446

Demetrios III

1446–1453

George VIII

1446–1465

Bagrat VI

1465–1478

Constantine II

1478–1505

Note: The kings of Georgia generally ruled in association with a junior co-ruler who was often one of their immediate successors.