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date: 18 September 2019

(p. 989) Index

(p. 989) Index

Abbott, A 804
Abel, Richard L 749, 797, 808, 887
Abi-Saab, Georges 475
aboriginal people 775, 780, 784, 785, 850
abortion 672–700
adolescent 688–90
autonomy 681, 687–8
birth rates 697–8
Carlson, A 690
Cohen, J 687, 696
Comstock, Anthony 676
constitutional right of 680–2, 684–6, 688–9, 694
counter-majoritarianism 682, 684
criminalization of 676, 681–2, 693–4
decisional autonomy 687–8
deliberative autonomy 687–8
democracy 674
Donahue, J 690
early 674–5, 686, 687
East Germany 694–5
Elders, J 690
elections 674
Ely, J 682
England 676, 693–4, 696
Epstein, R 682, 685
equality 684
Europe 693–8
federalism 680–3
feminism 674, 683–4, 688
foeticide 681
foetus, status of the 684
Fourteenth Amendment 682
France 687, 693–6, 698
funding 685–6, 695
Germany 693–6, 698
Ginsburg, R 684
Glendon, M 685, 696
Greenhouse, S 697
Hertberg, B 696
ideology 673–4
illegal 691–2, 693, 695
Italy 698
judicial activism 682
Kommers, D 696
Law, S 684
Lawson, A 690
legitimacy 680, 697
Levitt, S 690
liberty 684
life, right to 681
mail, dissemination of information in the 676
Melton, G 690
Miedel, F 696
Nazi Germany 694
normative implications 690–3
pharmaceutical 692–3, 697
pregnancy prevention programmes 689–90
privacy 683–4, 689
public health 697
regulation 681, 686–7, 697
religion 682–3
Rae v Wade 680–90, 691–2, 693, 696
Rosenberg, G 691
Rosenheim, M 689
self-determination 673, 680
separation of powers 680–1
Siegel, R 684
subsidies 696–8
Testa, M 689
Thomson, J 683
tourism 693–4
Tushnet, M 685
United Kingdom 693
United States 673–4, 676, 680–93, 696–9
vigilante activities 687
welfare rights 686, 698
Werner, U 696
West Germany 694
Witherspoon, J 681
Abram, M 204, 206
abuse of a dominant position 521, 527, 528
academics in the legal system, the role of 920–49
Accursius 938
administration of law 923–4
American Law Institute 930
antitrust 934–5
Arthurs Report 924–5
Australia 945
Baldwin, John 928
Becher, J 921
Beerman, JM 930
Boyron, S 940
Brownlie, I 942
Buchanan, A 946
Caenegem, RC van 935
Cahn, E 934
Canada 924–5, 945
Cass, R 930
civil law systems 935–41
codification 936–9
Cold War 944
commentaries 937
comparative law 921, 928–9
contract law 934–5
contracts of employment 923
criminal law 926–7
Criminal Law Review 927
Cross, Rupert 927
customary international law 941–2, 945–6
Dainow, J 938
Davis, Gwynn 928
development of law 923–4
doctrinal scholarship 925, 931–3, 936–7, 940, 943–4
drafting legislation 936, 940
Duxbury, Neil 922, 928–9
Edwards, Harry 925, 931
effectiveness principle 942
Europe 935–41
Fifoot, CHS 922
foreign scholars 946–7
France 936–9
Germanic legal systems 935
Germany 935–6, 938–9, 940
globalization 921
glossators 938
Goff, Robert 922, 928–9
Goldsmith, JL 941
Gordon, RW 932
government 944–5
Hamlyn Lectures 928
Holzgrefe, J 946
ideology 946
individual scholars 923–6
influence 926–8, 944–7
information needs 925–6
information technology 926
institutions 922–3, 944
International Court of Justice 943–5
international law 921, 941–7
International Legal Center 922–3
international organizations 944
international politics 942
Italy 939
judiciary 922, 928–9, 930–9
Justinian 938
Kaser, M 937
Keohane, RO 943, 946
Law Commission 928
law and economics movement 933
law reform 928
learned societies 923
Legal Adviser to the US Department of State 945
legal profession 931
legal realism 930
legal reasoning 930, 943
legal writing 927–33, 936–40, 944–5
Lindgren, J 935
Markesenis, Basil 928–9
Merritt, DJ 931
multifunctional institutions 922
Netherlands 936, 940
Nordic legal systems 935
Northern Ireland 926
outside work 924
Pellet, A 946
Portugal 938
postgraduate schools 922
Posner, Richard 925, 933, 935, 941
practical doctrinal scholarship 925
primary model 922
private law/public law divide 939
private practice 940
promotion 923
public figures 921
public international law 921
public policy 928
public service 924, 933, 944–5
publications 924, 927–31, 945
publishers 928
Putnam, M 931
regionalization 921
research 924–5
Research Assessment Exercises 925
restatements 930
Roman law 937–8
Romanistic legal systems 936
rule of law 942–3
salaries 931
San Marino 938
Scotland 938
secession 946
self-determination 946
Servicing the Legal System Programme (NI) 926
Shearer, IA 942
Sirico Jr, LJ 931
Slaughter-Burley, A-M 942
Smith, John 926–7, 928
Society of Public Teachers of the Law 926
South Africa 938
state sovereignty 942, 944
Stein, P 939
(p. 991) Swiss Legal Code 936
Teson, FR 941
transnationalism 921
treaty reservations 946
Twining, William 921, 923
UN Security Council 943
United Kingdom 921–9, 945
United States 928–35, 944–6
vocational training 922
Wieacker, F 938
Williams, Glanville 927
Zimmerman, R 941
access to justice 749, 759–60, 764–6, 824, 840
account of profits 91–2
accountability
citizenship 193
corporations 487–8, 491–2, 505–6
deficit 148
executive action, review of 146–8, 151
governance 151
international legal sanction processes 828–9, 831
regulation 126, 139, 141–2
rule-making 732–4, 736, 738–9, 740, 744, 746
state, nature and functions of the 107, 114, 116
Accursius 938
Ackerman, Bruce 64, 68, 167–8, 177, 709
acquis communautaire 330
Addis, A 820
Adler, M 406
Adler, RS 559
Administrative Appeals Tribunal 149, 152, 406
administrative law
administrative agencies 120
Australia 149, 157
civil processes 755
Commonwealth 157
constitutionalisation 147, 151, 162
empirical research 158–9
executive action, review of 146–60, 162
judicialization 162
judiciary 755
legitimacy 150–1, 159
procedure 152–3
red light and green light approaches 147–8, 154–5
scholarship 146–60
state, nature and functions of the 103–4, 106–7, 114–15
United States 161–2
ADR (alternative dispute resolution) 756, 761–2, 766, 769
adversarialism 757–8, 766, 768–9, 775–6, 878–8
advertising 538–48
Baker, Edwin 545
Banner, S 546
Berman, M 546
caveat emptor 538
cigarette 546–8, 549
commercial 545–6, 658, 666
corrective 543–4
deceit 538–43, 549
European Union 541–2
freedom of speech 544–8
Howells, G 542
injunctions 542–3
intellectual property 643
Keeton, WP 539
Kluger, R 547
Kozinski, A 546
law and economics movement 538
materiality 540
misleading 538–45
misrepresentation 538–40, 542–4
passing off 538
Pitofsky, Robert 539–40
Posner, R 546
Preston, I 539, 540
Prosser, W 539
public policy 537
puffing 539–41, 551
regulation 544–8
remedies 542–4
standard of consumer 540–2
stereotyping 541–2
Strauss, D 546
targeted audiences 666
United Kingdom 538, 542
United States 538, 540–8
Wilhelmsson, T 542
affirmative action 368
Afghanistan 825
age discrimination 205
agency cost theory 490–2, 506
Agent Orange litigation 40
agriculturalism 470
air pollution 707, 712
Al Qaʼida 260, 265, 820
Alexander, Gregory 68, 72
aliens 193, 198–9, 200
Allen, Carleton Kemp 966
Allen, WT 505
Allot, P 273, 283, 285, 288
Alston, Philip 475, 818
alternative dispute resolution 756, 761–2, 766, 769
Amabile, Theresa 626
Ames, James Barr 49, 864–7, 870–1
American Law Institute 750, 855, 930
Amin, Samir 467
amnesties 826, 831
Amos, Shedon, 966
Andrews, William 389
Anghie, A 275, 288
(p. 992) anti-dumping 603
Antigua 305
antitrust 511–17 see also competition law in the US
academics in the legal system 934–5
agencies 121
consumers 537
legal studies 954
media 661
regulation 121
Appadurai, A 604
appeals 766–7
arbitration
civil processes 750, 756–7
England 756–7
labour law 573–4, 576
transnational concept of law 844, 858
UNCITRAL Model Arbitration Law 756–7
United States 756
Arendt, Hannah 186, 190
Aristotle
citizenship 185–6, 189
complex polities 353
criminal law 234, 238, 243
discrimination 202–4, 219
transnational concept of law 840
Arlen, J 499
armed forces 125–6
Armour, J 495
Armstrong, Kenneth 340–1
Arnold, Thurman, 954
Aronson, Mark 104, 105, 106, 114, 115
Arthurs Report 924–5
arts 644
Arup, C 576
Ash, Timothy Garton 326
Ashworth, Andrew 230, 231–2, 238, 244, 781, 784, 785, 789
Asian financial crisis 122
Askin, KD 821
asset partitioning trusts 88
assumpsit 4–5, 49, 865
Atanasiu, I 525
Atiyah, PS 7, 12, 16, 18, 25, 121, 397
audience, rights of 804–5
Austin, JL 237, 239, 951, 966
Australia
academics in the legal system 945
Administrative Appeals Tribunal 149, 152, 406
administrative law 149, 157
armed forces 125–6
capital gains tax 394
collective bargaining 573
Commonwealth Ombudsman 149
complex polities 357–8, 359, 365
constitutionalization 151–2, 162
corporations 500–1
criminal process 784, 785
equity 84–5
executive action, review of 149, 151–2, 157, 161–2
families 421, 429
federalism 358, 359
fiduciaries 94
government business entities 111
health care system 436, 442
historical research in law 863, 866, 875
human rights 298–9, 301, 302, 304, 310
intellectual property 624
international legal sanction processes 821, 828
judicial review 162
labour law 564, 566–7, 568, 571–2, 576
legal education 902, 905, 909, 913–14
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 170, 173
police 125
privatization 123–4
public health 449
regulation 123–6
separation of powers 151–2
state, nature and functions of the 111
tax evasion and avoidance 390
taxation scholarship 378, 381, 385–7, 390, 392–4
therapeutic relationship 446
tribunals 152, 401, 406
trusts 85
unconscionability 84–5, 94
United States 161–2
unjust enrichment 54, 55
wealth transfer tax 392
welfare state 401, 406
Austria 166, 172, 283
Ausubel, M 555
authorship 629–30, 642
automatism 232
autonomous discipline, law as an 975–87
adjudication 981
American legal realism 975, 978–80
autopoesis 984–5
Beale, Joseph 979
Bell, J 978, 984
Case Method 979
Cohen, Felix 979
Coke, Edward 977
Commonwealth 982
conflict of laws 979
critical legal studies 980, 982–3
determinacy 983
discretion 981
doctrinal scholarship 981
Duxbury, Neil 981
efficiency 982
England 981, 984
Europe 981–2
Fisher, WF 979
FrankJ 976
Fried, C 985
Grey, TC 979
Hart, HLA 981
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr 979
institutional competence 981
interdisciplinary work 976, 981
James I 977
judicial law-making 976
judicial reasoning 976–7, 980
Kant, Immanuel 984
Kelman, M 982, 983
Kelsen, Hans 984–5
Kennedy, D 982
Langdell, Christopher Columbus 979
law and economics 982
law and society 981–2
law in context 981
legal decision-making 978, 981, 985–6
legal education 976–7, 979, 983–4
legal process school 980–1
legal realism 976, 978–9, 984
legal reasoning 975–80, 984–6
mechanical jurisprudence 978–9
Menand, L 979
neo-formalism 984–5
Paulson, SL 984
persuasive analogies 978
policy science 979, 981
Posner, Richard 980, 982, 983
Pound, Roscoe 978
precedent 976
professional legal education 983–4
Raz, Joseph 977, 986
Sacks, AM 981
Sebok, AJ 979
social sciences 981
socio-legal studies 981
Solum, L 983
stare decisis 976
Summers, RS 978, 985
Teubner, G 985
Twining, William 981
United States 975–87
wealth maximization 982
Weinrib, EJ 978, 985
autonomy see also autonomous discipline, law as an, self-determination
abortion 681, 687–8
contraception 679–81
criminal law 230
decisional 687–8
deliberative 687–8
discrimination 203–10, 212, 215, 217–19
families 418
freedom of expression 651–5, 657
health care system 436–7
media 661, 664
therapeutic relationship 445, 447, 452
unjust enrichment 51
autopoesis 984–5
Avi-Yonah, RS 384
Ayres, I 737
Bainbridge, SM 499
Baker, CE 545, 652, 654, 659, 665, 666
Baker, JH 865, 870
Bakos, Y 643
Balasubramanyam, VN 601
Baldwin, John 928
Baldwin, R 127, 158, 728, 733, 887, 888, 896
bank accounts, mixing 58
bankruptcy 60, 554–5
banks, regulation of 122–3
Banner, S 546
Baranek, Patricia 779, 783
Barber, B 188, 195
Barber, KL 365
Bardach, E 732
Barenberg, M 571, 576, 587, 589
Barendt, E 399, 400, 649, 659, 663
Barnett, Randy 8
Barnett, Ron 905, 910
Barr, N 409
barriers to trade 348
Barron, J 422, 660, 669
Barzel, Yoram 67
Bastarache, M 311
battery 445–6
battle of the forms 15–16
Baubock, R 191
Baxi, Upendra 455, 459, 475, 477, 478
Beale, Joseph 979
Beatson, J 52
Beatty, D 313, 314–15
Becher, J 921
Beck, Ulrich 122, 251, 475
Becker, G 954
Becker, JS 7, 894
Becker, Lawrence 63
Bedjaoui, Mohammed 600
Beerman, JM 106, 107, 115, 930
Beitz, Charles 479
Bell, J 852, 940, 978, 984
Bellamy, C 522
Bellamy, Richard 340
Benkler, Y 624, 644, 654, 670
Benson, Peter 19
Bentham, Jeremy
criminal law 226–30, 235, 244
(p. 994) global development and impoverishment 463, 468–9
regulation 137
Bently, L 625–6, 629
Bercusson, B 113, 584
Berger, K 849, 854, 855, 857
Berger, M 42
Berger, R 678
Bergin, T 957
Berle, AA 485–92, 495, 502, 504–6
Berlusconi, Silvio 326, 657–8, 667
Berman, M 546
Berman, N 288
Bernstein, A 40
best available technology 708–9
Bhagwati, Jagdish 601, 606
Bhagwati, PN 440
bias see impartiality
Bickel, Alexander 167, 170, 172, 197
Bidmead, I 449
Bigelow, Melville B 865
bilateral investment treaties 276
biographies 878
biomedical research 74–5
biotechnology 473
Bird, I 720
Bird, Richard 387
Birks, P
equity 85, 86
legal education 902, 905, 911, 916
regulation 49, 50, 51–2, 54, 58
restitution 49, 50, 51–2, 54–8
Bishop, W 157
Bismarck, Otto von 179, 402–3
Black, Hugo 663
Black, Julia 120, 135, 136, 157, 888
Blackstone, William
contract 3
criminal law 229
historical research in law 864
property 65, 72, 75, 77
public health 449
Blair, MM 487–8, 498–9
Blair, Tony 109
Blasi, V 651, 652
Blejer, MI 387
block exemptions 526
Blum, WJ 25, 394
Blumberg, A 776, 779, 886
Blumberg, G 418
Bogdandy, A von 333, 344
Bohanan, Paul 461
Bohlen, Francis 27
Bollinger, L 663, 669
Bonner, D 402
books see publications
Bork, Robert 312, 513, 678
Bosniak, Linda 191, 192, 193, 198, 199
Bottoms, A 263, 779, 783
Bowler, S 364
Boyd, Stewart C 756
Boyle, A 276
Boyle, J 625, 627
Boyron, S 940
Boyum, D 438–9
Bracton, Henry de 865, 869, 871
Bradley, A 406
Bradley, C 277, 284, 778, 788
Bradney, A 907
Braithwaite, John
civil processes 754
criminal process 780, 781
criminology 259
empirical research in law 888
international business and commerce 595, 597, 598, 599, 604, 606
regulation 131, 134, 135, 139
transnational concept of law 843, 845, 846, 856–7
Braithwaite, L 737
Braithwaite, V 138
Brams, SJ 364, 365, 366
Brandeis, Louis 362
Branson, DM 494
Bratton, WW 487–8, 505
Brennan, TE 655–6
Brennan, William 311
Brenner, DL 661
Brest, P 204, 213
Breyer, Stephen 113, 717, 745
Briar, S 886
bribes 85
Bridges, L 773, 781, 784, 790
Brierly, J 818
Briffault, R 363
Brinig, M 426, 427
British Standards Institution 126
Brobeck, S 553
Brooks, N 387
Brownlie, I 942
Brubaker, R 197, 199
Brudner, Alan 231, 238, 240–3
Buchanan, A 946
Buchanan, Ruth 468
Buckland, William 966
building contracts 59–60
Bull, Hedley 273
Burca, G de 329, 350
Burgess, M 358, 360, 363
Burrows, A 52, 95
Bushell, AA 308
Bussiere, E 405
(p. 995) Butterfield, H 273, 282
Bybee, K 366
Cabral, Amilcar 467
Caenegem, RC van 935
Cahn, E 934
Cain, M 268
Calabresi, Guido 39, 50, 68, 952
Calimari, JD 15
Calkins, S 518, 551
Calvert, Harry 399
Cambridge School 229–30, 237–9
Campbell, T 164
Campeau, G 409
Canada
academics in the legal system 924–5, 945
Charter of Rights 165, 173–6, 178, 304, 308–9, 311–14, 316, 319
complex polities 357–8, 359–60, 368
copyright 630
corporate tax 390–1
corporations 500–1
criminal process 782, 783, 784, 785, 788
discrimination 212
equity 84–5
federalism 357–8, 359–60
fiduciaries 93
health care system 436, 438–9, 442
historical research in law 863, 875
human rights 299, 301, 304, 308–16, 319
insolvency 85
intellectual property 624, 626
international legal sanction processes 821
judiciary 314
labour law 564, 566, 567, 570, 578
lawyers and legal services 799
legal education 909, 910
legal studies 970
multiculturalism 368
notwithstanding clause 175–6, 178
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 173–4
Quebec 305, 319, 357–8, 360, 852
restitution 54–5
social rights 319
tax evasion and avoidance 390
taxation scholarship 380, 386–7, 390–2, 395
unjust enrichment 55
welfare state 409
Cane, Peter 32, 36, 45
canon law 842, 852–3
capital adequacy 122
capital gains tax 394
capitalism 127
Cappelletti, Mario 338, 733, 887
Cardozo, Benjamin 29, 34, 35, 36
Carens, Joseph 198
Carlson, A 690
Carlton, D 516
Carney, WJ 488
Carney, T 410
Caron, D 820
Carriere, K 250
Carruthers, B 804
Carter, BE 824
Carty, A 288
case management 762, 769
Case Method 979
case studies 786–7, 877–8
Cass, DZ 596
Cass, R 102, 520, 930
Castan, M 300
Castells, Manuel 263
Castiglione, Dario 340
causation
criminal law 241, 242
legal studies 961–2
mass tort 40–2
negligence 25, 29–35, 36
product liability 41–2
caveat emptor 538, 560
celebrities 636
censorship 657, 660, 663, 668
Central Transnational Law Database 847
Chafee Jr, Zechariah 658
Chambers, R 55, 84, 86
change of position 56–7, 91
charges 81–2, 83–4, 87
charities 6, 7, 30
Charlesworth, H 293
Charney, J 281
Charny, D 579
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 303, 322
Charter of the Social Rights of Workers 322
Chase, A 814
Chase, Oscar 757
Chayes, A 272, 760, 828
Cheffins, BR 490, 492, 493–4, 500
Chen, Jim 470, 474
Chen, L 817, 822
Chibundu, Maxwell 474
Chicago School 514–19
Child, G 522
children
care of 213, 223, 429
Children Act proceedings 429, 430
citizenship 196–7
contact 428–9
criminal law 232, 238
criminology 263
dependency 218
discrimination 210, 218, 223
divorce 415, 418, 425–6
families 415, 418, 428–9
feminism 217
(p. 996) negligence 37
support 410
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 430
welfare state 410
Chilton, KW 123
Chimni, Bhupendra 285, 288, 293, 475
China, WTO and 612
Chinkin, C 293
choice of law 630–1, 845, 846, 848
Chomsky, N 647
Chua, Amy 475
cigarette advertising 546–8, 549
citizenship 183–201
accountability 193
activism 191–2
admission to 196–8
alienage 198–9
aliens 193, 198–9, 200
Americanism 195
Arendt, Hannah 186, 190
Aristotle 185–6, 189
Athenian conceptions 185
Barber, B 188, 195
Baubock, R 191
Bickel, Alexander 197
birthright 196–7
Bosniak, Linda 191, 192, 193, 198, 199
bounded 196–8, 199
Brubaker, R 197, 199
Carens, Joseph 198
children 196–7
civic virtue 186, 188
civil rights 185, 198
civil society 188–9, 191
communitarianism 198
cosmopolitan 190
Cott, N 194, 195
cultural 189, 191–2, 194, 200
democratic 191, 193
dual 191–2, 197, 199, 200
economic 189, 200
education 199
equality 187–8, 195
ethical community 192–3
European Union 191, 347
Falk, R 190, 191, 192
Flathman, R 186
Forbath, W 189
Fraser, N 189, 195
future of 199–200
Gordon, L 189, 195
high 186
Himmelfarb, Gertrude 190
human rights 191, 192
immigration 196, 197–8
institutional 193
Jacobson, David 192
Karst, Kenneth 185, 194, 195
Kymlicka, W 189
labour law 567
legal status 185, 187, 191
legitimacy 197–8
liberal conceptions 186, 198–9
Linklater, A 190, 192, 193
Marshall, TH 185, 187, 194
Marxism 187–8, 195
meaning 183–4, 192
membership, as 185–7
Miller, David 189, 192
multicultural 189
nation-state 190–3, 196, 198
nationality 196
naturalization 196–7
Okin, SM 188
Pateman, C 188
Pocock, JGA 185
political community 185–6, 190
political domain of 187–9, 192, 194
political rights 185
Po rtes, Alej andro 191–2
private domain 188
regulation 138
republican conceptions 186–8, 191, 193–5
responsibility 186
rights, as 185, 188, 199
Roman conceptions 185
Schuck, P 196–7, 198
second-class 195
Sherry, S 186
Shklar, Judith 184, 185, 189
Smith, Roger 185, 195, 196
social membership 185, 194–5
social rights 185, 187, 198
Soysal, YN 190, 191, 198
statist conceptions 188
status 185, 187, 191
subjects 193–9
transnational concept of law 843
transnational/global/postnational 190–2, 200
Turner, B 196
United States 195, 196–7
universalist 194–6, 198–9, 200
Walzer, Michael 194
welfare state 410
Young, Iris Marion 194
civil law
academics in the legal system 935–41
contract 13
equity 80, 82
fiduciaries 94
transnational concept of law 840, 852, 857
unjust enrichment 52
(p. 997) civil processes 748–72
Abel, Richard L 749
access to justice 764–6
access to lawyers 749, 759–60
adjudication 752, 755–7, 761–3, 768–9
administrative law judges 755
adversarial process 757–8, 766
agencies 755
aggregate claims 754
alternative dispute resolution 756, 761–2, 766, 769
American Law Institute 750
appeals 766–7
arbitration 750, 756–7
Boyd, Stewart C 756
Braithwaite, John 754
case management 762, 769
Chase, Oscar 757
Chayes, Abram 760
civil process to, from 748–52
class actions 766–7
Community Legal Service 765
conditional fees 765
contingent fees 749
costs 768
courts 748, 755, 770
Cover, Robert 751
Cranston, Ross 768
Criminal Defense Services 765
cross-jurisdictional norms 750
Damaska, Mirjan 749
diversifying demands and responses 754–7
Djankov, Simeon 751
England and Wales 751, 755
access to civil processes 764–6
access to justice 764
appeals 766–7
arbitration 756–7
Community Legal Service 765
conditional fees 765
Criminal Defense Service 765
lawyers 764–6
legal aid 764–6
Legal Services Commission 765
Local Government Commissioner 756
Parliamentary Ombudsman 756
reform 758, 764–7
representative actions 766–7
tribunals 767
Woolfreforms 766–7
European Convention on Human Rights 757, 764
European Union 757
Ewick, Patricia 751
fairness 750, 761
federalism 757
Fiss, Owen 751, 768
formalism 751
Galanter, Marc 751
Galligan, DJ 755
gender bias 761
Genn, Hazel 751, 767
Goldstein, Stephen 750
Hensler, Deborah R 768
Heydebrand, Wolf 760
human rights 753–4
impartiality 750, 753, 761
individuals and the state, civil disputes between 753
international legal sanction processes 826–7, 830
judiciary 748
administrative law 755
centrality of 769
constitutional 755
European Convention on Human Rights 764
impartial 750, 753
independence 750, 755
number of 755
professional 752
statutory 755
United States 758, 760–4
Ladeur, KH 757
Langbein, John 750
lawyers
access to 749, 759–60
centrality of 769
England and Wales 764–6
independence of 749
United States 759–63
legal aid 764–6
Legal Services Commission 765
Lewis, Philip SC 749
Lind, E Allan 762
Local Administration Commissioner (UK) 755
mediation 768–9
multiplication of sources of 755–7
Mustill, Michael J 756
nation-state, civil claims transcending the 753–4
paradigmatic conflicts 752–5
Parliamentary Commissioner (UK) 755
Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich 750
private dispute resolution 752
privatization of 752, 768–9
processing disputes, modes of 752–5
public hearings 750
reforms 749, 757–67
Regan, Francis 764
Reich, Charles 759
representative actions 766–7
Resnik, Judith 758, 760
Richardson, Genevra 767
right to counsel 749, 759–60
Seron, Carroll 760
settlement conferences 762
Shavell, Steven 762
(p. 998) Sibley, Susan S 751
state-based incorporation of private processes 752
statutory judgeships 755
trans-substantive rules 758–9, 760, 770
treaties 753–5
tribunals 755, 767
Trubek, David M 753
Tyler, Tom R 762
UNCITRAL Model Arbitration Law 756–7
UNIDROIT 750
United Kingdom 757–8
United Nations 750
United States 755, 757
adjudication 761–3
adversarial process 768–9
arbitration 756
fairness and impartiality 761
judges 758, 760–4
legal profession 759–63
reform 758–64
Woolf reforms 766–7
Yeazell, Stephen C 749
Zander, Michael 767
Zuckerman, Adrian AS 767, 768
civil society 188–9, 191
class actions 766–7 see also mass tort
climate change 276
Cnossen, S 387
Coase, Ronald 490, 952, 961–2, 971
Cobden, Richard 285
codification
academics in the legal system 936–9
criminal law 226–9, 230, 235–7, 241
Swiss Legal Code 936
transnational concept of law 853, 855
cohabitees 407, 419–20
Cohen, Felix 979
Cohen, J 687, 696
Cohen, S 251, 268
Coke, Edward 864, 868, 977
Cold War 300, 305, 944
Cole, D 785–6
Cole, S 958
Coleman, Jules 45, 956–7
collective bargaining 566–8, 570–9, 583–5
Collier, R 419, 424
Collins, H 568, 576
colonization 458–9, 841, 842, 851
Combacau, J 283
commentaries 522, 937
commercial law 848, 854–5
commercial speech 545–6, 661
common foreign and security policy 327
Common Law of Europe 326
commons 63, 65–6, 75–7
Commonwealth
administrative law 157
autonomous discipline, law as an 982
Crown 117
economic law 104
equity 80
executive action, review of 147–50, 153, 157
government entities 37
housing 37
international legal order 294
negligence 22, 24, 26, 37
omissions 37
privatization 105
product liability 39
property 62, 67
public choice school 103
public/private law divide 106
restitution 49–50
state, nature and functions of the 103–6, 115, 117
taxation scholarship 378–82, 385, 387, 390, 393
tort 45
communications, special protection of 649–57
constitutional protection 650
content regulation 649–50
Emerson, Thomas 650
freedom of expression 650–1
freedom of the press 650
legitimacy 650
restrictions, reasons for 649–50
communism 108
communitarianism 76, 148, 187, 213, 423
Community Legal Service 765
companies see corporations
comparative law
academics in the legal system 921, 928–9
competition law 530
labour law 566
legal studies 968, 970
taxation scholarship 393
tort 35–45
transnational concept of law 841–2, 844, 849
compensation see damages
competition law see also antitrust, competition law in the EU, competition law in the US
academic agendas, restructuring 529–31
behavioural dimensions 529–30, 532
communication 530–1
comparative analysis 530
cooperation 530–1
developing countries 612
discrimination 210
external factors 531–2
extraterritoriality 529
Fox, E 529
Gerber, D 529
globalization, responding to 528–34
health care system 438–9
(p. 999) intellectual property 619–20, 636–7
internal factors 532–3
international business and commerce 612
mergers 529
product liability 38
scholarship, role of 533–4
self-reflection 530–1
state, nature and functions of the 109–10, 112–13
United Kingdom 109
Waller, S 529
World Trade Organization 529
competition law in the EU 510–11, 520–8
abuse of a market-dominating position 521, 527, 528
agreements
analysing 526
preventing, restricting or distorting competition 521
restrictive 526
vertical 527
analytical methods 525–6
Atanasiu, I 525
Bellamy, C 522
block exemptions 526
Child, G 522
commentaries 522
Court of First Instance 521
economic analysis 526–7
economic liberty 524
economic power 523
efficiency 524
Ehlermann, C-D 522, 525
European Court of Justice 521
exemptions 521, 526–7
formalism 526–7
Gerber, D 523
Germany 523–4, 525
globalization 520, 528, 530
Hawk, B 527
identity of 524
implementation 525
institutions 521, 525
journals 521–2
Korah, V 526
Laudati, L 522
market integration 523–4
mergers 528, 529
modernization 521, 525, 527
Moschel, W 524
national courts, actions in 525
ordoliberalism 523
perfect competition 523–4
protection of competition 523–4
restrictive agreements 526
rule of law 525
rule of reason 526
scholarship 520–8
focal points of 526–8
forms and vehicles of 522
goals and methods 522–6
role of 533–4
small and medium-sized enterprises 524
socio-professional dynamics 532
sources of law 521
United States 525, 527, 530–2
vertical agreements 527
Whish, R 524
workable competition 524
competition law in the US 510–20 see also antitrust
anti-competitive conduct 512
Bork, R 513
Calkins, S 518
Carlton, D 516
case law as legal method 515–16
Cass, R 520
Chicago School 514–19
dominance 519–20
economics as legal method 515–16
efficiency 514–15, 519
European Union 510–11
game theory 516
globalization 510–11, 528–30
Harvard School 514
Hovenkamp, H 515
Hylton, K 520
industrial organization theory 514
journals 512
Krattenmaker, T 519
law and economics movement 513, 514, 516, 517
lawyers and legal services 802–6
mergers 519, 529
Microsoft 519–20
monopolization 518–20
per-se analysis 517–18
Pitofsky, R 512
Porter, Michael 514–15
Posner, R 513
Post-Chicago scholarship 518–19
predation 518–19
price theory 514
profit maximization 518
restraint of trade 517
role of 510
rule of reason 517–18
Salop, S 519
scholarship 511–17, 533–4
Sherman Act 514, 517, 518
socio-professional dynamics 532
substantive law issues 517–20
complex polities 353–73
additional members voting systems 366
affirmative action 368
alternative voting systems 364–6, 367
(p. 1000) Anglo-American systems 356
approval voting 366
Aristotle 353
Australia 357–8, 359, 365
Barber, KL 365
Borda count 365
Bowler, S 364
Brams, SJ 364, 365, 366
Brandeis, Louis 362
Briffault, R 363
Burgess, M 358, 360, 363
Bybee, K 366
coalitions 354–7
Condorcet problem 366
confederation 358
consociational democracies 353–7, 364, 367
cosmopolitanism 371
Cox, GW 365
cultural nationalism 367
cumulative voting 365–6
Dahl, Robert 353, 354
decentralization 353–4, 362–3
democracy 353–7
devolution 353–4, 362–3, 367
diversity 367
Elazar, Daniel 357–8, 360, 362
electoral systems 364–6
Epstein, L 356
federalism 353–4, 357–62, 367
Australia 358, 359
civil utility, maximization of 360–1
competition amongst states 360–2
confederation 358
devolution 363
fiscal 361–2, 363
history of 358
instrumental theories of 359–62
laboratories, states as 362
Netherlands 357
public participation 359–61
Switzerland 360
United States 357–8, 359–60
Feeley, MM 358
feminism 367, 371
fiscal federalism 361–2, 363
Fishburn, PC 364, 365, 366
Fraser, Andrew 359
Galligan, B 358
globalization 367
grand coalition 355
group rights 367–70
Hare system 365
home rule 363
immigration 367
internationalism 371
Jackson, Vicki 359
Kymlicka, W 367, 368
laboratories, states as 362
liberalism 368, 369
limited voting 366
Lijphart, Arend 353, 354
living constitution 353
majoritarian democracies 353–6
multiculturalism 353, 367–71
Netherlands 357
OʼConnor, Sandra Day 359, 360
pluralism 354
political parties 366
preferential voting 353
proportional representation 353–4, 356, 364–6
public participation 359–61
Quebec 357–8, 360
Rae, Douglas 364
representative bureaucracy 371
Riker, WH 358
Rubin, E 358
self-determination 369
Shachar, Ayelet 367–8
Shaw v Reno (1993) 365–6
single-member districts 353, 364–6
single-non-transferable voting 366
single transferable vote 365
states as laboratories 362
strategic voting 366
Switzerland 360
Taylor, C 367, 368
Tiebout, CM 361
Tully, J 367, 369, 370
unitary government 361–2, 363
United States
federalism 357–8, 359–60
home rule 363
multiculturalism 368
voting 365–6
voting systems 353–4, 364–7
Walzer, M 368
Weiler, JHH 358, 360, 363
Weingast, B 360
Young, IM 367
computer crime 261–2
Comstock, Anthony 676
conditional fees 765
condominiums 75
confidential information 95, 446–7, 452, 893
conflict of laws
autonomous discipline, law as an 979
corporations 493
fiduciaries 91
global development and impoverishment 478
(p. 1001) international business and commerce 593
transnational concept of law 845
consent to medical treatment 445–6, 452
conservation 67, 70
consideration 83
constitutional law
administrative law 147, 151, 162
Australia 151–2, 162
communications, special protection of 650
discrimination 202
England 154
European Union 345–6, 348, 596
executive action, review of 147, 151–2, 154
freedom of expression 651
global development and impoverishment 462
health care system 440
human rights 298–9, 304–5, 315
international business and commerce 594–7, 611–12
international legal order 274, 281, 283, 290
labour law 583
legal studies 956
legislation, judicial review of 165–71, 173–4, 177–8, 180
media 661
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 166–7, 170–1
public health 448–9
transnational concept of law 842
UN Charter 274, 281, 283
United States 202
constructive trusts 54–5, 58, 83–5, 90
constructivism 287–8
consular courts 279
consumer credit 552–5
annual percentage rate 553
Ausubel, M 555
bankruptcy 554–5
Brobeck, S 553
credit cards 553, 554
credit records, access to 554
disclosure 554
Douglas, Paul 553
interest rate 553
low-income consumers 553–4
Markel, Bl 555
Nader, Ralph 553
Proxmire, William 553
stages of 552–3
United Kingdom 553
United States 552–5
Warren, Elizabeth 555
consumers 536–62 see also advertising, consumer credit, product liability and safety
advertising, misleading 538–43
advocacy 555–8
antitrust 537
bargaining power 537
Calkins, S 551
consumer choice 537
criminology 263
deception 549
definition 536
empirical research in law 887–8, 890
Europe 537
European Union 551–2
good faith 551–2
market economy 537, 548
offer stage 536
passing off 548–9
post-purchase stage 536
pre-purchase issues 538–44
purchase stage 536
regulation 550–1
sovereignty 115
Spencer, Herbert 537
state, nature and functions of the 115
substantiation doctrine 550–1
Thain, G 550
Tocqueville, Alexis de 537
unfair practices 548–52
Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive 551–2
United Kingdom 548
United States 536–7, 549–50, 552
contingency fees 43, 556–8
contraception
autonomy 679–81
Berger, R 678
Bork, R 678
critical responses to cases 678–80
Eisgruber, C 680
Ely, J 678
England 675–6
Epstein, R 679
Equal Protection Clause 677
eugenics 676, 678
Europe 693, 696–8
France 693
historical underpinnings of law on 675–6
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 678
illegitimacy 676
immorality 676–7
miscegenation 677–8
natural rights 677–8
normative implications 690–3
policy 675–6
practical implications 690–3
prescriptions 679
racial purity 676–7
Roe v Wade 679, 680
Rubenfeld, J 678
states 676
sterilization, involuntary 676–7
subsidies 696–8
Supreme Court 676–8
United Kingdom 693
United States 675–80
Warren Court 678–9
West, R 680
women, autonomy of 679–80
contract 3–20
academics in the legal system 934–5
acceptance, 13–16
allocation of risk, 12–13
Anglo-American law 3
assumpsit 4–5, 16
assumptions of the parties, the basic, 12
Atiyah, PS 7, 12, 16, 18
bailment 5
bargains 5–6, 11
Barnett, Randy 8
battle of the forms 15–16
Benson, Peter 19
Blackstone, W 3
building 59–60
Calimari, JD 15
change of circumstances 12–15
charitable gifts 6, 7
choice of law 845
civil law 13
classical contract law 3–4, 11, 13, 14, 18
consent 8, 10, 12–16
consideration 4–6, 7
content of contractual obligations 8–11
Cooter, R 5, 9, 17
corporations 489–501, 505–7
counter-offers, 16
Craswell, R 10, 17
criminology 255
damages 16–18
EC law 9–10
economic duress 55–6
economics and law 9
Eisenberg, MA 5, 6
Eisler, BA 14
empirical research in law 896–7
employment 923
enforcement 4–8, 16–17
England 3–7, 9–10, 13–16, 18
equity 16
European Union 551–2
expectation interest 17–18
extrinsic evidence 15
fairness 6, 8, 9–11
families 415
Farber, DA 7
Farnsworth, E. Allan 6, 7, 13–14
fiduciaries 95
freedom of 843–4, 857–8, 963
Fried, Charles 5, 8, 10, 18
Friedmann, Daniel 17–18
Fuller, Lon 17–18
gifts, 5–6, 7
Gilmore, G 7, 18–19
good faith 9–10, 13
Gordley, J 6, 7–8, 11, 14, 19
grundnorm 4, 8
health care system 439–40
historical research in law 865
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 3–4, 5, 8
implied terms 8–9, 11
knock out rule 16
Lando Principles 847, 854
Law Commission 15
legal studies 963
loans 5
Macneil, IR 11, 14
Marriage
as 415
settlements 5–6, 7
Matheson, JH 7
methodological premises 4
mirror image rule 15–16
misrepresentation 14
mistake 12–15, 55–6
objective theory of 3–4, 9
offer, 13–16
parole evidence 15
Perdue, WR 17–18
performance 12, 13, 16–18
Perillo, JM 15
Pollock, Frederick 5, 7
positivism 4
Posner, Richard 5, 7, 9, 10, 13, 17
pre-contractual liability 14
promises 4–8, 14, 16–17
promissory estoppel 7–8
property 71
quasi-contract 48
rejection, 16
relational contracts, terms in 11
reliance 7–8, 17
remedies 16–18
rescission 52, 56
rescue operations 10
restitution 49, 52, 55–6, 59–60
Simpson, AWB 3, 4, 8
Slawson, WD 10
specific performance 16–17
third parties 59–60
transactional contracts, terms in 11
transnational concept of law 843–5, 847, 854, 857–8
Traynor, Roger 15
Treitel, GH 8, 9, 12, 15
trusts 84
Ulen, T 5, 9, 17
unconscionability 6, 9–11
undue influence 56
unfair contract terms 9–10, 551–2
unforeseen circumstances 12–13
Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts 14, 16, 847, 854, 855, 858
United States 3–7, 10, 13–16, 18
unconscionability 9–10
Uniform Commercial Code 6, 9, 16
unjust enrichment 14, 52, 56–7, 59–60
void 57
voidable 55–6
Weinrib, Ernest 19
welfare state 410
will of the parties 3–4, 8, 11, 12, 16
Williston, Samuel 3–4, 7, 8, 15
writing, effect of 14–15
young offenders 268
contracting out 107, 113–15, 117, 125, 738
contributory negligence 24, 27, 29, 31
conveyancing monopoly 803, 804
Coombe, RJ 268, 624, 631
Cooter, R 5, 9, 17
co-ownership 75, 77
copyright 618, 619–25, 628–9
authorship 629–30, 642
Bakos, Y 643
Berne Convention 629–30
Canada 630
choice of law 630–1
Coombe, RJ 631
compositions 630
compulsory licences 631
damages 630
designs 629
disposition of 630
duration of 630
education 631
empirical work 643
exclusive rights 630
externalities 639
facts 629
fair dealing 630
fair use 630, 643
free ride 630
Gordon, WJ 630, 642
ideas 629
infringement 630–1
licences 631, 642
Litman, J 630, 631
Meurer, MJ 643
monopolies 643
notice 629–30
originality 629
patents 629, 631
pay-off 640–1
price discrimination 642–3
private copying 631
trade marks 634
United States 629–31, 639, 643
unjust enrichment 51
Vaver, D 630, 641
Cornish, W 626
corporate tax 390–1
corporations 485–509
academic fads and fashions 506–7
accountability 487–8, 491–2, 505–6
agency cost theory 490–2, 506
Allen, WT 505
Arlen, J 499
Armour, J 495
artificial entity 486
asset partitioning 499–500
Australia 500–1
Bainbridge, SM 499
Berle, AA 485–92, 495, 502, 504–6
black box, the firm as a 489–90
Blair, MM 487–8, 498–9
Branson, DM 494
Bratton, WW 487–8, 505
Canada 500–1
capital market 488–9
Carney, WJ 488
Cheffins, BR 490, 492, 493–4, 500
Coase, Ronald 490
concessions from the state 486, 500, 505
conflicts of interest 493
contractarian analysis 485, 492–5, 501, 506
departures from 496–500
gaps in 498
prairie fire, as 493–4, 507
contracts, as a nexus of 489–95, 497, 499–500, 505
corporate control 489, 491
corporate personality 485, 486
corporate revolution 487
crime 134–5
criminal process 792
cumulative model of legal scholarship 486, 502–3
cyclical thesis 486, 505–6, 508
Daniels, R 496–7
definition 505
DeMott, DA 494, 507
directors 498
Easterbrook, FH 493
(p. 1004) economic theory and 489–90, 502–3
economics and law 493–4, 507
Edwards, CN 503
efficient capital market hypothesis (ECMH) 491
empirical research in law 885
executives 489, 505–6
fiction 486
Fischel, DR 493
Geest, G de 503
Germany 495
Hansmann, H 499–500, 505
human rights 821
implicit contracts 496–7
intellectual cycles 486, 505–6, 508
international legal sanction processes 821
investors 488, 492, 495
Japan 495
Jensen, MC 490, 491
Johnston, JS 493
Kraakman, R 499–500, 505
Kuhn, Thomas 503–5, 506, 508
legitimacy 486
limited liability 492
management
accountability of 487–8, 491–2, 505–6
disciplinary effect on 489
discretion 491
market for talented 489
monitoring by 491
strong regulation of 495
Manne, HG 488–9, 491
Mark, GA 486
market failure 494–5
maximization of profits 489–90, 492–3
McChesney, FS 503
Means, AA 485–92, 495, 502, 504–6
Meckling, WH 490, 491
multinationals 320–2, 584, 607
natural science 502
natural selection hypothesis, US and 495–6
non-legally enforceable rules and standards 497–9
normal science 503–4
norms 497–9
OECD Guidelines on Multinational Enterprises 321
paradigms in corporate law 486, 503–5
polarization 507
public corporations 487–8
quasi-public corporations 487
Ramseyer, JM 493
real entity theory 486
Rock, EB 490, 497, 500
scholarship 500–1, 503–5
scientific method 502
self-enforcing arrangements 497
self-sufficient theory of 497–8
separation of ownership and control 485–9, 492, 495, 502, 504–5
share prices, efficient 495
shareholders 476
limited liability 492
managers and 487–8
owners, as 492
primacy 492–3, 498, 506
reconceptualizing 492–3
stakeholders 501, 504
Stout, LA 487–8, 498–9
Sunstein, CR 507, 508
team production model 497–9
trust 497–9
United Kingdom 500–1, 504
United States 487–506
theoretical corporate law outside the 500–1
voting 487
Wachter, ML 490, 497, 500
corrective advertising 543–4
corrective justice 45, 53, 204, 211, 223
corruption 252, 604
cost-benefit analysis
environment 710–11
negligence 27–8
product liability 38–9
rule-making 732, 744
tort 43
costs 442–3, 768, 809
Cott, N 194, 195
Cotterrell, R 128
Council of Europe 302, 303, 322, 334
counter-majoritarianism
abortion 682, 684
legal studies 956
legislation, judicial review of 167, 174, 178
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 167
Court of First Instance 329, 339–40, 521
Cover, Robert 464, 480
Coward, RA 407
Cownie, F 907
Cox, A 567
Cox, GW 365
Craig, Paul 117, 157
Cranston, Ross 398, 407, 768, 916
Craswell, R 10, 17
Crawford, A 255
Crawford, J 287, 289
credit cards 553, 554
Crenshaw, K 221–2
crimes against humanity 286, 829
Criminal Defence Service 765, 805
criminal law 226–49
abortion 676, 681–2, 693–4
academics in the legal system 926–7
actus reus 231, 241
(p. 1005) administrative penalties 243
advertent wrongdoing principle 231
aggravating features 236
Aristotle 234, 238, 243
Ashworth, Andrew 230, 231–2, 238, 244
Austin, JL 237, 239
automatism 232
autonomy 230
benevolent construction principle 231
Bentham, Jeremy 226–30, 235, 244
Blackstone, Sir William 229
blame 232–4
Brudner, Alan 231, 238, 240–3
Cambridge School 229–30, 237–9
categorization of criminal law theories 246–7
causation 241, 242
children 232, 238
choice 232–3
codification 226–9, 230, 235–7, 241
common law 230
consent 242
crimes against humanity 286, 829
Criminal Law Revision Committee 237
critical legal theory 244–8
Darley, J 236
defences 232, 238, 240
defensive approach 231
diminished capacity 232
dishonesty 241
Duff, RA 238–9
duress 232, 240, 241
Dworkin, RM 238–9
empirical research in law 882, 884–8, 892, 898–9
England 228–30, 237
European Convention on Human Rights 244
excuses 231, 237–8
fair opportunity 232–3
fair trials 244
fault 231, 240
felony murder 235–6
fines 243
Fletcher, George P 228, 238, 240
formal freedom 239–40
France 239
Gardner, J 238–9, 242
genocide 238
German law 230, 237, 241, 248
Harris, J 227, 235
Hart, HLA 232, 239
historical research in law 876–7
homicide 241
Honoré, AM 239
Husak, Douglas 243
indecency 241
individualism 245
infancy 232, 238
insanity 232, 238, 240, 244
intention 242
International Criminal Court 277, 279
international law 845–6
international legal order 276–7
international legal sanction processes 827–8, 829
interpretation 231
Ireland 228
Italy 237, 241
Japanese Criminal Code 241
judicial creativity 227–8
juristic principles 235–6
just deserts theory 240
justification 242, 243
Kenny, CS 229
Lacey, Nicola 237, 239, 245
Law Commission 230
law reform 226–9
Leiter, B 245
liberal consequentialism 243–5
liberty 229–32
manslaughter 232, 235–6
mens rea 230–1, 232, 241
minor penalties 236
mistake 232
Model Penal Code 228, 235
Moore, Michael 238, 240–2
moral and political philosophy 238–9
natural criminal law 239–40
necessity 232, 242
negligence 232, 234–5
New Zealand Bill of Rights 227
Norrie, A 235, 245, 248
objectivism 245–8
Oxford School 237
positivism 226–30
procedure 242–5
provocation 232, 233
public welfare 243–4
punishment 243–4
Radzinowicz, Sir L 229–30
rape 232, 241–2, 243
Raz, J 233, 243, 245
reason, freedom through and accountability to 232–5
recklessness 230
regulatory offences 243
relative standards principle 231–2
responsiveness 233–4
retributivism 240, 242–5
Robinson, Paul 227, 228, 230, 231–2, 236, 238
Schofield, P 227, 235
Scotland 228
self-defence 238
sentences, proportionality of 244
sensitivity 233–4
sexual offences against children 232
(p. 1006) Simester, AP 238
Smith, KJM 244
Stephen, Sir James Fitzjames 228–30, 232
strict liability 236
subjectivism 229–36, 240, 245–8
substance 242–5
theft 241
Turner, JWC 229
United States 228–30, 237
war crimes 264, 830–1
Wessells, Johannes 237, 246–8
Williams, Glanville 228–31, 235
wrongdoing 242–4
criminal processes 773–95
aboriginal people 775, 780, 784, 786
adversarialism 775–6, 787–8
African-Americans 777, 785–6, 789
alternative models 780–1
Ashworth, A 781, 784, 785, 789
assembly line 777
Australia 784, 785
Baranek, Patricia 779, 783
bias studies 785–6
Blumberg, A 776, 779
Bottoms, A 779, 783
Bradley, C 778, 788
Braithwaite, John 780, 781
Bridges, L 773, 781, 784, 790
Canada 782, 783, 784, 785, 788
case studies 786–7
centralization 775
circle model 781
Cole, D 785–6
corporations 134–5, 792
crime control 773, 777, 779–81, 784, 787
Damaska, Mirjan 776–7, 787–8, 789, 793
defence lawyers 779
discretion 773, 775, 782, 785, 790
drugs, war on 785–6
due process 773, 775–84, 787, 789
empirical studies 783, 788
Ericson, Richard 779, 783
Europe 788
family model 780–1
Feeley, Malcolm 783
feminism 790
Fletcher, G 781, 786–7
Freidland, ML 782
globalization 792
Griffiths, John 780, 781
guilty pleas 777, 779, 783
Hart, Henry 775–6, 790
inquisitorial system 787–8
institutional design 775
insurance 790
international legal sanction processes 829
investigations 773
Kagan, Robert 787–8
Kennedy, R 785–6
King, M 776
knowledge management 781
law reform 791–2
LeFave, W 782
legal pluralism 791
legal process 775–6
legal realism 775
Llewellyn, Karl 775
McBarnet, Doreen 779
McClean, J 779, 783
McConville, M 773, 781, 784, 790
models of criminal process 776–81, 789–90, 793
Nobles, R 787, 791
non-governmental organizations 792
norms 792
official policy studies 783–5
origins of 774–6
Packer, Herbert 773–4, 776–81, 783–4, 786, 787, 789, 793
police 777–8, 782, 790
Pound, Roscoe 775, 778
Presidential Report on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice 783–4
procedure 773
public inquiries 784
racism 774, 785–6, 789
research 783–4, 791–3
restorative justice 781
risk management 781, 789–90, 792
Roach, K 781, 792
roller coaster model 781
Runciman Report on Criminal Justice 784, 787
Sacks, Albert 775–6, 790
Sanders, A 781, 785, 789
Scheingold, S 786
Schiff, D 787, 791
scholarship 793–4
comparative 787–8
contemporary 785–8
evolution of criminal process 782–5
expanding the boundaries of 790–1
future of 788–93
self-conscious 782–3, 789–90
theoretical 789–90
sentencing 785
September 11 terrorist attacks on the US 781
sex discrimination 774, 786
Simon, J 786, 788, 792
Skolnick, J 776, 782
Smart, Carol 786
social problems 774
sociological jurisprudence 775, 791
state bureaucracies 792
(p. 1007) substantive law 773
Supreme Court 777–8
surveillance 781, 789–90
terrorism 781, 784, 792
Tonry, M 779, 785–6
United Kingdom 782, 783, 784, 788, 789
United States 773–88
victims 781, 786
Warren Court 773, 777–8, 782
wrongful convictions 784, 787, 789
Young, R 781, 785, 789
criminology 250–70
Al Qaʼida 260, 265
Beck, U 251
Bottoms, A 263
boundaries, crime and 251, 253
Braithwaite, J 259
Cain, M 268
Carriere, K 250
Castells, Manuel 263
children 263
choice 255
Cohen, S 251, 268
community 259
computer crime 261–2
consumerism 263
contracts with young offenders 255
Coombe, RJ 268
corruption 252
Crawford, A 255
crime prevention 255–6, 258–9, 267–8
criminal justice state, Western model of 267
criminologies of everyday life 254–6
cryptography 261
Currie, E 253
cyberspace 261–2
designing out crime 258
Ditton, J 255–6
empirical research in law 883, 884, 898
environmental crime 252
Ericson, R 250, 258
Estrada, F 252
European Union 264
everyday life, criminologies of 254–6
Farrall, G 255–6
fear of crime 255–6, 265
Feeley, M 258
Feest, J 268
Felson, Marcus 255
financial crimes 252
Finland 266–7
Foucault, Michel 254
fragmentation of society 258–9
France 253, 259
Friedrichs, D 268
Garland, David 253, 257–9, 267
Germany 253, 259
‘global penal gaze’ 265–8
globalization and crime 260–8
governance of crime 254–5, 256, 258, 263, 267
Haggerty, K 258
handguns 254
hate crimes 252
Heiland, HG 252, 254
high crime rates 251–4
immigration 253, 260, 263, 264
inequality 253
information technology and crime 252, 261–2
insider trading 263
International War Crimes Tribunal 264
Internet, pornography on the 262
Italy 253, 260, 267
Levi, M 252
Maguire, M 250, 252
media 258
mediation 257, 260
Nelken, D 252, 262, 263, 268
Newman, G 253, 254, 265, 267
opportunities 252–4, 257–8, 260, 263
organized crime 263–4
penal welfarism 257, 259–60, 267
pornography 262
prison 254, 257, 266–7
private police 255
property crime 254
recidivism 259
rehabilitation 256, 257
Reiner, R 252
restitution 257
right realism 253
Russia 254
Scheingold, SA 258
security 255
sentencing 254
September 11, 2001 attacks on the US 251, 260–1
sex tourism 263
sexual orientation 252
shaming 259
Sheptycki, J 264
Sherman, LW 259, 267
Simon, J 258
social control 257, 259–60, 263, 267
Spain 253, 260
state
criminal justice 267
nation 260, 264
pressure, under 256–60
sovereignty 257, 260, 267–8
street crime 253
supply side 255
(p. 1008) surveillance 255–6, 261
terrorism 260, 265
Al Qaʼida 260, 265
state-sponsored 251
United States 260–1
tolerance 252
United Kingdom 260
United Nations Global Report on Crime 265–8
United States 253–4, 267–8
Al Qaʼida 260
terrorism 260–1
victims 256
Van Dyke, J 267
victims of crime 251, 255, 256, 267–8
collective 256–7
repeat 267
status of 257, 267
support 259
surveys of 252, 266
United States 256
violence 254
Wall, D 261
Wiles, P 263
Wilson, JQ 253
Young, Jock 252
youth crime 252, 253, 255
zero tolerance 254, 255
critical legal studies
autonomous discipline, law as an 980, 982–3
criminal law 244–8
discrimination 221
executive action, review of 156, 159, 161
global development and impoverishment 471
international legal order 287–8
legal studies 952, 962–4, 967–8
legislation, judicial review of 586–7
United States 156, 586
critical race theory 203, 220–2, 963
Cross, FB 153, 157
Cross, Rupert 927
Crown 117, 154
Crown Prosecution Service 805
cryptography 261
Cuba 825
culture
citizenship 189, 191–2, 194, 200
complex polities 367
discrimination 206, 213, 217
human rights 300–1
international business and commerce 604
International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 299, 300–1
nationalism 367
Curran, J 649, 669
Currie, E 253
Curtin, Deirdre 344
customary international law
academics in the legal system 941–2, 945–6
international legal sanction processes 828–9, 830–1
transnational concept of law 842, 853, 858, 859
cyberlaw scholarship 962, 972
cyberspace 137, 261–2, 627
cybersquatting 636
Dagan, Hanoch 75, 77
Dagtoglou, P 337, 341
Dahl, Robert 177, 178, 353, 354
Daimow, J 938
Daintith, T 104, 107, 108
Dalhuisen, Jan 845, 847, 848, 852, 854–8
damages
caps 43
contract 16–18
copyright 630
executive action, review of 161–2
international legal order 277
negligence 25, 27, 35
no-fault 444–5
pain and suffering 43
patents 633
product liability 38, 39, 557–8
punitive 38, 39, 43, 557–8
regulation 133
restitution 50
settlement 43
therapeutic relationship 444–5
tort 42–4
Damaska, Mirjan 749, 776–7, 787–8, 789, 793
DʼAmato, A 825
Daniels, R 496–7
Daniels, Stephen 557
Darley, J 236
data collection 892, 894–5
data protection 447
database rights 618, 628, 638, 639
Davies, ACL 110, 114, 116, 151
Davies, P 572–3
Davis, Gwynn 887, 928
Davis, KC 158, 732
Daynard, RA 451
De Ly, F 855
Deakin, S 210, 563, 573, 582, 584, 586
death penalty 825, 832–3
debts 81, 597, 603
deceit in advertising 538–43, 549
decentralization 102, 129, 353–4, 362–3
deception 549
decision-making
autonomous discipline, law as an 978, 981, 985–6
collaborative 719–22
decentralization 102
(p. 1009) empirical research in law 888
environment 719–22
executive action, review of 146, 149, 150, 153
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 166
state, nature and functions of the 102
declarations of incompatibility 165, 176
deconstructivism 967–8
Deech, R 896
Dehousse, R 338
Dekker, Ige 344
Delaney Clause 706, 707
Delgado, R 221
decolonization 600
Delors, Jacques 338
democracy
abortion 674
citizenship 191, 193
complex polities 353–7
consociational 353–7
democratic deficit 734
European Union 346, 734
freedom of expression 650–2, 655
freedom of the press 648, 663
human rights 299, 303, 306–12, 315–18
international business and commerce 605, 611
international legal order 289–91
international legal sanction processes 825
legislation, judicial review of 164
majoritarianism 353–6
media 652, 662–5, 669
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 168
public health 448
regulation 120, 124, 138–43
rule-making 734, 740–1
DeMott, DA 494, 507
Demsetz, Harold 67, 69, 642
Denicola, R 623
dependency 218, 408, 410
Derrett, Duncan 460, 461
Derrida, Jacques 461
desertification 276
designs 38–9, 629
detention, judicial review of 824–5
deterrence 27, 35, 43, 129–31, 134–5, 139, 823
developing countries 600 see also global development and impoverishment
competition 612
corruption 604
covered agreements 602
debt and 597, 603
foreign investment in 601
intellectual property 627
international legal order 275–6, 279
liberalization 602
taxation scholarship 388, 389, 395–6
Dewar, J 414, 432
Dewees, D 43, 885
Dezalay, Y 802, 803
Di Maggio, P 730
diaspora 466
Dicey, AV
executive action, review of 149, 160, 161
legal studies 951, 971
rule-making 732
state, nature and functions of the 106
Diduck, A 421
Dietrich, J 52
digital technology 668
Dijk, JJM van 892
Diller, M 408
diplomacy 293, 594–5
directives 343, 730–1, 739
Director, Aaron 960
directors 111–12, 498
disability 205, 409
discrimination 202–25
Abram, M 204, 206
absolute otherness 214
abstentionist State 203, 211–13
age 205
anti-discrimination principle 204–6
application to the law 215–16
Aristotle 202–4, 219
autonomy 203–10, 212, 215, 217–19
Brest, P 204, 213
Canadian Supreme Court 212
caring responsibilities 210, 223
children 210, 223
choice 217–18
civil liberties 202, 216
civil rights laws 208, 221–2
classification 205
coercion 207, 208, 212, 222
communitarianism 213
competition 210
constitution, the influence of 202
corrective justice 204, 211, 223
Crenshaw, K 221–2
criminal process 774, 786
critical legal studies movement 221
critical race theory 203, 220–2
critical theory 217–22
culture 206, 213, 217
Deakin, S 210
Delgado, R 221
dependency of children 218
difference dichotomy, debate on equality 218–20
dignity 212
direct 205
(p. 1010) disability 205
disparate impact 205–6
disparate treatment 205
distributive justice 203, 210–11
Donohue, J 209, 210
Dworkin, R 211, 212, 215, 216, 218–19
economics 202, 204, 210
efficiency 210
egalitarianism 211
employment 202, 208, 210, 216
Epstein, R 207, 208, 209
equal protection clause 213
equality-difference dichotomy 218–20
equality law 202, 213
ethnic 214
European Union, labour market regulation in 202
Fallon, RH 214, 215, 216
family 208, 217–18
fault 216
feminism 203, 210, 217–20
children, dependency of 218
choice 217–18
equality-difference dichotomy 218–20
family 217–18
individualism 217–18
liberalism 217–18
neo-liberalism 218
pregnancy 219
rationality 217–18
feudalism 203
Fiss, OM 205, 212, 213, 215, 216
formal equality 207, 222
Fredman, Sandra 210, 217, 218, 221
Freeman, D 220–1
Gardner, J 213, 216
gender 208, 213, 223
care responsibilities 210, 223
definition 210
feminism 203, 210, 217–20
groups and 214
market order 208
merit 215
pure disadvantaged groups 216
wages and 208–9
Gilligan, C 218–19
groups 206, 212–16
‘harm’ principle 204, 208, 213, 216
Hayek, FA 207, 208
head of household 218
Hepple, B 222
hierarchy 203
Humphries, J 210
indirect 205–6
individual autonomy 203–10, 212, 215, 217–19
institutional 216
international business and commerce 605
Jaggar, AM 217
Kant, Immanuel 212
Kymlicka, W 213, 214
labour law 580–1
labour market 202, 208, 210
Lacey, N 217, 218–20
less favourable treatment 216
liberalism 202–6, 217, 222
feminism 217–18
market 206–10
modified 203, 210–16, 218
liberty 205
MacKinnon, Catharine 217, 218, 220
mainstreaming 222–3
Margalit, J 213
market liberalism 206–10
market order 207
market outcomes 207, 208, 210
market-oriented meanings 207
McCrudden, C 222–3
merit 214–15
minorities 206, 214, 223
modified liberalism 203, 210–16, 218
moral abstentionism 211–12
moral neutrality 211
moral outrage 209
need 204
neo-liberalism 206–7, 209–11, 218
neutral state 203–4, 206–9, 211–12, 220–1
perpetrators 204, 216, 222
perspective 220–1
Polachek, SW 207, 208
positive duties 222–3
Posner, RA 207, 208, 209
preferences 208, 209
pregnancy 219
price 642–3
productivity 210
race 202, 213–14
classification 205, 216
critical race theory 203, 220–2
labour law 581
merit 215
modified liberalism 216
rationality and 204–5, 209
United States 205
racial groups 204
rational relationship 205
rationality 203–5, 207–10, 217–18
Raz, J 212, 215, 216
rectification 215, 216
redistribution 213–14, 216, 222
religion 205
(p. 1011) reverse discrimination 206, 215, 216
Rhode, DL 217, 220
rights 221–2
Robinson, Mary 223
self-identity 213
self-interest 207–9, 215, 218
sex 774, 786
sexual orientation 205
Siebert, WS 207, 208
slavery 203
Smart, C 217
social and economic rights 202, 204, 212–13
social engineers 204
social groups 212–13
social justice 207, 215
social rights 212–13
social theory 203
South African Constitutional Court 212
state neutrality 203–4, 206–9, 211–12, 220–1
structural 216
tenBroek, J 205
treating people as equal 211
Tushnet, M 221
Tussman, J 205
United Kingdom 202, 209
United States 202, 204–5, 209
victims, perpetrators and 204, 216, 222
wages, gender discrimination and 208–9
Waldron, J 206
Weiler, PC 214, 215, 216
Wilkinson, F 210
Young, IM 214
diseases, infectious 451
disgorgement 48, 50–3, 55–6, 85, 90, 95, 96, 97
distributive justice 203, 210–11, 275–6
Ditton, J 255–6
Diver, C 732
Djankov, Simeon 751
doctor—patient relationship see therapeutic relationship
doctrinal scholarship
academics in the legal system 925, 931–3, 936–7, 940, 943–4
autonomous discipline, law as an 981
historical research in law 873–4, 877–8
intellectual property 623
legal studies 952, 958, 968–9
practical 925
domain names 635–6
Donahue, J 209, 210, 690
Dorf, Michael 124–5, 139, 140, 142, 731, 734, 738
Douglas, G 418, 429
Douglas, Paul 553
Douglas, R 379–80
Drahos, P
intellectual property 624
international business and commerce 595, 597, 598, 599, 604, 606
transnational concept of law 843, 845, 846, 856–7
Drewry, G 111
Dreyfuss, RC 624, 643
drugs 451, 785–6
dual citizenship 191–2, 197, 199, 200
due process
criminal process 773, 775–84, 787, 789
employment 132
executive action, review of 156
human rights 302
international legal sanction processes 828
regulation 132
terrorism 828
tort 43
United States 43, 156, 405, 828
welfare state 405
Duff, RA 238–9
Duggan, AJ 95–6
dumping 604
Dupeyroux, J-J 403
duress 55–6, 232, 240, 241
Duxbury, Neil 922, 928–9, 981
Dworkin, Ronald
criminal law 238–9
discrimination 211, 212, 215, 216, 218–19
executive action, review of 155, 157
global development and impoverishment 464, 468
human rights 307
legal studies 955, 967, 970
legislation, judicial review of 168–9
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 168–9
welfare state 410
Dwyer, J 716
East Germany 694–5
Eastern Europe 108
Easterbrook, FH 93, 493
EC law see European Union
economic and monetary union 348
economic loss 30, 31–2, 34, 36, 60
economics see also law and economics movement
citizenship 189, 200
Commonwealth 104
competition law 515–16, 523–4, 526–7
contract 9, 55–6
corporations 489–90, 493–4, 502–3, 507
discrimination 202, 204, 210
duress 55–6
economic rights 202, 204, 300–1, 322, 440
executive action, review of 156–7, 159–60, 162
health care system 440
human rights 300–1, 322
(p. 1012) intellectual property 624–5, 638–44
International Covenant of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 299, 300–1
international economic law 594–612
international legal sanction processes 823–4, 825, 828
labour law 574–84
legal studies 952, 957, 960
media 662–3
negligence 27, 28
New International Economic Order 600–3
privatization 104
property 67, 69–70
rule-making 728–9, 743–4, 746
state, nature and functions of the 102–5, 108–10, 116
tort 42
United Kingdom 108
United States 156
welfare state 409
Edelman, L 132, 135
education see legal education
Edwards, CN 503
Edwards, Harry 925, 931, 958
Eekelaar, J 415, 810
effectiveness principle 942
Ehlermann, C-D 522, 525
Ehrlich, Eugen 952
Eisenberg, MA 5, 6
Eisenberg, RS 74, 624, 644
Eisgruber, C 680
Eisler, BA 14
Elazer, Daniel 357–8, 360, 362
Elders, J 690
elections 364–5, 674
Ellickson, R 62, 961
Ellman, M 416, 423, 427
Ellwood, David 408, 410
Ely, John Hart 168, 170, 302, 314, 678, 682
Emerson, Thomas 650
empire 458–9
empirical research in law 880–900
Abel, RL 887
access to data 893
administrative law 158–9
Baldwin, R 887, 888, 896
Becker, JS 894
Black, J 888
Blumberg, AS 886
Braithwaite, J 888
Briar, S 886
burgeoning activity 881–4
Cappelletti, M 887
civil justice 887–8
commissioning research 896–7
common law 885
company law 885
confidential material 893
consumer perspective 887–8, 890
contracts 896–7
criminal justice 882, 885–7, 892, 898–9
criminal law 884, 887–8
criminology 883, 884, 898
critical tone 887
data collection 892, 894–5
Davis, G 887
decision-making 888
Deech, R 896
definition 880
Dewees, D 885
Dijk, JJM van 892
Estreicher, S 882
external audit 882
family law 413–14, 882, 894, 896
Felstiner, W 887
fringe subjects 883
Garland, D 898
Garth, B 887
Genn, Hazel 885
government 896–8
Grabosky, P 888
Griffith, JAG 882
Gunningham, N 888
Hennessey, PH 887
Hensler, DR 885
Hood, R 886
Huberman, AM 891, 894
Hutter, B 888
ideology 894
impartiality 894
independence 896, 897
innovation 888–9
interpretation 894, 895
Johnstone, R 888
journals 884
judiciary 881, 886, 893, 897–8
Kellough, G 892
law on the books/law in action 886
legal education 881–2, 902
legal practice 886
legal profession 882, 887
legal realism 881
legal reasoning 881
legal texts 886
lower level/preliminary legal processes 888
McConville, M 887, 896
methods of 889–93
Miles, MB 891, 894
Mills, C Wright 890
monitoring innovation 888–9, 894
National Centre for Social Research 892
non-lawyers 883, 885
Oxford Centre for Socio-Legal Studies 885
(p. 1013) Pawson, R 889, 892
Pearson Commission 885
penology 898–9
physical sciences 890–1
Piliavin, I 886
plea bargaining 887
police 884, 886, 888, 893
Pound, Roscoe 886
precedent 885
publication 896–7
publishers 884
qualitative approaches 891–2
quantitative approaches 891–2
Radzinowicz, L 882, 886
Rand Corporation 885
randomized trials 890
reformism 889, 896
regulatory/public law 882
Reiner, R 884
research commissioning 896
research funding 882
research methods 889–93
right to publish 896–7
Robertson, D 882
Rock, P 884
Rosenberg, M 887
secondary sources 880
settlements 887
Sexton, J 882
Skolnick, JH 886
social policy, influence upon 885, 886, 895–9
social sciences 881–2, 883, 885
socio-legal publishers 884
sociology 883
subject matters, choice of 894–5
technical skills 890
theory, relationship to 893–5
Thomas, P 896, 897
Tilley, N 889, 892
tort 885
Twining, W 881
United Kingdom 882
United States 882, 887
university funding 882
unmet legal need 892
victimization studies 892
Weiss, Carol 897–9
‘what works’ approach 889
Wortley, S 892
Yngvesson, B 887
employment see also labour law
academics in the legal system 923
Charter of the Social Rights of Workers 322
contracts of 923
discrimination 202, 208, 210, 216
due process 132
migrant workers 403
regulation 132
trade unions 301, 303–4
United Kingdom 202
welfare state 398
encryption 627–8
England see also United Kingdom
abortion 676, 693–4, 696
access to civil processes 764–6
access to justice 764
appeals 766–7
arbitration 756–7
audience, rights of 804–5
autonomous discipline, law as an 981, 984
civil processes 751, 755
access to civil processes 764–6
access to justice 764
appeals 766–7
arbitration 756–7
Community Legal Service 765
conditional fees 765
Criminal Defense Service 765
lawyers 764–6
legal aid 764–6
Legal Services Commission 765
Local Government Commissioner 756
Parliamentary Ombudsman 756
reform 758, 764–7
representative actions 766–7
tribunals 767
Woolf reforms 766–7
Community Legal Service 765
conditional fees 765
constitution-building 154
contraception 675–6
contract 3–7, 9–10, 13–16, 18
co-ownership 77
Criminal Defense Service 765, 805
criminal law 228–30, 237
Crown 154
Crown Prosecution Service 805
environment 709, 711, 714, 719
executive action, judicial review of 149
constitution-building 154
Crown 154
government immunity 161
Human Rights Act 1998 162
institutions, evolution of 153–4
law in context movement 158
legitimacy 153–4
nationalization 149
realism 158
regulatory agencies 149–51
rule of law 154
separation of powers 151, 154
standing 153
(p. 1014) state, concept of the 154
tribunals, legitimacy of 152
welfare state 149–50
fiduciaries 92, 95
government immunity 161
historical research in law 863–77
Human Rights Act 1998 162, 165, 176
institutions, evolution of 153–4
intellectual property 627
international legal order 272, 282, 294
law in context movement 158
lawyers 764–6
audience rights 804–5
barristers 799–801, 804–6
civil processes 764–6
class 800–1
competition 803
conveyancing monopoly 803, 804
Criminal Defense Service 805
Crown Prosecution Service 805
divided professions 804
first positions 799
legal aid 808–9
multidisciplinary partnerships 805
multinational partnerships 805
professional courses 798
self-regulation 811
solicitation 807
legal aid 764–6, 808–9
legal education 908–9
legal realism 158
Legal Services Commission 765
legal studies 951–2, 956, 965–73
legitimacy 153–4
Local Government Commissioner 756
multidisciplinary partnerships 805
multinational partnerships 805
nationalism 149
negligence 23
Parliamentary Ombudsman 756
parliamentary sovereignty, judicial review and 166
property 77
proprietary estoppel 55
reform 758, 764–7
regulatory agencies 149–51
representative actions 766–7
restitution 49
rule of law 154
separation of powers 151, 154
standing 152
state, concept of the 154
transnational concept of law 840–1
tribunals 152, 767
trusts 88
welfare state 149–50
Woolf reforms 766–7
Enthoven, AC 438
Entwistle, Noel 912
ethnography 588–91
environment 701–24
acceptable risk 706–8
Ackerman, B 709
air pollution 707, 712
balancing 709–10
best available technology 708–9
Bird, I 720
Breyer, Stephen 717
collaborative decision-making 719–22
compliance 713–15
concreteness 703
cost-benefit analysis 710–11
courts 718–19
criminology 252
Delaney Clause 706, 707
design 711–12
horizontal institutional 715–19
institutional 702, 715–22
statutory 705–15
vertical institutional 719–21
devolution 720–1
disclosure 713
Dwyer, J 716
enforcement 713–14
England 709, 711, 714, 719
European Union 702, 707–8
expropriation 722