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date: 25 May 2019

(p. 657) Index of Subjects

(p. 657) Index of Subjects

This index covers all chapters. A reference covered by an entire chapter is in bold.

A-morphous morphology 387
A-movement/A’-movement 240–1, 244–5
A-positions/A’-positions 181–206, 642–3
abstract morphemes 295–7, 310
abstraction of categories, in the phonetics-phonology interface 28, 42–4
accent (stress) 453–4
pitch accent (PA) 447, 453, 463, 464, 596–9
accommodation 503–33
acoustic:
cues 72–4
scores 83
space 86
acquisition, see language acquisition
across-the-board condition (ATB) 587–8
acyclic graphs, use in constraint-based grammars 618
adequacy, in linguistic theory 542, 545–7, 550–61
adjacency:
adjacency requirements 251–2, 254–5, 260, 264, 270–1, 491
and movement 244, 279–82, 283, 319
of nominal appositives 479
Principle of Adjacency (CCG) 591–2
adverbials, temporal 217–18
affixes 221, 416–17
Affix Hopping 257, 275–7, see also Lowering
affixation as differentiator between theories of morphology 387–90
clitic/aix distinction 368–80
late insertion 343–6
phrasal aixation 343–6
agentivity 182–3, 190–5, 197
AGR (Agreement) nodes/heads 222, 305–6, 315–17
Agree 242–3, 563–5
agreement alternations 341, 346–9
and morpheme ordering 266–8
alignment, of syntactic/prosodic boundaries 342, 346–8
allomorphy:
contextual 298–9
in Distributed Morphology 363–7
and the morphology-syntax interface 212–13
phrasal allomorphy, Precompilation Theory as a model of 156
allophony 19, 29–31
anaphora 434 n., 435–7, see also presuppositions
anchors:
and appositives 477, 478
and nominal appositives 492–4
animacy-agreement languages 201–6
antecedence 434–6
antipassive constructions, and telicity 184
Antisymmetric approach to word-order 282, see also Kayne, R.
appositives, nominal (NAs) 475–98
arguments 226–9, 632–44
argument-cluster co-ordination (case study of CCG) 596–7
argument licensing 181–206
Articulated Morphology 387
articulation vs audition 83–7
Articulatory Phonology 37–8
(p. 658) aspect, or Aspect (Asp):
and animacy-agreement languages 203
Aspect Phrase (AspP) 185, 215
base-generated order 214–16
and direct objects 183–7
encoded in lexicon rather than syntax 200
Inner Aspect 218, 224
and negation 265–6
and word order 253–5
association with focus (semantics) 455
asymmetrical and symmetrical
languages 152–3
asymmetry, in morpheme ordering 266–8
at-issue entailments 476, 484–5, 488
at-issue meanings, vs conventional implicatures 488–92
Atlas Principle (accommodation) 513, 518
attestable languages 63–4
attested languages 58–60
attraction 251–2, 270, 274–9
Attract-F hypothesis 563–5
attribute value matrix notation 618
audition vs articulation 83–7
auditory events, streams of 65–8, 72–4, see also Gap Transfer Illusion
Auditory Scene Analysis 64–8, see also Gap Transfer Illusion
B-accent 458
background 447, see also focus
backgrounded information (in conventional implicatures) 485
backward control 210 n., 560
Bare Phrase Structure theory 594
base-generated order 214–15, 218–20, 240–1
theories of 575, 577, 579
basi approaches to morphology 414–18
biology, linguistics compared with 546, 548, 552, 554, 555
blocking effects 317, 362
Blutnerʼs Theorem 528–9
bound morphemes 260–2, see also clitic/affix distinction
boundaries, phonological 137–46, 149, 151–3, 164, 171
Bracket-Erasure effects 115–17, 120
branching 133–5, 138, 140, 162
branchingness 140, 146
non-branching 146
c-command:
and argument structure 227
asymmetric c-command 153–5
in the Direct Reference Theory 126, 128–9, 170
and Logical Form (LF) 585
and relative scope 429
and verbs 161–3
and word-order 147 n.
cancellability, see deniability
cancellation, of presuppositions 511, 515 n. 16, 518, 523 n. 24
case features 307–9, 311–18
Categorical Grammar 580–3, see also Combinatory Categorical Grammar (CCG)
Categorical Lexicon 593–6
categories, abstraction of in the phonetics-phonology interface 28, 42–4
categories, lexical vs functional 127, 129, 131, 135, 137, 142, 164, 169–71
Categorization Assumption 296
category-preserving rules 407
Cause 259–60
causative markers 219
cells, in paradigm constructions 391, 394–6, 399–401, 404, 406–11
chemistry, linguistics compared to 547–8
clausal functional projections 182, 183, 254
AspQ 186
case and agreement (A-positions) 195–7
head-Wnal languages 217–18
hierarchies of 263
quantity feature [Quant] 186, 188–9
telicity 185
clitic/affix distinction:
in Constraint-Based Grammar 639–40
in Distributed Morphology 369–80
in Lexical Hypothesis 368–9
(p. 659) clitics 216
and affixes 221, see also clitic/affix distinction
clitic climbing 640
clitic groups 132, 135, 151, 163, 168
clitic placement 560
cliticization 229
co-ordinate structure constraint (CSC) 587–8
Co-phonologies 116
Coderivative Uniformity
Generalization 407
cognition, modular perspective of 53–78
cognitive science, linguistics in 24, 56, 542–4
cognitive vs social conception of linguistic modules 20–1, 30, 40, 43, 44–5, 48–9
cohesion, internal, of words/ morphemes 212, 214, 219
combinatorial principles (semantics) 433–4, 437–40
Combinatory Categorical Grammar (CCG) 578–603
Combinatory Projection Principle 591–2
combinatory rules, of CCG 581, 583–7
comma intonation 487–8, 495
Common Ground Principle 530
comparatives 363–4
competence, linguistic 56–61, 547–9, 552, 553, 575, 614
competition, in Distributed Morphology 358–9, 361–4
complements:
and compositionality (of meaning) 439–42
movement to Spec 217
‘small’, and low licensing positions 271–8
completeness 626, 633 n. 14
Complexity Constraints 283, 337
composition (semantics) 584–6, 592, 596–7, 620
compositionality (semantics) 425–42
computation, inferential 63–4, see also transduction
‘computation’, the (mapping between PF and LF) 575–606
concreteness 24–7, 36–7, 41, 46, 47–8
consonant mutations 148–51
Constituent Fronting order (of syntactic elements) 241, 255–6, 260, 261, 263, 264
construction-based vs principle-based linguistics 548–9
Construction Grammar 634
Constructive Morphology 635 n. 17
Context Change model (of presuppositions) 506
context-dependency 426–8
Context-Free Grammar 546, 576
context-sensitivity 455, 546, 556
in language, as consensus in generative grammar 549–50
contexts, intensional 519–21
continuum, interface as 41
contrast, phonemic 25, 27–8, 39, 42–3
contrastive topics (CT) 457–60
conventional implicatures (CI) 475–98
conversational implicatures 481–3, 487, 506, 515–18
conversational principles 515–18
Cooper storage 645
coordination phenomena 596–7
cross-clausal agreement construction (CCA) 203–5
crossing 600–3
crossing dependencies (case study of CCG) 599–600
cues, acoustic 72–4
“Curl” (syntactic element ordering) 241–64
cyclic approaches:
vs. paradigm uniformity 104, 107–9
vs. paradigmatic correspondence 104, 113–15, 117–20
(p. 660) cyclic derivations 104, 557
cyclic languages 117–19
cyclicity 557, 559–60, 567
Cyclicity movement 281
data, status of:
phonetic 18–20, 27, 32, 40, 43–5, 48–9
phonological 18–20, 27–31, 34, 40, 48
decomposition 643, 644
decomposition, lexical 296, 307–8
Definite-Clause Grammar, Prolog 601
defo approaches to morphology 414–18
delayed resolution (property of phrasal syntax) 354–5, 359
deniability, of presuppositions 481–4
deponency 393–401, 409, 417–18
derivation (as mechanism in transformational grammar) 104, 557, 560, 565–6, 568, 579, 584–6, 589–90, 598–9, 604
compared to constraint-based grammar 617, 647
derivation (morphological) 210
stranding 333–5
design economy 556–9, 568, see also economy comparisons
deterministic meaning 429
diachronic phonology 21, 38–9, 40
diacritic features 295, 310, 312 n. 28, 314 n. 32
Direct Reference Theory (DRT) 126–31, 144, 146, 161–3, 170
directionality (of headedness) 251–2
discourse appropriateness strategies 459–60
Discourse languages 182, 197–205
discourse phenomena 198
Discourse Record Principle 530
Discourse Representations (DRs)/Discourse Representation Theory 517, 519
Dislocation 372–3, 375–8
Local Dislocation 416
dissociated features/nodes 309, 314 n. 32
Distributed Morphology (DM) 147, 150, 167, 210, 289–322, 386, 560
compared to Lexicalism 358–67, 369–80
compared to Paradigm Function Morphology 411, 414–18
E-language 546, 549
economy comparisons 552, 556, 559–61, 565–9
edge locations 126–31, 137–54, 161–4, 369
Elsewhere Condition/Principle 362, 410, see also Pāṇiniʼs Principle
emotive factives 525–6
encyclopedia, the 359
End-Based Approach (to Prosodic Hierarchy Theory) (EBA) 132, 137–47, 164, 171
epistemology 75–6
Evacuator (E) 258–9
event interpretations 182–97
Event languages 182–97
evolution, language in 554–6
exceptional case marking (ECM) 203–4
excorporation 339, see also incorporation
Exemplar Theories 41–6, 48, 49
existential closure 427, 449, 450 n., 456, 457
existential constructions 561–7, 589–90
explanatory adequacy 550–1, 555
expletive constructions 561–7
Expletive Replacement Hypothesis (ERH) 561–3
Explicit Addition, Principle of 510–11, 517
Extended Projection 628
Extended Projection Principle (EPP) 200, 201, 310, 561, 564
Extended Standard Model 545
Extension Condition 249 n., 564
extensional meanings, see at-issue entailment
extraposition 479
F-structure 642–3, see also subcategorization structure
factives, emotive 525–6
Faithfulness constraints (part of OT grammar) 91, 95, 99
(p. 661) feature semantics 492
features:
case features 307–9, 311–18
defective 226, 227
diacritic 295, 310, 312 n. 28, 314 n. 32
dissociated features/nodes 309, 314 n. 32
distinctive 28, 31, 32, 45
feature chains 165–71
feature copying 309
feature introduction 309
feature structures 618, 634, 644–5
feature valuation 168, 169
inflectional features 242–3
in Paradigm Function Morphology 411–13
phonological 28, 31, 32, 45, 83–7, 111 n., 295–7
underspecification (perseverant) 81–100
in Universal Grammar 60
Firthian Prosodic Analysis 39
Fission 314–18
focus:
focus-background 447–57, 465–8, 525, 598
focus elements 229
Focus Principle 522
focus projection rules 452–3
Focus Prominence (FoP) 463–4
focus values 450–4
Fronting Principle 511–12
fseq (functional sequence) 264–8, 328, 329
Full Interpretation 561–3, 594
function marking, in constraint-based grammar 632–40
function words 139, 142, 153, 164, 170
functional case and agreement checking
case and agreement (A-positions) 195–206
direct objects 183–9
subjects 189–94
functional explanations in the phonetics-phonology interface 37–41, 47, 48
functional heads 130–1, 137, 142, 163, 296, 302–4, 310
functional projections 137, 145, 152, 161, 217–18, 248–51, 254, 263, 334–5
A-positions/A-system 181–206
fseq (functional sequence) 264–8, 328, 329
Gap Transfer Illusion 68–72
Gazdarʼs Principle 515–16
Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) 587, 588, 593–4, 637
generative theory 210, 619, see also Combinatory Categorical Grammar (CCG); Context-Free Grammar; Optimality Theory; Phrase Structure Rules
bidirectional relationships in 140–1
generative semantics 544–5
Gestalt Principles 69, 70
gestural scores 83, 85
Givenness 448–9, 451–4, 456–7, 461, 522
global accommodation 517–18, 521, 522
Globality Principle 512–14
glue language approach to semantic construction 645, 646
government 127, 128–31, 163, 170
Government and Binding Theory (GB) 577, 593, 619, 621 n., 633, 641 n. 20
gradience, in the phonetics-phonology interface 26, 30–2, 34, 41, 43, 49
grammaticality, and meaning 431–3
Griceʼs maxims 364, 515, 517–18
grounding (phonetic) 76
Head-Application Principle 407
Head Categorical Uniqueness, Principle of 593–4
Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 106, 579, 593–4, 624–31, 634, 637, 641–5
(p. 662) head-final languages 217–18
headedness 251–2, 407
heteroclisis 393, 400–1
hierarchies of syntactic elements, logical possibilities 241
“Hopping” (syntactic element ordering) 257–60, 263, 264, 277
I-language 546–9
Identity Function Default 404, 410
idioms, in Distributed Morphology/Lexicalism 359–61
idiosyncrasies, status in theory of grammar 619–20
immediate dominance (ID) 605, 630–1
implicatures:
clausal 515 n. 16, 516
conventional 475–98
conversational 476, 507–9, 515–18
scalar 516 n. 17, 516 n. 18, 519–20
Impoverishment 310–14, 358–9, 362
Inclusiveness Condition 294, 309
incorporation 329, 330, 332–5, 339–41
infinitivus pro participio (IPP) construction 271–3
inflection classes, multiple 397–401
Inflection Phrase (IP) 217, 218, 222, 224, 280–1
inflectional markers 215–20, 223–4
inflectional morphology, theories of:
inferential-incremental (e.g. Articulated Morphology) 387–90, 415
inferential-realizational theory (e.g. Paradigm Function Morphology) 386–90, 416–18, see also Paradigm Function Morphology
lexical-incremental 387–90, 415
lexical-realizational (e.g. Distributed Morphology) 386–91, 415, 418, see also Distributed Morphology
semiotically-oriented theories (e.g. Natural Morphology) 387–8
information packaging 445, see also information structure (IS)
information structure (IS) 646
and Combinatory Categorical Grammar (CCG) 606
as constraint on accommodation 521–2
and intonation 445–68, 597–9
Informativity Principle 517
inheritance 335 n., 370
inheritance hierarchies 634, 644
initiation (agentivity) 182–3, 190–5, 197
input correspondence 344, 345
insertion 305–10, 330–41, 369–70, 384–5
(morpho-) lexical 383–4, 387 n., 390, 391, 411–13, 415
in Distributed Morphology 362–3
Late Insertion, see Late Insertion
Lexical Insertion 603, 605
in Paradigm Function Morphology 411–13
of phrases in words 342–6
Vocabulary Insertion 297–300, 306–18
inside-out cyclic effects 109–12
instrument subject alternation 191
Insufficient Content Principle 526–7, 529–30
intensional contexts 519–21
interfaces, see also individual interfaces e.g. phonetics-phonology
border analogy 20–1, 27
confrontational 18, 30, 33–4, 47, 49
discrete and modular 25–7, 33–6, 49
non-modular 36–8, 47
as overlap 27, 38–41, 47–9
tidal-zone analogy 27, 38, 41
interleaving 110
intonation 445–68
comma intonation 487–8, 495
and conventional implicatures 487–8
focus-background 525
and information structure (IS) 597–9
intonational phrases 132, 134, 137, 149, 153, 171
intrinsic ordering 403
inverse construction 204
inversions, and nominal appositives 494–7
Laboratory Phonology 24, 36
lambda terms 490, 491, 591, 595, 601
(p. 663) language acquisition:
and Exemplar Theory 45
feature-checking 241
first-language acquisition/child language acquisition 21, 44, 45, 426
in Optimality Theory 93–5
perseverant underspecification (in OT grammar) 93–5
Principles and Parameters (P&P) approach 542–6
language contact 96–100
language faculty 55–61, 542–4, 554–7
attestable languages 63–4
attested languages 58–60
statable languages 58–60
language typology, predictions about 247–8
Lasnik and Saito (L&S) project 551–4, 556
last-resort considerations 552, 553, 556, 559–63, 567, 568
Late Insertion 294, 296, 297, 326, 341–9, 358
context-sensitive Spell-Out 346–9
phrasal affixation 343–6
Lexical Atomicity 355
lexical categories (vs functional) 131, 137, 142, 164, 169–70, see also lexical heads (vs functional)
Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) 578–9, 593, 613–14, 624–9, 635, 638–9, 641–6
Lexical Head Government, Principle of 593, 596
lexical heads (vs functional) 137, 142, 160–70
Lexical Insertion 603, 605
Lexical Integrity 338, 617, 629, 631
Lexical Mapping Theory (LMT) 642–3
Lexical Phonology (LP) 110, 115–17, 132
Lexicalist Hypothesis 209–10, 289–92, 353–7, 368–9, 545, see also constraint-based theories of grammar
Strong Lexicalism 338, 617, 631
Lexicon Optimization 87, 94–5
LF (Logical Form) 429, 545, 585, 616, see also Minimalist Program
mapping onto Phonological Form (PF) “the computation” 575–606
licensing:
argument licensing 181–206, 334
and incorporation 330, 334–5
licensing positions 256, 271–8
licensing relations/statements 105–9, 111–15, 119, 165, 247–8
object licensing 248–51
linear correspondence 343–5
Linear Correspondence Axiom (LCA) 271, 580
Linear Indexed Grammar (LIG) 591, 601–3
linear precedence (LP) 605, 630–1
linearization 302–3, 315–16, 318–20, 580, 630–1
linking theory (mapping theory) 641–4
loanwords 96–100
local compositionality 428–37, 439–2
Local Dislocation 318–20, 370
locality, as compositionality 428–31
Logical Form (LF), see LF (Logical Form)
long-distance structures 637
Lowering 318–19, 370, 372
mapping theory (linking theory) 641–4
markedness 77–8, 92–3
Markedness constraints 91–5, 99
Maximal Word (MWd)/Maximal Word Principle 375–6
meaning, and grammaticality 431–3
meaning, deterministic 429
meaning, update-function view of 461
Merge 565–6, 578, 580, 586, 604
metalanguage 431, 433–4
mind, human, language in 542–4, 547–9
minimal free form 212
Minimal Indirect Reference (MIR) 146–53, 157, 161, 163, 171
Minimal Link condition 562, 567
minimal pairs 28–31
Minimal Recursion Semantics 645, 646
minimal-size conditions 109–12
Minimalist Program (MP) 153, 165, 292, 541–68, 575–6, 578–80, 594, 603–6, 616, 619, 621 n.
Bare Phrase Structure theory 594
(p. 664) minimalist desideratum 310 n.
Strong Minimalist Thesis (SMT) 554–5, 567–8
theory of movement 240–83
and Universal Grammar 169, 186
Mirror Principle 252–64, 303–4, 328
modules:
cognitive vs social conception of 20–1, 30, 40, 43, 44–5, 48–9
derivational vs non-derivational 613–14, 646–7
in informational sense 623, 646–7
linguistic cognition as set of 53–78
parallels across 18–20, 36–9, 47
Morphological Merger 318–20
Morphological Structure (MS) 147, 150, 167–9, 171
morphology, see also grammatical licensing relations/statements; inflectional morphology, theories of
A-morphous morphology 387
Articulated Morphology 387
Constructive Morphology 635 n. 17
Distributed Morphology (DM), see Distributed Morphology (DM)
General as Basic (basi) approach 414–18
General as Default (defo) approach 414–18
Mirror Principle 252–64, 303–4, 328
Morphological Merger 318–20
Morphological Structure (MS) 147, 150, 167, 168–9
Natural Morphology 387–8
Network Morphology 387
Ornamental Morphology 305–10
Paradigm Function Morphology, see Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM)
Paradigmatic Sign-Based Morphology (PBSM or SBM) 103–21
Word-and-Paradigm Morphology 387
morphology-phonology interface 103–21
morphology-semantics interface 620
morphology-syntax interface:
anti-lexicalist, “no words” approach 209–34
anti-lexicalist, “no words” approach (Distributed Morphology) 289–322
lexicalist vs non-lexicalist theories 289–92, 297, 321–2
Morphosyntactic Representation (Mo) 146–7, 151, 157
movement approaches to basic word order (morpheme structure = syntax) 239–83
transparency 302–4
“word-based” approach (Paradigm Function Morphology) 383–418
word syntax and phrasal syntax separate (lexicalist) 353–80
word syntax and phrasal syntax separate (lexicalist) but part of syntactic module 325–49
Morse Code 56–7
Move 564, 565–6, 580, 604
movement 240–1, 244–5, 563–5, 577–9, 603, 616
head-movement 240–3, 245–50, 258, 302–3, 415
movement operations in the PF branch 318–20
and relationship to basic word order and morphology 239–83
Multiple Spell-Out 153–5, 565–6, 579, 580
multiple traces, see Exemplar Theory
mutations, of consonants 148–51
Natural Adequacy 550–6
Natural Morphology 387–8
negation, and morpheme ordering 265–6
Network Morphology 387
nexus 434
nominal appositives (NAs) 475–98, 494–5
nominalization, and allomorphy in DM 364–7
non-determinism, in the phonetics-phonology interface 20–1, 34, 44, 48–9
non-recoverable deletions 427–8
noncyclic effects in Sign Based Morphology 112–13
nuclear pitch accent (NPA) 447, 451, 453–4, 458, 462, 465, 466
(p. 665) nuclear-stress algorithms 463 n.
Numeration 579–80, 584, 605
Obligatory Contour Principle 77
occlusion (vision) 62
ontology 75–6
opacity, phonological 107
opaque contexts 439–3
Optimality Theory:
bidirectional 528–9
Co-phonologies 116
constraint systems 106–7, 134 n. 5, 614 n. 2
default prosody 464
paradigm uniformity constraints in 109–11
paradigmatic correspondence 119
and the syntax-prosody interface 143–6
underspecification (phonetic/perseverant) in 91–100
underspecification (phonological) in 87
Ornamental Morphology 305–10
Pāṇiniʼs Principle 363, 364, 386, 403–4
as central to Paradigm Function Morphology 409–11
Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) 383–418, 631
paradigm linkage 392, 408–9
deviations from - conditioning by multiple inflection classes 396–401
deviations from - deponency 393–4
deviations from - syncretism 394–6
paradigm uniformity 104, 108, 109–10, 112–15, 117–20
paradigm non-uniformity 120
Paradigm Uniformity Generalization 407
paradigmatic correspondence, see Paradigmatic Sign-Based Morphology
Paradigmatic Sign-Based Morphology (PBSM or SBM) 103–21
paradigms, content- and form- 386, 390–400, 407–9, 412, 415, 416
parasitic gaps 560
parse-tree interpretation (for multiple conventional implicatures) 492
partial descriptions, see constraint-based theories of grammar
passive constructions 223–33
patient/agent head marking 192–4
performance, linguistic 56–61, 547–9, 552, 553, 575, 614
performance systems 55–61, see also transduction
periphrasis 408, 412, 418
perseverant underspecification 88–100
PF (Phonetic/Phonological Forms) 130, 140–1, 147–8, 153, 162, 166–71, 290, 292–5, 303–21, 346–9, see also Minimalist Program
mapping onto Logical Form (LF) “the computation” 575–606
Phonetic/Phonological Form (PF), see PF (phonetic/phonological forms)
phonetics:
core concepts 31–2
language-specific phonetics 35–6
non-linguistic 22–3
universal 35
phonetics-phonology interface 17–49, 53–78
generative approaches 23–7
modular approaches 33–6, 53–78
non-modular approaches 36–8
quasimodular approach (blurred boundaries) 38–49
Phonological Domain Generator 146
phonological words 132, 134–5, 136, 138, 140–2, 163, 168 n., 211, 219, see also prosodic words
phonology:
Articulatory Phonology 37–8
definitions of 27–31, 39, 55, 83
diachronic 21, 38–9, 40
Laboratory Phonology 24, 36
language-specific phonology 35
Lexical Phonology (LP) 110, 115–17, 132
phonological features of morphemes 295–7
(p. 666) phonological surface structure 19, 22, 30, 48, see also concreteness
Precompilation Theory/Precompiled Phrasal Phonology 132, 155–7, 164
Prosodic Phonology, see Prosodic Hierarchy Theory (PHT)
segmental phonology 72, 125–72
substance-free 74–5, 84
phonology-morphology interface 103–21
phonology-phonetics interface, see phonetics-phonology interface
phonology-semantics interface 445–68
phonology-syntax interface 125–72, 412–13, 620, 630–1, see also Separation Hypothesis
Phrase Structure Rules (PSR) 545–7, see also Principles and Parameters (P&P) theory
physics, linguistics compared to 548, 551, 555, 558, 568
physiology (vocal-tract), and linguistic phonetics 22–3, 43
pied-piping 270
pitch accent (PA) 447, 453, 463, 464, 596–9
point of view (POV) 205, 206
politeness markers, and accommodation 524
polysystematicity 39
position class 389 n. 5, 402, 404–6, 411, 415–16
pragmatic intrusion 532
pragmatics-semantics interface 426–8, 503–33
Precompilation Theory/Precompiled Phrasal Phonology 132, 155–7, 164
presuppositions 462, 481, 483–7, 503–33
principal parts (words with multiple inflection classes) 397–8
principle-based vs construction-based linguistics 548–9
Principle of the Categorical Invisibility of Function Words (PCI) 139, 141, 145, 164, 170
Principles and Parameters (P&P) theory 541–61
probabilistic framework for phonetics-phonology interface 41–6
Probes and Goals 564
projection function, in LFG 624, 628
Projection Principles 591–3, see also Extended Projection Principles (EPP)
projection tests 504, 510
Prolog 601
Prosodic Analysis, Firthian 39
Prosodic Hierarchy Theory (PHT) 131–46, 148–9, 151, 153, 154, 156–7, 164, 169, 170–2
Prosodic Phonology 132–4, 147, 160, 168 n., see also Prosodic Hierarchy Theory (PHT)
Prosodic Representation (Po) 146–7
prosody 598, see also intonation; stress assignment
default prosody 462–5
Firthian Prosodic Analysis 39
and information structure (IS) 462–5
prosodic constituents 132, 133, 153, 170, 171
prosodic domains 139, 146–9, 153, 169–9, 171, see also prosodic constituents
Prosodic Hierarchy Theory (PHT) 131–46, 148–9, 151, 153, 154, 156–7, 164, 169, 170–2
Prosodic Phonology 132–4, 147, 160, 168 n., see also Prosodic Hierarchy Theory (PHT)
prosodic phrases 346–9, 462, 465, 466–8, 597
Prosodic Representation (Po) 146–7
prosodic structure 132, 134, 137–9, 170, 346–9, see also Prosodic Representation (Po)
prosodic words 132, 134, 138, 141–2, 144, 146, 149, 151, 167–9, 171, see also phonological words
and syntax relationships 140–1, 465–8
prosody-syntax relationships 140–1, 465–8
proto-role approaches to semantics 643–4
proximal base effects 117, 120
psycholinguistics 22, 24, 42
psychology and the reality of words 234
Push-Down Automata 576, 591
(p. 667) quantification, and apposition 493–4
Quantification, Universal 266
quantifier scope 588–91, 644–6
quantifier storage, see Cooper storage
quantitative research, in phonetics-phonology 31–2, 34, 36
quantity, and telicity 183–9, 205
quasi-modularity, in the phonetics-phonology interface 38–40, 45–9, see also Exemplar Theory; interfaces as overlap; non-determinism
question-answer congruence (QAC) 450–3, 456–7, 461
question particles, and word order 262–3
question-under-discussion (QUD) 459, 461–2
quirky case (lexical case/inherent case) 190, 192
Raddoppiamento Sintattico (RS) 135–7
realization rules 401–4
realizational (-inferential) theory (Paradigm Function Morphology) 386–90, 391
recursivity 134 n. 5, 135–6, 145–6, 149, 151, 155, 163
non-recursivity 135, 146, 155, 163
referential (truth-conditional) semantics, compositionality in 425–42
reflexivization 199
Relation-Based Approach (to Prosodic Hierarchy Theory) (RBA) 132–7, 139, 142, 143, 155, 163–4, 171
Relativized Minimality 556, 558, 559, 568
Remnant-movement analysis 259, 275
research:
empirical, in phonetics-phonology 18, 30
quantitative, in phonetics-phonology 31–2, 34, 36
resource-sensitivity, in semantics 645, 646
Richness of the Base 96, 98–9, 100
“Roll-up” (syntactic element ordering) 241–64
Roots 295–7, 310
rule block interactions 405–6, 410–11
Saussurean signs 105
scope:
quantifier 588–91, 644–6
scope facts 480
scope relations 328–9, 368, 429, 590
scope-shifting approach to conventional implicatures 497–8
scrambling 635, 636
segmental phonology 125–72
semantics:
association with focus 455
the Encyclopedia 301
as field, limits 428–31
generative 544–5
glue language approach to semantic construction 645, 646
lexical vs compositional 620, 627
logical semantic composition 490–2
Minimal Recursion Semantics 645, 646
proto-role approaches to 643–4
resource-sensitivity 645, 646
semantics-morphology interface 620
semantics-phonology interface 445–68
semantics-pragmatics interface 426–8, 503–33
semantics-syntax interface 425–42, 431–7, 445–68
in constraint-based grammar 644–6
sententialism 440–3
Separation Hypothesis 297, 331 n. 5, 342, 343
shape alternations 412–13
Shortest Move 594–6
Sign-Based Morphology (SBM), see Paradigmatic Sign-Based Morphology
“Sinking” (syntactic element ordering) 241, 271–8
“Skipping” (syntactic element ordering) 241, 255–6, 260, 261, 263, 264
Skolem terms 589–90
slash mechanisms 637
slash modalities 583–4
social vs cognitive conception of linguistic
modules 20–1, 30, 40, 43, 44–5, 48–9
(p. 668) speech pathology, and Exemplar Theory 45–6
speech segmentation 72–4
Spell-Out 147, 153–5, 168, 229, 325, 330 n., 341–9, 578, 602–3, 604, 605
context-sensitive 346–9
Multiple Spell-Out 153–5, 565–6, 579, 580
statable languages 58–60
statistical approaches to phonetics and phonology 41–6
stipulations, in theory development 379–80
stranding 332–5, 338
streams of auditory events/speech 65–8, 72–4, see also Gap Transfer Illusion
stress assignment 138–9, 142, 163, 453–4, 462–8
Strict Layer Hypothesis 133
Strong Lexicalism 338, 617, 631
Strong Minimalist Thesis (SMT) 554–5, 567–8
structural linguistics 543, 549
structural zeroes 384, 388, 416–17
subcategorization structure 621–3, 625–6, 632–40, 641–4, 647
subject-agreement markers, outside syntactic approach to word formation 221–2
subject splits 194–5
Submaximal Word (SWd) 375–6, 377
Subset Principle 298, 411
substance-free phonology 74–5, 84
symmetrical and asymmetrical languages 152–3
syntactic terminals 325, 326, 331, 358
in Distributed Morphology 295–7, 301
in Paradigm Function Morphology 411–13, 415
syntax-morphology interface:
anti-lexicalist, “no words” approach 209–34
anti-lexicalist, “no words” approach (Distributed Morphology) 289–322
lexicalist vs non-lexicalist theories 289–92, 297, 321–2
Morphosyntactic Representation (Mo) 146–7
movement approaches to basic word order (morpheme structure = syntax) 239–83
transparency 302–4
“word-based” approach Paradigm Function Morphology 383–418
word syntax and phrasal syntax separate (lexicalist) 353–80
word syntax and phrasal syntax separate (lexicalist) but part of syntactic module 325–49
“syntax of silence” 560
syntax-phonology interface 125–72, 412–13, 620, 630–1, see also Separation Hypothesis
syntax-phonology mapping 139, 143, 155, 171
syntax-prosody relationships 140–1, 342, 346–8, 465–8
syntax-semantics interface 425–42, 445–68, 620
in constraint-based grammar 644–6
telicity 182–7, 196, 197, 224
Tense (T)/Tense Phrase (TP):
as agency 189–94
base-generated order 214–16, 234
and exceptional case marking (ECM) 204
Mirror Principle 253–5
and negation 265–6
and suffixation 216
terminus, the, see telicity
thematic roles (theta roles) 226–8, 230–2, 268 n., 329, 560, see also agentivity; A-positions/A-system
in constraint-based grammar 641–4
theme-rheme 598–9, see also topic-comment
theme vowels 307, 315–18
theta roles, see thematic roles
topic-comment 182, 198–201, 206, 457–60, 598–9
Topic Phrase (TopP) 200–1
(p. 669) Topic Principle 522
topic-prominent languages 198–201
topics, contrastive (CT) 457–60
tough-movement 595–6
transderivational identity 119, see also paradigm uniformity; paradigmatic correspondence
transduction, and the phonetics-phonology interface 24–7, 35–7, 41–6, 48, 74–5, 83–7
vs computation 61–2
transduction, in the speech chain 54
transformational grammar, contrasted with constraint-based theories of grammar 629, 637, 647
Transformational Grammar (TG) 576–80
Transformational Rules (TRs) 545
contrasted with constraint-based theories of grammar 616–17
transformations 543, 545, 568, 616–17
parametric differences 556, 568
transitivity, and telicity 187
Trapping Principle 513–15
Tree-Adjoining Grammar (TAG) 578–9, 591, 593–4
Trigger Problem 533
truth conditions:
and contrastive topic (CT) 460
and Focus semantics 454–5
and information structure (IS) 446
truth-conditional (referential) semantics, compositionality in 425–42
truth values 439, 484
Turing computational systems 543, 545–8, 552, 554, 591
type-raising 584–6, 596–7, 599–600
underlying representations (UR) 85
and paradigm uniformity 120
traditional approaches 107–10
and underspecification 82, 87–91
underspecification:
in Distributed Morphology 358, 362
of grammatical function realization 635
perseverant underspecification 81–100
of scope 645, 646
of vocabulary items (syncretisms) 299–300
unification-based grammar, see constraint-based theories of grammar
unification (operation) 547, 557, 619, 645
Universal Grammar (UG), see also language acquisition; Minimalist Program; Principles and Parameters (P&P) theory
and Combinatory Categorical Grammar (CCG) 591–6
and Minimalist Program 541, 549
and a modular approach to phonetics-phonology interface 55, 56–61, 63
and phonology 82, 84, 99, 166, 169
universal ordering tendencies 260–2
universal phonetics 35
Universal Quantification 266
update-function view of meaning 461
verb projection raising construction 271–2
virtual concept necessity (VCN) 556–60, 568
virus interpretation of checking 560
Virus Theory 560, 568
Vocabulary Insertion 297–300, 306–18
vocal-tract physiology, and linguistic phonetics 22–3
vowel assimilation (VA), in Basque 157–70
vowel shortening 143–6
weak cross-over (WCO) effects 204
Word-and-Paradigm Morphology 387
word order, basic (dominant) 241–52
words, see also morphology; morphology-syntax interface
characteristic properties of 211–13
independent distribution of 212, 214, 219
internal cohesion 212, 214, 219, 544
X-bar inheritance 369–70
X-bar theory 632, 635
X-government 127
Xo categories 336–9, 375–6
Y-model 563–4