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date: 13 December 2019

(p. 830) Subject Index

(p. 830) Subject Index

Note: Legal cases are indexed under Supreme Court

Accenture366
accountability187–8
and Administrative Procedure Act193–4
and bureaucracy614
and bureaucratic dominance188–9
and congressional dominance191–5, 210–11, 214–16
criticism of215
resistance to215
and contracting out of government services408–9
contract design409
dealing with information uncertainties409–10
divergent interests410–11
lack of oversight capacity412–13
legal accountability408
loss of in-house capacity413
multiple stakeholders410
performance measurement411
political accountability408
professional accountability408
reciprocal relationships409
unclear performance expectations411–12
and forms of570–3
judicial572–3
managerial572
political571–2
and judicial review569, 572–3, 584–5
and multi-institutional perspective197–9, 211
and multilevel modeling511–13
and networks373
and presidential dominance195–7
and public sector knowledge networks492–3
and representative bureaucracy714–15 see also judicial review of administrative action
adaptive learning310
administrative adjudication, and judicial review574–7
defence of individual rights576
deference to administrative adjudicators574–6
administrative agencies, see agencies
administrative design:
and agency theory199–200
and legislature's approach to194–5
and president's role196 see also agency design and evolution
Administrative Dispute Resolution Acts (1990, 1996)116
administrative presidency591
and agency origin557–8
and agency reorganization556–7
and bureauphobic assumptions559
and career bureaucrats549
bureauphobic assumptions about559
effectiveness of558
policy influence554
public service559
resistance by551
responsiveness of559
and centralization555–6
and collaborative governance560–1
and conditions for success559
and congressional delegation552
and congressional limitations on550
and congressional polarization552
and contextual tools545
and contracting out of government services560
(p. 831) and crises547–9
and electoral cycles and results547–9
and first-mover advantage550, 552
and future research563–4
and goal ambiguity551
and inadequate depth of research on546
and interaction of laws553
and judicial tactics552–3
and lack of coordinated strategic direction555
and performance-based pay559–60
and performance measurement561–2
and policy implementation560
and political appointees553–4
and politicization strategies553–4, 694–5
and presidential preferences551–2
and principal-agent relationships560–1
and principal-agent theory, inadequacy of546
and rhythms of presidential administrations548–9
and signing statements550–1
implementation difficulties551
and street-level bureaucracy554
and structures, processes, and procedures:
agency origins557–8
agency reorganization556–7
alignment of547, 556–7
cutting bureaucratic levels558
and tools of545
effectiveness of545–6
and unilateral tools545
implementation difficulties551
and weak understanding of546 see also executive-centered administration
Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (1946)114, 172, 526, 550, 594
and bureaucratic accountability193–4
and rulemaking process601
administrative reform:
and aims of7
and business practices7
and motives for207–8
and resistance to208
and Weber's influence7
administrative reform movements:
and American political development's approach to study of159–62, 174
and lack of theory for151–2
and metaphorical and atheoretical understanding of153–4
and research on:
behavioralism154–5
career incentives158–9
diachronic analysis156
future of175
limitations of statistical approaches157–8
logical positivism157
neglect of big questions155
neglect of longer-term factors156–7
neglect of White's approach154–5
‘normal’ science model154
prominence of small-bore issues155
rational choice models158
short-term focus156
synchronic analysis156
tornado models156
and scholarship on causal mechanisms152–3
and tectonic shift metaphor153
and tidal metaphor153
and tidetonic theory:
basics of162–3
context and contingencies166–72
historical-structural mismatches163–6
interpretive effects172–3
administrative rulemaking, and judicial review577–81
deference to agency interpretations578
impact on rulemaking579
passive restraints in automobiles579–80
procedural questions578
administrative state:
and development of37–9
and growth of16
drivers of39–40
and revival of19
and rise of16–17
and weakening of17–19
as aberration10
adverse selection, and agency theory185
(p. 832) advocacy groups, and rise and expansion of172
affirmative action698–700, 709
agencies:
and administrative presidency:
agency reorganization556–7
origins of557–8
and Administrative Procedure Act114
and challenges to network effectiveness387–90
agency resistance387–8
appeal of hierarchical differentiation and specialization389
mobilization of support390
network design388–9
networking processes388
network management389
transdisciplinary practice389–90
and congressional authority over104, 597–8
as adjuncts of legislature114
efforts to control591
intercession in decision-making115–16
oversight115
and definition of590
and federal judicial response to administrative state:
constitutional rights of individuals117–18
development of remedial law118
qualified immunity118–19
relaxing standing to sue agencies118
and hollowing out of372
and implications of the networked state377–8
agency retention of powers378–81
continuities and discontinuities378–81
influence of networks378
and insulation from presidential control111
and interest group influence590, 592–3, 595
direct influence on rulemaking600
future research607–9
negotiated rulemaking606–7
notice-and-comment stage604–6
pre-proposal stage603–4
regulatory agenda-setting stage602–3
sue-and-settle strategy595
through Congress597–9
through the judiciary597
through the presidency596–7
and joint custody of591
and lack of confidence in207
and networks373–4, 376
and obstacles to network dominance by non-state actors:
lack of authority383–4
limited impact on agency decision-making386
need for consensus385
regulatory/funding constraints384
state limitations on384–5
and political salience, measurement of245
and presidential efforts to control591
and President's Management Agenda (2001)112–13
and relations with networks373–4
and rulemaking process600–1
and strengthening of executive supervision112–13 see also agency design and evolution; goal ambiguity, and public organizations; rulemaking
agency:
and definition of271
and street-level bureaucracy271–2
agency design and evolution:
and adaptation failure208, 216
agency leader's perspective222
definition of217
external barriers218–19
fragmented structure of federal government225
general model of221–2
internal barriers219–20
nature of organizations223–4
obstacles to change222–3
population ecology220–1
rational self-interest of actors224–5
and agency mortality213
and congressional dominance214–16
criticism of215
(p. 833) resistance to215
and domestic policy212
and future research226–7
and importance of207
and interest groups212
and national security212
and organization theory208, 216
definition of adaptation failure217
external barriers to change218–19
internal barriers to change219–20
limitations of220–1
and path dependency214
and policy domain characteristics212
and politics of211
and rational choice institutionalism208
congressional dominance210–11
individuals as units of analysis209
insights of209–10
limitations of211–12
multiple principal perspective211
role of uncertainty and information210
significance of institutions209
and significance of founding moments213–14 see also agencies; goal ambiguity, and public organizations
agency theory182–3
and advantages of using201
and adverse selection185
and application of183
and common agency199
and contract design184
and contractual approach to bureaucracy617–19
and control of bureaucracy187–8
bureaucratic dominance188–9
congressional dominance191–5
multiple principal perspective197–9
presidential dominance195–7
and credible commitments187
and experimental research795–6
and future research199–201
and incentives184–6, 786–7
and information asymmetry183, 185–6
and intergovernmental relations451
and limitations of183
and mathematical description184–5
and moral hazard185
and owner-manager relationship183–6
and performance management282–3
and power410
and public bureaucracies:
application to186–7, 199–201
difficulties in applying to190–1
and satisficing185
and trust187
and value conflict183
agenda-setting:
and information-processing theory of bureaucracy629–30
and interest group influence over agencies602–3
airport security, and federalization of135–6
American Economics Association11
American exceptionalism9–10
and path dependency10
and values of160, 164
American Historical Association11
American political development (APD):
and administrative reform movements159–62, 174
and historical institutionalism33
American Political Science Association11
and Bryce's presidential address27
American Political Science Review27
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (2009)171, 547, 760
American Social Science Association11
American Sociological Society11
American State Administrators Project (1998)513
American Statistics Association11
AmeriCorps429, 434
anti-administration333
appropriateness, logic of353
Ash Council (1969–71)109
Assessment of Federal Regulations and Policies on Families Act (1998)117
associationalism167–71, 174
associative state53
Athenian democracy571
attention:
and attention rules628–9, 632
(p. 834) and dynamics of617
and limits of619, 622, 625
and mechanisms of620, 627–8, 631–2
as scarce resource614, 625
audit society572
autonomy, and street-level bureaucracy259–60
behavioral economics227
behavioralism:
and ascendancy of28, 154–5
and historical institutionalism28
and information-processing:
decision making as mutual accommodation622–3
decision making as social constructivism620–1
micro-foundation of bureaucratic behavior621–2
and study of American bureaucracy616
belief systems7
blended workforces366
block grants:
and childcare451
and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families464–5
bounded rationality359, 622
and bureaucratic structure640, 657–8
structure in long run658–61
structure in short run658
and economic organization356–7
Brownlow Committee106–7, 165, 743
Budget and Accounting Act (1921)743–4
Budget and Accounting Procedures Act (1950)743
Budget Enforcement Act (1990)744
budgeting:
and agency theory200
and basic problem of742
and basic tenets of748
and budget/budgeting distinction741
and budgeting theory:
as collection of approaches747
impossibility of integrated theory747
and conflicting perceptions of:
aims741–3
budgeting theory747
decision-making paradigms745–6
functions743–4
perspectives on good practices744–5
and conflicts in746
and control743, 762
fiscal nature of743
fiscal sustainability743–4
prominence in reforms748–50
and definition of741
and determinants of budget size188–9
and entitlement program spending757–60
growth of758
and evaluation of745
and fallacy of integrated approaches746
and federal debt738–9, 760
foreign ownership of760–1
and fiscal profligacy740, 760–1
as betrayal of public trust760
and future research761–3
borrowings from rational-technical prescriptions761–2
control function762
direction of extant practices and reforms763
performance budgeting762
and legislative delegation527–8
and management743–4
and objective of741–2
difficulty in measuring outcomes742
obtaining better value and outcomes742
and output and outcome measurement750–3
difficulties with742
and performance budgeting743–5, 750–2, 762
and planning743–4
and political context of741
and political-philosophical approaches740, 746
dominance of753
and principles of744
and rational approaches744, 746
and reforms and reform movements740
(p. 835) continuity in747
output and outcome measurement750–3
prominence of control748–50
and requirements for effective systems748–9
and tax expenditure753–5
and unfunded mandates755–7
bureaucracy:
and accountability614
and behavioral approach to616, 620–3
decision making as mutual accommodation622–3
decision making as social constructivism620–1
micro-foundation of bureaucratic behavior621–2
and classic approach to615–16, 623–5
and contractual approach to616–19
and definition of study of497
and democracy5–6, 9, 420–1, 612
and information-processing theory of614, 625, 630–1
advantages of633–4
agenda-setting629–30
alternative specification628–9
bureaucratic influence626–7
delegation626
future research631–3
issue identification627–8
policy space625–6
selective attention627–8
and isomorphism352–3
and role of civil servants612–13
and structural elements352
and traditions in study of615–17 see also research on American bureaucracy
bureaucratic drift195
bureaucratic politics108
bureaucratic power, and agency theory199–200
bureaucratic representation, and agency theory199–200
bureaupathologies11, 329, 352
bureau shaping, and first New Federalism era65
business, and influence on public policy599–600 see also interest groups
business history, and development of American business353–4
bureaucratic organization355
growth of enterprises354–5
growth of specialization354
role of organization and management355–6
campaign finance, and interest groups598
cap-and-trade programs142
capitalism, and bureaucracy327, 330, 332
causation, and logical positivism157
Center for Technology in Government, and public sector knowledge networks474–5
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention215
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)215, 303
and venture capital fund139
centralization:
and administrative presidency555–6
and Help America Vote Act (2002)463–4
and intergovernmental relations455–6
and No Child Left Behind Act (2001)461–2
and Real ID Act (2005)460–1
and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families464–5
and third-party government452
change:
and adaptation:
definition of217
external barriers218–19
internal barriers219–20
as concept for examining American bureaucracy128 see also leadership and cultural change; organizational change
chaos theorems, and social choice theory646–7
Charitable Choice433
Chief Financial Officers Act (1990)743
(p. 836) childcare block grants, and implementation regimes451
child labor, and soft regulation143
Children's Bureau86
China, and ownership of American debt761
choice-theoretic approaches to bureaucratic structure638–9, 661–2
and bounded rationality640, 657–8
structure in long run658–61
structure in short run658
and choice under uncertainty640, 655–7
and definition of structure639–40
and noncooperative game theory640, 653–5
and social choice theory640
chaos theorems646–7
elements of641
impossibility of neutral hierarchy650
impossibility theorem649–50
information aggregation in hierarchies651–3
inheritance thesis644–5
Pareto-optimal structures641–4
unrealistic design aspirations648–50
choice under uncertainty, and bureaucratic structure640, 655–7
Cingranelli-Richards Human Rights Database684
city government, and Progressive Era reforms80
controversies around83
city-manager government80
civic republicanism:
and public-nonprofit partnerships424
collaborations425
leveraged volunteering428
social entrepreneurship426
and values of160
civil servants, and role of612–13
Civil Service Commission, and elimination of110
civil service reform38–9
and executive-centered administration105
and Pendleton Act (1883)52, 56, 105, 166, 693–4
and Progressive Era82
democratic/elite tensions83
and uneven implementation by states61
Civil Service Reform Act (1978)110, 694, 701, 705
Civil Service Reform Association84
civil society, and paradox of378
Civil War, and impact of56
class warfare173
Clayton Act (1914)80
coalitional drift195
coercion, and the state35–6
collaborations, and public-nonprofit partnerships425–6
aggregative elements426
characteristics of successful432
competing institutional identities425
instability of430–1
institutional learning425
integrative elements426
justification criteria432
motives for431–2
outcomes analysis431
participation432
requirements for430
research findings on430–2
values426, 432
collaborative governance, and administrative presidency560–1
collective action problems:
and experimental research795
and public-nonprofit partnerships441–2
collective bargaining700–1
commercialism421
commission form of city government80
commitment, and declining levels of774
commodity fetishism330
Common Cause594
communities of practice488, 490
Community Action Agencies32
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA, 1977)144–5
comparative political development29
competency traps224
computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI)803
concept stretching155
Congress210–11
(p. 837) and administrative presidency550
and authority over administration104
Brownlow Committee107
reduction in oversight under Bush112
and authority over agencies597–8
and casework115–6
and delegation:
budgetary mechanisms of policy control527–8
bureaucratic capacity531
bureaucratic expertise532–3
executive/commission choice528–9
information asymmetries531–3
oversight mechanisms of policy control524–5
policy alignment530–1
procedural and rule-based control525–6
structural mechanisms of policy control528–9
variation in institutional capacity532
and dominance over bureaucracy191–5, 210–11, 214–16
resistance to215
in first New Federalism era:
divided control62–3
oversight of states65
professionalization of63
and future research535
and independent regulatory commissions111
and interest group influence597–9
casework599
oversight599
as sources of information598–9
and judicial review577
and oversight524–5
control of bureaucracy192–3, 210–11, 214, 598
enhancement of capacities115
fire alarms192, 210, 455, 525
passive oversight193
reduction of under Bush112
and post-Reconstruction era62
and response to federal administrative state113–14
Administrative Procedure Act114
agencies as adjuncts of legislature114
enhancing oversight capacities115
intercession in administrative decision-making115–16
Legislative Reorganization Act (1946)114–16
strengthening of 1946 response116–17
Congressional Budget Act (1974)754
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act (1974)116, 743–4, 755
Congressional Budget Office598, 755
congressional dominance:
and agency design and evolution214–16
resistance215
and control of bureaucracy191–5
and criticism of215
and rational choice institutionalism210–11
Congressional Research Service598
Congressional Review Act (1996)116, 122
consequences, logic of353
contracting-back-in368–9, 399
contracting out of government services:
and agency theory200
and aims and advantages of398
and blended workforces366
and blurring of public/private boundaries397
and contract management400–1
lack of oversight capacity412–13
and contractor accountability costs408–9
contract design409
dealing with information uncertainties409–10
divergent interests410–11
lack of oversight capacity412–13
legal accountability408
loss of in-house capacity413
multiple stakeholders410
performance measurement411
political accountability408
professional accountability408
reciprocal relationships409
unclear performance expectations411–12
and core government functions134–5
(p. 838) and costs of ensuring competitive markets403–5
insufficient number of providers404
market management404
and costs of meshing disparate organizational cultures406–8
interorganizational relations407
sources of cultural clashes406–7
trust building407
and decline in government's administrative capacity399, 404–5
and disdain for government bureaucracy136–7, 398
and economic arguments for398
and effectiveness of, mixed findings on401–2
and expansion of396, 398–9
services398
and fiscal explanations135
and future research:
accountability415
contract management415
democratic-constitutional balanced scorecards414
managing contracting system414
policymakers focus on efficiency and effectiveness413
pre-contract costs415
purpose of government413
successful contracting415
transaction costs415
values414
and growth in contract employees399
and hollowing out of agencies372
and ideological motives133, 135
and impact of134, 365–6
administrative capacity399
institutional history399
and implications of397
and make or buy decision400
and market disruption costs405–6
adaptation costs405
contract cycles405
and metaphors of administrative reform133–7
and monitoring costs403
and multilevel modeling514
and negotiating and bargaining costs403
and network development375
and outsourcing of contracting399, 413
and perils and pitfalls of397
and political motives133, 396–7
and popularity of strategy396–7
and reflexivity metaphor136
and relativity metaphor137
and scope of399
and street-level bureaucracy263–4
and tectonic shift metaphor134–5
and tidal metaphor134
and transaction costs400, 402–3
manipulation of401
scope of401
and unfulfilled promise of397 see also market-based reforms; public-nonprofit partnerships
contractual approach to bureaucracy616–17
and information-processing617–19
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)146
corporate social responsibility777–8
Corporation for National and Community Service429
corruption:
and market state775–6
and reformers' concern with58, 80
Council of Economic Advisers107–8
Council on Environmental Quality108
credit crisis307
crises, and administrative presidency547–9
cross-level relationships, and multilevel modeling514–15
cross-sectoral partnerships, and nature of421 see also public-nonprofit partnerships
culture:
and modernist perspective331–2
and postmodern perspective332–3
Data Quality Act (2000)117, 601
decentralization18
and Help America Vote Act (2002)463–4
and intergovernmental relations455–6
(p. 839) and No Child Left Behind Act (2001)461–2
and Real ID Act (2005)460–1
and rhetoric on466
and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families464–5
and third-party government452
deck stacking194, 526, 582, 597
deconstruction, and postmodernism328–9
delegation114, 194–5
and administrative presidency552
and advantages and disadvantages of521–2
and criticism of extant literature on534–5
and first generation study of523–4
benefit of legislative delegation524
budgetary mechanisms of policy control527–8
executive/commission choice528–9
oversight mechanisms of policy control524–5
principal-agent perspective523–4
procedural and rule-based control525–6
structural mechanisms of policy control528–9
and future research:
demand side of executive discretion538–9
hierarchical relations within executive branch536–8
policy impact of539–40
strengthen weak view of executive authority535–6
and information-processing theory of bureaucracy626
and legislative-centric research on522
and principal-agent perspective522, 617
and role of executive522, 534–5
and second-generation study of529–30
bureaucratic capacity531
bureaucratic expertise532–3
information asymmetries531–3
policy alignment530–1
variation in institutional capacity532
as characteristic of American democracy521
democracy:
and accountability571–2
and bureaucracy5–6, 9, 420–1, 612
and efficiency83
and judicial review569, 573, 584–5
and postmodernism342–3
and results-based reforms297–8
and scientific management81–2
democratic ethos, and impact of market-based reforms368–9 see also ethics
Denmark, and employment policy reform506–7
Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and Real ID Act (2005)460
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)560
devolution, and rhetoric on466
discretion:
and bureaucratic design194–5
and delegation:
administrative presidency552
budgetary mechanisms of policy control527–8
bureaucratic use of534–5
demand side of executive discretion538–9
executive authority535–6
hierarchical relations within executive branch536–8
oversight mechanisms of policy control524–5
policy alignment530–1
procedural and rule-based control525–6
and ethics781–2
and representative bureaucracy719
in street-level bureaucracy253, 258–9, 265
abuse of265–6, 274
control of265, 274
creaming259
cultural identity269
gender268
group identities267–8
identifying patterns of266–9
identity based judgments267
impact of contracting out263–4
(p. 840) influence of norms and culture265–6
lack of control over259
practice ideologies267
race268–9
socialization267–8
social status269
work structure266–7
diversity management707
and representative bureaucracy700
domestic policy, and agency design212
double loop learning310
economic individualism421
economic organization:
and bounded rationality357, 359
and coordinating role of organizations361–2
and development of American business353–4
bureaucratic organization355
growth of enterprises354–5
growth of specialization354
role of organization and management355–6
and human factors357
and opportunism357, 359
and organizational failures framework357–8
economics, and use of terminology of6
Economist Intelligence Unit684
education, and No Child Left Behind Act (2001)461–2
efficiency, and Progressive Era82
democratic connotations83
meanings of82–3
women's embrace of88–9
Electoral Assistance Commission463
electoral cycles, and constraints on administrative presidency547–9
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)461
emergent networks168
emissions regulation policy142
employee rights, and human resources management702–4
constitutional rights702, 704
liability for constitutional torts703–4
patronage702–3
statutory laws702
Employment Act (1946)115
entitlement programs, and spending on757–60
growth of758
environmentalism, and soft regulation143
Environmental Protection Agency170, 198
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)718–9, 721, 727, 729
ethics:
and approaches to767–8
deontological768–9
teleological768–9
virtue ethics768–9
and compliance ethics776–7
and corporate social responsibility777–8
and cultural context of768–9
and definition of767
and disconnection of theory from practice767, 770
and Ethics Resource Center report766
and future research782–3
and growth in academic ethics programs767
and impact of misconduct766–7
and individual focus of768–9
and new governance models767
and organizational ethics:
building an ethics culture779–80
comprehensive ethic program779
criminal organization778
ethical organization778
guerrilla organization778
masked organization779–80
and professional ethics769
and public service ethics:
academic neglect of767, 781–2
deontological769
discretion781–2
nation state770–1
revitalization of780–1
teleological769
transition to market state772–3
and stakeholder responsibility ethics777
and technical rationality768–9
(p. 841) ethical failings within context of771–2
and transition to market state772–3
accentuation of liberal assumptions773
challenges of776
changed role of government775
corruption775–6
devalued government776, 780
diminished government capacity773
impact of773–4
short-term774
threats of globalization773–4
uncertain grounds for ethical behavior775
Ethics Resource Center (ERC)766
evolution, as metaphor for administrative reform128–9
executive-centered administration:
and aggrandizement of (1980-present)110–13
Clinton's presidency111–12
George W Bush presidency112–13
National Performance Review (1993)111
President's Management Agenda (2001)112–13
Reagan's presidency110–11
reduction of congressional oversight112
supervision of agencies112–13
and congressional response to113–14
Administrative Procedure Act114
agencies as adjuncts of legislature114
enhancing oversight capacities115
intercession in administrative decision-making115–16
Legislative Reorganization Act (1946)114–16
strengthening of 1946 response116–17
and consolidation of (1937–80)108–10
Civil Service Reform Act (1978)110
Hoover Commission (1947–49)109
Nixon's reorganization109
Office of Personnel Management110
Senior Executive Service110
and critique of102
and dangers of123
and federal judicial response to117–19
constitutional rights of individuals117–18
development of remedial law118
qualified immunity118–19
relaxing standing to sue agencies118
and implied powers102–3
and inherent powers102–3
and limited constitutional powers of president102
and origins of (1789–1937)103
Brownlow Committee106–7
civil service reform movement105
constitutional ambiguity103
Executive Office of the President107–8
Hamiltonian perspective104–5
Progressive movement105
scientific management movement105–6
and political/constitutional limitations122–3
and separation of powers122–3
and unitary executive theory119–20
Bush's assertion of powers120–2
signing statements120–1 see also administrative presidency
Executive Office of the President (EOP)107–8, 555
Executive Order 12886605
experimental research788–9
and causal inference789–90, 800–1
experimental control790–1
experimental design790, 792
random assignment791–2
and criticisms of792–3
and experimental survey research801, 803
and experimenter effect802
and external validity problem793–4, 801
complementarity defense794–6
equivalency defense796–8
pooling defense798–9
and field experiments801–3
and future research804–5
and game theory805
and justification for806
and scale problem799–801
and theorizing806
(p. 842) experts:
and feminist questioning of87
and loss of confidence in28
and Progressive Era80–1, 92
democratic/elite tensions83
and rise of60
and rising authority of28
and role of613, 623–4
Export-Import Bank139
fair trade, and soft regulation143
Fairtrade Labeling International143
Family Support Act (1988)263–4
Fannie Mae141, 760
and regulatory policies144
as hybrid organizations139–40
Farm Credit Administration139
Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)718–19, 725, 729
Federal Advisory Committee Act (1972)601
Federal Aid Highways Act (1956)582–3
federal bureaucracy:
and expanded view of54–5
and first New Federalism66
and intergovernmental policy67
Federal Bureau of Investigation29, 215, 218–19, 222–3, 303
Federal Highway Administration582–3
Federal Housing Finance Agency144
Federal Human Capital Survey803
federalism:
and bureaucratic development55
and classic approach to447–8
and mandates756–7
and public administration447–8, 466
and scholarly neglect of role of53–4 see also first New Federalism; intergovernmental relations (IGR)
Federalist104
Federalist Society594
Federal Pay Comparability Act (1990)695
federal programs, and third-party involvement452
Federal Tort Claims Act (1946)114
Federal Trade Commission40, 80, 192, 212
and interest group influence605
feminism:
and Progressive Era78–9
and public administration scholarship84
and women-centered reality, characteristics of86–7
Financial Accounting Standards Board146
Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering146
financial crisis136, 171
financial management, see budgeting
first New Federalism53
and Congress:
divided control62–3
party divisions63
professionalization of63
and contradictory aspects of55
and divided government62–3
and expansion of administrative state53
and factors encouraging55
and federal bureaucracy66
and foundation of administrative state54
and future research70
and intergovernmental bureaucracy54
intellectual and institutional roots62–7
and intergovernmental policy64–7
and nationalization of policy65–6
and party divisions63
and policy reform60–1
and political and social reformers57–8
and prelude to55–7
civil service reform56–7
national government and states relationship55–6
Pendleton Act (1883)56
and pressure for stronger national state57
and rise of organizational society57
and scholarly neglect of53
reasons for67–9
and state governments58–60
administrative structures59
bureaucratic reform60
economic development58–9
limitations on59
reforms58
role of58
varied capacities of59–60
(p. 843) and Supreme Court, ambiguous decisions63
Food and Drug Administration39
Forest Service39
Forest Stewardship Council143, 170
Freddie Mac141, 760
and regulatory policies144
as hybrid organizations139–40
Freedom House684
Freedom of Information Act (1966, amended 1974)116
Gallup World Poll684
game theory, and experimental research795, 805 see also noncooperative game theory (NGT)
gender:
and Progressive Era, gender identities85
and public policy42
and representative bureaucracy717, 721
and street-level bureaucracy268 see also women
General Bridge Act (1946)114
General Federation of Women's Clubs86, 90
generative learning310
Gilded Age, and state building55
Global Insight684
Global Integrity Index684
globalization:
and impact of773–4
and threats posed by774
and transition to market state772–3
goal ambiguity, and public organizations231–2
and administrative presidency551
and antecedents of goal ambiguity240
competing constituent demands240–1
complexity of policy problem241
financial publicness240
institutional location241
organizational age241
organizational size241
types of policy responsibility241
and definition of238–40
variations in238
and directive goal ambiguity239
factors affecting242
performance effects244
and effects on organizations233–4
and evaluative goal ambiguity239–40
factors affecting242
performance effects244
and future research246–8
and literature on232–3
and measurement of237–8
directive goal ambiguity239
evaluative goal ambiguity239–40
mission comprehension ambiguity239
priority goal ambiguity240
and mission comprehension ambiguity239
and performance243–4
and political environment244–6
political salience245–6
and priority goal ambiguity:
factors affecting242
performance effects244
political salience246
and reform initiatives234–5
and research on236
anomaly of public managers' view237
and role of goals in social scientific theory235–6
goal displacement, and public-nonprofit partnerships440–1
governance:
and bureaucracy's central role in627
and challenge for scholars of686–7
and definition of669, 671
broadening of meaning672–3
consensus view of687
different meanings of672–3
indeterminate meaning of673
traditional meanings672
and emergence as concept671–4
and governance-not-government678–9
as dubious premise685–6
and government497–8, 688
reassertion of role of684–5
replacement of669–70
and logic of676
and multilevel governance676–7
(p. 844) and new governance8, 20–1, 161, 679–81
accountability687
as redefinition671–2
criticism of682–3
emerging partnerships422
evidential weakness682–3
meaning of679–80
modification of institutional environment680
new public governance681
participatory processes681
tools as unit of analysis680 see also public-nonprofit partnerships
and obsession with the ‘new’686
and public/private sphere relationships669
and third-party government674–6
backlash against685
and World Bank research on683–4
as networks677–8
government:
and centrality of670
and governance497–8, 688
reassertion of role in684–5
replacement by669–70
Government Accountability Office (GAO)598
and information-sharing practices485
and signing statements121
Governmental Accounting and Standards Board282
governmental system497
Government Finance Officers Association282
Government in the Sunshine Act (1976)116
Government Performance and Results Act (1993)116, 153, 512, 561, 743–4, 751
and goal clarification235, 237
and performance management281
government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs)139
Grace Commission165
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings (Emergency Deficit Control) Act (1985)744
grants:
and Help America Vote Act (2002)463–4
and intergovernmental relations453
federal-state relationships456–7
and No Child Left Behind Act (2001)461–2
and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families464–5
Great Society424
Habitat for Humanity435
HandsOn Network428
Hatch Act (1887)64, 67
Hawthorne Studies788
Heisenberg uncertainty principle802–3
Help America Vote Act (2002), and intergovernmental relations463–4
Heritage Foundation595
hierarchies:
and information aggregation651–3
historical institutionalism25–6
and administrative state:
development of37–9
drivers of growth of39–40
and American political development33
administrative reform movements159–62
and background to emergence of26–30
and behavioralism28
and challenges facing44–5
and contribution of43–4
and critical junctures32, 159
and critique of institutional arrangements31
and definition of institutions30
and drivers of administrative development45
and features of:
focus on large-scale, slow-moving processes32–3
large research questions31
path dependence31–2
and focus of30–1
and institutional change44
and institutional stability44–5
and methodological approaches33–4
(p. 845) thick description34
and over-generalization44
and public policy40–3
distributive policies41
race42–3
redistributive policies41
regulatory policies41
welfare state41–2
and study of American bureaucracy30–3
and the state:
autonomy of36
definition of35
development of state institutions36–7
nature of35–6
sequence of developments37
hollow state18
Hoover Commission (1947–49)109, 743–4
and performance budgeting281
Hoover Commission (1953–55)109
human resources management (HRM):
and at-will appointments692
and equitable labor-management relations700–2
binding interest arbitration701–2
collective bargaining700–1
right to strike701
and fostering passive and active representation697–700
affirmative action698–700
African-American representation698
diversity management700
gays and lesbians698
Hispanic representation698
minority representation697–8
pressures of immigration697
representative bureaucracy697
women's representation698
and future research707–9
affirmative action709
at-will employment709
competitive sourcing709
contracting out709
diversity management707–8
impact of composition of courts708–9
impact of Volcker II report707
impact of Winter Commission707
labor relations708
methodological traditions709
representative bureaucracy707
training and performance709
and importance of691–2, 707
and multicultural workforce693
and performance improvement704–7
difficulties with706
merit pay system705
National Performance Review705
pay-for-performance705–7
performance appraisals706
and protecting employee rights702–4
constitutional rights702, 704
liability for constitutional torts703–4
patronage702–3
statutory laws702
and reforms693
and reinventing public service694–7
merit system694
Partnership for Public Service697
politicization of bureaucracy694–5
Volcker Commission on Public Service I695
Volcker Commission on Public Service II695–6
Winter Commission696
and retirements over next decade692
and workforce downsizing692
Hurricane Katrina137
hybrid organizations:
and market-based reforms138–40
and regulatory policies143–5
hyperreality330
identity, and representative bureaucracy719–21
immigration693
impact statements580–1
implementation:
and administrative presidency560
and extension beyond intergovernmental relations372
and federal programs451, 454
and partnership programs454–5
and street-level bureaucracy260–1, 269–70
and third-party programs455
(p. 846) impossibility theorem192, 649–50
incentives:
and critical perspective on787–8
and difficulties in measuring effects of787–8
and experimental research:
causal inference789–92
experimental control791
experimental design792
overcoming external validity problem794–9
random assignment791
and new public management787
and principal-agent theory184–6, 786–7
and public service motivation787
and role of786–7
inclusive management315–16
independent regulatory commissions (IRCs), and insulation from presidential control111 see also agencies
individualism163–4
industrialization, and impact of57, 79
information aggregation in hierarchies651–3
information-processing
and behavioralist approach to bureaucracy620
decision making as mutual accommodation622–3
decision making as social constructivism620–1
micro-foundation of bureaucratic behavior621–2
and classic approach to bureaucracy623–5
and contractual approach to bureaucracy617–19
and correction of policy errors613
and properties of625
and reduced capacity of federal bureaucracy614
and theory of American bureaucracy614, 625, 630–1
advantages of633–4
agenda-setting629–30
alternative specification628–9
bureaucratic influence626–7
delegation626
future research631–3
issue identification627–8
policy space625–6
selective attention627–8
information sharing:
and Government Accountability Office research on485
and obstacles to303 see also public sector knowledge networks (PSKNs)
inheritance thesis644–5
In-Q-Tel139
Inspector General Act (1978)116
Institute for Management and Development684
institutional change, and historical institutionalism44 see also organizational change
institutional isomorphism282
institutional learning, and collaborations425
institutions:
and definition of30
and ‘stickiness’ of32 see also historical institutionalism
intercurrent state54
interest groups172–3
and agencies590, 592–3
and agency design and evolution212
and campaign finance598
and conservative interest groups594–5
and definition of590
and factors affecting influence of596
and growth and development of593–4
and growth of administrative state40
and influence on agency decision-making595
direct influence on rulemaking600
future research607–9
negotiated rulemaking606–7
notice-and-comment stage604–6
pre-proposal stage603–4
regulatory agenda-setting stage602–3
(p. 847) sue-and-settle strategy595
through Congress597–9
through the judiciary597
through the presidency596–7
and liberal interest groups594
and Progressive Era593–4
and public policy:
influence on599–600
role in599
and rulemaking592
as sources of information598–9
intergovernmental bureaucracy:
and first New Federalism54, 67–8
political and institutional roots62–7
tools of64–7
intergovernmental management (IGM)448
intergovernmental relations (IGR)447–8
and bargaining467
and centralization vs decentralization debate455–6
federal-state relationships456–7
Help America Vote Act (2002)463–4
No Child Left Behind Act (2001)461–2
Real ID Act (2005)460–1
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families464–5
and focus on448
and future research467–9
and grants453
federal-state relationships456–7
and Help America Vote Act (2002)463–4
and implementation regimes451
federal programs454
partnership programs454–5
third-party programs455
and mandates453–4
and networks450
and new public management451
and No Child Left Behind Act (2001)461–2
and partnerships450
and performance measurement450–1
and policy tools:
bargaining466
centralizing452, 455–6
decentralizing452
federal programs454
federal-state relationships455–7
partnership programs454–5
range of452
third-party programs455
and power relationships456–7
and principal-agent theory451
and range of players452
and Real ID Act (2005)460–1
and relative power of actors455
and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families464–5
and theory development449
and transformation of452
and uncertainty and fluidity467
Internal Revenue Service218
International Accounting Standards Board146
International Atomic Energy Agency146
International Budget Project684
International City/County Management Association282
International Civil Aviation Organization146
International Financial Reporting Standards146
International Labour Organization146
International Monetary Fund146
International Organization for Standardization146
international organizations, and ambivalence towards145–6
international regulation145–7
interorganizational relations:
and contracting out of government services407
and multilevel modeling513–14
intersectionality, and representative bureaucracy720–1
Interstate Commerce Commission38–9, 212
iron cage352
iron triangle108–9
isomorphism:
and adoption of performance-based reforms282
and bureaucracies352–3
Japan, and ownership of American debt761
job satisfaction, and goal ambiguity234
(p. 848) judicial review of administrative action:
and accountability569, 572–3, 584–5
and administrative adjudication574–7
defense of individual rights576
deference to administrative adjudicators574–6
and administrative rulemaking577–81, 592
deference to agency interpretations578
impact on rulemaking579
passive restraints in automobiles579–80
procedural questions578
and contestability of569–70
and democracy569, 573, 584–5
and foundations of569
and governmental design570
and informal administrative action581–4
managerial discretion583–4
road building582–3
and institutional design585–6
and judicial ideology585–6
and paradoxes of570, 573
and puzzle of570
and ubiquity of569
judiciary:
and interest group use of597
and law of standing597
and response to executive-centered administration117–19
constitutional rights of individuals117–18
development of remedial law118
qualified immunity118–19
relaxing standing to sue agencies118
Keep Commission (1906)80
Kennedy Serve America Act (2009)428–9
knowledge transfer, and obstacles to223–4
K Street strategy595
labor-management relations700–2, 708
and binding interest arbitration701–2
and collective bargaining700–1
and right to strike701
land grant programs64
leadership and cultural change303–4
and challenges facing307–8
and commitments312–13
and conceptual confusion over culture304, 311–12
artifacts311
basic assumptions311
espoused values311
operationalization311
research focus311–12
and conceptual confusion over leadership304, 308–11
expectations for leadership308
leader/manager differences308–10
organizational metaphors309–10
and culture as integrating force305
and culture as tool for organizational change304–5
and environmental influences on culture305–6
and expectations of leadership313
and future research316–18
and inclusive management315–16
and leaders' responsibility for effective culture305
and linking through culture312–13
and management of culture305
and organizing314–15
and provision of meaning for organizational change310
and public/private sectoral differences306–7
League of Nations146
learning forums292
legal cases, see Supreme Court
legislative delegation, see delegation
Legislative Reorganization Act (1946)743
as response to executive-centered administration114–16
legislative voting, and social choice model of192
leveraged volunteering, and public-nonprofit partnerships428–9
criticism of434
research findings on434–5
scale of435
liberalism:
and core values of773
(p. 849) and public-nonprofit partnerships424
collaborations425
leveraged volunteering429
social entrepreneurship426
limitation riders, and budgetary control527–8
lobbying, see interest groups
logical positivism157
management, and market effectiveness355–6
management by objectives165, 281, 743
managerialism:
and accountability572
and effects of670, 686–7
mandates:
and budgeting755–7
and debate over756
and federalism756–7
and Help America Vote Act (2002)463–4
and intergovernmental relations453–4
and No Child Left Behind Act (2001)461–2
and Real ID Act (2005)460–1
market-based reforms349–50
and assumptions behind350
and contracting out of government services133–7
core government services134–5
disdain for government bureaucracy136–7
fiscal explanations135
ideological motives133, 135
impact of134
political motives133, 135
reflexivity metaphor136
relativity metaphor137
tectonic shift metaphor134–5
tidal metaphor134
and future research:
blended workforces365–6
transaction cost analysis366–7
and hybrid organizations138–40
tectonic shift metaphor139–40
tidal metaphor139–40
and impact on public service ethos368–9
and market-based regulatory mechanisms142–3
and misplaced faith in markets350
and mixed results of353
and neoclassical economics:
challenge to market-based theory353
influence of352
invisible hand351
market competition351–2
and performance measurement137–8
tectonic shift metaphor138
tidal metaphor138
and risk management140–1
market failure357–8
markets:
and assumptions of superiority of350
and critiques of market-based theory:
Chandler's ‘visible hand’353–6
Simon's World of Organizations and Markets360–3
Williamson's Markets and Hierarchies356–9
and hierarchies356–9
and misplaced faith in350
and role of18
market state:
and changed role of government775
and corruption775–6
and devalued government776
and ethical challenges of776
and transition to772–3
threats posed by773–4
uncertain grounds for ethical behavior775
McCain Detainee Amendment (2005)121
Meat Inspection Act (1906)80
Medicaid453, 758
Medicare758
Merit Principles Survey803
metaphors, and administrative reform movements147–8
and advantages of using129
and appeal of128
and combination of132
and contracting out of government services133–7
core government services134–5
(p. 850) fiscal explanations135
impact of134
reflexivity metaphor136
relativity metaphor137
tectonic shift metaphor134–5
tidal metaphor134
and evolution128–9
and future research147–8
and hybrid organizations138–40
tectonic shift metaphor139–40
tidal metaphor139–40
and limitations of128–9
and market-based reforms132–3
and neglect of human actors131
and performance measurement137–8
tectonic shift metaphor138
tidal metaphor138
and reflexivity132
contracting out of government services136
international regulation147
and regulatory policies141
hybrid organizations143–5
international regulation145–7
market-based regulatory mechanisms142–3
reflexivity metaphor147
tectonic shift metaphor143–7
tidal metaphor145
and relativity131–2
contracting out of government services137
and risk management140–1
and tectonic shifts129–31, 153
contracting out of government services134–5
hybrid organizations139–40
international regulation146–7
performance measurement138
regulatory policies143–5
and tides of reform129–31, 153
contracting out of government services134
hybrid organizations139–40
performance measurement138
regulatory policies145
methodology, and historical institutionalism33–4
Metro High School, Columbus, Ohio381–3
military reform38
milk inspection, and Progressive Era90
mission statements, and goal ambiguity238–9
mixed forms of organization:
and blended workforces365–6
and public-spiritedness368–9
and relational contracting367–8
modernism:
and bureaucracy324
society329–30
and culture331–2
and language327–8
and origins of325
and paradox of reason325
and politics335
and postmodern perspectives on326–7
and psychology333
and rationality326–8
and society329–30
and vision of326 see also postmodernism
moral hazard, and agency theory185
Morrill Land Act (1862)64
multilevel governance676–7
multilevel modeling:
and accountability relationships511–13
and advantages of using502–3, 505
Danish employment policy reform506–7
inclusion of all observations506
welfare reform and sanctioning rates503–4
welfare-to-work programs507–8
youth training and earnings trajectories505–6
and availability of information on510–11
and contracting out of government services514
and critiques of508–9
causal inference issue509
no net advantage509–10
(p. 851) transferability510–11
and cross-level relationships514–15
and cross-sectional multilevel models500–1
cross-level interaction model501
intercepts-and-slopes-as-outcomes model501, 506
random coefficients model501
random intercept model500–1
slopes-as-outcomes model501
and definition of498–9
and interorganizational relationships513–14
and longitudinal multilevel models501–2
growth-curve model502
and potential benefits of498
and sample size508
and software packages511
and value in study of bureaucracy499–500
municipal research bureaus60
and efficiency83
and Progressive Era89–90
Nash equilibrium653
National Academy of Public Administration282
National Advisory Council on State and Local Budgeting (NACSLB)744–5
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)222–3, 303
National and Community Service Act (1990)428
National and Community Service Trust Act (1993)428–9
National Commission on the Public Service, see Volcker Commission on Public Service
National Commission on the State and Local Public Service, see Winter Commission
National Congress of Mothers86
National Consumers League85–6, 88
National Council of State Legislatures282
National Environmental Policy Act (1970)116, 414, 601
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)579
national identity:
and bureaucracy374–5
and myth of163
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)169
National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) (1935)574–5
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)574–5
National Municipal League88, 748
National Performance Review (NPR)111, 353, 705, 751
National Recovery Administration169
national security, and agency design212
National Security Council107
national service428–9
negotiated rulemaking606–7
Negotiated Rulemaking Act (1990)116
neoadministrative state18
neoclassical economics:
and challenge to market-based theory353
and critiques of:
Chandler's ‘visible hand’353–6
Simon's World of Organizations and Markets360–3
Williamson's Markets and Hierarchies356–9
and influence on public administration and political science352
and the invisible hand351
and market competition351–2
and traditional Weberian bureaucracy352 see also market-based reforms
netcentric bureaucracy, see public sector knowledge networks (PSKNs)
networks:
and accountability373
and agency autonomy373
and benefits of472–3
and building effective376
and bureaucracy372
and challenges for public agencies377
and challenges to network effectiveness387–90, 473
agency resistance387–8
appeal of hierarchical differentiation and specialization389
mobilization of support390
(p. 852) network design388–9
networking processes388
network management389
transdisciplinary practice389–90
and characteristics of450
and chartered/non-chartered networks374
and communities of practice488, 490
and definition of374
and development of375–6
and evolution of a collaborative dilemma374–7
and formalization of376
and future research391–3
and governance677–8
and impact of372–3
and impact on internal agency operations376
and implications for public managers376–7
and implications of the networked state377–8
continuities and discontinuities378–81
government retention of powers378–81
influence of networks378
and information and knowledge sharing474
and initiation factors488
and interdependency of implementation structures375
and intergovernmental relations450
and involvement of official representatives374
and limitations of450
and limited domain and power of386, 390–1
and limited participation in373
and Metro High School, Columbus, Ohio381–3
and obstacles to network dominance by non-state actors:
lack of authority383–4
limited impact on agency decision-making386
need for consensus385
regulatory/funding constraints384
state limitations on384–5
and other modes of collaborative relations373
and public agency involvement with376
and public agency-nongovernmental organization connections373
and relations with public agencies373–4
and scope and purpose of473
and success criteria473
and working with government373 see also public-nonprofit partnerships
New Deal169
and growth of administrative state40, 165
New Federalism52 see also first New Federalism
new governance models, see governance
new institutionalism209
new public administration28
new public governance (NPG)681
new public management170
and criticism of Progressive Era approaches78
and goal clarification235
and incentives787
and intergovernmental relations451
and market-based reforms349–50
New York Bureau of Municipal Research82, 90, 95, 750
New York School of Philanthropy91
No Child Left Behind Act (2001)138
and intergovernmental relations461–2
and performance measurement512–13
noncooperative game theory (NGT), and bureaucratic structure640, 653–5
nongovernmental actors, and limited influence on public agency domain373
nonprofit organizations, and concerns over role of421 see also public-nonprofit partnerships
Northwest Ordinances (1785, 1787)64
Nuclear Regulatory Commission146
(p. 853) Occupational Safety and Health Administration198
Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO)144
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA)108, 555
and prompt letters111–12
and role of591, 596
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)107–8, 555, 752
and budget control197
and President's Management Agenda (2001)112–13
and role of591
and supervision of agencies112–13
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)110, 698, 706
Office of Policy Development108
Office of the Special Representative for Trade Negotiations107–8
OnPoint Technologies139
Open Budget Index684
opportunistic behavior359
and economic organization357
organizational change:
and adaptation failure:
agency leader's perspective222
fragmented structure of federal government225
general model of221–2
nature of organizations223–4
obstacles to change222–3
rational self-interest of actors224–5
and definition of217
and external barriers to218–19
and internal barriers to219–20
organizational culture:
and artifacts311
and basic assumptions311
and commitments312–13
and competitive context306
and conceptual confusion over311–12
and environmental influences305–6
and espoused values311
and leaders responsibility for305
and management of305
and meshing disparate organizations406–8
and organizational task306
and organizing314–15
and performance305
and resistance to change219, 223–4
and use of performance information291–2
as integrating force305 see also leadership and cultural change
organizational design361–2
organizational identification362
organizational society57
organizations, and coordinating role361–2
organization theory208
and agency design and evolution216
definition of adaptation failure217
external barriers to change218–19
internal barriers to change219–20
and institutional stability45
and limitations of220–1
and organizational goals236
overhead democracy612, 624
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)139, 170
oversight:
and Congress's role524–5
control of bureaucracy192–3, 210–11, 214, 598
enhancement of capacities115
passive oversight193
reduction of under Bush112
and contracting out of government services, lack of capacity412–13
and fire alarms193, 210, 455, 525
and multiple meanings of226 see also accountability
Paperwork Reduction Act (1980)601
paradigms339
parallel institutions161
Pareto-optimal structures, and social choice theory641–4
(p. 854) Partnership for Public Service171, 369, 697
path dependency:
and agency evolution214
and definition of31–2
and historical institutionalism31–2
and ‘stickiness’ of institutions32
and Weber7
patronage37, 702–3
Pendleton Act (1883)52, 56, 105, 166, 693–4
Pension Bureau42
perestroika movement15, 30
performance-based pay:
and administrative presidency559–60
and human resources management705–7
performance budgeting743–5, 750–2, 762
performance management274
and accountability278, 291
and administrative presidency561–2
and adoption of performance-based reforms281–3
Government Performance and Results Act (1993)281
institutional isomorphism282
means of political control282–3
Program Assessment Rating Tool281–2
reasons for282–3
resource availability283
symbolic value282
and ambiguity in interpreting performance data286
and budgeting750–3, 762
and centrality to reform efforts278
and collection of performance information279
subjectiveness of286–7
and definition of performance-based bureaucracy279
and dissemination of performance indicators279
and diverse views on279–80
and effectiveness278
and future research295–8
democratic impact297–8
explaining appeal of295
goal-based learning296
implementation296
measurement of network performance297
performance improvement295–6
relational aspects297
response strategies295
shared norms297
use of networks297
value-based perspective296–7
and goal ambiguity234, 239–40, 243–4
and goal clarification235
and hidden costs of296
and human resources management704–7
difficulties with706
merit pay system705
National Performance Review705
pay-for-performance705–7
performance appraisals706
and impact of280
and impact on resource allocation284–5
and incentives288–90
and information asymmetry287
and intergovernmental relations450–1
and limitations of293
and market-based reforms137–8
and nature of reforms279
and public sector knowledge networks477
and responses to:
compliance283–4
contracting288–90
cynicism284–5
gaming techniques288–90
goal-based learning291
passive strategy283–5
performance improvement290–1
perverse strategy288–90
political strategy285–7
purposeful strategy290–3
use of performance data for advocacy285–7
and social construction of performance data286
and use of performance information279, 291
demand for information291
fostering291
interest of elected officials292
involvement of agency leaders292–3
(p. 855) learning forums292
organizational culture291–2
subjectiveness of286–7
and value-based critique of293–5
counter-criticisms of295
neglected values294–5
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) (1996)263–4, 433, 464
personnel administration, see human resources management (HRM)
Philadelphia Municipal Research Bureau83, 90
picket-fence federalism53, 451
and first New Federalism65–6
and origins of55
Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS)153, 165, 743, 745
and goal clarification235
and performance management281
Points of Light Foundation428
policy analysts, and research approach14
policy implementation, see implementation
policymaking:
and fallibility of participants613
and information-processing theory of bureaucracy630–1
advantages of633–4
agenda-setting629–30
alternative specification628–9
bureaucratic influence626–7
delegation626
issue identification627–8
policy space625–6
selective attention627–8
and street-level bureaucracy260–1, 269–70, 272
policy reform, and first New Federalism era60–1
political appointees197
and administrative presidency553–4
political-bureaucratic relations:
and bureaucratic dominance188–9
and congressional dominance191–5, 210–11
and multi-institutional perspective197–9, 211
and role of legislature190–1
Political Risk Services International684
political science:
and fragmentation of53
and research approach12–13
political space37
politics:
and accountability571–2
and modernist perspective335
and postmodern perspective335–6
and public policy40
distributive policies41
redistributive policies41
regulatory policies41
and transformation of669
population ecology220–1
Postal Service39, 366
postmodernism:
and bureaucracy324
and challenge to bureaucracy329
culture332–3
politics335–6
psychology334
society329–31
and criticisms of337
‘anything goes’ criticism339–40
‘backfire’ criticism340–1
complicity with capitalism341–2
‘cui bono’ criticism341–2
‘dead babies’ criticism337–9
denial of objective reality337–9
embrace of relativism339–40
self-contradiction340–1
and deconstruction of reason328–9
and democracy342–3
and discourse328
and future research343–4
and language328, 334
and metaphysics of presence328, 337
and origins of325
and paradox340–1
and paradox of reason325
and perspectives on modernism326–7
and reason342
and vision of326
as attitude329
(p. 856) presidency:
and control of bureaucracy196–7
and interest group lobbying596–7
and limited constitutional powers102
and organizational effectiveness224
presidentializing of bureaucracy17, 19, 196–7
under Reagan111 see also administrative presidency
President's Committee on Administrative Management (PCAM), see Brownlow Committee
President's Management Agenda (2001)112–13, 165, 751
President's Volunteer Service Award428
principal-agent theory, see agency theory
prisons:
and contracting out of government services134
and racial composition of population272–3
Privacy Act (1974)116
private-public partnerships18 see also public-nonprofit partnerships
private sphere, and public sphere10
problematizing, and deconstruction329
problem solving620–1
professions, and growth of80
Program Assessment Rating Tool (PART)153, 558, 561, 743–4, 751–2
and goal clarification235
and performance management281–2, 284–5, 287
program budgeting744
progress, and Progressive Era81
Progressive Era:
and citizen roles84
and civil service reform82
democratic/elite tensions83
and criticism of concepts of77–8
and donor pressure on reform organizations91, 94
and efficiency82
democratic connotations83
meanings of82–3
women's embrace of88–9
and executive-centered administration105
and expertise80–1
definition of92
democratic/elite tensions83
and federal-level reforms80
and feminist perspective on78–9
and future research94–5
and gender identities85
and interest groups593–4
and male-dominated narrative of85
and progress81
and reform agenda80
and reform impulses166
and school board elections83–4
and scientific management81, 164–5
democracy81–2
women's perspective on88
and significance of77
and social science80–1
and state and local reforms80
and state building55
and tidetonic theory166–7
and women-centered reality:
characteristics of86–7
engaged research92–3
male affinity with92
and women's role in85–7
as educated elite88–9
care vs technique dichotomy89–92, 166
change in representation of91–2
efficiency88–9
shared outlook with men89–91
psychology:
and modernist perspective333
and postmodern perspective333
public administration:
and birth as academic field77
and borrowings from business349
and federalism447–8, 466
and feminist perspective on84
and market-based theory353
and Progressive Era77
and research approach13
(p. 857) public authorities, as hybrid organizations139–40
public choice school, and contracting out of government services398
Public Interest Research Groups594
public law, and nature of545, 591
public management, and research approach13
public-nonprofit partnerships422–3
and collaborations425–6
aggregative elements426
characteristics of successful432
competing institutional identities425
instability of430–1
institutional learning425
integrative elements426
justification criteria432
motives for431–2
outcomes analysis431
participation432
requirements for430
research findings on430–2
values426, 432
and future research436
alterations in power436–8
collective action problems441–2
diminution of public capacity438–9
goal displacement440–1
resource dependency439
and historical context of423–4
adversarial role424
civic republicanism424
classic American liberalism424
complementary role424
supplemental role423–4
and intergovernmental relations450
and leveraged volunteering428–9
criticism of434
research findings on434–5
scale of435
and partnering reluctance436
and social entrepreneurship426–8
benefits for government427–8
growth of interest in427
research findings on433–4
scaling for impact427
public policy:
and distributive policies41
and historical institutionalism40–3
and politics40
and race42–3
and redistributive policies41
and regulatory policies41
and research approach13–14
and welfare state41–2
public sector knowledge networks (PSKNs)474
and accountability492–3
and barriers to success478–9
and benefits of:
expectations of482–3
organizational476–7
political477
technical476
and bureaucratic environment475
and Center for Technology in Government research on474–5
and collaborative capacity487–8
and conditions for success480–1
and definition of475–6
and evaluative assessment491–2
and expectations of participants482–3
and expected outcome of476
and future research483–5
accountability492–3
collaborative capacity487–8
evaluative assessment491–2
governance493–4
internal constituency transaction costs486
international issues490
IT support487
lifecycles488–9
mission focus and outcomes486
problem targets491
types of PSKNs489–90
and governance493–4
and importance of individual participants473, 475
and information technologies480, 487
growth of475
and internal constituency transaction costs486
(p. 858) and international issues490
and leadership482
and legal authority482
and legitimacy of482
and lifecycles488–9
and longevity of network relationships483
and membership488–9
and mission focus and outcomes486
and mitigating adverse conditions for development of479–80
and network focus475
and organizational involvement level475
and performance measurement477
and political support482
and primary purpose473, 475
and problem targets491
and public program effectiveness475
and success criteria473, 476
and types of489–90
public service:
and impact of market-based reforms368–9
and motivation of bureaucrats559 see also ethics
public sphere, and private sphere10
public works, and congressional control of115
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)80
qualified immunity118–19
quasigovernmental organizations, see hybrid organizations
race:
and prison population composition272–3
and public policy42–3
and representative bureaucracy717, 721
and street-level bureaucracy268–9, 272–3
racial discrimination42–3
railroad regulation39
rational choice institutionalism208
and agency design and evolution:
congressional dominance210–11
limitations as explanation of211–12
multiple principal perspective211
and insights of209–10
individuals as units of analysis209
role of uncertainty and information210
significance of institutions209
rational choice models, and dominance of158
rational choice theory621–2
and neoclassical economics351
and problem solving620
rationality project7
Real ID Act (2005), and intergovernmental relations460–1
reason:
and paradox of325
and technical rationality768–9
rebound effects54
reciprocal effects54
Reconstruction, and impact of56
reflexivity, as metaphor for administrative reform132
contracting out of government services136
international regulation147
refugees773–4
Regulatory Flexibility Act (1980)116, 601, 604
regulatory policies141
and agency theory200
and hybrid organizations143–5
and international regulation145–7
and market-based regulatory mechanisms142–3
self-regulation142, 170
soft regulation143
as substitute for service provision144
reinventing government165
and market-based reforms349–50
and neoclassical economics353
relational contracting367–8, 403
relativity, as metaphor for administrative reform131–2
contracting out of government services137
(p. 859) religious revivalism163–4
remedial law118
Reporters Without Borders684
representative bureaucracy709
and accountability714–5
and active representation693, 697–8, 715
concerns over715
definition of718
and affirmative action698–700
and African-American representation698
and concerns addressed by:
accountability715
democratic legitimacy714
equal employment opportunities714
and diversity management700
and future research731–3
causal mechanisms732
competing identities733–4
critical mass of focal minorities732
definition of representativeness734
educational attainment of minorities734
expanding bureaucracies studies732
increase in characteristics considered733
nonprofit and for-profit organizations732
substantive effects of passive representation733
symbolic effects of passive representation733
and gays and lesbians698
and gender717, 721
and growth of research on716
and Hispanic representation698
and implications for bureaucratic values715
and link between active and passive representation:
causal mechanisms716, 723–5
critical mass of passive representation721–2
direct causal mechanism724
discretion719
generalizability of research727–8
indirect causal mechanisms724
intersectionality720–1
organizational context720
research findings on718–19
role orientation726
saliency719–20
stratification722
unit of analysis725–6
and minority representation697–8
and normative debates about:
bureaucratic efficiency730
partiality728–30
and partiality728–30
and passive representation697–8, 715
definition of717–18
and policy implementation716, 718–19
questions of bias728–30
and public response to716, 718, 726–7
and race/ethnicity717, 721
and symbolic representation722–3
and women's representation698
as normative theory714, 730–1
republican tradition10
research on American bureaucracy:
and aims of173–4
and American exceptionalism9–10
and behavioralism154–5
and bureaucratization of10–11
and career incentives158–9
and diachronic analysis156
and disciplinary antagonisms11–12
and fragmentation of12–14, 68
and future directions175
and limitations of statistical approaches157–8
and logical positivism157
and motives for historical research93–4
and neglect of big questions155
and neglect of longer-term factors156–7
and neglect of White's approach154–5
and ‘normal science’ model154
and privileging of present over past14–16
and Progressive Era94–5
and prominence of small-bore issues155
and questions asked by7–8
and rational choice models158
and rise and fall of ideas93
and short-term focus156
and synchronic analysis156
(p. 860) and tornado models156
and Weber's attitude towards8–9
resource dependency, and public-nonprofit partnerships439
risk-management, and market-based reforms140–1
road building, and judicial review582–3
Romanticism3
rulemaking:
and congressional efforts to control592
and growth of545, 591
and interest group influence592, 595
direct influence on rulemaking600
future research607–9
negotiated rulemaking606–7
notice-and-comment stage604–6
pre-proposal stage603–4
regulatory agenda-setting stage602–3
sue-and-settle strategy595
through Congress597–9
through the judiciary597
through the presidency596–7
and judicial review577–81, 592
deference to agency interpretations578
impact on rulemaking579
passive restraints in automobiles579–80
procedural questions578
and presidential efforts to control592
and process of600–1
saliency, and representative bureaucracy719–20
Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2002)779
Savings and Loan crisis171
school board elections, and Progressive Era83–4
scientific management60, 786
and democracy81–2
and efficiency82
and executive-centered administration105–6
and Progressive Era81, 164–5
and women's role in movement86, 88
Securities and Exchange Commission146, 706–7
Seguro Popular de Salud (Universal Health Insurance) (Mexico)802
self-interest:
and collaboration425
and contract design309
and market theory350–1
and new institutionalism209
and organizational change224–5
self-regulation170
and market-based regulatory mechanisms142–3
Senior Executive Service (SES)110, 553–4
separation of powers, and executive-centered administration122–3
settlement houses86, 88
Sheppard Towner Act (1918)66
Sherman Act (1890)56
signing statements:
and administrative presidency550–1
and Bush's use of120–1, 550–1
and definition of120
and implementation difficulties551
Simpson's Paradox652
single loop learning310
social choice theory192
and bureaucratic structure640
chaos theorems646–7
elements of641
impossibility of neutral hierarchy650
impossibility theorem649–50
information aggregation in hierarchies651–3
inheritance thesis644–5
Pareto-optimal structures641–4
unrealistic design aspirations648–50
social constructivism620–1
social entrepreneurship:
and definition of426
and public-nonprofit partnerships426–8
benefits for government427–8
growth of interest in427
research findings on433–4
scaling for impact427
social movements, and growth of administrative state40
social science, and Progressive Era80–1
Social Security758
(p. 861) Social Security Administration40, 575
society, and bureaucracy:
modernist perspective329–30
postmodern perspective330–1
soft regulation143
standing, law of597
state, the:
and autonomy of36
and definition of35
and development of state institutions36–7
sequence37
and nature of35–6
as independent actor36 see also administrative state
state building:
and first New Federalism:
intergovernmental policy64–7
nationalization of policy65–6
and intergovernmental bureaucracy, intellectual and institutional roots62–7
states:
and additional responsibilities453
and first New Federalism:
intergovernmental policy65–6
nationalization of policy65–6
and performance management281
and policy innovation456
and scholarly neglect of68
and unfunded mandates755–7
in nineteenth-century58–60
administrative structures59
bureaucratic reform60
economic development58–9
limitations on59
policy reform60–1
reforms58
role of58
varied capacities of59–60 see also intergovernmental relations (IGR)
Stat movement292
stipend volunteers, see leveraged volunteering
stratification, and representative bureaucracy722
street-level bureaucracy theory (SLBT):
and administrative presidency554
and autonomy259–60
priorities260
resource allocation260
and core insight of253
and current debates over261
and definition, expansion of262–3
and discretion253, 258–9, 265
abuse of265–6, 274
control of265, 274
creaming259
cultural identity269
factors influencing259
gender268
group identities267–8
identifying patterns of266–9
identity based judgments267
impact of contracting out263–4
influence of norms and culture265–6
lack of control over259
practice ideologies267
socialization267–8
social status269
work structure266–7
and discretion/rule-based implementation distinction253, 258, 271
and features of work situation:
as ultimate policymakers260–1
frontline status of workers255–6
inherent discretion258–9
irreducible autonomy259–60
people processing256–8
worker-client relationship256–7
and foundational works of254
and future research270–1
agency271–2
beyond false dichotomies271
policymaking role272–3
and impact of252–3
and organizational context of frontline work254–5
changes in263–4
contracting out of government services263–4
and origins of252
and policymaking260–1, 269–70, 272
(p. 862) and traditional views of frontline staff252–3
Studies in American Political Development35
Supreme Court:
and affirmative action699–700
and impact of composition of708–9
and judicial review:
administrative adjudication574–7
administrative rulemaking577–81
informal administrative action581–4
and public employee rights702, 704
liability for constitutional torts703–4
patronage dismissals703
and regulation of executive104–5
Board of Regents of State College v Roth (1972)702
Branti v Finkel (1980)703
Chevron USA, Inc v Natural Resources Defense Council (1984)578
Citizens to Preserve Overton Park, Inc v Volpe (1971)581–3
City of Richmond v J A Croson Co (1989)699
Elrod v Burns (1976)703
Environmental Defense Fund v Thomas (1986)581
Garcetti v Ceballos (2006)702, 704
Gratz v Bollinger (2003)699
Grutter v Bollinger (2003)699
Hamdi v Rumsfeld (2004)105
Harlow v Fitzgerald (1982)119
in first New Federalism era63
Kendall v US (1838)101, 120
Lochner v New York (1905)63
Lujan v Defenders of Wildlife (1992)118
Mathews v Eldridge (1976)575
Morrison v Olson (1988)104, 120
Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the USA, Inc v State Farm Mutual Automobile
Insurance, Co (1983)579–80
Munn v Illinois (1877)63
surveillance systems256
symbolic representation, and representative bureaucracy722–3
tax expenditure, and budgeting753–5
technical rationality768–9
and backlash against772
and ethical failings within context of771–2
tectonic shift metaphor, as metaphor for administrative reform153
tectonic shifts, as metaphor for administrative reform129–31
contracting out of government services134–5
international regulation146–7
performance measurement138
regulatory policies143–5
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families464–5
Tennessee Valley Authority140
Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System (TVAAS)513
theory:
and characteristics of useful182
and role of181–2
thick description, and historical institutionalism34
third-party government:
and backlash against685
and centralization/decentralization452
and governance674–6
tides of reform, as metaphor for administrative reform129–31, 153
contracting out of government services134
performance measurement138
tidetonic theory, and administrative reform movements:
basics of162–3
context and contingencies166–72
associationalism167–71
New Deal169
Progressive Era166–7
historical-structural mismatches163–6
interpretive effects172–3
(p. 863) Total Quality Management281
transaction cost analysis366–7
transaction cost economics209
Transportation Security Administration (TSA)135–6
Troubled Asset Relief Program760
trust, and declining levels of774
ultimatum games, and experimental research795, 806
uncertainty, and rational choice institutionalism210
unfunded mandates755–7
Unfunded Mandates Reform Act (1995)453, 550, 757
unitary executive theory102
and Bush's assertion of powers120–2
signing statements120–1
and executive-centered administration119–20
United Kingdom:
and contracting out of government services402
and governance677
and ownership of American debt761
and performance management294
and value-added modeling513
United Nations146
Universal Postal Union146
universities8–9
and bureaucratization of10–11
urbanization, and impact of57, 79
US Agency for International Development (USAID)134, 139, 170
USA Patriot Improvement and Reauthorization Act (2005)121
value-added modeling513
value systems7
venue changing161, 173, 595
visible hand of managerial hierarchies350
and application to public management363–5
democratic accountability364–5
and Chandler355–6
and future research365
blended workforces365–6
public-spiritedness368–9
relational contracting367–8
transaction cost analysis366–7
and Simon's World of Organizations and Markets360–3
and Williamson's Markets and Hierarchies356–9
Volcker Commission on Public Service132, 695–6, 707
voluntary sector, see leveraged volunteering
Wal-Mart137
War on Poverty32
welfare administration:
and nature of28–9
and regulation of the poor29
welfare reform, and sanctioning rates503–4
welfare state:
and development of41–2
and maternalist welfare state42
welfare-to-work programs507–8
White House Office (WHO)107–8
White House Office of Social Innovation and Civic Participation428
wicked problems632–3
Winter Commission696, 707
women:
and Progressive Era:
as educated elite88–9
care vs technique dichotomy89–92
change in representation of91–2
embrace of efficiency88–9
role in85–7
shared outlook with men89–91
and scientific management movement86, 88
and welfare state development42 see also gender
women-centered reality:
and characteristics of86–7
and definition of84
and Progressive Era:
engaged research92–3
(p. 864) male-female affinity with92
Workforce Investment Act (1998)512
World Bank146, 672, 683–4
World Customs Union146
World Economic Forum684
World Intellectual Property Organization146
World Trade Organization146, 170
Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)684
youth training, and earnings trajectories505–6
zero-based budgeting165, 281, 743–4