- the oxford handbooks of American Politics
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- A Heritage Made Our Own
- Historical Institutionalism, Political Development, and the Study of American Bureaucracy
- The “First New Federalism” and the Development of the Administrative State, 1883–1929
- A Gendered Legacy?: The Progressive Reform Era Revisited
- Reevaluating Executive‐Centered Public Administrative Theory
- Metaphors and the Development of American Bureaucracy
- Herbert Hoover's Revenge: Politics, Policy, and Administrative Reform Movements
- Agency Theory and the Bureaucracy
- Agency Design and Evolution
- Goal Ambiguity and the Study of American Bureaucracy
- Street‐Level Bureaucracy Theory
- The Promises and Paradoxes of Performance‐Based Bureaucracy
- Leading Through Cultural Change
- Postmodernism, Bureaucracy, and Democracy
- Myths, Markets, and the <i>Visible Hand</i> of American Bureaucracy
- Networking in the Shadow of Bureaucracy
- The Promises, Performance, and Pitfalls of Government Contracting
- Reluctant Partners?: Nonprofit Collaboration, Social Entrepreneurship, and Leveraged Volunteerism
- Policy Tools, Mandates, and Intergovernmental Relations
- Promises, Perils, and Performance of Netcentric Bureaucracy
- Multilevel Methods in the Study of Bureaucracy
- Legislative Delegation of Authority to Bureaucratic Agencies
- “Presidentializing” the Bureaucracy
- Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Judicial Review
- Interest Groups, Rulemaking, and American Bureaucracy
- Policymaking, Bureaucratic Discretion, and Overhead Democracy
- Choice‐Theoretic Approaches to Bureaucratic Structure
- Has Governance Eclipsed Government?
- Revitalizing Human Resources Management
- Representative Bureaucracy
- Innovations in Budgeting and Financial Management
- The Prospects for Revitalizing Ethics in a New Governance Era
- Experimental Methods, Agency Incentives, and the Study of Bureaucratic Behavior
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This article first outlines the major indirect sources and pathways of influence that interest groups use outside and within the administrative process to influence agency rulemaking. After reviewing the growth and changing nature of interest groups following and involved in rulemaking in Washington, it presents brief synopses of the avenues of influence available to them — presidency, the courts, and the Congress. A discussion of the more direct avenues for interest group influence is also presented, affording an overview of the rulemaking process. The four major opportunities for interest group participation and influence in the rulemaking process are reported: the agenda-setting stage, the pre-proposal stage, the notice-and-comment stage, and regulatory negotiation. It further offers an explanation of what is seen as the most profitable principles to apply in future research on this vastly understudied yet vital topic in American bureaucracy.
Cornelius Kerwin is President of American University and Professor of Public Administration and Policy in its School of Public Affairs. He is the founder of American University's Center for the Study of Rulemaking.
Scott R. Furlong is Dean of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and Professor of Public and Environmental Affairs and Political Science, University of Wisconsin–Green Bay.
William West is Professor and Sara Lindsey Chair in the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University.
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