- the oxford handbooks of American Politics
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- A Heritage Made Our Own
- Historical Institutionalism, Political Development, and the Study of American Bureaucracy
- The “First New Federalism” and the Development of the Administrative State, 1883–1929
- A Gendered Legacy?: The Progressive Reform Era Revisited
- Reevaluating Executive‐Centered Public Administrative Theory
- Metaphors and the Development of American Bureaucracy
- Herbert Hoover's Revenge: Politics, Policy, and Administrative Reform Movements
- Agency Theory and the Bureaucracy
- Agency Design and Evolution
- Goal Ambiguity and the Study of American Bureaucracy
- Street‐Level Bureaucracy Theory
- The Promises and Paradoxes of Performance‐Based Bureaucracy
- Leading Through Cultural Change
- Postmodernism, Bureaucracy, and Democracy
- Myths, Markets, and the <i>Visible Hand</i> of American Bureaucracy
- Networking in the Shadow of Bureaucracy
- The Promises, Performance, and Pitfalls of Government Contracting
- Reluctant Partners?: Nonprofit Collaboration, Social Entrepreneurship, and Leveraged Volunteerism
- Policy Tools, Mandates, and Intergovernmental Relations
- Promises, Perils, and Performance of Netcentric Bureaucracy
- Multilevel Methods in the Study of Bureaucracy
- Legislative Delegation of Authority to Bureaucratic Agencies
- “Presidentializing” the Bureaucracy
- Bureaucracy, Democracy, and Judicial Review
- Interest Groups, Rulemaking, and American Bureaucracy
- Policymaking, Bureaucratic Discretion, and Overhead Democracy
- Choice‐Theoretic Approaches to Bureaucratic Structure
- Has Governance Eclipsed Government?
- Revitalizing Human Resources Management
- Representative Bureaucracy
- Innovations in Budgeting and Financial Management
- The Prospects for Revitalizing Ethics in a New Governance Era
- Experimental Methods, Agency Incentives, and the Study of Bureaucratic Behavior
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This article first presents a brief overview of the major types of multilevel statistical models. It reviews two major approaches to multilevel modeling available to researchers today: cross-sectional and longitudinal. It describes the case for their theoretical and conceptual value in the study of American bureaucracy and their potential technical advantages over more conventional approaches to statistical estimation of relationships in governmental systems. Next, the methodological critiques and limitations of multilevel modeling techniques are addressed. In particular, three of the major methodological critiques of multilevel models are explained: the causal inference problem, the argument that these models offer no net advantage, and cross-discipline transferability critiques. Finally, the article determines some of the most promising avenues for the future application of multilevel models. These include their use to promote more effective accountability systems by emphasizing performance analysis, to improve modeling of interorganizational relationships, and to investigate cross-level relationships.
Carolyn J. Heinrich is Director of the La Follette School of Public Affairs, Professor of Public Affairs, and Affiliated Professor of Economics at the University of Wisconsin‐Madison.
Carolyn J. Hill is Associate Professor of Public Policy in the Georgetown Public Policy Institute at Georgetown University.
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