- The Oxford Handbooks of American Politics
- List of Figures And Table
- About the Contributors
- Quantitative Approaches to Studying the Presidency
- Game Theory and the Study of the American Presidency
- Historical Institutionalism, Political Development, and the Presidency
- Presidential Transitions
- Presidents and the Political Agenda
- Public Expectations of the President
- Presidential Responsiveness to Public Opinion
- Leading the Public
- Understanding the Rhetorical Presidency
- Public Evaluations of Presidents
- The Presidency and the Mass Media
- The President and Congressional Parties in an Era of Polarization
- Legislative Skills
- Presidential Approval as a Source of Influence in Congress
- The Presidential Veto
- The Consequences of Divided Government
- Connecting Interest Groups to the Presidency
- Going Alone: The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action
- Prerogative Power and Presidential Politics
- Assessing the Unilateral Presidency
- Organizational Structure and Presidential Decision Making
- Influences on Presidential Decision Making
- The Psychology of Presidential Decision Making
- Presidential Agendas, Administrative Strategies, and the Bureaucracy
- The Presidency–Bureaucracy Nexus: Examining Competence and Responsiveness
- Nominating Federal Judges and Justices
- Judicial Checks on the President
- Presidents, Domestic Politics, and the International Arena
- Presidents and International Cooperation
- War's Contributions to Presidential Power
- The Paradigm of Development in Presidential History
- Whose Presidency Is This Anyhow?
- Political Scientists and the Public Law Tradition
- The Study of Presidential Leadership
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This article explores the president's emergence as a ‘representative’. It also presents different definitions of representation and examines research into the modern definition of presidential representativeness — the president's responsiveness to public opinion. A number of complications that studies of responsiveness face is emphasized, including the questions of whether citizens even possess ‘real preferences’, what specific aspects of preferences leaders respond to, whose preferences they consider, and whether citizens' preferences merely reflect those of elites. In addition, the article outlines the five major and exemplary bodies of research that investigate the extent and nature of presidential representation. Presidential representation varies across dimensions and levels of salience. It is much more complicated, multidimensional, and dynamic than investigations of whether the public's policy preferences align with the president's policies capture.
James N. Druckman is Payson S. Wild Professor of Political Science and a Faculty Fellow at the Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University.
Lawrence R. Jacobs is the Walter F. and Joan Mondale Chair for Political Studies and Director of the Center for the Study of Politics and Governance in the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute and the Department of Political Science at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Jacobs has published dozens of articles and 14 books and edited volumes including The Oxford Handbook of American Public Opinion and the Media (co-edited with Robert Y. Shapiro) and Talking Together: Public Deliberation in America and the Search for Community (with Fay Lomax Cook, and Michael Delli Carpini). Dr. Jacobs co-edits the “Chicago Series in American Politics” for the University of Chicago Press.
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