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date: 22 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article starts by discussing the growth of presidential studies. The modern presidency that was said to be represented by FDR did not generate the growth of presidential studies. There were also more substantive concerns driving the growth of presidential studies. The three currents of research are described. The first scholarly current focuses on a president's personal influence. The second strand of mainstream emphasizes presidential unilateralism. A third research current has emphasized the contingent relationship of presidential leadership to the array of political forces in different time periods. ‘Formality’ that has not been corrupted into formalism is a mark of respect. As research on the presidency has grown exponentially, the performance of presidents has, if anything, deteriorated.

Keywords: presidential studies, presidency, American president, personal influence, presidential unilateralism, presidential leadership, formalism

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