- The Oxford Handbooks of American Politics
- List of Figures And Table
- About the Contributors
- Quantitative Approaches to Studying the Presidency
- Game Theory and the Study of the American Presidency
- Historical Institutionalism, Political Development, and the Presidency
- Presidential Transitions
- Presidents and the Political Agenda
- Public Expectations of the President
- Presidential Responsiveness to Public Opinion
- Leading the Public
- Understanding the Rhetorical Presidency
- Public Evaluations of Presidents
- The Presidency and the Mass Media
- The President and Congressional Parties in an Era of Polarization
- Legislative Skills
- Presidential Approval as a Source of Influence in Congress
- The Presidential Veto
- The Consequences of Divided Government
- Connecting Interest Groups to the Presidency
- Going Alone: The Presidential Power of Unilateral Action
- Prerogative Power and Presidential Politics
- Assessing the Unilateral Presidency
- Organizational Structure and Presidential Decision Making
- Influences on Presidential Decision Making
- The Psychology of Presidential Decision Making
- Presidential Agendas, Administrative Strategies, and the Bureaucracy
- The Presidency–Bureaucracy Nexus: Examining Competence and Responsiveness
- Nominating Federal Judges and Justices
- Judicial Checks on the President
- Presidents, Domestic Politics, and the International Arena
- Presidents and International Cooperation
- War's Contributions to Presidential Power
- The Paradigm of Development in Presidential History
- Whose Presidency Is This Anyhow?
- Political Scientists and the Public Law Tradition
- The Study of Presidential Leadership
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This article summarizes recent research that endogenizes and contextualizes the aspects of the political and economic environment that drive presidential approval and determines the important questions that should motivate future research. It then proceeds by discussing the forces that shape approval and ways in which polarization, changes in the media market, and the post-9/11 context may alter their impact. Additionally, it explains the roots of these forces themselves, showing how these forces depend on competition among political actors, including the president, and the media environment in which this competition occurs. The proliferation of media outlets poses significant challenges to the executive branch's ability to set the news agenda. Heterogeneity across groups can influence approval in two ways, via different perceptions of political and economic conditions and via the different impacts of those conditions. Presidents may be advantaged in competitions over the criteria by which they are evaluated.
Paul Gronke is Professor of Political Science, Reed College.
Brian Newman is Assistant Professor of Political Science, Pepperdine University.
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