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date: 22 November 2019

(p. 1143) Index

(p. 1143) Index

a posteriori (see a priori/a posteriori distinction)
a priori, 228, 233–4, 243, 252, 286 (see also modality)
a priori/a posteriori distinction, 20, 51, 227–8, 234, 236–7, 523, 606–7, 1045–6
Bolzano’s critique, 233–4, 236
in Kant, 20, 227, 246, 252
principles of science, 268, 272
absolute, the, 383–6, 389, 396
abstraction, 385–7
principle of, 419–20
Achilles and the tortoise, 465
Ackermann, Robert, 119
acquaintance (see knowledge, by acquaintance; Russell, on acquaintance)
act–object relation, 948, 950, 952, 954, 956, 958, 960, 962, 965
action, 689–707
intentional, 581, 690–4, 704–6
involuntary, 695
primitive, 704–6
Adorno, Theodor W., 98
aesthetics, 770–90
aesthetics/philosophy of art distinction, 772
analytic, 17, 770–90
autographic vs. allographic art forms, 782–3
autonomists vs. ethicists, 789–90
concept of art, 773
continental, 771
distinction between aesthetic and non-aesthetic concepts, 775
intentionalism, 780–1
literary fictions, 777–9
process view of art, 784–5
singular vs. multiple art forms, 782–3
taste, 775–6
theory of pictorial representation, 776–7
truth in art, 786
Ajdukiewicz, Kazimierz, 61, 73, 85, 91, 93, 111
Alexander, Samuel, 61, 69, 74, 83, 85, 95, 962
Ambrose, Alice, 116
Ammerman, Robert, 111
analysis, 7–8, 10–12, 25–6, 436, 920–1, 1009
conceptual, 8, 26, 799–800
connective, 943
of consciousness, 434
decompositional, 7–8, 10, 26, 398
and definition, 412
dissolving philosophical questions, 299
explication, 411
function–argument, 18, 291
interpretive (see analysis, transformative)
linguistic, 281
logical, 7, 25, 443, 446
of matter, 13
in Moore’s philosophy, 432, 439–40, 956
naïve, 1027–8, 1033
paradox of, 438
philosophical, 446–7
of space, time and matter, 420
transformative, 11, 25–6, 407, 920
analyticity, 247, 557, 605, 607, 616, 618, 635, 1056, 1073 (see also modality)
analytic/synthetic distinction, 20, 246, 523, 596, 606–7, 615, 944, 1045–6
and apriority, 609, 1062–3
Ayer’s conception, 528, 532
Bolzano’s criticism of Kant, 10
in Frege’s logicism, 596, 1045
Kant’s notion, 56–7
and necessity, 606, 1044, 1047, 1057–8, 1062, 1072–4
relative, 1060–1, 1070, 1072
in Tractatus, 1054
Vienna Circle’s notion, 299
(p. 1144) Anderson, John, 61, 74, 88–9, 110, 722
Anscombe, G. E. M., 18, 61, 85, 97, 99, 106–7, 116, 134, 581, 698–701
on causalist picture of action, 691, 698–701, 705–6
on context principle, 881–2
on formal concepts, 896
on Frege’s influence on Wittgenstein, 874
on the identity thesis, 699
on the picture theory, 875, 877, 880, 883, 885, 893–4
on signs and symbols, 884
on Tractatus, 51, 870–4, 876, 879–80, 886, 895, 901
on utilitarianism, 737, 753
and virtue ethics, 754–5, 757, 759
anti-individualism, 372–9
antinomy of the point, 387–8
argument from illusion, 966, 968 (see also sense-data)
Aristotelian Society, 73, 949, 952–3
Aristotle, 248, 285, 355, 767, 785–6, 1005
arithmetic, 9, 33, 282, 327–8, 330, 339–40, 342, 360, 387–90, 400, 418–9, 524, 555, 1029 (see also Frege, Foundations of Arithmetic; logicism; mathematics)
arithmetization, 324
axioms of, 555, 1030
equations, 578
numbers, 375, 417, 1028
realism (see realism, arithmetical)
Armstrong, David, 61, 88, 114, 120, 135, 638, 640, 690, 722, 979, 1130, 1136
atomism (see logical atomism)
Austin, J. L., 19, 45–6, 62, 81, 99, 101, 103–4, 109, 115, 118, 127, 139, 382, 496–506, 514–15
criticism of Ayer, 968–9
on evidence for a belief, 501–2
and Frege, 50, 376
on language, 491–2, 496–8, 500, 505–6, 514, 718, 942
on meaning of ‘know’, 501–3
and Oxford philosophy, 13–14, 318, 685
on phenomenology of language, 718
Sense and Sensibilia, 421, 968
on word ‘real’, 301–2
Auxier, Randall E., 137, 139
awareness, 951, 954, 956, 962, 968, 970 (see also perception)
direct, 951–4, 956, 962, 964–5, 968
Awodey, Steve, 136
axiom of choice, 335, 343, 345, 415, 547, 551
axiomatic approach (see logic, axiomatic approach)
axioms, 550–1, 564–5
Ayer, A. J., 14, 62, 80, 91, 94–6, 102, 105, 108, 114, 116, 118, 120–1, 123, 125, 127, 514, 528, 810, 1104
on ethical statements, 802
Language, Truth and Logic, 526, 717, 733–4, 1055
and logical positivism, 26, 507, 513–14, 526, 529, 1127
on Peirce’s pragmatic maxim, 1104
on phenomenalism, 527
and political philosophy, 796
on scientific explanation of human behaviour, 810
on sense-data, 966
Bachmann, C. F., 291
Baghramian, Maria, 617
Baillie, James, 131
Baker, Gordon P., 9, 14, 52–3, 122, 124–5, 136, 587
Baldwin, Thomas, 16, 31, 54, 127, 133, 135–6, 394, 398, 437
Barry, Brian, 112
Barthes, Roland, 781
Barwise, Jon, 123
Bauch, Bruno, 81, 280, 287, 548
Beaney, Michael, 25, 52, 131, 135–7, 140, 398, 589, 657, 800, 867, 1020, 1127
Beard, Robert W., 112
Beardsley, Monroe C., 99, 779–80, 786–7, 789, 792
Bedeutung, 358–9, 367–8, 657–62, 665, 685 (see also Frege, Bedeutung)
Begriff sschrift (concept-script), 281–2, 549, 825–7, 835, 907, 1018–19 (see also Frege, Begriffsschrift)
behaviourism, 601, 626, 628–31, 634–6, 647–8, 690–1, 967, 970
(p. 1145) analytic, 621
analytic vs. synthetic, 629–30
logical, 621–52, 696
belief(s) (see also judgement(s); knowledge; proposition(s))
evidence for, 502–3
referentially transparent/opaque, 600
Bell, Andrew, 127
Bell, David, 127
Benacerraf, Paul, 111, 118, 326, 336, 338, 418
Bennett, Jonathan, 112
Bentham, Jeremy, 42, 68, 304–5, 751, 799–801, 805, 809, 863, 865, 944
Bergmann, Gustav, 19, 62, 79, 89, 95, 97, 104, 108, 126, 722, 926–9, 937
Bergson, Henri, 62, 69, 75–6, 78, 97, 104
Berlin, Isaiah, 62, 80, 106, 118, 132, 796, 806–7, 809, 811, 818
Berlin Society for Empirical Philosophy, 520, 525, 529–32, 537, 547, 935
Biletzki, Anat, 132
Black, Max, 45, 62, 85, 93, 95, 97, 99, 102, 111, 126, 446
Blackburn, Simon, 125, 129, 132, 738, 742, 744–5
Blanshard, Brand, 110
Block, Ned, 120–2
Blumberg, Albert, 91
Bocheński, J. M., 100
Boltzmann, Ludwig, 62, 68, 70, 74, 79, 275
Bolzano, Bernard, 10, 62, 67–9, 115, 227–48, 520
Boole, George, 62, 67–9, 284, 835–49
Bosanquet, Bernard, 318, 384, 393, 778, 798, 800, 806, 816
Bradden-Mitchell, David, 138
Braithwaite, R. B., 62, 77, 103–4, 128, 799
Brandom, Robert, 20, 62, 102, 130, 134, 138, 587, 1059, 1082–3, 1089–95
Brandt, Richard, 107, 118, 121, 753
Brentano, Franz, 32, 62, 68, 70–2, 77, 83, 246, 399, 1118–19, 1121–3, 1127, 1129, 1136–7
Brink, David, 127
British idealism (see idealism, British)
Broad, C. D., 12, 62, 72, 81–2, 85–7, 90, 92, 104, 117, 443–4, 730, 965
Brouwer, L. E. J., 62, 71, 79–81, 84–5, 88–9, 99, 104, 113, 339, 551, 1004
Budd, Malcolm, 777, 789
Burge, Tyler, 62, 121, 125, 136–8, 587, 594, 623–4, 907, 1050
Burgess, John, 1017, 1021, 1070
Cambridge School of Analysis, 13, 22, 26, 430–6, 444
Campbell, Richard, 128
Candlish, Stewart, 31, 56, 137, 691
Canfield, John V., 126
canonical notation (Quine), 915–16
Cantor, Georg, 62, 68, 70, 72–3, 84, 332–4, 338, 416, 550, 564, 1029
Carl, Wolfgang, 130
Carnap, Rudolf, 14, 20, 26, 39, 43–4, 59, 62, 74, 80, 82, 86–9, 91–4, 96–7, 99–103, 110, 116, 127–8, 130, 132, 136–8, 312, 521, 526, 548–9, 566, 1071, 1132
on analytic/synthetic distinction, 15, 558, 596, 606, 944
Aufb au, 527–8, 532, 533, 970, 1131, 1133
and behaviourism, 626–7, 631–5, 637–42
on ethics, 1109
on explication, 411, 418–9, 426, 1033, 1059
on formalist logic of science, 537–8, 552
on Heidegger, 717
on language, 562, 716
on linguistic incommensurability, 525
on logic, 276, 550, 552, 556–7, 567, 715, 931, 936, 1131, 1134
and logical positivism, 363, 622, 626–7
on logical semantics, 721, 937
Logical Syntax of Language, 524, 528, 561, 563, 719
on logically perfect language, 909, 914, 1086
on metaphysics, 286, 562, 566, 914, 927, 1056, 1058, 1131
on modality, 1044, 1055, 1058–60, 1070
and neo-Kantianism, 530
on objectivity, 533, 539
and ontological neutralism, 309
and politics, 796
(p. 1146) principle of tolerance, 913–15
on pseudo-object sentences, 1057, 1069
on rational reconstructions, 535
on rationality, 1058–9
on realism, 531
on reduction of mathematics, 1056
on rules of inference, 628–9
Untersuchungen zur Allgemeinen Axiomatik, 553, 555
and Vienna Circle, 536–7, 644
Carritt, E. F., 730, 801
Carroll, Lewis, 69, 75
Carroll, Noël, 789
Cartesian cogito, 259
Cartesian myth, 866–8
Carus, A. W., 127
Case, Thomas, 40, 62, 68, 73, 80, 88, 950–1
Cassirer, Ernst, 62, 71, 74–5, 77–8, 80, 84, 86, 92–3, 97–9
categorical imperative, 758
categories, 259
dynamic, 261
Caton, Charles E., 110
causality, 252, 257–8, 261, 268, 390–1
causal account of reference, 604
causal concepts, justification of, 259
causal dependencies, 253, 257
causal relations, 232, 238–9, 252
causalism, 689–707
deviant causal chains, 374, 705–6
mental, 698
Cavell, Stanley, 62, 88, 104, 106, 111, 115, 121, 139, 588, 1012
Chalmers, David, 130, 1136
Chappell, Vere, 111
Charlesworth, Maxwell John, 108
Chisholm, Roderick, 23, 62, 83, 105–6, 112, 119, 122, 133, 629, 642, 970, 1129
Chomsky, Noam, 62, 89, 106, 367, 610–11, 944
chronometry, 253–6, 264
Church, Alonzo, 62, 78, 90, 94, 97, 105, 114, 130, 357, 438, 562, 1017, 1033, 1065–6
Churchland, Patricia, 125
Churchland, Paul M., 121
Clarke, Thompson, 117, 119, 132, 984–7
classes (see set theory)
Cocchiarella, Nino, 126
Coffa, Alberto, 54, 128, 289, 327, 1133–4
cognition, 965–7, 970 (see also knowledge; perception)
cognitivism, 313, 730
Cohen, Hermann, 70, 120, 125, 263
Coliva, Annalisa, 139, 996
Collingwood, R. G., 33, 42, 62, 71, 73, 92–3, 96, 98–9, 436, 690, 718, 771
colour exclusion problem, 575
common sense, 20, 25–6, 311, 440, 949, 956, 958, 961, 967, 978–9, 1006–7, 1026
Conant, James, 12, 134, 452, 482, 584, 907
concepts, 7, 232–3, 252, 607, 898
concept/object distinction, 833 (see also Frege, function/object distinction)
as constituents of propositions, 397
formation of, 283–4
knowledge of, 377
simple, 242
sortal, 290
thick, 743
conceptual scheme, 915–17, 941, 943
conditionals, 445
consciousness, 21, 33, 47, 308, 312, 435, 725, 751, 950–2, 954, 962, 967, 1119–25, 1128–39
self-consciousness, 53, 60, 1090, 1136
contextual definition, 25, 409, 411, 414–5
contextualism, 117, 128–9, 382, 685, 984–7
continental philosophy, 49–50, 315, 588, 786, 813, 817, 1120
contingent a priori truths, 704 (see also a priori)
conventionalism, 274, 276, 301
Cooper, Neil, 127
Copi, Irving M., 112
Copleston, F. C., 112
Cornforth, Maurice, 93, 446–8
Cornman, James W., 114, 116
Corrado, Michael, 119
Corrandini, Antonella, 137
Craig, Edward, 132
Crane, Tim, 134
(p. 1147) Crary, Alice, 133
Creath, Richard, 137
criterion of identity, 375
Dancy, Jonathan, 129, 741
Danto, Arthur, 112, 114, 118, 772, 774
Darwin, Charles, 62, 67, 69, 72
Davidson, Donald, 15–17, 23, 45, 51, 62, 83, 102, 110, 113, 115, 117–18, 121, 124, 126, 133, 135–6, 661–7, 689–91, 701–7
on causalism, 689, 691, 699, 701, 703, 705–6
on contingent a priori truth, 704
critique of Frege, 657, 662–3, 665–6
on physicalist realism, 690
on reasons for actions, 702
on semantic creativity, 667
on supervenience, 640
Truth and Meaning, 739
and truth-conditional theory of meaning, 562, 586, 661
Davies, David, 805
Dedekind, Richard, 62, 68–70, 73, 83, 324, 328–30, 550, 1023–32
deducibility, 239, 246
deduction (see logic)
dogmatic, 259
psychological, 259
spatio-temporal, 252
deductive reasoning, 251
Deleuze, Gilles, 62, 88, 114–15, 117, 128, 130–1
Demopoulos, William, 130
Dennett, Daniel, 62, 97, 111–12, 115–17, 120, 126, 128, 587, 647, 651
denotation, 230, 368–9, 376, 410–11 (see also meaning; sense/reference distinction)
denoting phrases, 411
DeRose, Keith, 129
Derrida, Jacques, 62, 90, 114, 117
descriptions, theory of (see Russell, theory of descriptions; theory of descriptions)
of actions, 698–9
descriptivism, 595, 603
Dewey, John, 20, 63, 69, 87, 93, 103, 771, 800, 1108–10
Diamond, Cora, 12, 54, 121, 128, 277, 452, 479, 883, 907, 1006, 1053
Dickie, George, 794
Dilthey, Wilhelm, 63, 68, 72, 74, 81
disjunctivism, 498–9
division of linguistic labour, 605
dogmatism, 991–3
Donnellan, Keith, 112, 374
doubt, 982–4, 992, 997–8 (see also scepticism)
Dreben, Burton, 63, 89, 102–3, 128, 133, 340
Dretske, Fred, 115, 122, 126, 130, 970
Driver, Julia, 800
dualism, 311, 621, 623, 640, 690, 696, 706, 718 (see also philosophy of mind)
Duhem, Pierre, 69, 79, 83
Duncan-Jones, A. E., 95, 430, 734
Durant, Will, 88
Dworkin, Ronald, 120, 122, 807, 812
Edwards, Paul, 113
ego, 950–1, 960
knowing subject, 957
perceiving subject, 949, 957
Einstein, Albert, 63, 71, 78, 82, 92, 104, 266, 272, 524, 565
eliminativism, 647, 757, 969, 1044
Elton, William, 48, 104, 770–1, 775
elucidation, 18, 20, 25, 31, 35–6, 57, 893, 900, 903, 1019–21
emotivism, 17, 734–5 (see also ethics)
empiricism, 381–2, 519–20
logical (see logical positivism)
Engels, Friedrich, 63, 68, 75
entitlement, 997, 1089–90
epistemic circularity, 988–9
epistemic externalism, 19, 994–6
epistemology, 16, 19, 262, 271, 538 (see also knowledge; scepticism)
epoché (bracketing), 1132
essentialism, 1070–6
Etchemendy, John, 127, 247
ethics, 729–47, 750–69
American naturalism, 741
analytic school, 312
cognitivism, 730
consequentialism, 752, 761–7
duty, 757
(p. 1148) epistemology of, 730
expressivism, 742
hedonism, 751
Kant’s golden rule, 736–7
meta-ethics, 17, 729–47
metaphysical quietism, 730
monarchic view, 805
Moore’s approach, 435–6
non-naturalism, 730
normative, 750–69
pluralism in theory of right, 730
post-Kantian constructivism, 745–6
prescriptivism, 736–7
realism, 730
situationists, 767–8
virtue ethics, 754–7, 768
Eucken, Rudolf, 281
Evans, Gareth, 63, 100, 118–19, 122–3, 660, 673, 878, 1130
Ewald, William B., 131
Ewing, A. C., 100, 730
existence, 726, 776
existential statements, 290, 416
internal/external questions of, 562
relation to meaning and names, 862
as a second-level concept, 289, 439
experience, 253 (see also empiricism)
and its relation to physics, 308
Fain, Haskell, 116
Fann, K. T., 113, 115
Färbung (colouring of sense), 282–3
Feferman, Anita, 136, 1134
Feferman, Solomon, 136, 1134
Feigl, Herbert, 63, 77, 91, 97, 101, 106, 117, 126, 520–1, 622, 628, 634–6, 642–50
feminism, 5, 756, 759–60, 767
Feyerabend, Paul, 63, 87, 119, 130, 524
Field, Hartry, 121
Floyd, Juliet, 47, 133, 138, 899, 1004, 1022, 1056
Fodor, Jerry, 63, 94, 109, 114, 118, 121–3, 126, 580, 625, 638, 690, 1130
Fogelin, Robert, 119, 587
Føllesdal, Dagfinn, 107, 1120–1, 1123
Foot, Philippa, 63, 85, 106, 113, 117, 120, 139, 737, 755, 762, 765–6, 814
force (language), 659, 684
force (physics), 268–9
Foster, John, 125, 656
Foucault, Michel, 63, 88, 112, 115, 125
Frege, Gottlob, 4–10, 13, 16, 18, 20, 22–5, 31, 33, 35–9, 44–5, 48, 50–9, 63, 68–102, 107, 111–40, 280–94, 355–402, 548–9
on a priori/a posteriori distinction, 246
on aesthetic functions of language, 282–3
anti-individualism, 378–9
anti-psychologism, 286
Austin’s translation of, 376–7
Bedeutung, 495, 644, 657, 660, 1123 (see also Bedeutung)
Begriff sschrift, 340, 827–9, 832–5, 842, 907
on Boole’s logic, 826
on concepts, 231, 341, 464, 839–40, 900, 1045, 1083
context principle, 358, 361, 863, 865, 877
and Dedekind, 330
on demonstratives, 373
on denotation, 368, 372, 375, 844–5
distinction between judgements and propositions, 290–2, 294
on existence as a second-level concept, 289–90
on formalism, 283
The Foundations of Arithmetic, 35, 299, 358–9, 362, 375–6, 874, 877, 1065
function/object distinction, 453, 470, 825–6, 831, 900–1
on functions, 322, 331
on gapless proofs, 330
and Husserl, 1121–2, 1124–6, 1134–5
on idealism, 489–90
influences on, 280–94
and literary fictions, 777
logicism, 596–9, 930 (see also logicism)
on natural language, 363–4, 366
and neo-Kantianism, 287, 294
ontology, 360, 362, 368, 710–11
philosophy of mathematics, 330, 357, 930
political views, 795–6
principle of compositionality, 285
rationalism, 379–81
(p. 1149) and Russell’s Paradox, 342
on second-order quantification, 828, 833, 1045
on sense/force distinction, 684–5
on thought, 320, 495
and Trendelenburg, 281–2, 284–5
on unsaturatedness, 825–49
and Wittgenstein, 873–4, 877, 898
Frege–Geach problem, 743
Freud, Sigmund, 63, 69, 76
Friedman, Michael, 132, 133, 137, 267, 346, 552, 1118, 1131
functionalism, 112–4, 118, 120, 122, 126, 638, 970, 1136
functions, 333, 825
first-/second-level, 827–32
function/argument distinction, 464, 826–7, 829–31
function/expression distinction, 840–1
function/object distinction (see Frege, function/object distinction)
incompleteness of (see Frege, on unsaturatedness)
Gabriel, Gottfried, 32, 131, 265, 275, 290
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 63, 77, 108, 135
Gallie, W. B., 105
Galvan, Sergio, 137
Gaskin, Richard, 137
Geach, Peter T., 50, 63, 83, 106–7, 109, 119, 365, 453, 464, 476, 743–4, 901, 903
Gellner, Ernest, 108
Gentzen, Gerhard, 93, 1087–8
geometry, 25, 262–5, 268, 319–22 (see also mathematics)
axioms of, 265
non-Euclidean, 262, 265, 320–1
parallels postulate, 320
projective, 319–21, 323, 327
Gestalt psychology, 583, 968–70
Gettier, Edmund, 27, 110
Gettier-style counter-examples, 27
Gibbard, Alan, 127, 135, 742, 744–5
Gibson, Roger F., 136
Giere, Ronald N. A., 131
Gilligan, Carol, 759
Glock, Hans-Johann, 5, 21, 24, 57, 131, 138–9, 589, 813
Gödel, Kurt, 14, 63, 79, 90, 96, 98, 120, 546–68
Goldfarb, Warren, 12, 121, 340, 476, 871, 878–9, 882–3, 901–2, 1053
Goldman, Alvin, 113
good, concept of, 7–8, 294, 437–8, 443, 482, 712, 732, 735, 751, 753, 761–2, 773
Goodman, Nelson, 23, 63, 79, 99, 102, 104, 111, 114–5, 120, 132, 276, 776–7, 782–3
Gracia, Jorge J. E., 124
Green, Mitchell, 137
Green, Thomas Hill, 32, 63, 68–72, 798
Grice, H. Paul, 23, 63, 82, 95, 105–6, 109, 113–14, 118, 124, 126, 497–8, 615, 780, 942–3
Griffin, Nicholas, 31, 128, 135
Gross, Barry R., 116
ground(s), 237–9, 241–2, 244
Guattari, Félix, 117, 128
Gustafsson, Martin, 139
Haaparanta, Leila, 4–5, 14, 24, 125, 135
Habermas, Jürgen, 63, 90, 111, 114, 122
Hacker, P. M. S., 10, 12, 22, 52, 117, 122, 124, 131, 452, 586–7, 696, 901–2, 935, 1004, 1053, 1056
Hacking, Ian, 119, 1088, 1113
Hägerström, Axel, 63, 69, 74, 80, 83, 88
Hahn, Hans, 14, 125, 127–8, 132–3, 520, 935–6
Hahn, Lewis Edwin, 137
Haldane, John, 5, 132
Hale, Bob, 133, 356
Haller, Rudolf, 126
Hallett, Gareth L., 138
Hamlyn, David, 117
Hampshire, Stuart, 107, 770
Hanna, Robert, 134
Hare, R. M., 23, 63, 85, 103, 110, 113, 122, 134, 732, 736–9, 752–3
Harman, Gilbert, 767–8
Hart, H. L. A., 79, 103–4, 109, 129, 806–9, 814
Hatfield, Gary, 642, 649, 651
Heck, Richard G., 139, 330, 1030
Hegel, G. W. F., 63, 67–8, 383, 797–8
Hegelianism, 5, 27 (see also neo-Hegelianism)
(p. 1150) Heidegger, Martin, 49, 63, 73, 88, 120, 717, 1122
Helmholtz, Hermann von, 63, 68, 70, 74, 86, 251–2, 255, 259, 262–77, 320–1
Hempel, Carl G., 63, 78, 87, 90, 93, 95, 97, 100–1, 104, 111, 120, 132, 521, 530, 622–4, 626–7, 631, 633–40
Hepburn, Ronald, 790
Herbart, Johann Friedrich, 63, 68, 286–7, 292
Herman, Barbara, 125
Hertz, Heinrich, 63, 69, 74, 250–2, 255, 262, 269–77
Hill, Thomas E., 128, 759
Hintikka, Jaakko, 63, 90, 110, 125, 130, 584, 611, 1135
Hinton, J. M., 118, 498, 511–12, 515
Hobbes, Thomas, 306, 514
Hobhouse, L. T., 75
Holtzman, Stephen, 122
Hook, Sidney, 108
Hookway, Christopher, 125
Hopkins, Robert, 777
Horgan, Terry, 134, 137
horizons (of possible experience), 1132–3
Horkheimer, Max, 98
Hospers, John, 46, 99, 103, 787
Hume, David, 32, 303–4, 384, 526, 767, 1021–2
Humpty Dumpty view of language, 1129
Hung, Tscha, 63, 80, 98, 129
Hursthouse, Rosalind, 132, 757
Husserl, Edmund, 24, 32, 63, 69, 73, 76, 82, 86, 89, 95, 246, 548, 711, 1009, 1022, 1118, 1121–4, 1131–9
Hylton, Peter, 54, 127, 136–7, 873–4, 882, 1054
hypothetical method, 309, 311
idea(s)
objective, 230, 232–3
possible, 229–30
relation to propositions, 231
ideal language (see logically perfect language)
idealism, 34
British, 5, 7, 9, 13, 22, 303–4, 383–402, 949, 961
psychological, 951
rejection of, 402, 489, 798, 800, 931, 952
identicals, indiscernibility of, 1063
identity
indeterminacy of, 720
law of, 237
image, 951, 954
afterimage, 958
incomplete symbols, 409, 411
incompleteness theorems (see logic, incompleteness theorems)
indexicality, 9, 228
induction, mathematical, 235
inertia, law of, 251, 266, 268–9, 272, 274
inertial frame, 269
inference, 20, 1082–3
laws of, 20, 463–5, 471, 473
logical, 359, 1090–1
material, 1089–91
inferentialism, 1082–95
instrumentalism, 310
intentionality, 21, 780, 967–8, 1123–4
intuitionism, ethical, 729–47, 762–7 (see also ethics)
intuitions, 25, 232, 245, 617–18
as justification, 611–13
in language use, 945
in mathematics, 328
modal, 613
objective, 232–3, 243
subjective, 232, 243
Irvine, Andrew, 129, 133
Irwin, Terence, 138
Ishiguro, Hidé, 115, 871, 879–80, 901–2
Jackson, Frank, 123, 128, 132, 136, 520, 761
James, William, 63, 68, 73, 77, 79–80, 948–9, 1105–8
Joachim, Harold H., 63, 69, 79, 84, 93, 95, 397
Johnson, W. E., 86
Joseph, H. W. B., 79, 729–31
judgement(s), 228, 232, 234, 242, 292, 413, 956–7, 961, 966–8
acts, 292–3
distinction between act and content, 294
doctrine of, 284
(p. 1151) judgement dependence, 677–9
multiple-relation theory of, 413
Kaila, Eino, 90
Kamm, F., 132
Kant, Immanuel, 5, 20, 64, 67, 227, 232–4, 251–68, 272–7, 304, 313, 326–7, 533, 757–8, 1021–3, 1025
Critique of Pure Reason, 67, 227–8
table of judgements, 291
transcendental aesthetic, 255, 257–8
transcendental deduction, 252, 255, 258, 260, 275, 277
transcendental logic, 287
Kantianism, 5, 27, 757–9, 763 (see also neo-Kantianism)
Kaplan, David, 114, 120, 434
Kenny, Anthony, 110, 584, 586, 697, 1085
Kerry, Benno, 72, 246, 898
Keynes, Neville, 72
Kienzler, Wolfgang, 131
Kim, Jaegwon, 64, 93, 118, 124, 126–7, 129, 637, 643
kinematics, 254–5, 261–5, 271–2
Kirk, Robert, 118
Klein, Felix, 321, 323, 327, 564
Klemke, E. D., 114–16
Kneale, William, 64, 79, 105, 109, 128
knowledge, 421–2, 506, 948, 957, 961, 966–8, 975–99
by acquaintance, 369, 911–13, 922, 956–8, 961 (see also Russell, on acquaintance)
as an activity, 507–8
belief/knowledge distinction, 499–500, 502–4
and conditions of its obtainment, 981, 993
contextualism about, 984–7
of external world, 948–52, 954, 957–9, 962, 965
intersubjective, 960, 968
knowability, 235
knowing things you cannot prove, 993–4
practical, 720
without observation, 694, 698–700
Köhler, Wolfgang, 89
Köhnke, Klaus C., 128
Korsgaard, Christine, 130, 758–9
Kotarbiński, Tadeusz, 64, 72, 84, 89, 104, 106, 123, 717
Kreiser, Lother, 134
Kremer, Michael, 55, 882, 894–5
Kripke, Saul, 15, 20, 23, 26, 64, 97, 107, 115–17, 120, 123, 135, 139, 374, 587, 594–9, 601–19, 721, 733, 1074
Kuhn, Thomas S., 64, 86, 106, 109, 112, 120–1, 131, 524, 586
Kuklick, Bruce, 134
Künne, Wolfgang, 132, 139
Kusch, Martin, 130
Kuusela, Oskari, 139
Lakatos, Imre, 64, 86, 109, 116, 118–20
Lamarque, Peter, 135
Langer, Susanne K., 97
Langford, Cooper Harold, 91
language (see also meaning; ordinary language)
communal, 364, 366
idiolect, 365
language-games, 577
linguistic competence, 672–3
linguistic turn (see linguistic turn)
logically perfect (see logically perfect language)
natural/ordinary language distinction, 938
object-language/meta-language distinction, 553, 559
and reality, 886
for science, 362–3, 908–9
Lapointe, Sandra, 139
Laslett, Peter, 48, 105, 801–2, 809–13
Lazerowitz, Morris, 116
legal positivism, 806–7
Leibmann, Otto, 81
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 10–11, 229–30, 237, 281, 291
Leich, Christopher, 122
Leśniewski, Stanisław, 64, 72, 75, 84, 714, 719, 721, 724
Levine, Joseph, 124
Levinson, Jerrold, 775
Levy, Paul, 121
Lewis, C. I., 20, 26, 64, 72, 81, 84–6, 89, 91, 99, 111, 967, 1039, 1044, 1047–8, 1050–53, 1066, 1110
(p. 1152) Lewis, David, 18, 64, 97, 112, 118, 125, 134, 640, 723, 919–23
Lewis, H. D., 110, 119
liar’s paradox, 559
linguistic turn, 4, 23, 562, 926–47 (see also ordinary language philosophy)
Linsky, Bernard, 139
logic, 16, 18, 67, 283, 289, 318–47, 453, 492, 546–68, 711, 836, 900–1, 932–3, 1128
axiomatic approach, 552, 1050
completeness of first-order, 356, 548
formal, 284, 300, 458, 460, 462–3, 473, 550, 1138–9
implication, 1048–52
incompleteness theorems, 549, 553–4, 1034
inductive, 562
laws of, 285, 288
logical constants, 564, 1087–8
metalogic, 552
modal, 292, 562, 1074–6
propositional, 291, 550
quantificational, 8–9, 18, 24, 52, 289, 291, 550, 828, 832, 1102
symbolic, 327–8
traditional, 291
logical atomism, 41, 439, 575–6, 851–68
logical constructions, 11, 25, 408–9, 420, 441–2, 958
logical empiricism (see logical positivism)
logical positivism, 5, 14, 16–17, 22–3, 34, 44, 90, 376, 518–39, 623–4, 642, 802–3, 935–6, 1109–11
logical semantics, 721
logically perfect language, 19, 906–23, 927
latino sine flexione, 341–2
logicist turn, 930–5
Lotze, Hermann, 31, 64, 68, 70–1, 286–7, 293
Lovejoy, A. O., 94
Lowe, Jonathan, 5, 132, 137
łukasiewicz, Jan, 71, 83, 85, 100, 102, 106, 116, 717, 1044, 1047
Lyons, William E., 122
Mabbott, J. D., 801
Macbeth, Danielle, 1045
MacColl, Hugh, 79, 1047
MacDonald, Margaret, 100, 104, 803–4
Mach, Ernst, 64, 68, 72, 75, 78, 83, 89, 715
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 122, 755
Mackie, John L., 64, 83, 120
Malcolm, Norman, 64, 81, 92, 95, 99–101, 107, 110, 120, 125, 128, 130, 879, 901, 979–84
Mancosu, Paolo, 132, 323, 339
Mandelbaum, Maurice, 50, 110
Mander, W. J., 139
Marcus, Ruth Barcan, 16, 20, 26, 64, 86, 99–100, 109, 129, 140, 1072–5
Martin, Charles, 722
Martin, Michael, 133
Martinich, A. P., 23, 134
Marx, Karl, 64, 68, 69, 72, 80
Marxism, analytic, 5, 815
Matar, Anat, 132
mathematics, 318–47, 362, 381, 524, 551, 710–11, 1029 (see also arithmetic; geometry; logicism)
axioms, 323, 380, 415–16
as concept formation, 578
regressive method in, 1009–10
Mayo, Bernard, 805
McCall, Storrs, 113
McGinn, Colin, 682
McGinn, Marie, 12, 137, 139, 893, 986–7
McGuinness, Brian, 54, 126, 879–80
McTaggart, J. M. E., 64, 69, 74–5, 79, 85, 87, 384, 393, 711–12
meaning, 594–618, 656–86 (see also language)
contextualism, 685
of copula, 461
equivocation as nonsense, 460
fraught with ought, 1091–3
Frege’s types of, 357–8
implied, 497
and inferentialism, 1082–95
informal theory of, 656
(p. 1153) meaning/reference distinction, 663
modest/full-blooded theories of, 670–1
non-reductionist, 671–2, 676, 679–80
normativity of, 1083, 1091–3
objective and public, 1117–18
in phenomenology, 1119, 1138–9
practical ability, 668
as proposition, 229
realist view of (see realism, semantic realism)
theories of, 656–86
mechanics, rational, 261–2
Meinong, Alexius, 10, 39–40, 64, 69, 71–2, 76–8, 85, 302–3, 306, 396, 443, 712–3, 776, 860
mereology, 231, 724
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 49, 64, 79, 98, 109, 1122, 1129, 1136
metaphysics, 16, 462, 709–27 (see also ontology)
applied, 725
descriptive, 718
rejection of, 908–9
Vienna Circle view of, 715, 935–6
metrological sciences, 253, 256–7
Metz, Rudolf, 95
Mill, John Stuart, 64, 67–70, 298–9, 305–6, 313, 751
Millican, Peter, 124
mind (see philosophy of mind)
identity theory of, 16, 621–3, 632–4, 641–9
mind-body problem, 16, 621–52
Misak, Cheryl, 138
modality, 20, 1043–76 (see also analyticity; a priori; necessity)
de dicto/de re, 600, 1062–5, 1070–2
impossibility and inconceivability, 1054, 1057–8
reductionism about, 1045–7
modernism, 1006–12
Mohanty, J. N., 123
monadism, 384, 388
monism, 389 (see also neutral monism)
Monk, Ray, 54, 127, 131, 1032
Montague, Richard, 118, 721, 723
Montefiore, Alan, 112
Moore, G. E., 7–13, 17, 19, 22, 24–6, 36, 40, 44–6, 48–50, 53–4, 64–5, 70, 74–8, 80–4, 86–7, 89, 91, 95–7, 100, 107–8, 110, 115–16, 121, 127, 129, 136–7, 139, 392–3, 400, 430–48, 711–12, 949–50, 975–99
on the absolute, 396
analysing questions, 435–6, 585
on analysis, 7–8, 432–3, 436–7, 439–40, 443, 799 (see also analysis)
and Cambridge School of Analysis, 430–48
on certainty, 996–1000
Clarke and Stroud on, 984–7
conceptual monism, 303
contributions to logic, 440
criticism of Bradley, 395
‘A Defense of Common Sense’, 431, 434
on empiricism, 440
epistemic externalism, 995–6
ethics, 312–13, 398, 434–6, 443, 732, 751
(Moore’s) gambit, 981–2
and idealism, 394–5, 401–2, 490, 712, 978, 1046
on judgement, 397, 434, 490
on Kant, 757
Malcolm on, 979–84
on modality, 1047
on naturalistic fallacy, 299
open question argument, 437–8, 731–3
on pragmatism, 1106–7
on proof and knowledge, 583, 977–9, 992–3, 995
‘Proof of an External World’, 12, 19, 975–99, 1013–14
on propositions, 399, 434–5, 857
and realism, 394, 398, 491
on rigour, 1014–15
and Russell (see Russell, and Moore)
against scepticism, 978–90
on sense-data, 432–5, 948, 953–6, 965
Wright and Prior on, 987–92
moralism, 754–5
Moran, Dermot, 22, 138
moving, 692, 699–700, 705 (see also action)
Mulligan, Kevin, 124
Mundle, C. W. K., 116
Munitz, Milton K., 122
Musgrave, Alan, 116
myth of the given, 19, 967
Næss, Arne, 94, 103
(p. 1154) Nagel, Ernest, 39, 44, 64, 77, 91, 94, 105, 109, 125, 319, 1104
Nagel, Thomas, 118, 125, 533, 755
names, 364–79, 594–618, 710, 853, 857–9, 886, 1062–3, 1084 (see also meaning; sense)
Augustinian theory, 579
contrasted with incomplete symbols, 411
as disguised descriptions (see Russell, theory of descriptions; theory of descriptions)
elementary, 858–9
as elements of propositions, 468, 573, 576
fictional, 778, 912
Fido/Fido fallacy, 866
Kripke’s account of, 721–2
lists vs. concatenations, 855–7, 868
in logically perfect language, 917
proper, 366, 370–3, 412, 595, 610
as rigid designators, 603–4, 607–8, 612–13, 733
sense of (see sense)
sentences as, 471, 856–9, 862, 865
tags, 1073–4
Nasim, Omar, 138, 423, 959
natural kind terms, 233
natural science, 949, 956 (see also science)
naturalism, 24, 299, 303–4, 384, 588, 602, 652, 691, 731
naturalistic fallacy (see Moore, naturalistic fallacy)
naturalistic turn, 17
naturalizing philosophy, 595
Neale, Stephen, 127, 136, 1070
necessity, 228, 599, 614–5 (see also modality)
vs. contingency, 608
logical, 1053
teleological, 288
neo-Hegelianism, 383–96, 401–2, 798, 931
neo-Kantianism, 34, 263, 267, 274, 286
Neurath, Otto, 14, 64, 72, 91, 99, 520, 522, 525, 529–30, 532, 535–9, 716, 796
neutral monism, 309, 442
Newman, G. H., 425–6
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 30, 33–4, 64, 68, 70, 72, 77, 293, 786
Niiniluouto, Ilkka, 135
no-classes theory of classes, 408–9, 414, 421, 713
noema (Husserl), 1124–5
Nola, Robert, 138
normativity, 1082–95
normative deduction, 252, 277
normative vs. natural facts, 1094
norms, 20, 254, 307, 588
relation to validity, 287
role in Kant’s philosophy, 254, 274
Nozick, Robert, 118, 122, 811–12, 814, 999
Nuccetelli, Susana, 137
number(s) (see arithmetic, number(s))
Nussbaum, Martha, 127, 756, 788–9, 817
Oakeshott, Michael, 802
objectivity, 253–4, 259, 366, 520, 528, 533–4
Occam’s razor, 460
Ockham, William of, 292
O’Hear, Anthony, 122, 133
O’Neill, Onora, 127
ontology (see also metaphysics; Quine, on ontology)
Frege’s contribution to, 360–1
grounding for language, 464
ontological commitments, 301, 718–19
ontological elimination, 414
platonism, 371
open question argument (see Moore, open question argument)
Oppenheim, Paul, 100
optics, 948–51
ordinary language, 282, 301–2, 359, 369, 407–9, 426–7, 439, 443, 446, 448, 559, 562, 577, 770, 783, 899, 910, 927, 938, 942, 979–80, 1007 (see also language)
ordinary language philosophy, 13, 17, 19, 23, 26, 49, 51, 300, 322, 491, 586, 629, 908, 926–8, 937, 941–2, 945, 1126 (see also linguistic turn)
ostensive definition, 575
other minds, 953
Oxford philosophy, 941–2 (see also ordinary language philosophy; realism, Oxford)
(p. 1155) Oxford political philosophy, 809–12
Oxford realism (see realism, Oxford)
Palmer, Anthony, 131
pan-quality-ism, 646–7
Pap, Arthur, 106
Parfit, Derek, 32, 124, 139, 732, 752
Parsons, Terence, 124, 1075
particulars, momentary, 956, 960–2
Passmore, John, 48–9, 106, 125, 384, 770–1, 773
Patterson, Douglas, 140
Peano, Giuseppe, 8, 64, 69, 73, 75, 91, 341–2
Pears, David, 880–2, 902
Peirce, Charles Sanders, 20, 34, 64, 68, 70–1, 82, 1009, 1101–5
perception, 948–70
act/object distinction, 509, 948–65
making judgement possible, 490
perceptual constancy, 960, 965
perceptual relativity, 955–8, 962–6, 968–9
and perspective, 958–9, 963–4
relation to knowledge, 308, 507, 510–11
relativity of, 955
sense-data (see sense-data)
Perry, John, 123
Perry, Ralph Barton, 64, 71, 77, 80–1, 106, 120–1, 942
phenomenalism, 423, 526, 534
phenomenology, 5, 21, 32, 34, 444, 649–50, 950, 970, 1118–38
development alongside analytic philosophy, 1119–20
of language, 718
relation to Vienna Circle, 1130
philosophy of language (see language; meaning; ordinary language philosophy)
philosophy of mind, 621–52 (see also behaviourism; mind)
displacing philosophy of language, 1130
phoronomy, 254, 267
physicalism, 639–41, 643, 653–4
picture theory (see Tractatus, picture theory; Wittgenstein, picture theory)
of scientific representation, 269, 271, 274
Pitcher, George, 112, 116
Place, Ullin T., 105, 640, 722
Plantinga, Alvin, 5, 64, 91, 111, 118, 123, 129, 1044, 1068
Plato
Theaetetus, 851–68
Platts, Mark, 121, 738–9
Poincaré, Henri, 64, 69, 74, 79, 82, 1004
political philosophy, 795–817
distinction between analytic and continental, 813
Popkin, Richard H., 108
Popper, Karl, 64, 77, 92, 95, 98–9, 110, 117, 119, 130, 717, 797, 802, 872
possibility (see also modality)
possible-world semantics, 1135
possible worlds, 920, 922–3, 1043
Potter, Michael, 1025, 1029
pragmatism, 15, 20, 23, 34, 79, 1098–1114
pragmatic maxim, 1102–4
pragmatic theory of truth (see truth, pragmatic theory)
Pratt, James, 1107–8
Preston, Aaron, 23, 45, 138
Price, Henry H., 64, 76, 91, 93, 103, 125, 965–6
Prichard, Harold Arthur, 13, 64, 70, 79, 81, 89, 95, 100–1, 489, 730, 762
Příhonský, Franz, 69
Principia Mathematica, 342–3 (see also Russell)
principle of acquaintance, 911–13 (see also Russell, on acquaintance)
principle of tolerance, 537, 913–15
Prior, Arthur N., 64, 83, 106, 108, 113, 115, 136
Prior, James, 990–2
private language argument, 582, 1129
proof, concept of, 501–5, 1013–14 (see also rigour)
Proops, Ian, 1048
properties
essential, 1070–1, 1075–6
intrinsic, 390
neat, 423–5
relational, 7, 390, 754
signified by ‘true’, 230
proposition(s), 7, 11, 245, 290–1, 358, 381, 469, 884, 1046, 1128–9
atomic, 839, 841, 847–9
compositionality, 18, 231, 241–3, 285
conceptual, 228, 233–4, 236, 243–4
(p. 1156) elementary, 573
logical, 274, 412 (see also logic)
meanings as abstractions from, 863
nature of, 399, 876–7
primary and secondary (Boole), 835
relation to reality, 873
role in judgement, 413
truth-bearers, 396–7, 437
unity of, 856
Proust, Joelle, 126
pseudo-problems, 315, 455–9, 936–7
pseudo-questions, 301, 455–9, 1105–6
psychologism, 21, 33–4, 263, 285–6, 302, 680–1, 1121–2
in mathematics and logic, 275, 305–7, 401–2, 711
Puhl, Klaus, 130
Putnam, Hilary, 15, 23, 64, 88, 108–13, 118, 122, 126, 262, 300, 595, 597, 599, 601–11, 613–19, 625
quantification (see logic, quantificational) into modal contexts, 1067–70
Quine, W. V. O., 15, 20, 23, 26, 65, 79, 90–2, 94–5, 98, 100, 102–3, 105, 108, 112, 114, 125, 127, 133, 718–19, 1110–11
and Carnap, 916, 1074
and empiricism, 381–2, 937
on extensionalism, 276, 362, 369, 1066
on the given, 917
on ideal language, 363, 914–15
on logical truth, 247
and naturalism, 586, 594, 606, 614, 917, 922, 944, 1111
on meaning, 595–602, 607, 1073
on physics, 425
on regimented theory, 917–19, 922
on truth-makers, 724
on pragmatism, 1061–2, 1106, 1111–12
Quinn, U. S., 127
Railton, Peter, 124–5, 760–1
Rajchman, John, 125
Ramsey, Frank P., 12, 65, 78, 86–91, 344, 407, 426, 444–5, 550, 565, 574, 1107
rationalism, 379–80
Rawls, John, 65, 86, 103, 107, 110, 116, 129, 135, 738, 747, 757–8, 799, 808
Read, Rupert, 133
realism, 306, 313, 712, 948, 953, 965, 969, 976
arithmetical, 683–4
critical direct, 969–70
critical, 19, 965
direct, 7, 40–1, 394, 396, 398–9
ethical (see ethics, realism)
naïve, 11, 40–1, 490–1, 962, 964, 970
natural, 311, 950–1
new, 19, 961–2, 965
Oxford, 14, 40–1, 489–515
physical, 951–2
pluralistic, 956
representative, 508, 951, 955–7, 969–70
scientific, 308, 310
Scottish, 950, 952
semantic, 680, 683
sophisticated direct, 970
structural, 424–5
Reck, Erich H., 134, 136, 140, 419, 552, 563, 1024
Rée, Jonathan, 120
reference (see sense/reference distinction)
referential opacity, 1063–70
Reichenbach, Hans, 14, 39, 65, 74, 85, 88, 92, 95, 102, 104, 521, 524, 529–32, 537, 547
Reid, Thomas, 307, 311, 313, 950–1
relations, internal, 390–2, 798
representationalism, 19–20, 271–5, 360, 367, 378, 471, 509–10, 573, 587, 777–8, 934, 1010, 1054, 1082–5, 1089, 1091, 1133
figurative representations, 260
mental representations, 118, 130, 305, 355, 595
residue (see rigour, residue)
Resnik, Michael D., 122
Richard’s paradox, 559
Richardson, Alan W., 26, 131–2, 137, 409, 535, 552, 796, 1109, 1131
Rickert, Heinrich, 65, 69, 74–5, 94, 287
(p. 1157) Ricketts, Thomas, 340, 461, 476, 557, 882–3, 899–900, 1049, 1053
Riemann, Bernard, 320, 322, 324–6, 328–9, 332–3, 336
rigour, 1004–35
absolute, 1007–8
and common sense, 1032
informal, 327
in mathematics, 326, 331–2
perfect, 1014–15
reflective, 1008
residue, 1006, 1015
in science, 1025–6
as a virtue, 1010–11
Robinson, Abraham, 109
Rogers, Ben, 133
Rogers, G. A. J., 129, 136
Rorty, Richard, 19, 20, 53, 65, 91, 111, 113, 120, 124, 138, 928–9, 1098–9, 1112
Rosen, Stanley, 125
Ross, W. D., 65, 71, 90, 96, 117, 730–1, 735, 762
rule-following, 259, 277, 580, 587
Russell, Bertrand, 4, 6–7, 9–10, 18–20, 22–4, 36–41, 65, 70, 73, 75–8, 80–2, 84–90, 95, 97–8, 100, 102, 105, 107, 109, 113, 116, 123–4, 127–9, 131, 133, 135, 138, 408, 442, 949–50
on acquaintance, 369, 435, 441, 650, 911–12, 917, 921–2, 966
and analysis, 10–12, 303, 412, 424, 443, 799, 1009
on axiomatic method, 275
and Dedekind, 1029–30
and epistemology, 421, 462, 957
on foundations of mathematics, 363, 389, 417, 711
and geometry, 321–2, 386–9
on idealism, 491, 798, 1045–6
on incomplete symbols, 411, 416
on intuitions, 610
on judgement, 413
and Kant, 246
on language, 369, 439, 443, 629, 802, 909–13, 918, 921–3, 930, 932, 938
on logic, 342–3, 357, 391, 396, 410, 413, 711, 1020, 1049–52
logical atomism, 417, 442, 724, 852
on logical constructions, 408–9, 425, 552
logicism, 549–50, 1030
and Moore, 400–1, 438–9, 1014
on names, 373, 595
and neo-Hegelianism, 384–92, 401
and paradoxes, 303, 335–6, 416, 713
and Peano, 342
on politics, 795–6, 808
on pragmatism, 1106
on principle of abstraction, 419–20
on propositions, 275, 399, 410–11, 1046–7
and realism, 398, 425, 712
on sense-data, 421–3, 510, 948, 951–2, 956–61, 966–7
theory of descriptions, 303, 359, 407–27, 455–6, 458, 460, 595, 713, 777, 799–800, 867
theory of types, 344, 444, 585 (see also theory of types)
and Wittgenstein, 443, 445–6, 455, 470–5, 713, 870–5, 877–82, 902, 931, 1053
Russell’s paradox, 11, 335–6, 416, 711–12
Ryle, Gilbert, 13, 18, 23, 26, 42, 65, 77, 89, 91, 93, 99–101, 116, 120, 427, 622–4, 629–30, 694–7, 851–68
Sahlin, N. E., 127
Sainsbury, R. M., 121, 127, 656, 681
Salmon, Nathan, 125
Santayana, George, 65, 69, 73, 75, 78, 86, 88, 103
Sarkar, Sohotra, 131
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 65, 78, 98, 122
saying/mentioning distinction, 853, 857
saying/showing distinction (see Tractatus, saying/showing distinction)
Scanlon, T. M., 132, 740, 746
scepticism, 583, 975–99
Cartesian, 980–1, 985, 989
dreaming, 992
Humean, 980, 989
Schier, Flint, 777
Schiffer, Stephen, 126
Schiller, F. C. S., 65, 69, 77–8, 81, 95
Schilpp, Paul A., 96–7, 101, 108, 110, 115, 118, 125, 127
Schirn, Matthias, 119
(p. 1158) Schlick, Moritz, 14, 44, 65, 72, 84, 86, 88, 90, 94, 520–2, 524, 528–9, 533–7, 643–4, 715
Schneewind, J. B., 124
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 65, 67–9
Schwartz, Stephen, 22, 140
science, 239, 254, 256, 264–5, 291, 306, 357, 425, 521–39, 553, 557, 613, 636–8, 651–3, 944–9, 951–2, 1007–8, 1021–32, 1100–5, 1121–31, 1137–8
and analysis, 302, 423, 586–8, 634
and common-sense, 314–15
and phenomenology, 311, 648–9
definition of, 361–2
empirical/formal distinction, 519, 547–8
foundational principles, 252, 255, 273–4
Hegelian view of, 385–92
hypothetical method in, 309–10
kinematic, 265
and metaphysics, 724–6, 915, 917–18
metrological, 253–4, 257
and philosophy, 583–5, 1099–100
unity of, 627–31, 935, 941, 1108
Wittgenstein on, 274–5, 481
Searle, John, 28, 65, 91, 103, 108, 115, 121, 123, 128, 373, 621–2, 1130
Seay, G., 137
seeing aspects, 583
Sellars, Roy Wood, 965, 969
Sellars, Wilfrid, 19, 23, 65, 82, 93, 95, 99, 101, 105–7, 109–11, 114, 117–18, 127, 967–8, 1113
semantics, 275–6, 302–3, 525, 862 (see also language; meaning)
externalism, 594
formal, 562
Sen, Amartya, 115
sensation, 952–4, 962, 964, 967, 970 (see also sense-data)
act–object relation (see act–object relation)
sense, 364, 369–72, 376, 457, 467–79, 573, 657–62, 1121–5 (see also meaning)
sense/reference (denotation) distinction, 467–79, 495, 596 (see also Bedeutung)
sense-data, 13, 19, 422–3, 432–3, 491, 506, 510–11, 574, 879, 948–70
Russell’s account of, 958–9
and sensibilia, 955, 958, 960
set theory, 33, 415–17, 550 (see also logic)
Shanker, Stuart G., 126
Shannon, C. E., 100
Shieh, Sanford, 133, 1045, 1079
Shields, George W., 135
Shoemaker, Sydney, 118, 124
Sibley, Frank, 107, 775–6
Sidgwick, Henry, 65, 68, 70, 72, 77, 315, 732, 799–801
Siebel, Mark, 132
sign/symbol distinction, 456–7, 899–900
signs, theory of, 282
Simons, Peter, 54, 124, 129
Simpson, Thomas M., 111
Skinner, B. F., 65, 78, 95, 101, 103, 106, 128
Skinner, Quentin, 53, 115, 124, 810–11
Skolimowski, Henryk, 114
Skorupski, John, 130–1
Sluga, Hans, 52, 121, 129, 131
Smart, J. J. C., 107, 640, 644, 722
Smiley, Timothy, 122
Smith, Barry, 124, 130
Smith, David Woodruff, 130
Smith, J. A., 80, 93
Smith, Michael, 130, 136
Snow, C. P., 108
Soames, Scott, 10, 13, 20–2, 24, 27, 55, 135, 526, 597, 1004, 1009, 1043
Sokal, Alan, 131
Sorell, Tom, 136
Sorley, William Ritchie, 76, 85
Sørli, Richard, 139
Sosa, David, 23, 761
Sosa, Ernest, 134, 137, 978
space, Kant’s theory of, 326–7
phenomenal, 958–60, 963–4
space–time conventionalism, 272
spatio-temporal reality, 255, 263
Stalnaker, Robert, 124, 135, 916
Stebbing, L. Susan, 12, 43, 65, 72, 83, 90–3, 96, 98, 408, 426, 430, 528
Stegmüller, Wolfgang, 65, 87, 103, 107, 115, 128
Steiner, Hillel, 130
Stern, David, 131
Stevens, Graham, 22, 136, 139
(p. 1159) Stevenson, Charles, 23, 65, 79, 90, 92, 95, 99, 110, 120, 733–6
Stich, Stephen P., 123
Stirling, J. H., 69
Stocker, Michael, 755
Stout, George F., 65, 69, 72, 75–6, 78, 84, 86, 98
Strawson, Peter F., 13, 23, 26, 65, 85, 100–2, 105, 107, 109, 112, 115–16, 128, 137, 303, 373, 375, 615, 718, 785, 942–3
Stroll, Avrum, 133
Stroud, Barry, 124, 984–7
structuralism, 725, 780, 789, 1029
Sullivan, Peter, 886–7, 898
synonymy, 597–9, 1062
synthetic a priori, 266, 286, 607 (see also a priori; analyticity; modality)
Tait, William W., 131
Tappenden, Jamie, 1024, 1028, 1048
Tarski, Alfred, 10, 65, 77, 90, 92, 94, 97–9, 105, 124, 247, 321, 546–68, 721, 1134–5
tautologies, 9, 312, 477–8, 551, 558, 573, 596, 894–5, 934–6, 1053–6, 1073
Taylor, Charles, 111, 127, 701, 703, 810
Textor, Mark, 132, 137, 139
theory of descriptions, 9, 11, 25, 303, 343, 603, 714, 867 (see also Russell, theory of descriptions)
theory of types, 9, 343–4, 444, 550, 585, 713
Thiel, Christian, 53, 112, 281
Thomae, Carl Johannes, 71
Thomson, Judith J., 116, 119, 765–6, 814
thought(s), 229–30, 270, 286, 345, 366–72, 374, 495, 874, 887, 911, 953–4, 1119–20
analysing, 493, 913
conceptual, 320, 324
first-person, 365, 378
and intentional action, 694, 696, 700, 953
internal states, 967–8, 1126
and judgement, 293–4, 877–8
and language, 492–4, 573, 576, 581, 658, 661, 673–4, 680–5, 843–5, 893, 897, 1129
laws of, 274–5, 710
limits of, 454–6, 459, 933–4
and meaning, 1117, 1127–8
moral, 734, 737, 742, 752
propositional, 360, 373, 377, 397, 711
relational, 384
structure of, 359
and understanding, 364
Tiergarten programme, 385–6, 401
Timmons, Mark, 137
Tomberlin, James, 125
Tooley, Michael, 133
Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, 12–13, 18–19, 22, 25–6, 51, 274–5, 286, 426, 442–3, 451–83, 527, 573, 682, 714, 852, 855, 870–903, 907, 932–4, 1044, 1053, 1084, 1131 (see also Wittgenstein)
Anscombe on, 870–903
context principle, 877, 879–82, 888
formal concepts, 889–90, 894, 1054
picture theory, 466–8, 855, 875–6, 880–98, 900–3
Russellian reading of, 870–2, 882
saying/showing distinction, 453, 479–81, 574, 1084–5
sense/nonsense distinction, 454–5, 460, 476–8, 888–9, 895
tautologies, 894–5, 1053–4 (see also tautologies)
Travis, Charles, 137, 685–6, 986–7, 1005, 1015
Trendelenburg, Friedrich, 65, 67–70, 264–5, 281
trolley problem, 765–6
truth, 230, 237, 239, 241, 243–4, 275, 380, 454–5, 559–60, 664–5, 859–61
and context (Austin), 497, 503, 513–14
correspondence theory, 302, 533, 535
and falsity, 228–9, 239, 286, 293–4, 470, 658, 860–1
pragmatic theory, 1103–4, 1106
redundancy theory, 445
semantic conception, 1134
truth-makers, 724
trying, 690, 693, 706
Turing, Alan, 20, 65, 82, 94, 100–1, 104, 1015–17, 1032–4
Turing machine, 1015–17, 1033–5
Twardowski, Kazimierz, 10, 65, 69, 74–5, 95, 246, 1134
(p. 1160) Uebel, Thomas, 14, 31, 54, 137, 520, 525, 536, 644, 796, 1055
universal characteristic, 281–2
Urmson, J. O., 41, 47, 49, 105, 871
utilitarianism, 34, 69, 751, 800–1 (see also ethics)
act, 753
preference, 737
rule, 753, 800–1
van Fraassen, Bas, 121
van Heijenoort, Jean, 113, 340, 1048, 1085
van Inwagen, Peter, 24, 27, 125, 127, 724, 778
Venturinha, Nuno, 139
verification, 535, 574, 716–17
verificationism, 302, 526, 1110–11
view from nowhere, 533
Vlastos, Gregory, 65, 79, 101, 104, 128
volition, 690–1, 695–6, 706
von Sigwart, Christoph, 70
von Wright, Georg Henrik, 65, 83, 97, 99–100, 102, 109–10, 112, 116, 123, 129, 135, 581, 942, 947
Wagner, Pierre, 138
Waismann, Friedrich, 14, 65, 75, 94–6, 111, 520, 716, 935, 937–8
Walker, Jeremy, 112
Walton, Kendall L., 127, 778
Ward, James, 72, 75, 87
Warnock, G. J., 13, 48–9, 107, 127, 737, 968
Warnock, Mary, 48–9, 108
Watson, John B., 65, 71, 82–3, 107
Wedeking, G. A., 129
Weierstrass, Karl, 331–2, 931
Weinberg, J. R., 94
Weininger, Otto, 78
Weitz, Morris, 112, 772–4
Weldon, T. D., 103, 803
West, C., 125
Whewell, William, 309
White, Morton, 15, 46–8, 65, 83, 101, 104–5, 107, 116, 133, 1110
Whitehead, A. N., 65, 72, 76, 80, 87, 89, 100, 421, 549, 717
Wiener, Norbert, 100, 127
Wiggins, David, 65, 92, 113, 119, 130, 375, 732, 738–40, 861–2, 1103
Williams, Bernard, 6, 49, 66, 90, 112, 114, 118, 125, 127, 134–5, 533, 754, 807, 813
Williams, Donald C., 103, 724
Williams, Michael, 128, 987, 997–8
Williamson, Timothy, 133, 137, 507–8, 600, 606, 609, 612, 618, 683
Wilson, John Cook, 13, 40, 66, 68, 73, 83–4, 88, 489–515, 962–4
Wilson, Mark, 137
Wimsatt, W. K., 99
Winch, Peter, 106, 576, 879–80
Windelband, Wilhelm, 66, 71–2, 83, 286–7, 291, 293
Wisdom, John, 12, 42, 66, 78, 91–3, 95, 99, 103, 130, 408, 430, 446
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 4, 6, 9–10, 12–14, 18–20, 22–4, 66, 73, 79–90, 92, 94–5, 99–104, 106, 109, 111, 113, 115, 118, 120–1, 123, 133, 135–6, 138, 297, 307, 441, 451–83, 572–90, 713–14, 882, 931–2
and analysis, 443, 589
and art, 771
on concepts, 580, 887–9
context principle, 457
on doubt, 376, 997–9
on ethics, 312–13
and Frege, 877–8
on intentional action, 581, 691–4, 706
on language-games, 577
logical atomism, 442
On Certainty, 583, 996–9
on mathematics, 578–9
and meta-philosophy, 458–9, 462, 465, 582, 682–3, 876, 900, 939
on normativity, 259, 1093
(p. 1161) and Oxford philosophy, 941–2
Philosophical Investigations, 579–82, 692, 852
picture theory, 466–9, 576, 857
on rule-following, 277, 580, 587
and Russell (see Russell, and Wittgenstein)
saying/showing distinction, 469–70, 479–81, 1054
sense and nonsense, 453–5, 460, 475–9, 907
on signs and symbols, 457–8, 462, 471–5, 881, 895–6
on tautologies, 551, 558 (see also tautologies)
Tractatus (see Tractatus)
and Turing, 1032–4
and Vienna Circle, 274, 537, 715–16, 935–6
Wolf, Susan, 123, 755
Wollheim, Richard, 114, 777, 781
Wood, Alan, 106, 116
Wright, Chauncey, 20, 1100–1
Wright, Crispin, 66, 97, 120, 122–3, 125, 133, 666–8, 675–9, 987–90
Wundt, Wilhelm, 33, 66, 68, 70, 85
Zeno’s paradoxes, 346
Zermelo, Ernst, 335–7