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date: 17 November 2019

Chronology of Analytic Philosophy and its Historiography

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter presents a chronology of the key thinkers, publications, and events in the history of analytic philosophy and its historiography. It shows something of the ‘internal’ history of analytic philosophy as well as of the wider philosophical context in which analytic philosophy developed. The entries cover 150 philosophers and other thinkers, in particular, with dates of births, deaths, and key events and publications.

Keywords: chronology of analytic philosophy, history of analytic philosophy, historiography of analytic philosophy

This chronology condenses as much information as possible in as succinct a form as possible in 25,000 words about the key thinkers, publications, and events in the history of analytic philosophy and its historiography. Under each year, the entries are ordered as follows: publications; events; births and deaths. The aim is to show something not only of the ‘internal’ history of analytic philosophy but also of the wider philosophical context in which analytic philosophy developed. So selected publications and events of related philosophical traditions, such as neo-Kantianism, pragmatism, and phenomenology, as well as relevant scientific texts, are also included (indicated in shaded lines). The entries are by no means limited to just this, but 150 philosophers and other thinkers have been selected for particular coverage—with dates of births, deaths, and key events and publications. Of these 150, 100 are either generally recognized as analytic philosophers or closely connected with the analytic tradition, such as certain mathematicians and pragmatists, and the other 50 are generally recognized as not analytic philosophers (indicated in shaded lines). For the record, these 150 are noted in the following table, together with works of reference where further information about their life and work can be found: (p. 62) (p. 63) (p. 64) (p. 65)

Thinker

Dates

Accounts of life and work, biographies, chronologies

Ajdukiewicz, Kazimierz

1890–1963

Sinisi & Wolenński 1995

Alexander, Samuel

1859–1938

Stout 1940a, 1940b; Slater 2006

Anderson, John

1893–1962

Baker 1986; Weblin 2006

Anscombe, G. E. M.

1919–2001

Müller 2001; Teichman 2001; Diamond 2006; Driver 2009

Armstrong, David

1926–

Jackson 2001

Austin, J. L.

1911–60

Fann 1969; Warnock 1969, 1989; Berlin et al. 1973; Searle 2001; Cave 2006a

Ayer, A. J.

1910–89

Ayer 1977, 1985, 1992; Foster 1985; Ayer & Honderich 1991; Hahn 1992; Rogers 1999; Sprigge 2001; Hunter 2006a; Macdonald 2010

Bergmann, Gustav

1906–87

Gram & Klemke 1974; Addis 2005; Anellis 2005a

Bergson, Henri

1859–1941

Lawlor & Moulard 2011

Berlin, Isaiah

1909–97

Ignatieff 1998; Cherniss 2006; Cherniss & Hardy 2010

Black, Max

1909–88

Schrader 2005

Boltzmann, Ludwig

1844–1906

Blackmore 1995

Bolzano, Bernard

1781–1848

Morscher 2007

Boole, George

1815–64

MacHale 1985; Gasser 2006; Burris 2010

Bradley, F. H.

1846–1924

Ferreira 2006; Candlish & Basile 2009

Braithwaite, R. B.

1900–90

Cave 2006

Brandom, Robert B.

1950–

Weiss & Wanderer 2010

Brentano, Franz

1838–1917

Jacquette 2004; Huemer 2010

Broad, C. D.

1887–1971

Broad 1959; Schilpp 1959; Britton 1978; van Cleve 2001; Seager 2006; Gustavsson 2010

Brouwer, L. E. J.

1881–1966

van Atten 2011

Burge, Tyler

1946–

Hahn & Ramberg 2003

Cantor, Georg

1845–1918

Dauben 1979; Hallett 1984

Carnap, Rudolf

1891–1970

Carnap 1963; Schilpp 1963; Hintikka 1975; Sarkar 2001; Carus 2005, 2007; Friedman & Creath 2007

Case, Thomas

1844–1925

Marion 2006a

Cassirer, Ernst

1874–1945

Gawronsky 1949; Schilpp 1949a; T. Cassirer 2003; Friedman 2011

Cavell, Stanley

1926–

Eldridge 2003; Brino-Dean 2005; Cavell 2010

Chisholm, Roderick

1916–99

Chisholm 1997; Hahn 1997b; Foyer & Zimmerman 2001; Feldman 2005; Feldman & Feldman 2008

Chomsky, Noam

1928–

Barsky 1997; Ludlow 2001; McGilvray 2005; Szabó 2005

Church, Alonzo

1903–95

Manzano 1997; Anderson 2001; Drucker 2005; Enderton forthcoming

Collingwood, R. G.

1889–1943

Collingwood 1939; Boucher 2006; Inglis 2009; D’Oro & Connelly 2010; Boucher & Smith 2013

Darwin, Charles

1809–82

Browne 1995, 2000

Davidson, Donald

1917–2003

Davidson 1999; Hahn 1999; Lepore 2001, 2005a; Malpas 2009

Dedekind, Richard

1831–1916

Reck 2008

Deleuze, Gilles

1925–95

Smith & Protevi 2008

Dennett, Daniel

1942–

Ross et al. 2000; Viger 2005a

Derrida, Jacques

1930–2004

Peeters 2010; Lawlor 2011

Dewey, John

1859–1952

Dewey 1939; Hook 1939; Schilpp 1939; Dykhuizen 1973; Eldridge 2005

Dilthey, Wilhelm

1833–1911

Makkreel 2008

Dreben, Burton

1927–99

Gibson 2005

Duhem, Pierre

1861–1916

Martin 1991

Dummett, Michael

1925–2011

Green 2001; Miller 2001; Weiss 2002; Auxier & Hahn 2007; Dummett 2007

Einstein, Albert

1879–1955

Einstein 1949; Schilpp 1949b; Clark 1971

Engels, Friedrich

1820–95

Carver 1989

Evans, Gareth

1946–80

Mandik 2006

Feigl, Herbert

1902–88

Feyerabend 1966; Aune 1998; Reisch 2005b

Feyerabend, Paul

1924–93

Feyerabend 1995; Oberheim 2005; Preston 2009

Fodor, Jerry

1935–

Rey 2001; Viger 2005b

Foot, Philippa

1920–2010

Lawrence 2001; Hoy 2005; Kirchin 2006

Foucault, Michel

1926–84

Gutting 2008

Frege, Gottlob

1848–1925

Dummett 2001; Kreiser 2001; Thiel & Beaney 2005

Freud, Sigmund

1856–1939

Gay 1988

Gadamer, Hans-Georg

1900–2002

Gadamer 1997; Hahn 1997a; Grondin 2003; Malpas 2009b

Geach, Peter T.

1916–

Lewis 1991, 2006

Gödel, Kurt

1906–78

Dawson 1997; Anderson 2001; Parsons 2005; Kennedy 2011

Goodman, Nelson

1906–98

Scheffler 2001

Green, T. H.

1836–82

Tyler 2006, 2011

Grice, H. Paul

1913–88

Neale 2001; Stainton 2005; Grandy & Warner 2006; Hogan 2006

Habermas, Jürgen

1929–

Wiggershaus 2004; Bohman & Rehg 2011

Hägerström, Axel

1868–1939

Mindus 2009

Hare, R. M.

1919–2002

Sinnott-Armstrong 2001; Pybus 2006

Hart, H. L. A.

1907–92

Shapiro 2001; Lacey 2004; Brooks 2006

Hegel, G. W. F.

1770–1831

Pinkard 2000; Redding 2010

Heidegger, Martin

1889–1976

Guignon 1993; Wheeler 2011

Helmholtz, Hermann von

1821–94

Königsberger 1902–3; Patton 2010

Hempel, Carl G.

1905–97

Kitcher 2001; Reisch 2005c

Herbart, Johann

1776–1841

Asmus 1968/1970

Hertz, Heinrich

1857–94

Fölsing 1997; Baird et al. 1998; Lützen 2005

Hilbert, David

1862–1943

Reid 1970

Hintikka, Jaakko

1929–

Niiniluoto 2005; Hintikka 2006; Auxier & Hahn 2006

Hung, Tscha

1909–92

Cohen 1992; Dainian 1992

Husserl, Edmund

1859–1938

Smith & Smith 1995; Smith 2007; Beyer 2011

James, William

1842–1910

Myers 1986; Suckiel 2005; Goodman 2009

Joachim, Harold H.

1868–1938

Mander 2006b

Kant, Immanuel

1724–1804

Kuehn 2001

Kim, Jaegwon

1934–

Greco 2005

Kneale, William

1906–90

Smiley 1995, 2006

Kotarbinński, Tadeusz

1886–1981

Wolenński 1990

Kripke, Saul

1940–

Sosa 2001; Green 2005

Kuhn, Thomas S.

1922–96

Grandy 2001; Fuller 2005

Lakatos, Imre

1922–74

Wright 2006

Lesńniewski, Stanisław

1886–1939

Simons 2011

Lewis, C. I.

1883–1964

Lewis 1968; Schilpp 1968; Murphey 2005; Colella 2005; Hunter 2007

Lewis, David

1941–2001

Stalnaker 2001; Hawthorne 2005; Weatherson 2009

Lotze, Hermann

1817–81

Sullivan 2010

Łukasiewicz, Jan

1878–1956

Wolenński 1989

Mach, Ernst

1838–1916

Blackmore 1972; Wolters 2000; Pojman 2009

Mackie, John L.

1917–81

McDowell 1990; Sherratt 2006

Malcolm, Norman

1911–90

Ginet 2001; Blair 2005

Marcus, Ruth Barcan

1921–2012

Cresswell 2001, Garrett 2005; Marcus 2010

Marx, Karl

1818–83

Berlin 1939; McLellan 1973; Wolff 2010

McDowell, John

1942–

Thornton 2006

McTaggart, J. M. E.

1866–1925

Armour 2006

Meinong, Alexius

1853–1920

Marek 2008

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice

1908–61

Flynn 2004

Mill, John Stuart

1806–73

Skorupski 1989; Capaldi 2004; Wilson 2007

Moore, G. E.

1873–1958

Moore 1942; Schilpp 1942; Baldwin 1990, 2004; Sosa 2001

Nagel, Ernest

1901–85

Suppes 1994; Anellis 2005b

Neurath, Otto

1882–1945

Nemmeth & Stadler 1996; Cat 2010

Nietzsche, Friedrich

1844–1900

Wicks 2011b

Peano, Giuseppe

1858–1932

Kennedy 1980

Peirce, Charles S.

1839–1914

Hookway 1985; Brent 1998; Misak 2004; De Waal 2005; Burch 2010

Perry, Ralph Barton

1876–1957

Papas 2005

Plantinga, Alvin

1932–

Plantinga 1985; Tomberlin & van Inwagen 1985; Sennett 2005

Poincaré, Henri

1854–1912

Gray 2012

Popper, Karl

1902–1994

Popper 1974, 1976; Schilpp 1974; Hacohen 2000; Newton-Smith 2001

Price, Henry H.

1899–1984

Hunter 2006b

Prichard, Harold A.

1871–1947

Stratton-Lake 2006a; Dancy 2010

Prior, Arthur N.

1914–69

Copeland 2006, 2007

Putnam, Hilary

1926–

Heil 2001; Pihlström 2005; Auxier & Hahn 2013

Quine, W. V.

1908–2000

Quine 1985, 1986; Schilpp & Hahn 1986/1998; Føllesdal 2001; Hylton 2001b, 2007a, 2010; Lepore 2005b

Ramsey, Frank P.

1903–30

Sahlin 1990; Armendt 2001; Cave 2006c

Rawls, John

1921–2002

Daniels 2001; Boettcher 2005; Pogge 2007

Reichenbach, Hans

1891–1953

Traiger 2005; Hoffmann 2007

Rickert, Heinrich

1863–1936

Faust 1927; Ollig 1998

Rorty, Richard

1931–2007

Williams 2001; Rumana 2005; Ramberg 2007; Gross 2008; Auxier & Hahn 2010; Rorty 2010

Ross, W. D.

1877–1971

Stratton-Lake 2006b

Russell, Bertrand

1872–1970

Russell 1944, 1959a, 1975; Schilpp 1944; Schoenman 1967; Clark 1975; Tait 1975; Moorehead 1992; Monk 1996a, 2000; Baldwin 2001b

Ryle, Gilbert

1900–76

Stroll 2001; Sprague 2006

Santayana, George

1863–1952

Santayana 1940, 1944; Schilpp 1940; Holzberger 2005; Saatkamp 2010

Sartre, Jean-Paul

1905–80

Sartre 1981; Schilpp 1981; Flynn 2011

Schiller, F. C. S.

1864–1937

Shook 2006

Schlick, Moritz

1882–1936

Haller 1982

Schopenhauer, Arthur

1788–1860

Wicks 2011a

Searle, John R.

1932–

Martinich 2001b; Elugardo 2005

Sellars, Wilfrid

1912–89

Rosenberg 2001, 2009; Delaney 2005; deVries 2011

Sidgwick, Henry

1838–1900

Schultz 2004; Skelton 2006

Skinner, B. F.

1904–90

Bjork 1997; Rutherford 2005

Stebbing, L. Susan

1885–1943

Beaney 2006e; Chapman 2013

Stegmüller, Wolfgang

1923–91

Kleinknecht 1993

Stevenson, Charles

1908–79

Dreier 2001; Stroh 2005

Stout, George F.

1860–1944

Keene 2006b; Schaar 2013

Strawson, Peter F.

1919–2006

Strawson 1998; Hahn 1998; Snowdon 2001; Shieber 2006

Tarski, Alfred

1901–83

Anderson 2001; Feferman & Feferman 2004; Anellis 2005c; Patterson 2012

Trendelenburg, Friedrich

1802–72

Morris 1874

Turing, Alan

1912–54

Hodges 1983, 2007

Twardowski, Kazimierz

1866–1938

Wolenński 1989, 2011; Lapointe et al. 2009

Vlastos, Gregory

1907–91

Graham 2005

von Wright, Georg Henrik

1916–2003

Schilpp & Hahn 1989; von Wright 1989; Stoutland 2001

Waismann, Friedrich

1896–1959

Ellis 2006a

Watson, John B.

1879–1958

Cohen 1979; Buckley 1989

White, Morton

1917–

White 1999; Føllesdal 2005

Whitehead, A. N.

1861–1947

Whitehead 1941; Schilpp 1941; Lowe 1985–90; Lucas 2005; Weber 2006

Wiggins, David

1933–

S. Williams 2006

Williams, Bernard

1929–2003

Cullity 2005

Wilson, John Cook

1849–1915

Marion 2006b, 2010

Windelband, Wilhelm

1848–1915

Rickert 1915; Ollig 1998

Wisdom, John

1904–93

Bambrough 1974; Ellis 2006b

Wittgenstein, Ludwig

1889–1951

Malcolm 1958/1984; Rhees 1981; McGuinness 1988; Monk 1990; Flowers 1999; Hacker 2001c

Wright, Crispin

1942–

Byrne 2006

Wundt, Wilhelm

1832–1920

Kim 2006

(p. 66) Information about the founding of the following 40 philosophy journals is also included: Analysis (1933), Analytic Philosophy (1960, as Philosophical Books; name changed 2011), Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie (1888), Australasian Journal of Philosophy (1923), British Journal of Aesthetics (1960), British Journal for the History of Philosophy (1993), British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (1950), Canadian Journal of Philosophy (1971), Dialectica (1947), Erkenntnis (1930/1975), Ethics (1890, as International Journal of Ethics; name changed 1938), European Journal of Philosophy (1993), Grazer Philosophische Studien (1975), History and Philosophy of Logic (1980), History of Philosophy Quarterly (1984), Inquiry (1958), Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology (1970), Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy (2010), Journal of the History of Ideas (1940), Journal of the History of Philosophy (1963), Journal of Philosophical Logic (1972), Journal of Philosophy (1904), Journal of Symbolic Logic (1936), Mind (1876/1892), Mind and Language (1986), The Monist (1888), Noûs (1967), Pacific Philosophical Quarterly (1920, as The Personalist; name changed 1980), Philosophers’ Imprint (2001), Philosophical Perspectives (1987), Philosophical Quarterly (1950), Philosophical Review (1891), Philosophical Studies (1950), Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (1940), Philosophy of Science (1934), Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society (1888/1900), Ratio (1957/1988), Russell (1971/1981), Synthese (1936), Theoria (1935). (This is not to be taken as reflecting a judgement on the ‘top 40’ journals; they have been selected for their significance in the history of analytic philosophy.)

In compiling this chronology, I have drawn especially on The Continuum Encyclopedia of British Philosophy (Grayling, Pyle, and Goulder 2006), The Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers (Shook 2005), and the online Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I have also made use of the various Cambridge Companions, the volumes in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’ series, the biobibliographical appendix to The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870–1945 (Baldwin 2003), and the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Craig 1998). For the Frege entries, I drew on the more detailed chronology in Thiel and Beaney 2005, and for the Russell entries, the chronologies in each volume of Russell’s Collected Papers (1983–).

I have made no attempt to do justice to work in analytic philosophy after (roughly) 1980. This is not only because the sheer amount of work being published is unsurveyable (p. 67) except in specific subfields, but also because it takes at least 30 years for the dust to settle to allow significance to be recognized. What I have focused on instead is selecting key works in the emerging subfield of analytic philosophy that is history of analytic philosophy. In selecting the entries I have been guided by the contributions to the present Handbook and by further recommendations sent to me by several of the contributors.1 While I have tried to avoid factual mistakes by minimizing reliance on any single source, there will inevitably be embarrassing errors, egregious omissions, controversial inclusions, and idiosyncratic comments, and I can only hope that these will be outweighed by the usefulness of the chronology (which helped me in writing the first two chapters). Analytic philosophy has become increasingly complex in its ramifications, and historians of analytic philosophy have become increasingly aware of the broader context, so there is value in simply juxtaposing key events and publications in such a condensed way to provide a sense of the bigger picture, and to indicate some of the gaps in existing accounts, including in the present Handbook. (That said, I should note that I have not sought to include anything about the extra-philosophical context other than a few developments in mathematics and science; so there is nothing on artistic, literary, or political events, for example. That would have taken up even more months of my life.) Whatever its deficiencies may be, I hope that this chronology can at least provide a basis for adapted and revised versions to assist future work in history of analytic philosophy.

(p. 68) (p. 69) (p. 70) (p. 71) (p. 72) (p. 73) (p. 74) (p. 75) (p. 76) (p. 77) (p. 78) (p. 79) (p. 80) (p. 81) (p. 82) (p. 83) (p. 84) (p. 85) (p. 86) (p. 87) (p. 88) (p. 89) (p. 90) (p. 91) (p. 92) (p. 93) (p. 94) (p. 95) (p. 96) (p. 97) (p. 98) (p. 99) (p. 100) (p. 101) (p. 102) (p. 103) (p. 104) (p. 105) (p. 106) (p. 107) (p. 108) (p. 109) (p. 110) (p. 111) (p. 112) (p. 113) (p. 114) (p. 115) (p. 116) (p. 117) (p. 118) (p. 119) (p. 120) (p. 121) (p. 122) (p. 123) (p. 124) (p. 125) (p. 126) (p. 127) (p. 128) (p. 129) (p. 130) (p. 131) (p. 132) (p. 133) (p. 134) (p. 135) (p. 136) (p. 137) (p. 138) (p. 139) (p. 140)

Year

Event

Further details and/or significance

1781

Kant, Critique of Pure Reason

  • the work to which much subsequent philosophy responds

  • 2nd edn. 1787

Birth of Bernard Bolzano

  • 5 October, Prague

1784

Kant, ‘An Answer to the Question: “What is Enlightenment?”’

  • Sapere aude! Have courage to use your own understanding!’ (1784 [1991], p. 54

1788

Birth of Arthur Schopenhauer

  • 22 February, Danzig, Prussia (now Gdansk, Poland

1802

Birth of Friedrich Trendelenburg

  • 30 November, Eutin, near Lübeck

1804

Death of Kant

  • 12 February, Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad)

1806

Birth of John Stuart Mill

  • 20 May, Pentonville, London

1807

Hegel, Phenomenology of Spirit

  • his first main work

1808

Herbart, Main Points of Logic

  • criticizes Kant’s table of judgements

1809

Birth of Charles Darwin

  • 12 February, Shrewsbury, Shropshire

1810

Bolzano, Contributions

  • criticizes Kant’s a priori/a posteriori distinction in offering a better grounded account of mathematics

1813

Herbart, Textbook Introducing Philosophy

  • rejects psychologism

1815

Birth of George Boole

  • 2 November, Lincoln

1817

Birth of Hermann Lotze

  • 21 May, Bautzen, Saxony

1818

Birth of Karl Marx

  • 5 May, Trier

1819

Schopenhauer, The World as Will and Representation

  • 2nd edn. 1844; 3rd edn. 1859

  • first tr. 1883

1820

Birth of Friedrich Engels

  • 28 November, Barmen, Rhineland

1821

Birth of Hermann von Helmholtz

  • 31 August, Potsdam

1831

Birth of Richard Dedekind

  • 6 October, Braunschweig

Death of Hegel

  • 14 November, Berlin

1832

Birth of Wilhelm Wundt

  • 16 August, Neckarau, Mannheim

1833

Birth of Wilhelm Dilthey

  • 19 November, Biebrich, Wiesbaden

1836

Birth of Thomas H. Green

  • 7 April, Birkin, Yorkshire

1837

Bolzano, Theory of Science

  • his main work, 4 vols.

1838

Bentham, Works

  • 11 vols. 1838–43

Birth of Ernst Mach

  • 18 February, Chrlice, near Brno, Moravia

Birth of Henry Sidgwick

  • 31 May, Skipton, Yorkshire

Birth of Franz Brentano

  • 16 June, Marienberg am Rhein, Germany

1839

Birth of Charles S. Peirce

  • 10 September, Cambridge, Massachusetts

1840

Trendelenburg, Logical Investigations

  • offers an ‘organic’ view of logic

  • 2nd edn. 1862; 3rd edn. 1870

1841

Death of Herbart

  • 14 August, Göttingen, Germany

1842

Birth of William James

  • 11 January, New York

1843

Mill, System of Logic

  • his main work; 2nd edn. 1846; 3rd edn. 1851; 4th edn. 1856; 5th edn. 1862; 6th edn. 1865; 7th edn. 1868; 8th edn. 1872

Lotze, Logic

  • his ‘lesser’ Logic; expanded version 1874

  • distinguishes logical validity from psychological genesis

1844

Lotze succeeds Herbart

  • Professor, Göttingen 1844–80

Birth of Ludwig Boltzmann

  • 20 February, Vienna

Birth of Thomas Case

  • 14 July, Liverpool

Birth of Friedrich Nietzsche

  • 15 October, Röcken, Saxony

1845

Birth of Georg Cantor

  • 3 March, St Petersburg, Russia

1846

Birth of F. H. Bradley

  • 30 January, Clapham, London

1847

Boole, The Mathematical Analysis of Logic

  • treats Aristotelian logic algebraically

Helmholtz, On the Conservation of Force

  • formulates law of conservation of energy

1848

Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto

  • opens with claim that the history of all society is the history of class struggles

Birth of Wilhelm Windelband

  • 11 May, Potsdam

Birth of Gottlob Frege

  • 8 November, Wismar, Germany

Death of Bolzano

  • 18 December, Prague

1849

Birth of John Cook Wilson

  • 6 June, Nottingham

1850

Pˇríhonský, New Anti-Kant

  • expounds Bolzano’s critique of Kant

1851

Bolzano, Paradoxes of the Infinite

  • anticipates some ideas of later set theory

1853

Birth of Alexius Meinong

  • 17 July, Lemberg (later Lvov, now Lviv, Ukraine)

1854

Boole, The Laws of Thought

  • develops his algebra of logic further

Dedekind, ‘On the Introduction of New Functions in Mathematics’

  • announces programme of explaining generation of numbers

  • lecture for his Habilitation

Birth of Henri Poincaré

  • 29 April, Nancy

1856

Trendelenburg, On Leibniz’s Design for a Universal Characteristic

  • uses term ‘Begriffsschrift’

Birth of Sigmund Freud

  • 6 May, Freiberg in Mähren, Moravia

1857

Birth of Heinrich Hertz

  • 22 February, Hamburg

1858

Birth of Giuseppe Peano

  • 27 August, Spinetta, Piedmont, Italy

1859

Darwin, The Origin of Species

  • theory of evolution

Mill, ‘On Liberty’

  • argues for freedom of speech

  • formulates harm principle

Birth of Samuel Alexander

  • 6 January, Sydney, Australia

Birth of Edmund Husserl

  • 8 April, Prossnitz, Moravia

Birth of Henri Bergson

  • 18 October, Paris

Birth of John Dewey

  • 20 October, Burlington, Vermont

1860

Birth of George F. Stout

  • 6 January, South Shields, Durham

Death of Schopenhauer

  • 21 September, Frankfurt

1861

Mill, ‘Utilitarianism’

  • based on ‘greatest happiness principle’

Birth of A. N. Whitehead

  • 15 February, Ramsgate, Kent

Birth of Pierre Duhem

  • 10 June, Paris

1862

Birth of David Hilbert

  • 23 January, Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad)

1863

Birth of Heinrich Rickert

  • 25 May, Danzig, Prussia (now Gdansk, Poland)

Birth of George Santayana

  • 16 December, Madrid

1864

Birth of F. C. S. Schiller

  • 16 August, Schleswig-Holstein, Denmark

Death of Boole

  • 8 December, Ballintemple, Cork, Ireland

1865

Carroll, Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

  • Through the Looking-Glass and what Alice found there 1872

Stirling, The Secret of Hegel

  • beginning of Hegelian turn in Britain

1866

Green at Oxford

  • Fellow, Balliol College 1866–78

Birth of J. M. E. McTaggart

  • 3 September, London

Birth of Kazimierz Twardowski

  • 20 October, Vienna

1867

Marx, Capital, vol. 1

  • his main work; vol. 2 1885; vol. 3 1894

Mach to Prague

  • Professor of Experimental Physics 1867–95

1868

Birth of Harold H. Joachim

  • 28 May, London

Birth of Axel Hägerström

  • 6 September, Vireda, near Jönköping, Sweden

1869

Frege to Jena

  • studies mathematics, physics, chemistry, philosophy, 4 semesters

1870

Peirce, ‘Description of a Notation for the Logic of Relatives’

  • invention of quantifier notation

Helmholtz, ‘On the Origin and Significance of the Axioms of Geometry’

  • discusses implications of non-Euclidean geometries

  • influences logical positivists

Bradley at Oxford

  • Fellow, Merton College; stays there for the rest of his life

1871

Cohen, Kant’s Theory of Experience

  • neo-Kantian interpretation from the Marburg School

Frege to Göttingen

  • studies mathematics, physics, philosophy of religion (with Lotze), 5 semesters

Birth of Harold A. Prichard

  • 31 October, London

1872

Dedekind, Continuity and Irrational Numbers

  • defines real numbers in terms of ‘cuts’ in the series of rational numbers

Boltzmann, ‘Further Studies…’

  • formulates Boltzmann equation and H-theorem (as now known), offering ‘analytical proof’ of second law of thermodynamics

Death of Trendelenburg

  • 24 January, Berlin

Birth of Bertrand Russell

  • 18 May, Ravenscroft, Monmouthshire, Wales

1873

Frege’s doctorate

  • ‘On a Geometrical Representation of Imaginary Forms in the Plane’, Göttingen

Sigwart, Logic

  • 2nd edn. 1878; 3rd edn. 1904

Death of Mill

  • 8 May, Avignon, France

Birth of G. E. Moore

  • 4 November, London

1874

Lotze, Logic

  • vol. 1, in 3 books, of his System of Philosophy

  • his ‘greater’ Logic: expanded version of 1843 Logic

Brentano, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint

  • seeks to establish a science of mental phenomena

  • vol. 2 repr. 1911

Sidgwick, The Methods of Ethics

  • discusses rational egoism, dogmatic intuitionism, and utilitarianism, and offers a qualified defence of latter

Wundt, Principles of Physiological Psychology

  • seeks to investigate the inner experiences of consciousness through direct self-observation

  • described as ‘the most important book in the history of modern psychology’ (Boring 1950, p. 322)

Cantor, ‘On a Property of the Set of Real Algebraic Numbers’

  • first proof that the class of real numbers is not countable

  • beginning of theory of the transfinite

Green, ‘Introductions’

  • introds. to his edition (with Grose) of Hume’s Treatise

  • attacks ‘the popular philosophy’ of empiricism

Frege’s Habilitation

  • ‘Methods of Calculation based on an Extension of the Concept of Magnitude’

Nietzsche, ‘On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life’

  • distinguishes monumental, antiquarian, and critical history

  • argues that history should serve life and action

Bradley, ‘The Presuppositions of Critical History’

  • argues that historical facts are constructs

  • influences Collingwood

Frege to Jena

  • returns to teach analytic geometry, theory of functions, and later, analytic mechanics; stays for rest of his career

Brentano to Vienna

  • Professor 1874–80; Privatdozent 1880–95

Birth of Ernst Cassirer

  • 28 July, Breslau, now in Poland

1875

America’s first psychology laboratory

  • founded by W. James at Harvard

1876

Bradley, Ethical Studies

  • includes ‘My Station and its Duties’

Founding of Mind

  • subtitled ‘A Quarterly Review of Psychology and Philosophy’ (ref. to psychology dropped in 1974)

  • founded and funded by Alexander Bain (cf. Sorley 1926)

  • first editor George Croom Robertson 1876–91

  • first philosophy journal in Britain and longest-running English-language philosophy journal in the world

Birth of Ralph Barton Perry

  • 3 July, Poultney, Vermont

1877

Peirce, ‘Illustrations of the Logic of Science’

  • 6 essays pub. in Popular Science Monthly 1877–8

  • 1st: ‘The Fixation of Belief’

  • 2nd: ‘How to Make Our Ideas Clear’

Birth of W. D. Ross

  • 15 April, Thurso, Scotland

1878

Meinong’s Habilitation

  • on Hume, supervised by Brentano

Green at Oxford

  • White’s Professor of Moral Philosophy 1878–82

Birth of Jan Łukasiewicz

  • 21 December, Lwów, Galicia (now Lviv, Ukraine)

1879

Frege, Begriffsschrift

  • inaugurates modern logic by applying function–argument analysis from mathematics, developing his ‘Begriffsschrift’ (‘concept-script’)

  • axiomatizes propositional logic; constructs first system of predicate logic by introducing quantifier notation (independently of Peirce)

  • lectures on his new logical system, a course he then offers most years until he retires in 1918

Germany’s first psychology laboratory

  • Institute for Experimental Psychology founded by Wundt at Leipzig

Johannes Thomae to Jena

  • Professor of Mathematics

  • maintains good relations with Frege until mid-1900s, when they dispute over formalist theories of arithmetic

Birth of John B. Watson

  • 9 January, Travelers Rest, South Carolina

Birth of Albert Einstein

  • 14 March, Ulm, Germany

1880

Founding of the Aristotelian Society

  • first meeting 3 May, Bloomsbury (see Carr 1929)

  • President Shadworth H. Hodgson 1880–94

Lotze to Berlin

  • Professor 1880–1

1881

Birth of L. E. J. Brouwer

  • 27 February, Overshie, Rotterdam

Death of Lotze

  • 1 July, Berlin

1882

Windelband, ‘What is Philosophy?’

  • argues that philosophy should be critical philosophy (in Kantian sense)

Meinong to Graz

  • Professor; remains until his death in 1920

Death of Green

  • 15 March, Oxford

Birth of Moritz Schlick

  • 14 April, Berlin

Death of Darwin

  • 19 April, Downe, Kent

Birth of Otto Neurath

  • 10 December, Vienna

1883

Bradley, The Principles of Logic

  • rejects empiricist view of judgement

Cantor, Foundations of a General Theory of Manifolds

  • fullest account of the underlying ideas of his theory of the transfinite

Green, Prolegomena to Ethics

  • argues that knowledge of nature presupposes an a priori or spiritual principle

Seth & Haldane, eds., Essays in Philosophical Criticism

  • provides manifesto of neo-Hegelianism

  • dedicated to Green

Dilthey, Introduction to the Human Sciences

  • introduces idea of the Geisteswissenschaften

Windelband, ‘Critical or Genetic Method?’

  • distinguishes critical method of philosophy from genetic method of psychology and history

Mach, Mechanics

  • a critical and historical account of its development

Sidgwick at Cambridge

  • Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy 1883–1900, when he resigns due to ill health

Death of Marx

  • 14 March, London

Birth of C. I. Lewis

  • 12 April, Stoneham, Massachusetts

1884

Frege, The Foundations of Arithmetic

  • criticizes previous views of arithmetic and outlines his own logicist view—that arithmetic is reducible to logic

  • not pub. in English until 1950

Keynes, Studies and Exercises in Formal Logic

  • exposition of Aristotelian logic

  • revised and enlarged 1887, 1894, 1906

Stout at Cambridge

  • Fellow, St John’s College 1884–96

Whitehead at Cambridge

  • Fellow in Mathematics, Trinity College 1884–1910

1885

Kerry, series of articles

  • 8 parts 1885–91; discusses Bolzano and Frege

Birth of L. Susan Stebbing

  • 2 December, London

1886

Mach, The Analysis of Sensations

  • naturalist account of the dynamic relationship between experience and (a priori) cognitive structures

Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil

  • first section ‘On the Prejudices of Philosophers’

Ward, ‘Psychology’

  • influential Encyclopedia article

Birth of Stanisław Les´niewski

  • 30 March, Serphukhov, near Moscow

Birth of Tadeusz Kotarbin´ski

  • 31 March, Warsaw

1887

Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals

  • develops critique of Christianity

  • §12 of third essay: statement of his perspectivism

Brentano, ‘Descriptive Psychology’

  • lectures, Vienna 1887–91; first pub. 1982

  • distinguishes descriptive from genetic psychology

Birth of C. D. Broad

  • 30 December, Harlesden, London

1888

Dedekind, What are the numbers and what are they for?

  • seeks to reduce arithmetic to ‘logic’, i.e., set theory

  • defines both natural numbers and a notion of infinity

  • formulates (Dedekind-)Peano axioms, as now called

Case, Physical Realism

  • early statement of Oxford realism

  • subtitled ‘An analytical philosophy from the physical objects of science to the physical data of sense’

Founding of Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

  • first symposium of Aristotelian Society on ‘Is Mind Synonymous with Consciousness?’

Founding of The Monist

  • founding editor Edward C. Hegeler

  • first issue 1890

Founding of Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie

  • founding editor Ludwig Stein

  • first article by Zeller (1888), Berlin

1889

Peano, ‘The principles of arithmetic…’

  • formulation of (Dedekind-)Peano axioms

Cook Wilson succeeds Thomas Fowler

  • Wykeham Professor of Logic, Oxford 1889–1915

Thomas Case at Oxford

  • Waynflete Professor of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy 1889–1910

Santayana at Harvard

  • Professor 1889–1912, when he retires early to live and write in Europe

Birth of R. G. Collingwood

  • 22 February, Cartmel Fell, Lancashire

Birth of Ludwig Wittgenstein

  • 26 April, Vienna

Birth of Martin Heidegger

  • 26 September, Meßkirch, Germany

1890

James, The Principles of Psychology

  • his main work

Founding of International Journal of Ethics

  • founding editor S. Burns Weston 1890–1914 (Tufts 1923)

  • became Ethics: An International Journal of Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy in 1938

Russell to Cambridge

  • Trinity College; BA in Mathematics 1893; Moral Sciences Part II 1894

Birth of Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz

  • 12 December, Ternopil, Galicia (now in Ukraine)

1891

Frege, ‘Function und Concept’

  • lecture given 9 January

  • explains his conception of concepts as functions

  • first draws distinction between sense and reference

Husserl, Philosophy of Arithmetic

  • criticizes Frege’s Foundations

  • sends Frege a copy in April/May, prompting an exchange of letters; they correspond again 1906–7

Cantor, ‘On an Elementary Question in the Theory of Manifolds’

  • first appearance of ‘diagonal argument’ for the existence of non-denumerable sets

  • cardinality of power set ℘(X) > cardinality of set X

Mind changes hands

  • Sidgwick takes over financial support

  • Stout becomes editor, 1891–1920

  • new series begun, 1892 onwards

Founding of Philosophical Review

  • part of endowment of Sage School of Philosophy, Cornell

  • founding editor Jacob Gould Schurman; first issue 1892

Founding of Rivista di matematica

  • founding editor Peano

Birth of Rudolf Carnap

  • 18 May, Ronsdorf, Germany

Birth of Hans Reichenbach

  • 26 September, Hamburg

1892

Frege, ‘On Sense and Reference’

  • classic account of distinction

Frege, ‘On Concept and Object’

  • defends absolute distinction between concept and object

  • last of his three seminal papers of 1891–2

Rickert, The Object of Knowledge

  • sees acknowledgement of truth value as expression of a ‘will to truth’

Moore to Cambridge

  • studies classics and then philosophy; meets Russell

Cassirer at Berlin

  • studies 1892–6

1893

Frege, Basic Laws of Arithmetic, vol. 1

  • his main work, seeking to formally demonstrate logicism; vol. 2 1903

  • selections first tr. into English 1915–17; further trs. 1952, 1964; no complete tr. until 2013

Bradley, Appearance and Reality

  • fullest development of his absolute idealism

  • argues for the unreality of relations

McTaggart, A Further Determination of the Absolute

  • his first (short) work, outlining neo-Hegelian programme

Alexander to Manchester

  • Samuel Hall Professor of Philosophy 1893–1924, when he retires

Boltzmann to Vienna

  • Professor of Theoretical Physics 1893–1906

Hägerström at Uppsala

  • teaches; Professor 1911–33

  • founds Uppsala School of Philosophy and Scandinavian legal realist tradition

Birth of John Anderson

  • 1 November, Stonehouse, near Glasgow

1894

Twardowski, On the Content and Object of Presentations

  • Habilitationsschrift, Vienna; most influential work

  • reworks Bolzano’s content/object distinction in a Brentanian framework

  • reviewed by Stout (1894)

Frege, review of Husserl

  • criticizes Husserl’s Philosophy of Arithmetic

  • helps convert Husserl to anti-psychologism

Poincaré, ‘On the Nature of Mathematical Reasoning’

  • rejects (logicist) view that mathematical induction can be analysed purely logically

Dilthey, ‘Ideas for a Descriptive and Analytic Psychology’

  • distinguishes natural sciences from human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften)

  • psychology included in latter

Hertz, The Principles of Mechanics

  • geometrizes mechanics to eliminate forces

Death of Hertz

  • 1 January, Bonn

Death of Helmholtz

  • 8 September, Charlottenburg, Germany

1895

Russell, ‘The Foundations of Geometry’

  • Cambridge Fellowship dissertation, awarded 10 October

  • refashions a Kantian view in light of non-Euclidean geometry

  • rev. and pub. 1897; reviewed by Moore (1899b)

Peano, Formulaire de Mathématiques, vol. 1

  • vol. 2 1897–9; vol. 3 1901; vol. 4 1903

Lewis Carroll, ‘What the Tortoise said to Achilles’

  • presents paradox of inference

  • distinguishes between assumption and rule of inference

Frege meets Hilbert in Lübeck

  • talks on Peano’s notation at a convention in September

  • writes to Hilbert 1 October, prompting a dispute over the foundations of geometry

Hilbert to Göttingen

  • Professor of Mathematics 1895–1930, when he retires

Mach to Vienna

  • Professor of the History and Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences 1895–1901, when he retires

Twardowski to Lvov

  • Professor 1895–1930, when he retires

  • founds Lvov School, later known (after First World War) as Lvov–Warsaw School

Death of Engels

  • 5 August, London

1896

Stout, Analytic Psychology

  • analytic distinguished from genetic psychology

  • theory of thought reference

Bergson, Matter and Memory

McTaggart, Studies in the Hegelian Dialectic

  • first of his books on Hegel

Santayana, The Sense of Beauty

  • offers naturalistic account

Hobhouse, Theory of Knowledge

  • develops perceptual realism

Rickert, The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science

  • subtitled ‘A Logical Introduction to the Historical Sciences’

  • 1st vol.; 2nd vol. 1902

Founding of chair at Cambridge

  • Professorship of Mental Philosophy and Logic

  • first holder: James Ward 1897

Stout to Aberdeen

  • Anderson Lecturer in Comparative Psychology 1896–9

Cassirer to Marburg

  • Ph.D. with Cohen 1896–9; pub. as introduction to book on Leibniz (1902)

Birth of Friedrich Waismann

  • 21 March, Vienna

1897

Moore, ‘The Metaphysical Basis of Ethics’

  • Cambridge Fellowship dissertation, unsuccessful in 1897

  • revised 1898, successful; Fellow 1898–1904

McTaggart at Cambridge

  • Lecturer in Moral Sciences, Trinity College 1897–1923

Łukasiewicz at Lwów

  • begins university, studying with Twardowski

  • Lecturer 1906, Professor 1911–15

1898

Stout, A Manual of Psychology

  • genetic approach (unlike Stout 1896)

  • theory of embodied self

  • becomes standard textbook; 5th edn. 1938

Whitehead, A Treatise on Universal Algebra

  • comparative study of algebras

Russell, ‘An Analysis of Mathematical Reasoning’

  • formulates a ‘contradiction of relativity’ which depends on doctrine of internal relations

Moore, ‘The Elements of Ethics’

  • lectures given in London; form basis of first 3 chapters of Principia Ethica

1899

Moore, ‘The Nature of Judgment’

  • first published rejection of Bradley’s idealism

  • naïve realism asserted instead

  • discussed by Ryle (1970b)

Russell, draft of Principles of Mathematics

  • rejects doctrine of internal relations to avoid contradictions in mathematics (see 1899/1900, p. 93)

Meinong, ‘On Objects of Higher Order…’

  • distinguishes between object and mental content

  • discussed by Russell (1904a)

Hilbert, Foundations of Geometry

  • develops axiomatic approach

  • approach discussed further in Hilbert 1918

Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams

  • presents his theory of dreams as unconscious wish-fulfilments

Stout to Oxford

  • first Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy 1899–1903

Birth of Henry H. Price

  • 17 May, Neath, Wales

1900

Russell, A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz

  • first work of ‘analytic’ history of philosophy

  • seeks to show that Leibniz’s philosophy follows from just five premises, which also generate inconsistencies

  • distinguishes two conceptions of history of philosophy, one ‘mainly historical’, the other ‘mainly philosophical’

  • reviewed by Cassirer (1902)

Husserl, Logical Investigations

  • vol. 1 (Prolegomena) long critique of psychologism

  • vol. 2 1901

Moore, ‘Necessity’

  • reduces necessity to relative logical priority

Hilbert, ‘On the Concept of Number’

  • applies axiomatic method to number theory

  • distinguishes axiomatic from genetic method

Hilbert, ‘Mathematical Problems’

  • address to International Congress of Mathematicians, Paris, where he presents his 23 unsolved problems, incl. continuum hypothesis and consistency of arithmetic

Bergson, Laughter

  • brings up the rire?

Russell meets Peano

  • International Congress of Philosophy, Paris, August

  • ‘a turning point in my intellectual life’ (1975, p. 147)

  • learns new logic and begins to develop logic of relations

  • September ‘the highest point of my life’ (1975, p. 148)

William Ritchie Sorley succeeds Sidgwick

  • Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy, Cambridge

  • Sorley, an idealist, retires 1933

New series of Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

  • now pub. annually

Mind Association founded

  • formed on Sidgwick’s death to manage Mind

Birth of R. B. Braithwaite

  • 15 January, Banbury

Birth of Hans-Georg Gadamer

  • 11 February, Marburg

Birth of Gilbert Ryle

  • 19 August, Brighton

Death of Nietzsche

  • 25 August, Weimar

Death of Sidgwick

  • 28 August, Terling, Essex

1901

Russell, ‘The Logic of Relations’

  • first fruit of work on new logic (1901a)

Baldwin, ed., Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology

  • highly influential dictionary

  • 3 vols. 1901–2

Couturat, The Logic of Leibniz

Mauthner, Contributions to a Critique of Language

  • 3 vols. on ‘Language and Psychology’ (1901), ‘On Linguistics’ (1901), ‘On Grammar and Logic’ (1902)

Russell discovers paradox

  • first formulation of eponymous paradox (1901b, p. 195)

Founding of American Philosophical Association

Birth of Alfred Tarski

  • 14 January, Warsaw (born Alfred Tajtelbaum)

Birth of Ernest Nagel

  • 16 November, Vágújhely (now Nové Mesto nad Váhom, Slovakia)

1902

James, The Varieties of Religious Experience

  • Gifford lectures, Edinburgh 1901–2

Meinong, On Assumptions

Brentano, The Origin of the Knowledge of Right and Wrong

Cassirer, Leibniz’s System

  • contains review of Russell’s book on Leibniz

Schiller, ‘Axioms as Postulates’

  • first statement of British pragmatism

Russell writes to Frege

  • having started to read Frege properly, informs Frege on 16 June of the contradiction in his logical system

  • prompts correspondence over the next two years, with occasional letters later

  • paradox devastates Frege, eventually leading him to abandon his logicism and concentrate on explaining his logical ideas

  • Russell develops first theory of types in August

Perry to Harvard

  • teaches; Professor 1913–46, when he retires

Birth of Karl Popper

  • 28 July, Vienna

Birth of Herbert Feigl

  • 14 December, Reichenberg, Bohemia

1903

Frege, Basic Laws of Arithmetic, vol. 2

  • in press when he received Russell’s letter

  • hastily written appendix responding to Russell’s paradox—unsuccessfully, Frege soon realized

Russell, The Principles of Mathematics

  • first attempt at a comprehensive account of mathematics

  • early theory of denoting

  • app. A: first exposition of Frege’s philosophy

Moore, Principia Ethica

  • critique of ethical naturalism, focused on the supposed ‘naturalistic fallacy’

Moore, ‘The Refutation of Idealism’

  • fullest early critique of idealism

Frege, ‘On the Foundations of Geometry: First Series’

  • first of Frege’s essays on Hilbert’s work

Bergson, ‘Introduction to Metaphysics’

  • criticizes analysis and valorizes ‘intuition’

  • tr. 1912

Schiller, Humanism: Philosophical Essays

  • first collection elaborating his pragmatism

  • second collection 1907

Weininger, Sex and Character

  • distinguishes masculinity and femininity as ideal types

  • Weininger kills himself a few months after publication

Stout to St Andrews

  • Professor of Logic and Metaphysics 1903–36, when he retires

Cassirer to Berlin

  • Habilitation 1903–6; published as Cassirer 1906

  • Privatdozent 1906–19

Birth of Frank P. Ramsey

  • 22 February, Cambridge

Birth of Alonzo Church

  • 14 June, Washington, DC

1904

Russell, ‘Meinong’s Theory of Complexes and Assumptions’

  • critique of Meinong 1899 and 1902

  • Stout had recommended the former to Russell and Meinong had sent him the latter

Meinong, ‘On the Theory of Objects’

Stout, ‘Primary and Secondary Qualities’

  • defends form of representative realism

Founding of The Journal of Philosophy

  • original title ‘The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods’; changed 1923

  • founding editors Frederick J. E. Woodbridge and J. McKeen Cattell; pub. Columbia University

Birth of B. F. Skinner

  • 20 March, Susquehanna, Pennsylvania

Birth of John Wisdom

  • 12 September, London

1905

Russell, ‘On Denoting’

  • first formulation of theory of descriptions

  • a ‘paradigm of philosophy’, as Ramsey later called it

Einstein, annus mirabilis papers

  • on photoelectric effect, Brownian motion, special theory of relativity, and E = mc2

Santayana, The Life of Reason

  • offers naturalistic account of reason in common sense, society, religion, art, science; 5 vols. 1905–6

  • ‘Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it’ (I, p. 284)

Mach, Knowledge and Error

  • subtitled ‘Sketches on the Psychology of Enquiry’

Birth of Carl Hempel

  • 8 January, Oranienburg, near Berlin

Birth of Jean-Paul Sartre

  • 21 June, Paris

1906

Frege, ‘On the Foundations of Geometry: Second Series’

  • second and much longer of Frege’s essays on Hilbert’s work

Joachim, The Nature of Truth

  • criticizes correspondence theory, and offers qualified defence of coherence theory (in idealist tradition)

  • criticizes Russell’s early view in ch. 2

Joseph, An Introduction to Logic

  • exposition of traditional Aristotelian logic

MacColl, Symbolic Logic

  • summary of his logic, including systems of modal logic

  • reviewed by Russell (1906)

Duhem, The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory

  • formulates Duhem thesis, as now known, that theory is underdetermined by empirical fact

  • criticizes idea of crucial experiments

  • 2nd edn. 1914; tr. 1954

Correspondence between Frege and Husserl

  • second exchange of letters October 1906–January 1907

Wittgenstein to Berlin

  • studies mechanical engineering at the Technische Hochschule, 3 semesters

Birth of Kurt Gödel

  • 28 April, Brünn (now Brno), Moravia

Birth of Gustav Bergmann

  • 4 May, Vienna

Birth of William Kneale

  • 22 June, Liverpool

Birth of Nelson Goodman

  • 7 August, Somerville, Massachusetts

Death of Boltzmann

  • 5 September, Duino, near Trieste, Italy

1907

James, Pragmatism

Russell, ‘The Regressive Method…’

  • paper given at Cambridge Mathematical Club, 9 March

Birth of H. L. A. Hart

  • 18 July, Harrogate, Yorkshire

Birth of Gregory Vlastos

  • 27 July, Istanbul

1908

Russell, ‘Mathematical Logic as Based on the Theory of Types’

  • develops theory of types to solve the logical and semantic paradoxes

  • formulates the Vicious Circle Principle

Poincaré, Science and Method

  • part 2: ‘Mathematical Reasoning’

  • criticizes Cantor, Couturat, Russell, Hilbert

Brouwer, ‘The unreliability of the logical principles’

  • first publication of argument against law of excluded middle

McTaggart, ‘The Unreality of Time’

  • argues for the unreality of time by distinguishing A-series and B-series

Birth of Maurice Merleau-Ponty

  • 14 March, Rochefort-sur-Mer

Birth of W. V. O. Quine

  • 25 June, Akron, Ohio

Birth of C. L. Stevenson

  • 27 June, Cincinnati, Ohio

1909

Prichard, Kant’s Theory of Knowledge

  • argues that knowledge is sui generis and that there can be no ‘theory’ of knowledge

Wittgenstein to Manchester

  • studies aeronautical engineering

  • becomes interested in foundations of mathematics

  • reads Russell 1903, Frege 1893/1903; tries to solve Russell’s paradox

Brouwer at Amsterdam

  • teaches; Professor 1912–51, when he retires

Birth of Max Black

  • 24 February, Baku, then in Russia

Birth of Isaiah Berlin

  • 6 June, Riga, Latvia

Birth of Tscha Hung

  • 21 October, Anhui, China

1910

Whitehead & Russell, Principia Mathematica

  • their main work, attempting to demonstrate logicism

  • vol. 1 December 1910, vol. 2 April 1912, vol. 3 April 1913

Russell, Philosophical Essays

  • collection of papers mainly on pragmatism and truth

Moore, ‘Some Main Problems of Philosophy’

  • lectures 1910–11; not published until 1953

  • talks of ‘sense-data’

Perry, ‘The Ego-Centric Predicament’

  • criticizes idealism

Manifesto of American realism

  • ‘The Program and First Platform of Six Realists’: Holt, Marvin, Montague, Perry, Pitkin, and Spaulding

Cassirer, Substance und Function

  • critique of empiricist abstractionism, drawing on mathematical logic, especially the notion of function

Russell at Cambridge

  • Lecturer in Logic and the Principles of Mathematics 1910–15

Carnap studies at Jena

  • philosophy, mathematics, physics 1910–14

  • attends Frege’s course on ‘Begriffsschrift’, winter semester 1910/11

Whitehead to London

  • UCL 1910–14; Professor of Applied Mathematics, Imperial College, 1914–24

J. A. Smith succeeds Thomas Case

  • Waynflete Professor of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy, Oxford 1910–35

Death of James

  • 26 August, Chocorua, New Hampshire

Birth of A. J. Ayer

  • 29 October, London

1911

Russell, ‘The Basis of Realism’

  • clarifies his realism in relation to the manifesto of American realism (Holt et al. 1910)

Russell, ‘Knowledge by Acquaintance and Knowledge by Description’

  • first formulation of distinction

  • read to Aris. Soc. 6 March

Russell, ‘Analytic Realism’

  • lecture to Société française de philosophie 23 March

  • analytic realism described as an ‘atomic philosophy’

Russell, ‘On the Relation of Universals and Particulars’

  • Presidential Address to Aris. Soc., 30 October; attended by Bergson

  • argues that the division of objects into particulars and universals is fundamental

Hägerström, ‘On the Truth of Moral Propositions’

  • defends axiological nihilism, a form of emotivism

  • inaugural lecture; key event in founding of Uppsala School of Philosophy

Wittgenstein visits Frege for the first time

  • Wittgenstein writes first letter to Frege, outlining his philosophical ideas and asking to visit him

  • beginning of a correspondence that lasts until 1920

  • Frege recommends that Wittgenstein study with Russell

Moore to Cambridge

  • Lecturer 1911–25

Wittgenstein meets Russell

  • 18 October, Cambridge; attends Russell’s lectures and has discussions with him

Broad to St Andrews

  • assistant to Stout, then lecturer in Dundee

  • also holds Cambridge Prize Fellowship, but non-resident

Bruno Bauch succeeds Otto Liebmann

  • Professor of Philosophy, Jena

  • Bauch interested in Frege’s work and later encourages his ‘Logical Investigations’, pub. in journal Bauch founded: Beiträge zur Philosophie des deutschen Idealismus

C. I. Lewis to Berkeley

  • teaches 1911–20

Birth of J. L. Austin

  • 26 March, Lancaster

Birth of Norman Malcolm

  • 11 June, Selden, Kansas

Death of Dilthey

  • 1 October, Seis am Schlern, Italy

1912

Russell, The Problems of Philosophy

  • Russell’s ‘shilling shocker’, pub. January (completed August 1911)

  • discusses matter, idealism, knowledge, universals, truth

Russell, ‘On the Notion of Cause’

  • Presidential Address to Aris. Soc., 4 November (re-elected for a second year)

  • argues that the notion of causation is confused

Lewis, ‘Implication and the Algebra of Logic’

  • critique of Russell, outlining paradoxes of material implication

Brouwer, ‘Intuitionism and Formalism’

  • inaugural lecture 14 October; tr. 1913

  • first presentation of intuitionism

Holt et al., New Realism

  • cooperative work of the six American realists

Perry, Present Philosophical Tendencies

  • subtitled ‘a Critical Survey of Naturalism, Idealism, Pragmatism and Realism Together with a Synopsis of the Philosophy of William James’

Moore, Ethics

  • shorter restatement of Principia Ethica, with a chapter on free will

Prichard, ‘Does Moral Philosophy Rest on a Mistake?’

  • argues that the mistake lies in seeking a unifying moral principle

  • defends a pluralist intuitionism

Jourdain, ‘Gottlob Frege’

  • survey of Frege’s ideas

Schiller, Formal Logic

  • criticizes emphasis on deductive logic

Russell, ‘The Philosophy of Bergson’

  • critique of Bergson, whom he had met for the first time on 28 October 1911

Wittgenstein to Cambridge

  • Trinity College, February; works with Russell

5th International Congress of Mathematicians

  • Cambridge, 22–28 August

  • Russell presides over section on philosophical questions; he had invited Frege, who declined, but Peano attends

Wittgenstein visits Frege for the second time

  • Brunshaupten, on the Mecklenburg coast

  • discusses the ‘complex problem’, as he writes to Russell afterwards (2008, p. 36)

Birth of Wilfrid Sellars

  • 20 May, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Birth of Alan Turing

  • 23 June, Paddington, London

Death of Poincaré

  • 17 July, Paris

1913

Wittgenstein, ‘Notes on Logic’

  • compiled for Russell, October (Notebooks, App. 1)

Russell, ‘The Nature of Sense-Data’

  • reply (written October 1912) to Dawes Hicks’ (1912) critique of Russell 1912b

Husserl, Ideas I

  • full title ‘Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy’; first tr. 1931

Watson, ‘Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It’

  • behaviourist manifesto

Wittgenstein criticizes Russell

  • Wittgenstein attacks Russell’s theory of judgement, May

  • Russell abandons work on his Theory of Knowledge

Carnap attends Frege’s lectures

  • ‘Begriffsschrift II’, summer semester

Wittgenstein to Norway

  • arrives 14 October and stays until June 1914, with a break at Christmas

Wittgenstein visits Frege for the third time

  • has discussions over several days in December

Birth of H. Paul Grice

  • 13 March, Birmingham

1914

Frege, ‘Logic in Mathematics’

  • lectures which Carnap attends, summer semester

  • pub. 1969

Russell, ‘On the Nature of Acquaintance’

  • pub. in 3 parts in Monist

  • analyses experience as relation of acquaintance between a subject and an object, and criticizes neutral monism

Russell, ‘The Relation of Sense-Data to Physics’

  • written January, introducing talk of ‘sensibilia’

  • formulates his ‘supreme maxim’ that ‘logical constructions are to be substituted for inferred entities’

Russell, Our Knowledge of the External World

  • Lowell lectures, Harvard, March–April; invited by Perry; meets James and Sheffer; pub. August

  • argues that all philosophy is logic and extends the method of logical construction

Moore and Stout debate sense-data

  • at Joint Session

Russell, ‘On Scientific Method in Philosophy’

  • Herbert Spencer Lecture, Oxford, 18 November

  • argues that the essence of philosophy is logical analysis

Wittgenstein, ‘Notes dictated to G. E. Moore’

  • dictated in Norway, April

  • pub. as App. 2 of Notebooks 1914–1916

Broad, Perception, Physics, and Reality

  • based on 1911 Cambridge Prize Fellowship dissertation

Alexander, ‘The Basis of Realism’

  • argues for his form of direct realism

Bradley, Essays on Truth and Reality

  • collection of his papers, including several on truth

Watson, Behavior

  • classic behaviourist work; rev. edn. 1930

Wittgenstein to Vienna

  • returns July and enlists in Austrian army

  • serves on the Eastern Front, and later on the Italian Front

Einstein to Berlin

  • Professor and Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute 1914–33

Death of Peirce

  • 19 April, Milford, Pennsylvania

Birth of Arthur N. Prior

  • 4 December, Masterton, New Zealand

1915

Russell, ‘The Ultimate Constituents of Matter’

  • address to Phil. Soc. of Manchester, February

  • articulates a realism ‘not remote’ from Alexander 1914

Selections from Frege’s Basic Laws translated

  • first translation of any of Frege’s work

  • tr. Jourdain and Stachelroth, pub. Monist 1915–17

Stebbing at London

  • Bedford College: Lecturer (part-time) 1915; Lecturer 1920; Reader 1927; Professor 1933

Łukasiewicz to Warsaw

  • Professor 1915–44

Death of Cook Wilson

  • 11 August, Oxford

Death of Windelband

  • 22 October, Heidelberg, Germany

1916

Einstein, ‘The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity’

  • first full exposition of the theory

Russell loses lectureship at Cambridge

  • dismissed by Trinity College because of opposition to war

Death of Dedekind

  • 12 February, Braunschweig, Germany

Death of Mach

  • 19 February, Vaterstetten, Germany

Birth of Peter T. Geach

  • 29 March, Chelsea, London

Birth of G. H. von Wright

  • 14 June, Helsinki

Death of Duhem

  • 14 September, Cabesprine, near Carcassonne, France

Birth of Roderick Chisholm

  • 27 November, North Attleboro, Massachusetts

1917

Hägerström, On the Question of the Notion of Law

  • develops theory of valuation combining emotivism and an error theory

Stebbing meets Moore

  • Stebbing reads paper at the Aris. Soc. and is persuaded by Moore that she is wrong

  • converted to a more Moorean philosophy

Birth of Donald Davidson

  • 6 March, Springfield, Massachusetts

Death of Brentano

  • 17 March, Zurich

Birth of Morton White

  • 29 April, New York

Birth of John L. Mackie

  • 25 August, Sydney, Australia

1918

Frege, ‘Thought’ and ‘Negation’

  • first two essays of his ‘Logical Investigations’

Russell, ‘The Philosophy of Logical Atomism’

  • course of 8 lectures given in London 22 January–12 March

  • claims to explain ideas learnt from Wittgenstein

  • introduces talk of ‘logical construction’

Russell, Mysticism and Logic

  • collection of key papers 1911–15, plus 3 earlier ones

Schlick, General Theory of Knowledge

  • defends scientific realism and a form/content distinction in rejecting the synthetic a priori

  • first mind/brain identity theory

  • 2nd edn. 1925

C. I. Lewis, A Survey of Symbolic Logic

  • surveys existing logical systems and introduces his modal system of strict implication (chs. 5–6)

  • repr. 1960 without chs. 5–6

Brouwer, ‘Founding Set Theory…’

  • begins intuitionist reconstruction of set theory

Frege retires from Jena

  • moves to Bad Kleinen, near Wismar

  • gift of money from Wittgenstein helps buy a house

Russell in Brixton prison

  • jailed for an anti-war article, May–September

  • writes Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

Wittgenstein back in Austria

  • during leave from the war in the summer, completes more or less final version of Tractatus

Wittgenstein in prisoner-of-war camp

  • Cassino, Italy, October 1918–August 1919

Death of Cantor

  • 6 January, Halle, Germany

1919

Russell, Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

  • his clearest, non-technical exposition of his logical and logicist views

Russell, ‘On Propositions’

  • comes to agree with James in rejecting the subject

  • contains discussion of Watson’s Behavior (1914)

Moore, ‘External and Internal Relations’

  • critique of the claim (attributed to Bradley) that all relations are internal

Correspondence between Wittgenstein and Frege

  • Frege receives a copy of the Tractatus in early 1919, but writes on 28 June that he finds it hard to understand

Wittgenstein in Vienna

  • trains to be a school teacher October 1919–July 1920

Russell meets Wittgenstein

  • The Hague, 12 December

  • they spend a week discussing the Tractatus

Stout gives Gifford lectures

  • Edinburgh 1919, 1921; later pub. as Stout 1931, 1952

  • introduces idea of philosophical zombie, as now known

Lesńniewski to Warsaw

  • Professor of the Foundations of Mathematics 1919–39

Kotarbin´ski at Warsaw

  • teaches; Professor from 1929

Joachim succeeds Cook Wilson

  • Wykeham Professor of Logic, Oxford

  • retires 1935

Cassirer to Hamburg

  • Professor 1919–33, when he emigrates

  • Rector 1929–30

Birth of Elizabeth Anscombe

  • 18 March, Limerick, Ireland

Birth of Richard M. Hare

  • 21 March, Backwell, Somerset

Birth of Peter F. Strawson

  • 23 November, Ealing, London

1920

Alexander, Space, Time, and Deity

  • his main work, developing a speculative metaphysics based on a form of direct realism

  • sees metaphysics as just more comprehensive than the special sciences

Reichenbach, The Theory of Relativity and A Priori Knowledge

  • Habilitationsschrift; tr. 1965

Brouwer, ‘Does Every Real Number Have a Decimal Expansion?’

  • inaugurates foundational debate between intuitionists and formalists in the 1920s (cf. Mancosu 1998

Ajdukiewicz, From the Methodology of the Deductive Sciences

  • 3 essays on logical concept of proof, proofs of consistency of axioms, notion of existence

  • orig. in Polish; tr. 1966

Łukasiewicz, ‘On Three-Valued Logic’

  • presents three-valued logic, discovered in 1918

  • invents Polish notation around same time

Sorley, A History of English Philosophy

  • offers a critical history, using the criticisms of philosophers made by their successors

Founding of The Personalist

  • founding editor Ralph Tyler Flewelling

  • becomes Pacific Philosophical Quarterly in 1980

C. I. Lewis to Harvard

  • Professor 1920–53, when he retires; Edgar Peirce Professor 1948–53

Broad to Bristol

  • Professor 1920–3

Reichenbach to Stuttgart

  • instructor in physics, then Professor, 1920–6

Russell visits Russia

  • May–June, accompanied by Dora Black

Wittgenstein teaches

  • Trattenbach September 1920–June 1922; Hassbach September–October 1923; Puchberg November 1923–July 1924; Otterthal September 1924–April 1926 (when he resigned after hitting a child)

Russell and Black visit China

  • October–July, though Russell spends his last 3 months recovering from a near-fatal illness

  • meets Dewey, October

  • gives 5 series of lectures in Beijing

Death of Wundt

  • 31 August, Grossbothen, Leipzig

Birth of Philippa Foot

  • 3 October, Owston Ferry, Lincolnshire

Death of Meinong

  • 27 November, Graz

1921

Wittgenstein, Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung

  • original German publication of Tractatus

  • tr. Ogden and Ramsey, introd. by Russell, 1922

Russell, The Analysis of Mind

  • rejecting both the subject and sense-data, hence no longer treating sensation as relational, adopts neutral monism

McTaggart, The Nature of Existence, vol. 1

  • his main work, in idealist tradition; vol. 2 1927

  • argues that ultimate reality consists of loving spirits

Stout, ‘The Nature of Universals and Propositions’

  • British Academy lecture

  • argues for the existence of tropes, as now called

Carnap, Der Raum

  • doctoral dissertation, Jena

Johnson, Logic, vol. 1

  • vol. 2 1922; vol. 3 1924

  • distinguishes sentences, assertions, and propositions

Helmholtz, Epistemological Writings

  • ed. Hertz and Schlick

Moore succeeds Stout

  • Editor of Mind 1921–47

Birth of John Rawls

  • 21 February, Baltimore, Maryland

Birth of Ruth Barcan Marcus

  • 2 August, New York (born Ruth Barcan)

1922

Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

  • …? (7)

Russell, ‘Introduction’ to Tractatus

  • not well-received by Wittgenstein himself

Moore, Philosophical Studies

  • first collection of papers

Hilbert, ‘The New Grounding of Mathematics’

  • develops his formalism

  • identifies a finitary core of ‘contentual’ number theory, based on the operation of signs

Husserl, lectures

  • 4 lectures on ‘Phenomenological Method and Phenomenological Philosophy’, London, June

Russell visits Wittgenstein

  • Austria, August

Schlick at Vienna

  • Professor of the History and Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences 1922–36

Birth of Thomas Kuhn

  • 18 July, Cincinnati, Ohio

Birth of Imre Lakatos

  • 9 November, Debrecen, Hungary (born Imre Lipschitz)

1923

Frege, ‘Compound Thoughts’

  • third essay of ‘Logical Investigations’

  • fourth essay, on ‘Logical Generality’, never completed

Ramsey, review of Tractatus

  • after its publication, visits Wittgenstein in Puchberg for 2 weeks in September, discussing the Tractatus

C. I. Lewis, ‘A Pragmatic Conception of the A Priori

  • introduces his ‘conceptual pragmatism’

Broad, Scientific Thought

  • develops sense-datum theory of perception

Ogden & Richard, The Meaning of Meaning

  • subtitled ‘A Study of The Influence of Language upon Thought and of The Science of Symbolism’

  • many subsequent edns., up to 10th edn. 1949

Cassirer, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, vol. 1

  • his main work

  • vol. 2 1925; vol. 3 1929

Santayana, Scepticism and Animal Faith

  • naturalistic critique of epistemological foundationalism

Founding of Australasian Journal of Philosophy

  • founded as The Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy by Australasian Association of Philosophy

  • founding editor Francis Anderson, Sydney

Carnap meets Reichenbach

  • Erlangen conference on logic and scientific philosophy

Broad succeeds McTaggart

  • Lecturer, Cambridge

Birth of Wolfgang Stegmüller

  • 3 June, Natters, near Innsbruck, Austria

1924

Russell, ‘Logical Atomism’

Russell, ‘Philosophy of the Twentieth Century’

  • distinguishes three (not exclusive) groups: adherents of German idealism; pragmatists, incl. James and Bergson; realists, also incl. James

  • repr. as first chapter of Part II of Runes 1943

Bradley, ‘Relations’

  • his final account of relations, replying to Russell

Muirhead, ed., Contemporary British Philosophy (First Series)

  • contributors: Baillie, Bosanquet, Broad, Carr, Haldane, Hobhouse, Inge, Laird, Mackenzie, McTaggart, Morgan, Muirhead, Read, Russell (1924a), Schiller, Temple

Whitehead to Harvard

  • Professor of Philosophy 1924–37, when he retires

Carnap attends Husserl’s lectures

  • summer semesters 1924 and 1925, Freiburg

Founding of the British Institute of Philosophy

  • inaugural meeting 10 November; attended by Russell

  • now the Royal Institute of Philosophy

Birth of Paul Feyerabend

  • 13 January, Vienna

Death of Bradley

  • 18 September, Oxford

1925

Moore, ‘A Defence of Common Sense’

  • lists truisms he claims to know with certainty

  • distinguishes between understanding the meaning of an expression and being able to give its correct analysis

Ramsey, ‘The Foundations of Mathematics’

  • defends logicism by amending Principia Mathematica

  • distinguishes between logical and semantic paradoxes

Russell & Whitehead, 2nd edn. Principia Mathematica

Broad, The Mind and its Place in Nature

  • emergence of emergentism

Whitehead, Science and the Modern World

  • challenges scientific materialism

Dewey, Experience and Nature

  • develops an event ontology

Muirhead, ed., Contemporary British Philosophy (Second Series)

  • contributors: Ward, Bax, Fawcett, Dawes Hicks, Hoernlé, Joad, Moore (1925), Smith, Sorley, Taylor, Thomson, Webb

Moore succeeds Ward

  • Professor, Cambridge 1925–39, when he retires

Wittgenstein visits England

  • August, meets Keynes, Johnson; argues with Ramsey

Carnap visits Vienna

  • meets Schlick

Hempel to Berlin

  • Ph.D. 1934; studies with Reichenbach

Passing away of McTaggart

  • 18 January, London

Differentiation of Gilles Deleuze

  • 18 January, Paris

Birth of Michael Dummett

  • 27 June, London

Death of Frege

  • 26 July, Bad Kleinen, Germany

Death of Case

  • 31 October, Falmouth

1926

Cook Wilson, Statement and Inference

  • main work of Oxford realism

  • edited from his lecture courses by Farquharson; 2 vols.

Durant, The Story of Philosophy

  • final two chs. on contemporary European philosophy (Bergson, Croce, Russell) and American philosophy (Santayana, James, Dewey)

Carnap to Vienna

  • teaches philosophy 1926–31

Reichenbach to Berlin

  • Professor ‘for epistemological issues in physics’ 1926–33

Wittgenstein in Vienna

  • joins Engelmann in designing and supervising the building of a house for his sister Gretl, 1926–8

Birth of David Armstrong

  • 8 July, Melbourne, Australia

Birth of Hilary Putnam

  • 31 July, Chicago

Birth of Stanley Cavell

  • 1 September, Atlanta

Birth of Michel Foucault

  • 15 October, Poitiers, France

1927

Russell, The Analysis of Matter

  • three parts on the logical analysis of physics, physics and perception, and the structure of the physical world

Ramsey, ‘Facts and Propositions’

  • introduces redundancy theory of truth

Anderson, ‘Empiricism’

  • founding statement of Australian realism

  • paper read at annual congress of AAPP

Heidegger, Being and Time

  • reviewed by Ryle (1929), who calls it an ‘advance’ but ‘towards disaster’

  • not tr. until 1962

Santayana, The Realms of Being

  • vol. 1 on essence, 1927; vol. 2 on matter, 1930; vol. 3 on truth, 1937; vol. 4 on spirit 1940

Hägerström, The Roman Concept of Obligation…

  • key text in founding of Scandinavian legal realist tradition; vol. 2 1941

Schlick meets Wittgenstein

  • February, Vienna; begins discussions and persuades him to meet other members of Vienna Circle

Correspondence between Wittgenstein and Ramsey

Founding of Berlin Society for Empirical Philosophy

  • 27 February; changes name to Society for Scientific Philosophy 1930; members include Reichenbach, Lewin, Grelling, von Mises, Hempel (see Hoffmann 2007)

Brouwer lectures in Berlin

Anderson to Sydney

  • Challis Professor of Philosophy 1927–58, when he retires

Birth of Burton Dreben

  • 27 September, Boston

1928

Carnap, The Logical Construction of the World

  • attempts to ‘rationally reconstruct’ our concepts through a ‘constitution system’

Carnap, Pseudoproblems in Philosophy

  • argues that theses of realism and idealism are scientifically meaningless

Ramsey, ‘On a Problem of Formal Logic’

  • proves Ramsey’s theorem, instigating Ramsey theory, as both now called

Founding of Verein Ernst Mach

  • November, with Schlick elected President

Prichard at Oxford

  • White’s Professor of Moral Philosophy 1928–37, when he retires

Brouwer lectures in Vienna

Bergmann at Vienna

  • Ph.D. in mathematics; joins Vienna Circle; law degree 1935

Birth of Chomsky

  • 7 December, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1929

Vienna Circle manifesto

Wittgenstein, ‘Some Remarks on Logical Form’

  • written for Joint Session, but Wittgenstein talked about infinity instead

C. I. Lewis, Mind and the World-Order

  • develops his ‘conceptual pragmatism’

Ramsey, ‘Theories’

  • introduces idea of a ‘Ramsey sentence’, as now called

Whitehead, Process and Reality

  • argues that process rather than substance is metaphysically fundamental

  • founding text of process philosophy

Russell, Marriage and Morals

  • argues for a new sexual ethics based on respect for the personality and freedom of others

Kotarbin´ski, Gnosiology

  • subtitled ‘The Scientific Approach to the Theory of Knowledge’; orig. pub. in Polish; tr. 1966

  • introduces his ‘reism’, later called ‘concretism’

Husserl, Formal and Transcendental Logic

  • tr. D. Cairns 1969

Köhler, Gestalt Psychology

  • classic account

Wittgenstein to Cambridge

  • returns January; awarded Ph.D. for the Tractatus, viva 18 June, examined by Moore and Russell

  • receives grant from Trinity College to pursue research

Davos encounter

  • ‘International University Course’ held at Davos, Switzerland, 17 March–6 April

  • debate between Cassirer and Heidegger, attended by Carnap (see Friedman 2000, Gordon 2010)

Ryle meets Wittgenstein

  • Joint Session, Nottingham

  • become friends, and go on walking holidays together

Wittgenstein in Vienna

  • holds discussions with Schlick and Waismann, Christmas vacation; recorded in Waismann 1979

Hempel to Vienna

  • studies with members of the Vienna Circle, one semester

Church to Princeton

  • Professor 1947; stays until 1967

Birth of Jaakko Hintikka

  • 12 January, Vantaa, Finland

Birth of Jürgen Habermas

  • 18 June, Düsseldorf

Birth of Bernard Williams

  • 21 September, Westcliff, Essex

1930

Wittgenstein, Philosophical Remarks

  • written between February 1929 and April 1930

  • pub. in German 1964; tr. 1979

  • read by Russell and Littlewood in recommending him for a Fellowship at Trinity

Stebbing, A Modern Introduction to Logic

  • first textbook of analytic philosophy

  • covers both traditional and modern logic, scientific method, and definition and the nature of logic

  • 2nd edn. 1933, with 4 apps. added, one on ‘Logical Constructions’, one on ‘Postulational Systems’

  • 3rd edn. 1942; four further edns. after her death in 1943, the last in 1950; repr. into the 1960s

Schlick, ‘The Turning Point in Philosophy’

  • argues that philosophy is not a system of cognitions but an activity of clarifying meaning

Kaila, ‘Logical Positivism’

  • introduces logical positivism to Finland

Broad, Five Types of Ethical Theory

  • discusses Spinoza, Butler, Hume, Kant, Sidgwick

  • endorses a form of intuitionism

Ross, The Right and the Good

  • presents his ethical intuitionism

Russell, The Conquest of Happiness

  • Part I: causes of unhappiness; Part II: causes of happiness

  • written ‘as a hedonist’

Wittgenstein in Cambridge

  • begins teaching in January

  • elected to a 5-year Fellowship at Trinity, 5 December

Founding of Erkenntnis

  • founding editors Carnap and Reichenbach

  • takes over Annalen der Philosophie (1919–29)

Wittgenstein in Vienna

  • holds discussions with Schlick and Waismann, Christmas vacation; recorded in Waismann 1979

Stebbing to Columbia

  • Visiting Professor 1931–2

Quine to Harvard

  • Ph.D. 1932, on Principia Mathematica, supervised by Whitehead

Stevenson to Cambridge

  • BA 1933; influenced by Moore and Wittgenstein

Tarski visits Vienna

  • lectures on metamathematics, February

Death of Ramsey

  • 19 January, Guy’s Hospital, London

Birth of Jacques Derrida

  • 15 July, El-Biar, Algiers

1931

Gödel’s incompleteness theorems

  • ‘On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems I’

Wisdom, Interpretation and Analysis in Relation to Bentham’s Theory of Definition

  • explores connection between Russell’s theory of descriptions and Bentham’s use of ‘paraphrasis’

  • talks of the ‘logico-analytic philosophers’ (p. 13) and ‘analytic philosophers’ (p. 15)

Wisdom, ‘Logical Constructions’

  • 5-part series of papers, 1931–3

  • first talk of ‘paradox of analysis’ in Part V (1933)

Ramsey, The Foundations of Mathematics

  • posthumous collection of papers

Blumberg & Feigl, ‘Logical positivism’

  • subtitled ‘A new movement in European philosophy’

  • introduces the term ‘logical positivism’

Neurath, two papers on physicalism

  • one subtitled ‘The Philosophy of the Vienna Circle’

  • term ‘physicalism’ first introduced

Ajdukiewicz, ‘On the Meaning of Expressions’

Carnap to Prague

  • Professor of Natural Philosophy 1931–5

Feigl to Iowa

  • Lecturer 1931–40

Nagel at Columbia

  • joins faculty; University Professor 1967–70, when he retires

Birth of Richard Rorty

  • 4 October, New York

1932

Ryle, ‘Systematically Misleading Expressions’

  • argues that misleading statements have to be reformulated to clear up confusions

Stebbing, ‘The Method of Analysis in Metaphysics’

  • read to Aris. Soc., December

  • attempts to articulate the methodological assumptions of Moorean philosophy

  • influences Collingwood

Carnap, ‘The Elimination of Metaphysics…’

  • argues that metaphysical statements are revealed to be pseudo-statements through logical analysis of language

  • nothings Heidegger over nothing (§5)

Carnap, ‘The Physical Language as Universal Language of Science’

  • claims that all scientific knowledge is expressible in the language of physics

  • tr. as ‘The Unity of Science’ 1934

Carnap & Neurath debate protocol sentences

Lewis & Langford, Symbolic Logic

  • first full account of systems of strict implication

Price, Perception

  • takes sense-data as the given, and offers a synthesis of phenomenalism and realism

Quine and Ayer to Vienna

  • become members of the Vienna Circle, Quine for a year, Ayer for 4 months

Death of Peano

  • 20 April, Turin, Italy

Birth of John Searle

  • 31 July, Denver, Colorado

Birth of Alvin Plantinga

  • 15 November, Ann Arbor, Michigan

1933

Wittgenstein, Philosophical Grammar

  • written 1930–3

  • tr. and pub. 1975

Wittgenstein, Blue Book

  • dictated 1933–4; pub. 1958

Wittgenstein, The Big Typescript

  • 1st version 1933; rev. 1933–7

  • tr. and pub. 2005

Tarski, ‘The Concept of Truth in Formalized Languages’

  • seminal paper

  • orig. pub. in Polish; German 1935; English 1956

Collingwood, An Essay on Philosophical Method

  • ch. 7: criticizes ‘analytical philosophy’, as he calls the kind of philosophy practised by Moore and Stebbing

Stebbing, ‘Logical Positivism and Analysis’

  • lecture given to British Academy, March

  • compares the different conceptions of analysis of the Cambridge (Moorean) School and logical positivism

Stebbing, ‘Constructions’

  • Presidential Address to Aris. Soc.

Broad, Examination of McTaggart’s Philosophy

  • vol. 1; vol. 2 1938

Founding of Analysis

  • ed. Duncan-Jones, helped by Stebbing, Mace, and Ryle

  • first issue November; stops 1940 but restarts 1947

  • M. Macdonald editor 1948–54

Broad succeeds Sorley

  • Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy, Cambridge

  • retires 1953

Quine at Harvard

  • Junior Fellow 1933–6; Instructor 1936; Associate Professor 1941; Professor 1948; Edgar Pierce Professor of Philosophy 1956; retires 1978

Stevenson to Harvard

  • Ph.D. 1935, working with Perry; Instructor 1935–8

Malcolm to Harvard

  • Ph.D. 1940 (Cambridge 1938–9)

Cassirer to Oxford

  • 1933–5

Reichenbach to Istanbul

  • 1933–8

Einstein to Princeton

  • Professor of Theoretical Physics 1933–45, when he retires

Birth of David Wiggins

  • 8 March, London

1934

Carnap, The Logical Syntax of Language

  • argues for philosophy to be replaced by logic of science

  • distinguishes ‘material’ and ‘formal’ modes of speech

  • introduces his principle of tolerance in logic

  • tr. 1937

Popper, Logik der Forschung

  • seeks to replace verificationism by falsificationism

  • tr. as The Logic of Scientific Discovery 1959

Wittgenstein, Brown Book

  • dictated 1934–5; pub. 1958

Wisdom, Problems of Mind and Matter

  • in his introduction, states that ‘Analytic philosophy has no special subject-matter’ (p. 2)

Black, Wisdom and Cornforth debate analysis

  • symposium on ‘Is Analysis a Useful Method in Philosophy?’, Joint Session, July

Gentzen, ‘Investigations into Logical Deduction I’

  • introduces natural deduction system of logic

  • provides basis for inferentialism about logical constants

  • part II 1936

Ajdukiewicz, ‘The World-Picture and the Conceptual Apparatus’

  • presents his radical conventionalism, later revised

Dewey, Art as Experience

  • his main work on aesthetics

  • William James Lectures, Harvard 1931

Founding of Philosophy of Science

  • journal of Philosophy of Science Association

  • founding editor William Malisoff 1934–47

  • editorial board includes: Carnap, Feigl, Stebbing

Stebbing invites Carnap to London

  • Carnap gives three lectures, published as Philosophy and Logical Syntax (1935), reviewed by Stebbing (1935)

  • Carnap meets Russell and Ayer for the first time

Hempel to Belgium

  • works with Paul Oppenheim

Sellars to Oxford

  • BA in PPE 1936

Birth of Jaegwon Kim

  • 12 September, Taegu, Korea

1935

Hempel, ‘The Logical Analysis of Psychology’

  • introduces term ‘logical behaviorism’

Ryle criticizes Collingwood

  • ‘Mr Collingwood and the Ontological Argument’

  • occasions correspondence (Collingwood 2005b)

Frege’s Nachlaß given to Heinrich Scholz

  • Frege’s adopted son Alfred hands over papers to Scholz at Münster, who plans an edition of Frege’s works

  • copies made of most of the important pieces

Founding of Association for Symbolic Logic

  • publishes Journal of Symbolic Logic (JSL)

  • first issue 1936, ed. Church and Langford

  • Church edits reviews until 1979

Founding of Theoria

  • subtitled ‘A Swedish journal of philosophy and psychology’; reference to psychology dropped 1966

  • first Swedish journal of philosophy (see Hansson 2009)

  • founding editor Åke Petzäll 1935–57

  • first 2 vols. in Swedish, thereafter in English, French, and German

Carnap to the US

  • arrives in December to teach from 1936

  • becomes American citizen 1941

Collingwood succeeds Smith

  • Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy, Oxford 1935–43

Price succeeds Joachim

  • Wykeham Professor of Logic, Oxford

  • retires 1959

Cassirer to Sweden

  • Göteborg 1935–41

Birth of Jerry Fodor

  • 22 April, New York

1936

Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic

  • Ayer’s ‘young man’s’ version of logical positivism

  • ch. 1: ‘The Elimination of Metaphysics’

  • repr. with new introd. 1946

Waismann, Introduction to Mathematical Thinking

  • concerned with mathematical concept formation

  • tr. 1951

Tarski, ‘On the Concept of Logical Consequence’

  • pub. in both Polish and German; English 1956

Carnap, ‘Testability and Meaning’

  • revises verifiability principle

  • defines analyticity semantically, not syntactically

Quine, ‘Truth by Convention’

  • questions idea that mathematical and logical truths are true by convention

Nagel, ‘Impressions and Appraisals of Analytic Philosophy in Europe’

  • first paper published with ‘analytic philosophy’ in its title

  • reports on ‘the philosophy professed at Cambridge, Vienna, Prague, Warsaw, and Lwów’ (p. 6)

Weinberg, An Examination of Logical Positivism

  • first book-length critique

Church–Turing thesis

  • Church, ‘An Unsolvable Problem of Elementary Number Theory’: emergence of the lambda-calculus

  • Turing, ‘On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem’: term ‘Turing machine’ introduced in Church’s review of paper

Church’s theorem

  • Church, ‘A Note on the Entscheidungsproblem’

Naess, Knowledge and Scientific Behaviour

  • doctoral dissertation, introducing logical positivism to Norway

Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being

  • develops concept of ‘unit-idea’, here tracing those of plenitude, continuity, and gradation

Founding of Synthese

  • founded as a Dutch journal

  • Hintikka editor 1966–2002

  • subtitled ‘An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science’

Founding of Association for Symbolic Logic

  • Journal of Symbolic Logic founded at same time

  • Bulletin of Symbolic Logic founded 1995

  • Review of Symbolic Logic founded 2008, to include more historical work

Carnap at Chicago

  • Professor 1936–52

Turing visits Princeton

  • stays to complete Ph.D. with Church

  • awarded 1938, when he returns to Cambridge

Death of Schlick

  • 22 June (murdered), Vienna

Death of Rickert

  • 25 July, Heidelberg, Germany

1937

Wittgenstein, Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics

  • written 1937–44; tr. and pub. 1956

  • 3rd edn. 1978, incl. new material (Part VI) on rule-following

Wisdom, ‘Philosophical Perplexity’

  • argues that philosophical statements are verbal recommendations

Russell, ‘On Verification’

  • Presidential Address to Aris. Soc., 8 November

Stevenson, ‘The Emotive Meaning of Ethical Terms’

  • his first paper on emotivism

Quine, ‘New Foundations for Mathematical Logic’

  • introduces NF set theory

Duncan-Jones and Ayer debate common sense

  • symposium on ‘Does Philosophy Analyse Common Sense?’, Joint Session, July

Black, ‘Vagueness: An Exercise in Logical Analysis’

  • first analysis of ‘vague sets’

Hempel to Chicago

  • works as Carnap’s assistant for a year

Popper to New Zealand

  • Canterbury 1937–46

Waismann to Cambridge

  • teaches 1937–9

Death of Schiller

  • 9 August, Los Angeles

1938

Reichenbach, Experience and Prediction

  • advocates realism but anti-foundationalist and probabilistic

Prichard, ‘The Sense-Datum Fallacy’

  • Presidential Address to Aris. Soc.

Stevenson, ‘Persuasive Definitions’

  • definitions that seek to change attitudes

Skinner, The Behavior of Organisms

  • develops first account of operant behaviour

Metz, A Hundred Years of British Philosophy

  • Part II on ‘Recent Schools of Thought’: chs. on neo-idealism (208 pages), pragmatism, older realism, new realism (175 pages), mathematical logic, philosophy of natural science, psychology, theism

  • orig. pub. in German, 1935

Russell to Chicago

  • Visiting Professor 1938–9

  • seminars, on what becomes Russell 1940a, attended by Carnap and Morris

Grice at Oxford

  • begins teaching at St John’s College; stays until 1967

Reichenbach to UCLA

  • 1938–53

Bergmann to the US

  • emigrates

Sellars to Iowa

  • Assistant Professor; stays until 1946

Malcolm to Cambridge

  • 1938–9; influenced by Moore and Wittgenstein

Death of Twardowski

  • 11 February, Lvov

Death of Husserl

  • 26 April, Freiburg, Germany

Death of Joachim

  • 30 July, Croyde, Devon

Death of Alexander

  • 13 September, Manchester

1939

Moore, ‘Proof of an External World’

Chronology of Analytic Philosophy and its Historiography

Wittgenstein, early version of Philosophical Investigations

  • CUP agree to publish it, but Wittgenstein abandons plan

Wittgenstein, lectures

  • lectures on the foundations of mathematics; pub. 1975

Ross, The Foundations of Ethics

  • further development of his ethical intuitionism

Stebbing, Thinking to some Purpose

  • popular book on critical thinking

Collingwood, An Autobiography

  • attack on his Oxford Realist colleagues

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of John Dewey

  • 1st vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’, a series in which the philosophers chosen write an autobiographical essay and reply to the papers included

  • contributors include Russell

Wittgenstein succeeds Moore

  • Professor of Philosophy 1939–47, when he resigns

Russell to UCLA

  • Professor 1939–40, when he resigns

  • again teaches on what becomes Russell 1940a

von Wright to Cambridge

  • works with Broad 1939, meets Moore and Wittgenstein

Stevenson to Yale

  • Assistant Professor 1939–46

Hempel to New York

  • Hempel takes up post at City College of New York

  • moves to Queen’s College, where he stays until 1948

Tarski to US

  • attends a ‘Unity of Science’ congress in August

  • has to stay after war breaks out

Death of Les´niewski

  • 13 May, Warsaw

Death of Hägerström

  • 7 July, Uppsala, Sweden

Death of Freud

  • 23 September, London

1940

Russell, An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth

  • William James Lectures, Harvard, autumn

Quine, Mathematical Logic

  • rev. edn. 1951, expounding ML set theory

Ayer, The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge

  • refinement of his logical positivism

Collingwood, An Essay on Metaphysics

  • critique of Ayer’s logical positivism

  • metaphysics seen as articulating absolute presuppositions

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of George Santayna

  • 2nd vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

  • contributors include Russell

Founding of Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

  • founding editor Marvin Farber 1940–80

  • later editors: Chisholm 1980–6; Ernest Sosa 1986–

Founding of Journal of the History of Ideas

  • founding editor Arthur Lovejoy

Moore to US

  • visits for first time in October; lectures at Smith College

Carnap at Harvard

  • Visiting Professor 1940–1

  • Tarski also there that year; Russell there autumn 1940

Waismann to Oxford

  • Lecturer in phil. of science and maths 1945; Reader in phil. of maths 1950; Reader in phil. of science 1955

Gödel to Princeton

  • Institute of Advanced Study; tenure 1946; Professor 1953

  • stays for rest of his career

Bergmann to Iowa

  • research associate in psychology; lecturer in philosophy; Assistant Professor 1944; Professor of Philosophy and Psychology 1950–74, when he retires

Black to the US

  • University of Illinois 1940–6

Birth of Saul Kripke

  • 13 November, Bay Shore, New York

1941

Moore, ‘Certainty’

  • Howison lecture, Berkeley; pub. 1959

Church, The Calculi of Lambda-Conversion

  • exposition of the lambda-calculus

von Wright, The Logical Problem of Induction

  • Ph.D. thesis, Helsinki

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead

  • 3rd vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

Russell in Philadelphia

  • lectures at Barnes Foundation January 1941–December 1942, on what becomes Russell 1945

Moore in US

  • lectures at Princeton, then Mills College, California

Feigl to Minnesota

  • Professor 1941–71, when he retires, but remains Director of the Minnesota Center for the Philosophy of Science

Cassirer to Yale

  • 1941–4; influences Pap; meets Langer

Anscombe and Geach marry

  • Oxford

Death of Bergson

  • 3 January, Paris

Birth of David Lewis

  • 28 September, Oberlin, Ohio

1942

Carnap, Introduction to Semantics

  • 1st vol. of his Studies in Semantics

  • 2nd vol. 1943: Formalization of Logic

Langer, Philosophy in a New Key

  • subtitled ‘A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite and Art’; influenced by Cassirer

Hempel, ‘The Function of General Laws in History’

  • sets out covering law (later called ‘deductive-nomological’) model of explanation

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of G. E. Moore

  • 4th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

  • first collection on Moore

  • contributors include Broad, Stevenson, Bouwsma, Ducasse, Langford, Malcolm, Lazerowitz, Ambrose, Wisdom, Stebbing

Moore in New York

  • lectures at Columbia

Tarski to Berkeley

  • Department of Mathematics; tenure 1945; Professor 1948

  • stays for rest of his life

Anscombe to Cambridge

  • studies with Wittgenstein 1942–6

Birth of John McDowell

  • 7 March, Boksburg, South Africa

Birth of Daniel Dennett

  • 28 March, Boston, Massachusetts

Birth of Crispin Wright

  • 21 December, Bagshot, Surrey

1943

Stebbing, A Modern Elementary Logic

  • intended as textbook for first-year students

  • widely used for a decade, until superseded by Quine 1950 and Strawson 1952

Quine, ‘Notes on Existence and Necessity’

  • first assault on modality; reply by Church (1943), appealing to Frege’s sense/reference distinction

Runes, ed., Twentieth Century Philosophy

  • Part I on areas of philosophy (ethics, etc.)

  • Part II: after general survey by Russell (1924b), chs. on Kantianism, Hegelianism, Thomism, absolutism, personalism, phenomenology, logical empiricism, American realism, pragmatism, dialectical materialism, naturalism, Chinese philosophies

Sartre, Being and Nothingness

  • subtitled ‘Essay on Phenomenological Ontology’

  • tr. 1956

Death of Collingwood

  • 9 January, Coniston, Lancashire

Death of Hilbert

  • 14 February, Göttingen

Death of Stebbing

  • 11 September, London

1944

Stevenson, Ethics and Language

  • fullest account of his emotivism

  • denied tenure at Yale as a result

Popper, The Poverty of Historicism

  • pub. in book form 1957

Tarski, ‘The Semantic Conception of Truth…’

  • defends a ‘realist’ conception of truth

Gödel, ‘Russell’s mathematical logic’

  • his first philosophical paper

Adorno & Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment

  • orig. title ‘Philosophical Fragments’; pub. as book 1947

  • key text of the Frankfurt School

Cassirer, An Essay on Man

  • English introduction to his philosophy of symbolic forms

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell

  • 5th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

  • contributors include Reichenbach, Weitz, Gödel, Moore, Black, Einstein, E. Nagel, Chisholm, Hook

Russell back to England

  • 5-year Lectureship at Trinity College, Cambridge

Cassirer to Columbia

  • 1944–5

Death of Stout

  • 18 August, Sydney

1945

Russell, History of Western Philosophy

  • subtitled ‘and its Connection with Political and Social Circumstances from the Earliest Times to the Present Day’

  • last 4 chs. on Bergson, James, Dewey, and the Philosophy of Logical Analysis

Hung, The Philosophy of Vienna Circle

  • introduces logical positivism to China

Merleau-Ponty, Phenomenology of Perception

  • develops concept of the body-subject to avoid dualisms such as that between empiricism and intellectualism

  • tr. 1962

Popper, The Open Society and its Enemies

  • defends democratic liberalism against totalitarianism

Destruction of Frege’s Nachlaß

  • Frege’s Nachlaß purportedly destroyed in a bombing raid on Münster on 25 March

  • only the copies made earlier remain

Ryle succeeds Collingwood

  • Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy, Oxford 1945–67

  • inaugural lecture: ‘Philosophical Arguments’

Tarski to Berkeley

  • takes up permanent post; Professor of Mathematics 1948; remains until his death in 1983

Death of Cassirer

  • 13 April, New York

Death of Neurath

  • 22 December, Oxford

1946

Wittgenstein, final version of Philosophical Investigations

  • pub. as Part I in 1953

  • taken as main text in 4th edn. of 2009

C. I. Lewis, An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation

  • mature exposition of his views

Collingwood, The Idea of History

  • criticizes ‘scissor-and-paste’ historiography

  • sees history as re-enactment of past experience

Wisdom & Austin debate

  • Joint Session, symposium on ‘Other Minds’

Barcan (Marcus), ‘A Functional Calculus…’

  • first axiomatic system of modal predicate logic

  • introduces ‘Barcan formula’

Carnap, ‘Modalities and Quantification’

  • first ‘semantical’ system of modal predicate logic

Wimsatt & Beardsley, ‘The Intentional Fallacy’

  • argues for anti-intentionalism

Hospers, Meaning and Truth in the Arts

  • discusses truth in art

Ayer to London (UCL)

  • Grote Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic

Popper to London

  • Reader 1946–9, Professor of Logic and Scientific Method 1949–69, LSE

Anscombe to Oxford

  • Research Fellow; Lecturer 1951; Fellow 1964–70; Somerville College

von Wright takes up Chair

  • Professor, Helsinki, 1946–61, but in Cambridge 1947–51

Brouwer lectures in Cambridge

  • gives annual lecture 1946–51; eventually pub. as Brouwer 1981

Malcolm to Cambridge

  • 1946–7; second visit

Goodman to Pennsylvania

  • Associate Professor 1946–51; Professor 1951–64

Stevenson to Michigan

  • Associate Professor; stays until 1978

Sellars to Minnesota

  • Assistant Professor; Professor 1951–8

Black to Cornell

  • Professor of Philosophy; Susan Linn Sage Professor 1954–77, when he retires

Łukasiewicz to Dublin

  • Professor of Mathematical Logic, Royal Irish Academy, 1946–56

Wittgenstein brandishes poker

  • Moral Sciences Club 25 October, when Popper speaks on ‘Are there philosophical problems?’ (see Edmonds & Eidinow 2001)

Birth of Gareth Evans

  • 12 May, London

1947

Carnap, Meaning and Necessity

  • subtitled ‘A Study in Semantics and Modal Logic’

  • repr. 1956 with additional essays (incl. Carnap 1950b)

Barcan (Marcus), ‘The Identity of Individuals…’

  • first axiomatic system of modal predicate logic with identity

  • offers proof of necessity of identity

Ewing, The Definition of Good

  • offers non-naturalistic definition of ‘good’ in terms of ‘ought’; a work of ‘analytic idealism’

Macdonald, ‘Natural Rights’

  • sees statements of natural rights as akin to reason-based decisions

Bochenński, Contemporary European Philosophy

  • Part II on ‘Philosophy of Matter’: ch. 5 on Russell, ch. 6 on neo-positivism, ch. 7 on dialectical materialism

  • last section of ch. 6 on ‘analytical philosophy’, taken as evolved from Moore and neo-positivism

Founding of Dialectica

  • founding editors Gaston Bachelard, Paul Bernays and Ferdinand Gonseth

  • became official journal of the European Society for Analytic Philosophy 1996

Ryle succeeds Moore

  • Editor of Mind 1947–71

Malcolm to Cornell

  • 1947–78

Death of Prichard

  • 29 December, Oxford

Death of Whitehead

  • 30 December, Cambridge, Massuchusetts

1948

Russell, Human Knowledge

  • subtitled ‘Its Scope and Limits’

Quine, ‘On what there is’

  • seen as making analytic ontology respectable

Hempel & Oppenheim, ‘Studies in the Logic of Explanation’

  • expounds D-N (deductive-nomological) model of explanation

Frege, ‘On Sense and Reference’ translated

  • first tr. by Black

  • also tr. as ‘On Sense and Nominatum’ by Feigl, 1949

Wiener, Cybernetics

  • founding text

Shannon, ‘A Mathematical Theory of Communication’

  • founding work of information theory

von Wright succeeds Wittgenstein

  • Professor, Cambridge; resigns 1951 to return to Helsinki

Strawson to Oxford

  • Fellow, University College 1948–68

Turing to Manchester

  • develops University computer

  • meets Polanyi, who encourages philosophical interests

Hempel to Yale

  • 1948–55

Vlastos to Cornell

  • Sage Professor 1948–55

White to Harvard

  • Assistant Professor 1948–50; Associate Professor 1950–3; Professor 1953–70

Skinner to Harvard

  • Professor of Psychology 1948–74, when he retires; Edgar Pierce Professor of Psychology 1958–74

1949

Ryle, The Concept of Mind

  • attacks Cartesian dogma of the ‘Ghost in the Machine’ as a ‘category-mistake’

  • concern with ‘logical geography’ of our concepts

Pap, Elements of Analytic Philosophy

  • first book to have ‘analytic philosophy’ in its title

  • distinguishes four major factions: Carnapians, followers of Moore, Wittgensteinians or ‘therapeutic positivists’, and philosophers concerned to clarify the foundations of science and knowledge

  • ch. 17: ‘The Nature of Logical Analysis’

Feigl & Sellars, eds., Readings in Philosophical Analysis

  • first reader in ‘modern philosophical analysis’, described as originating in logical empiricism and the Cambridge movement deriving from Moore and Russell

  • contributors include W. Kneale, Quine, Tarski, Frege, Russell, Carnap, C. I. Lewis, Schlick, Aldrich, Adjukiewicz, E. Nagel, Waismann, Hempel, Reichenbach, Moore, Stace, Broad, Chisholm, Mace, Ducasse, Stevenson

  • 2nd edn. 1972

Prichard, Moral Obligation

  • posthumous collection of his papers; 2nd edn. 1968

Malcolm, ‘Defending common sense’

  • Wittgensteinian critique of Moore’s use of ‘I know’ in stating truisms

Schilpp, ed., Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist

  • 7th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

Wittgenstein to Ithaca

  • visits Malcolm, August and September

  • meets Bouwsma (cf. Bouwsma 1986)

1950

Strawson, ‘On Referring’

  • reply to Russell’s ‘On Denoting’ (1905a)

Frege, Foundations translated

  • first English tr. by Austin

Austin & Strawson debate truth

  • Joint Session, symposium on ‘Truth’

Turing, ‘Computing machinery and intelligence’

  • introduces idea of the Turing Test, as now called

Carnap, ‘Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology’

  • distinguishes ‘internal’ and ‘external’ questions

Carnap, Logical Foundations of Probability

  • ch. 1 on explication

White, ‘The Analytic and the Synthetic’

  • subtitled ‘An Untenable Dualism’

Prichard, Knowledge and Perception

  • posthumous collection of his papers

Black, ed., Philosophical Analysis

  • authors asked to provide ‘specimens’ of phil. analysis

  • contributors: Ambrose, Anscombe, Ayer, Bouwsma, Chisholm, Feigl, Frankena, Lazerowitz, Lewy, Macdonald, Mace, Malcolm, Marhenke, Ryle, Stevenson, Will, Wisdom

Founding of Philosophical Studies

  • edited by Feigl and Sellars until 1971, and then just Sellars until 1974

Founding of The Philosophical Quarterly

  • ed. T. M. Knox, pub. at St Andrews for the Scots Philosophical Club

Founding of British Journal for Philosophy of Science

  • following formation (in 1948) of Philosophy of Science Group of the British Society for the History of Science

  • founding editor A. C. Crombie

Russell wins Nobel Prize in Literature

  • in recognition of his writings ‘in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought’

Dreben to Oxford

  • studies with Austin for a year

Birth of Robert Brandom

  • 13 March, Buffalo, New York

1951

Quine, ‘Two Dogmas of Empiricism’

  • classic attack on analytic/synthetic distinction

Reichenbach, The Rise of Scientific Philosophy

  • sees history of philosophy as having proceeded from speculation to science, culminating in logical empiricism, where new methods of logical analysis provide key to the resolution of philosophical problems

Goodman, The Structure of Appearance

  • critique of Carnap’s Aufbau

von Wright, ‘Deontic Logic’

  • creation of deontic logic

  • An Essay in Modal Logic pub. same year

Łukasiewicz, Aristotle’s Syllogistic…

  • expounded ‘from the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic’, as rest of title says

Arrow, Social Choice and Individual Values

  • inaugurated social choice theory

  • formulates Arrow’s impossibility theorem, as now known

Davidson to Stanford

  • Professor 1951–67

Death of Wittgenstein

  • 29 April, Cambridge

1952

Frege, Translations…

  • first English edn. of a selection of his published writings, tr. Geach and Black

  • Wittgenstein advised on selection

Quine, Methods of Logic

  • textbook on logic

Strawson, Introduction to Logical Theory

  • argues that ordinary language lacks an exact logic

  • distinguishes presupposition from entailment

Carnap, ‘Meaning Postulates’

  • first response to Quine 1951, defining analytic statements as those derived from ‘meaning postulates’

Hare, The Language of Morals

  • ethics ‘the logical study of the language of morals’ (p. iii)

  • argues for what he calls ‘universal prescriptivism’

Stegmüller, Main Currents in Contemporary Philosophy

  • introduces post-war analytic philosophy to German-speaking world

  • 2nd edn. 1960, tr. 1969

Austin at Oxford

  • White’s Professor of Moral Philosophy 1952–60

Wisdom succeeds von Wright

  • Professor of Philosophy, Cambridge

  • retires 1968

Carnap at Princeton

  • Institute of Advanced Study 1952–4

Hart to Oxford

  • Professor of Jurisprudence 1952–69

Dreben at Harvard

  • Junior Fellow 1952–5; Assistant Professor 1956; Associate Professor 1961; Professor 1965; Edgar Pierce Professor 1981–90

Searle to Oxford

  • Rhodes Scholar 1952–9

  • studies with Austin, Strawson, and Geach

Rawls to Oxford

  • studies with Hart, Berlin, and Hamphire 1952–3

Death of Dewey

  • 1 June, New York

Death of Santayana

  • 26 September, Rome

1953

Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations

  • tr. Anscombe

  • 4th edn. 2009, with rev. tr. Hacker and Schulte

Quine, From a Logical Point of View

  • collection of his papers, incl. ‘Two Dogmas’

  • rev. edn. 1961

Wisdom, Philosophy and Psycho-Analysis

  • collection, incl. papers on methodology, Moore, Russell

Braithwaite, Scientific Explanation

  • his main work

Price, Thinking and Experience

  • offers empiricist account of thinking

Naess, Interpretation and Preciseness

  • subtitled ‘A Contribution to the Theory of Communication’

  • key text of Norwegian analytic philosophy

D. Williams, ‘On the Elements of Being’

  • introduces term ‘trope’

Weldon, The Vocabulary of Politics

  • positivist approach to political philosophy

Skinner, Science and Human Behavior

  • uncompromising behaviourist account of human activity

Hospers, An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis

  • best-selling introduction to philosophy in analytic style

  • 2nd edn. 1967, 3rd edn. 1990, 4th edn. 1997

  • first two edns. begin with a long ch. on philosophy and language, cut in the 3rd edn., but restored in a shortened form in the 4th edn. after complaints

Founding of Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science

  • directed by Feigl 1953–71

  • first vol. of Minnesota Studies in Philosophy of Science pub. 1956

R. B. Braithwaite succeeds Broad

  • Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy, Cambridge

  • retires 1967

Brouwer lectures in US

  • MIT, Princeton, Chicago, Berkeley, among others

Cavell at Harvard

  • Junior Fellow 1953–6

Death of Reichenbach

  • 9 April, Los Angeles

1954

Reviews of Philosophical Investigations

  • Malcolm in Phil. Review

  • Strawson in Mind

  • Feyerabend in Phil. Review (1955)

Turing, ‘Solvable and Unsolvable Problems’

  • argues that incompleteness theorems show need to appeal to ‘common sense’

Bergmann, The Metaphysics of Logical Positivism

  • collection of his papers

Macdonald, ed., Philosophy and Analysis

  • selection of articles from Analysis 1933–40, 1947–53

  • introduction by Macdonald on history of Analysis and development of analytic philosophy

Elton, ed., Aesthetics and Language

  • marks effective beginning of analytic aesthetics

Vlastos, ‘The Third Man Argument in the Parmenides

  • pioneering work in analytic history of ancient Greek thought

Carnap to UCLA

  • succeeds Reichenbach as Professor

Death of Turing

  • 7 June (suicide), Wilmslow, Cheshire

1955

Goodman, Fact, Fiction and Forecast

  • elaborates new riddle of induction

Braithwaite, Theory of Games

  • offered ‘as a tool for the moral philosopher’

Hart, ‘Are There Any Natural Rights?’

  • interprets debates about the ‘ontological status’ of rights not as denying their existence

Kotarbinński, Praxiology

  • subtitled ‘An Introduction to the Science of Efficient Action’; orig. pub. in Polish; tr. 1965

  • sets up Laboratory of Praxiology in 1958

White, ed., The Age of Analysis: Twentieth Century Philosophers

  • vol. 6 of ‘The Great Ages of Western Philosophy’

  • contains work by Moore, Croce, Santayana, Bergson, Whitehead, Husserl, Sartre, Peirce, James, Dewey, Russell, Carnap, Wittgenstein

Hempel to Princeton

  • 1955–73

Vlastos to Princeton

  • Stuart Professor of Philosophy 1955–76, when he retires

Death of Einstein

  • 18 April, Princeton

1956

Wittgenstein, Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics

  • written 1937–44

  • 2nd edn. 1967; 3rd edn. 1978, incl. new material on rule-following

Austin, ‘A Plea for Excuses’

  • clearest statement of his methodology, which he suggests calling ‘linguistic phenomenology’ (p. 182)

Sellars ‘Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind’

  • critique of ‘myth of the given’

  • lectures given in London

  • reissued 1997 with a study guide by Brandom

Grice & Strawson, ‘In Defense of a Dogma’

  • reply to Quine’s attack on analytic/synthetic distinction

Place, ‘Is Consciousness a Brain Process?’

  • mind/brain identity thesis

Chisholm, ‘Sentences about Believing’

  • defends Brentano’s thesis that intentionality is the mark of the psychological

Quine, ‘Quantifiers and Propositional Attitudes’

  • suggests sententialist account of propositional attitudes

Gallie, ‘Essentially Contested Concepts’

  • offers 7 criteria of ‘contestedness’

Ayer, The Problem of Knowledge

  • context-based account of knowledge

Church, Introduction to Mathematical Logic

  • early version pub. 1944

Russell, Logic and Knowledge

Tarski, Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics

  • papers 1923–38, tr. Woodger

Urmson, Philosophical Analysis: Its Development between the Two World Wars

  • first history of analytic philosophy, covering logical atomism, logical positivism, and ‘the beginnings of contemporary philosophy’

  • reviewed by Russell (1956c)

White, Toward Reunion in Philosophy

  • seeks to synthesize analytic and pragmatist traditions

  • based on Harvard course on ‘Problems of Analytic Philosophy’ taught from early 1950s

Ayer et al., The Revolution in Philosophy

  • essays by Wollheim on Bradley, Kneale on Frege, Pears on logical atomism, Paul on Moore and on later Wittgenstein, Ayer on Vienna Circle, and both Strawson and Warnock on analysis

  • introduced by Ryle, who describes twentieth-century philosophy as the story of ‘meaning’

  • originated as talks given on the BBC Third Programme

Flew, ed., Essays in Conceptual Analysis

  • collection of papers published in early 1950s, incl. Strawson 1950a

Laslett, ed., Philosophy, Politics and Society

  • marks emergence of analytic political philosophy

  • subsequent vols. 1962, 1967, 1972, 1979, 1992, 2003, 2010 (Fishkin & Goodin)

Nagel, Logic Without Metaphysics

  • collection of essays

Russell, Portraits from Memory

  • collection of occasional pieces, incl. portraits of Santayana, Whitehead, Mill, among others

Kuhn to Berkeley

  • teaches history of science; Professor 1961

Cavell to Berkeley

  • teaches 1956–62

Death of Łukasiewicz

  • 13 February, Dublin

1957

Anscombe, Intention

  • critique of idea that intentions are interior acts or events

Geach, Mental Acts

  • criticizes abstractionism, Russell’s theory of judgement

Chisholm, Perceiving: A Philosophical Study

  • his first book

Chomsky, Syntactic Structures

  • introduces his theory of transformational grammar

  • argues for an innate ‘universal grammar’

Prior, Time and Modality

  • seminal presentation of tense logic

  • John Locke lectures 1956

Grice, ‘Meaning’

  • distinguishes natural and non-natural meaning

Passmore, A Hundred Years of Philosophy

  • a history of philosophy from Mill to Wittgenstein and Sartre

  • 2nd edn. 1966, revising later chapters and adding a final chapter on ‘Description, Explanation or Revision?’

Wood, Bertrand Russell: The Passionate Sceptic

  • first biography of Russell

Skinner, Verbal Behavior

  • offers behaviourist account of language learning

  • reviewed by Chomsky (1959)

Founding of Ratio

  • new series 1988

Berlin at Oxford

  • Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory, Oxford 1957–67, when he becomes founding President of Wolfson College, retiring 1975

Kotarbinński at Warsaw

  • President of Polish Academy of Sciences 1957–62

Death of Perry

  • 22 January, Cambridge, Massachusetts

1958

Wittgenstein, Blue and Brown Books

  • dictated 1933–4 and 1934–5

Winch, The Idea of a Social Science

  • applies Wittgensteinian ideas in critique of empirical science

Pap, Semantics and Necessary Truth

  • subtitled ‘An Inquiry into the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy’

Feigl, ‘The “Mental” and the “Physical”’

  • proposes version of the identity theory of mind

Sellars & Chisholm debate intentionality

  • ‘Intentionality and the Mental’; Chisholm gives priority to intentional thought, Sellars to language

Foot, ‘Moral Beliefs’

  • rejects radical subjectivism

Anscombe, ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’

  • renewed interest in moral psychology, especially concerning virtues

Berlin, ‘Two Concepts of Liberty’

  • inaugural lecture

  • distinguishes negative and positive liberty

Rawls, ‘Justice as Fairness’

  • first development of his theory of justice

Geach, ‘Imperative and Deontic Logic’

Warnock, English Philosophy Since 1900

  • discusses Moore, Russell, logical positivism, Wittgenstein, Ryle, and Austin

  • 2nd edn. 1969, removing chapter on logic and adding more on Austin

White, G. E. Moore: A Critical Exposition

  • first monograph on Moore’s philosophy

Malcolm, Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Memoir

  • with biographical sketch by von Wright

  • 2nd edn. 1984 with Wittgenstein’s letters to Malcolm

Føllesdal, Husserl und Frege

  • first (short) monograph on Husserl and Frege

Royaumont colloquium

  • conference on ‘La Philosophie Analytique’, aimed to facilitate dialogue between analytic and non-analytic philosophers, but often seen to have failed

  • participants include Ryle, Austin, Strawson, Quine, Williams, Urmson, Hare, Merleau-Ponty, Wahl, Van Breda

  • Ryle distinguishes ‘Anglo-Saxon’ from ‘Continental’ philosophy (1962, p. 189)

  • proceedings pub. 1962 (Cahiers de Royaumont)

Founding of Inquiry

  • founding editor Arne Naess

Sellars to Yale

  • visitor, then Professor until 1963

Stegmüller to Munich

  • Professor 1958–90, when he retires

Death of Watson

  • 25 September, New York

Death of Moore

  • 24 October, Cambridge

1959

Strawson, Individuals

  • engages in ‘descriptive’—rather than ‘revisionary’—metaphysics

Anscombe, An Introduction to Wittgenstein’s Tractatus

  • argues for the importance of Frege to Wittgenstein

Hampshire, Thought and Action

  • sees freedom as based on capacity for reasoning and (self-)knowledge

Smart, ‘Sensations and Brain Processes’

  • proposes identity theory of mind

Kripke, ‘A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic’

  • his first paper

Malcolm, Dreaming

  • claims that dreams are not occurrences during sleep

Brandt, Ethical Theory

  • introduces distinction between act and rule utilitarianism

Sibley, ‘Aesthetic Concepts’

  • seeks to distinguish aesthetic from non-aesthetic concepts

Russell, My Philosophical Development

Moore, Philosophical Papers

  • second collection of his papers, prepared shortly before his death

Ayer, ed., Logical Positivism

  • 2nd vol. in ‘The Library of Philosophical Movements’ series (ed. P. Edwards), the only one dealing with any form of analytic philosophy; extensive bib.

  • contributors: Russell, Schlick, Carnap, Hempel, Hahn, Neurath, Ayer, Stevenson, Ramsey, Ryle, Waismann (the last three in a section on ‘Analytical Philosophy’)

Gellner, Words and Things

  • famous polemic, subtitled ‘An Examination of, and an Attack on, Linguistic Philosophy’; foreword by Russell

  • Ryle controversially refuses to review it in Mind

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of C. D. Broad

  • 10th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

Charlesworth, Philosophy and Linguistic Analysis

  • discusses Moore, Russell, Wittgenstein, Ayer, the Cambridge School, the Oxford School

Snow, The Two Cultures

  • Rede lecture, Cambridge, 7 May; 2nd edn. 1963

  • argues that there is a sciences/humanities cultural divide

Ayer succeeds Price

  • Wykeham Professor of Logic, Oxford; retires 1978

Searle to Berkeley

  • Assistant Professor 1959–64; Associate Professor 1964–7; Professor 1967–

Prior to Manchester

  • Professor (newly established second chair) 1959–66

Death of Waismann

  • 4 November, Oxford

1960

Quine, Word and Object

  • introduces idea of indeterminacy of translation

  • offers def. of ordered pair as philosophical paradigm

Gadamer, Truth and Method

  • key text of hermeneutics

  • part 1 on art, part 2 on history, part 3 on language

  • first tr. 1975

Ayer, ‘Philosophy and Language’

  • inaugural lecture

  • critique of linguistic philosophy

Bergmann, ‘Strawson’s Ontology’

  • review of Strawson’s Individuals

  • introduction of term ‘the linguistic turn’

Putnam, ‘Minds and Machines’

  • introduces Turing machines into philosophy of mind

Prior, ‘The Runabout Inference-ticket’

  • gets us into contonktions

Hook, Dimensions of Mind

  • collection from interdisciplinary conference

  • contributors include Ducasse, Feigl, Köhler, E. Nagel, Putnam, Skinner, Wiener

Popkin, The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes

  • argues that modern philosophy developed out of a sceptical crisis in the sixteenth century

  • expanded editions 1979, 2003

M. Warnock, Ethics since 1900

  • discusses Bradley, Moore, intuitionism, emotivism, moral psychology, existentialism

  • 3rd edn. 1978, omitting chapter on Bradley

Founding of the British Journal of Aesthetics

  • journal of the British Society of Aesthetics, founded 1960

  • editor H. Osborne 1960–77

Lakatos to London

  • LSE, where he remains until his death in 1974

Kneale succeeds Austin

  • White’s Professor of Moral Philosophy 1960–6, when he retires due to ill health

Death of Austin

  • 8 February, Oxford

1961

Wittgenstein, Notebooks 1914–1916

  • 2nd edn. 1979, with different version of ‘Notes on Logic’

Wittgenstein, Tractatus retranslated

  • tr. Pears and McGuinness

Austin, Philosophical Papers

  • 2nd edn. 1970; 3rd edn. 1979

Russell, Basic Writings

  • first selection from the full range of Russell’s writings (1903–59)

Grice, ‘The Causal Theory of Perception’

  • introduces idea of implication, later called ‘implicature’ (e.g. 1975a, 1981)

Marcus, ‘Modalities and Intensional Languages’

  • defends quantified modal logic against Quine’s criticisms

Robinson, ‘Non-standard Analysis’

  • introduces infinitesimals

Nagel, The Structure of Science

  • subtitled ‘Problems in the Logic of Scientific Explanation’

  • classic account of reductionism

Hart, The Concept of Law

  • develops legal positivism, described as an exercise in ‘analytic jurisprudence’

  • 2nd edn. 1994 with reply to critics

von Wright in Finland

  • Research Professor, Academy of Finland 1961–86

Putnam to MIT

  • Professor of Philosophy of Science 1961–65

Fodor at MIT

  • Assistant Professor; Associate Professor 1963; Professor 1969–86

Death of Merleau-Ponty

  • 4 May, Paris

1962

Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

  • rejects cumulative view of scientific progress and emphasizes role played by ‘paradigm shifts’

Austin, lectures published

  • How to Do Things with Words

  • Sense and Sensibilia

Geach, Reference and Generality

  • subtitled ‘An Examination of Some Medieval and Modern Theories’

Kneale & Kneale, The Development of Logic

  • monumental account from the ancient Greeks to the theory of deductive systems (Gödel, Tarski)

Putnam, ‘The Analytic and the Synthetic’

  • argues that analytic statements are true by ‘implicit convention’

Sellars, ‘Philosophy and the Scientific Image of Man’

  • distinguishes ‘scientific image’ and ‘manifest image’

Strawson, ‘Freedom and Resentment’

  • argues for a form of compatibilism by appeal to our ‘participant reactive attitudes’

Mandelbaum, ‘Philosophy, Science, and Sense Perception’

  • Presidential Address to APA, December

  • distinguishes analytic from ‘continental’ philosophy (understood as phenomenological–existential tradition)

Blanshard, Reason and Analysis

  • critical study of analytic philosophy over the previous 40 years

  • discusses logical positivism, logical atomism, linguistic philosophy

Hintikka, Knowledge and Belief

  • first main work, exploring logic of the two notions, developing possible-worlds semantics

Moore, Commonplace Book 1919–1953

  • selection from his notebooks

Anderson, Studies in Empirical Philosophy

  • collection of his writings from 1926

Rawls to Harvard

  • Professor 1962–91; University Professor 1979–2002

Death of Anderson

  • 6 July, Sydney

1963

Davidson, ‘Actions, Reasons, and Causes’

  • argues that reasons are causes

Gettier, ‘Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?’

  • generated the genre of Gettier counterexamples

Putnam, ‘Brains and Behaviour’

  • critique of logical behaviourism

Kenny, Action, Emotion and Will

  • offers Wittgensteinian, anti-causalist account

Hare, Freedom and Reason

  • argues that one can be both free and rational in thinking morally

Popper, Conjectures and Refutations

  • subtitled ‘The Growth of Scientific Knowledge’

  • essays elaborating his falsificationism

Sellars, Science, Perception and Reality

  • first collection of his papers

Malcolm, Knowledge and Certainty

  • collection of his papers

Stevenson, Facts and Values

  • collection of his papers

von Wright, The Varieties of Goodness

  • his own favourite book

von Wright, Norm and Action

  • develops his logic of norms

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap

  • 11th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

  • 80-page ‘Intellectual Autobiography’

  • contributors include Frank, Popper, Feigl, Ayer, Davidson, Quine, Sellars, Beth, Strawson, Bar-Hillel, Goodman, Pap, Hempel, Putnam, E. Nagel

Caton, ed., Philosophy and Ordinary Language

  • first anthology of ordinary language philosophy

  • contributors: Austin, Cartwright, Hall, Linsky, Rhees, Ryle, Searle, Strawson, Toulmin & Baier, Urmson

H. D. Lewis, ed., Clarity Is Not Enough

Mehta, The Fly and the Fly-bottle

  • interviews Gellner, Russell, Hare, Murdoch, G. Warnock, Strawson, Ayer, Hampshire

Alston & Nakhnikian, eds., Readings in Twentieth-Century Philosophy

  • parts on James, Bergson, Maritain, Whitehead, Dewey, Moore, Russell, logical positivism, ordinary language philosophy, Husserl, Heidegger, Tillich, Sartre

Founding of the Journal of the History of Philosophy

  • first journal for the history of philosophy established in the English-speaking world

Sellars to Pittsburgh

  • Professor 1963–89

Cavell to Harvard

  • Walter M. Cabot Professor of Aesthetics and the General Theory of Value 1963–97, when he retires

Dennett to Oxford

  • studies with Ryle; Ph.D. awarded 1965

Plantinga to Calvin College

  • Professor 1963–82

Death of Ajdukiewicz

  • 12 April, Warsaw

1964

Wittgenstein, Philosophical Remarks

  • written 1929–30

  • pub. in German; tr. 1975

Frege, Basic Laws translated in part

  • introduction and §§ 1–52 of vol. 1; appendix to vol. 2

  • tr. M. Furth

Benacerraf & Putnam, eds., Philosophy of Mathematics

  • classic collection of readings

  • 2nd edn. 1983

Black, A Companion to Wittgenstein’s Tractatus

  • first detailed commentary

Taylor, The Explanation of Behaviour

  • argues that teleological explanations are indispensable and non-causal

Chappell, ed., Ordinary Language

Simpson, Logical Forms, Reality and Significance

  • pioneering work of Latin American analytic philosophy

Goodman to Brandeis

  • Professor 1964–7

Habermas to Frankfurt

  • Professor of Philosophy and Sociology 1964–71; 1984–93, when he retires

Death of C. I. Lewis

  • 2 February, Menlo Park, California

1965

Waismann, The Principles of Linguistic Philosophy

  • Waismann’s account of Wittgenstein’s ideas as he understood them in the early 1930s

Hempel, Aspects of Scientific Explanation

  • collection of his papers

Benacerraf, ‘What Numbers Could Not Be’

  • argues that arithmetic is concerned with progressions, not objects

Rorty, ‘Mind-Body Identity…’

  • argues for eliminative materialism, as now known

Ammerman, ed., Classics of Analytic Philosophy

  • work by Austin, Ayer, Broad, Carnap, Grice, Hempel, Moore, Quine, Russell, Ryle, Strawson, Wisdom

  • contains ‘A Short History of Analytic Philosophy’ by ed.

Thiel, Sense and Reference in Frege’s Logic

  • first monograph in German on Frege’s philosophy

  • pub. in English 1968

Jeremy Walker, A Study of Frege

  • first monograph in English on Frege’s philosophy

Danto, Analytical Philosophy of History

  • distinguishes substantival and analytical philosophy of history; repr. in Danto 1985

Barry, Political Argument

  • adopts ‘analytical’ rather than ‘causal’ approach

Putnam to Harvard

  • Professor of Philosophy; Walter Beverley Pearson Professor of Modern Mathematics and Mathematical Logic 1976–2000, when he retires

Kuhn to Princeton

  • Professor of Philosophy and History of Science 1964–79

von Wright visits Cornell

  • Professor-at-large, Cornell, 1965–77

Dennett to Irvine

  • Assistant Professor 1965–70; Associate Professor 1970–1

1966

Chisholm, Theory of Knowledge

  • offers definitions of epistemic terms and principles

  • 2nd edn. 1977; 3rd edn. 1989

Quine, The Ways of Paradox

  • second collection of his essays

Donnellan, ‘Reference and Definite Descriptions’

D. Lewis, ‘An Argument for the Identity Theory’

  • first statement of his analytic functionalism, as now known

Strawson, The Bounds of Sense

  • reconstructs Kant, playing down his transcendental idealism

Bennett, Kant’s Analytic

  • ‘fighting Kant tooth and nail’ to learn from him (p. viii)

  • sequel 1974

Weitz, ed., Twentieth-Century Philosophy: The Analytic Tradition

  • parts on realism and common sense (Moore, Russell, Lovejoy); logical analysis (Russell, Ryle); logical positivism (Carnap, Hahn, Stevenson, Hempel, Urmson); conceptual elucidation (Wisdom, Ryle, Wittgenstein, Austin, Hart & Honoré, Baier)

Williams & Montefiore, eds., British Analytical Philosophy

  • contributors: Pears, Searle, Quinton, Lemmon, Harré, Kenny, Ishiguro, Montefiore, MacIntyre, Taylor, Wollheim, Gardiner, Hepburn, Mészáros

Copi & Beard, Essays on Wittgenstein’s Tractatus

Pitcher, Wittgenstein

  • collection on the Philosophical Investigations

Copleston, A History of Philosophy, vol. 8

  • entitled ‘Bentham to Russell’

  • Part V on ‘The Revolt against Idealism’: ch. 17 on realism in Britain and America; ch. 18 on Moore; chs. 19–21 on Russell

Foucault, The Order of Things

  • contains critique of representation in modern philosophy

  • tr. 1973

Hare at Oxford

  • White’s Professor of Moral Philosophy, Oxford 1966–83

Prior to Oxford

  • Fellow, Balliol College 1966–9, when he dies

Death of Brouwer

  • 2 December, Blaricum, near Amsterdam

1967

Frege, Kleine Schriften

  • first complete edition of published papers

  • tr. as Collected Papers 1984

Russell, Autobiography

  • 3 vols. 1967–9; repub. together in 1975

Wittgenstein, Zettel

  • fragments mainly written 1945–8

Rorty, ed., The Linguistic Turn

  • classic collection on linguistic philosophy, covering both ‘ordinary language’ and ‘ideal language’ philosophy

  • contains papers by Schlick, Carnap, Bergmann, Ryle, Wisdom, Malcolm, Copi, Black, Ambrose, Chisholm, Cornman, Quine, Passmore, Maxwell & Feigl, Thompson, Hare, Henle, Geach, Urmson, Hampshire, Warnock, Cavell, Shapere, Strawson, Katz, Bar-Hillel

  • 39-page introd. and 33-page bib. covering 1930–65

Edwards, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 vols.

  • entry on ‘Analysis, Philosophical’ (Weitz 1967), covering Russell, Moore, Wittgenstein, Wisdom, Ryle, Carnap, Ayer

  • 2nd edn. 2005, ed. Borchert; includes new entry on ‘Analysis, Philosophical’ (Soames 2005)

Grice, ‘Logic and Conversation’

  • William James Lectures, Harvard

  • parts published later, but only fully in 1989

Davidson, ‘Truth and Meaning’

  • argues that a theory of meaning must be built on a Tarskian theory of truth

Davidson, ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’

  • repr. 1980 with replies to criticism

Goldman, ‘A Causal Theory of Knowing’

  • inspires reliabilism

Putnam, ‘The Nature of Mental States’

  • defends machine state functionalism

Wiggins, Identity and Spatio-Temporal Continuity

Foot, ‘The Problem of Abortion…’

  • discusses the doctrine of double effect

  • introduces the trolley problem, as now known

Fann, ed., Ludwig Wittgenstein

  • first collection with many memoirs and recollections

van Heijenoort, ed., From Frege to Gödel

  • subtitled ‘A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 1879–1931’, with first complete tr. of Frege’s Begriffsschrift, and many other subsequent works in the history of logic

McCall, ed., Polish Logic 1920–1939

  • first collection of work by Polish logicians in translation

Skolimowski, Polish Analytical Philosophy

  • subtitled ‘A Survey and a Comparison with British Analytical Philosophy’

Derrida, triple event announcing his presence

  • Speech and Phenomena: critique of Husserl

  • Of Grammatology: critique of logocentrism

  • Writing and Difference: collection of essays

  • introduces deconstruction

Founding of Noûs

  • founding editor Hector-Neri Casteñeda

Founding of British Society for Phenomenology

  • founded by Wolfe Mays

  • Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology founded 1970

Williams succeeds Braithwaite

  • Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy, Cambridge (the ‘Moral’ in the title now dropped)

  • resigns 1979, when he becomes Provost of King’s

Grice to Berkeley

  • Professor 1967–88

Church to UCLA

  • Professor 1967–90

1968

Goodman, Languages of Art

  • develops theory of symbols, theory of notation

Sellars, Science and Metaphysics

  • subtitled ‘Variations on Kantian Themes’

  • John Locke Lectures, Oxford 1965–6

Armstrong, A Materialist Theory of the Mind

  • fullest account of his identity theory: central state materialism

Fodor, Psychological Explanation

  • develops functionalism as a position between behaviourism and dualism

Wollheim, Art and its Objects

  • distinguishes artworks as individuals and as types

  • 2nd edn. 1980

Danto, Analytical Philosophy of Knowledge

  • bases account on distinction between descriptive and semantic concepts

Quine, ‘Epistemology Naturalized’

  • criticizes Carnapian rational reconstruction

  • urges that epistemology be seen as part of psychology

Grice, ‘Utterer’s Meaning, Sentence Meaning, and Word-Meaning’

  • followed by ‘Utterer’s Meaning and Intentions’ (1969)

Kaplan, ‘Quantifying In’

  • discusses quantification into epistemological contexts

Cornman, ‘On the elimination of “sensations” and sensations’

  • ‘eliminative materialism’ coined, distinguished from ‘reductive materialism’

Habermas, Knowledge and Human Interests

  • first articulation of his critical social theory

Deleuze, Difference and Repetition

  • presents a metaphysics of difference

Derrida, ‘Différance’

  • deconstructs meaning into differing and deferring

Ayer, The Origins of Pragmatism

  • subtitled ‘Studies in the Philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce and William James’

Klemke, ed., Essays on Frege

  • first collection of papers on Frege

  • dedicated to Bergmann

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of C. I. Lewis

  • 13th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

Strawson succeeds Ryle

  • Waynflete Professor of Metaphysical Philosophy, Oxford

  • retires 1987

Goodman to Harvard

  • Professor 1968–77

Kripke to Rockefeller

  • Associate Professor; Professor 1972–7

1969

Frege, Nachgelassene Schriften

  • Nachlaß finally published, based on surviving material

  • tr. as Posthumous Writings 1979

Wittgenstein, On Certainty

Bolzano, collected works

  • first of c.150 vols. appears

Searle, Speech Acts

  • classic account of his speech act theory

Cavell, Must We Mean What We Say?

  • collection, incl. his essay with that title

  • includes ‘Austin at Criticism’ (1965)

Dretske, Seeing and Knowing

  • defends epistemological direct realism

Dennett, Content and Consciousness

  • first book, dividing philosophy of mind into theory of content and theory of consciousness

Strawson, ‘Meaning and Truth’

  • Inaugural Lecture, Oxford

  • talks of ‘Homeric struggle’ between communication-intention theorists and theorists of formal semantics

Skinner, ‘Meaning and understanding…’

  • argues for contextualist history

Klemke, ed., Studies in the Philosophy of G. E. Moore

  • 3 parts: ethics; ontology; methodology and epistemology

Fann, ed., Symposium on J. L. Austin

  • papers on his life and work

Ishiguro, ‘Use and Reference of Names’

  • rejects realist readings of Tractatus

Stegmüller, Problems and Results…

  • vol. 1 of Problems and Results of Philosophy of Science and Analytic Philosophy (1969–74); 2nd edn. 1983

Foucault, The Archaeology of Knowledge

  • sees ‘epistemes’ (systems of thought) as governed by unconscious rules requiring excavation

  • tr. 1972

Deleuze, The Logic of Sense

  • explores structure and genesis of sense

Death of Prior

  • 6 October, Norway

1970

Davidson, ‘Mental Events’

  • argues for anomalous monism

Dretske, ‘Epistemic operators’

  • offers relevant-alternatives account of knowledge

  • gives first counterexamples to Principle of Closure

Sen, Collective Choice and Social Welfare

  • builds on Arrow 1951 in developing social choice theory by considering informational broadening

Mundle, A Critique of Linguistic Philosophy

  • criticizes Ayer, Ryle, Austin, Warnock, and Strawson in Part One, and Wittgenstein in Part Two

Klemke, ed., Essays on Bertrand Russell

  • contributors include Quine, Bergmann, Hochberg, Strawson, Sellars, Geach, Linsky, Carnap, Ramsey

  • 3 parts on ontology, theory of reference and descriptions, philosophy of logic and mathematics

Ambrose & Lazerowitz, eds., G. E. Moore: Essays in Retrospect

  • contributors include Braithwaite, Malcolm, Lazerowitz, Findlay, Ambrose, Ryle, Bouwsma, Ewing, Broad, Ayer, W. & M. Kneale, Lewy, Duncan-Jones, Urmson

Wood & Pitcher, ed., Ryle

  • first collection on Ryle

Lakatos & Musgrave, eds., Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge

Łukasiewicz, Selected Works

  • first collection of his logical and philosophical writings in translation

Fain, Between Philosophy and History

  • subtitled ‘The Resurrection of Speculative Philosophy of History Within the Analytic Tradition’

Gross, Analytic Philosophy: An Historical Introduction

  • two main themes: sense-data; meaning and reference

  • discusses Moore, Russell, Wittgenstein, logical positivism, Ryle, Austin, Quine, Strawson

Anscombe succeeds Wisdom

  • Professor of Philosophy, Cambridge; retires 1986

White to Princeton

  • Professor, Institute for Advanced Study, 1970–87, when he retires

Death of Russell

  • 2 February, Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales

Death of Carnap

  • 14 September, Santa Monica, California

1971

Rawls, A Theory of Justice

  • uses idea of the ‘original position’ to argue for a view of ‘justice as fairness’

von Wright, Explanation and Understanding

  • rejects reduction of reasons to causes

Cornman, Materialism and Sensations

  • advocates adverbial materialism, steering between eliminative and reductive materialism

Ayer, Russell and Moore: The Analytical Heritage

  • William James Lectures, Harvard 1970

  • 5 chapters on Russell, 4 chapters on Moore

Ryle, Collected Papers

  • vol. 1: Critical Essays

  • vol. 2: Collected Essays 1929–1968

Strawson, Logico-Linguistic Papers

  • his classic papers, beginning with ‘On Referring’ (1950a)

Kripke, ‘Identity and Necessity’

  • distinguishes rigid and non-rigid designators

Dennett, ‘Intentional Systems’

  • defines ‘intentional system’ and distinguishes design stance, physical stance, and intentional stance

Thomson, ‘A Defence of Abortion’

  • uses violinist thought experiment

  • in first issue of Philosophy and Public Affairs

Derrida, ‘Signature Event Context’

Founding of Canadian Journal of Philosophy

  • founded by John King-Farlow, Kai Nielsen, T. M. Penelhum, and W. W. Rozeboom, Alberta

Founding of Russell: the Journal of the Bertrand Russell Archives

  • founding editor Kenneth Blackwell, McMaster

  • new series 1981, subtitle changed to ‘the Journal of Bertrand Russell Studies’

Dennett to Tufts

  • Associate Professor; Professor 1975; Director of Center for Cognitive Studies 1985

Kim to Michigan

  • Professor 1971–87

Death of Broad

  • 11 March, Cambridge

Death of Ross

  • 5 May, Oxford

1972

Kripke, ‘Naming and Necessity’

  • criticizes descriptivist theories of names and develops a causal theory of reference

  • pub. in book form 1980

Popper, Objective Knowledge

  • rejects ‘commonsense theory of knowledge’

  • dedicated to Tarski

Frege, Conceptual Notation

  • tr. by Bynum of Begriffsschrift and related material

  • contains first substantial biography of Frege

Foot, ‘Morality as a System of Hypothetical Imperatives’

  • compares ethics with etiquette

Clarke, ‘The legacy of skepticism’

  • first account of epistemic contextualism

Ayer, Bertrand Russell

Hacker, Insight and Illusion

  • 2nd edn. 1986, with many revisions to his interpretation of Wittgenstein

Feigl & Sellars, eds., New Readings in Philosophical Analysis

Derrida, Margins of Philosophy

  • essays on Hegel, Husserl, Heideger, Saussure, and Austin, among others

Deleuze & Guattari, Anti-Oedipus

  • sees ‘desiring-production’ as the ‘universal primary process’

Founding of Journal of Philosophical Logic

  • founding editor B. C. van Fraassen

Hamlyn succeeds Ryle

  • Editor of Mind 1972–84

1973

Dummett, Frege: Philosophy of Language

  • groundbreaking work, establishing Frege’s status as a founder of analytic philosophy

  • in emphasizing his philosophy of language, provoked critical reaction from those who saw Frege as primarily having other interests, rooted in his logicism

  • 2nd edn. 1981 (with refs. added)

Davidson, ‘Radical Interpretation’

  • concerned with the conditions that make interpretation possible

Benacerraf, ‘Mathematical Truth’

  • poses dilemma for mathematical realism

Evans, ‘The Causal Theory of Names’

Kim, ‘Causation, Nomic Subsumption and the Concept of Event’

  • presents his view of events as property exemplifications

Williams, Problems of the Self

  • first collection of his papers, incl. on personal identity

Lewis, Counterfactuals

  • applies possible world semantics to conditionals

Hinton, Experience

  • source of talk of ‘disjunctivism’

Danto, Analytical Philosophy of Action

  • develops notion of a ‘basic action’

Ayer, The Central Questions of Philosophy

  • ch. 3 on ‘Philosophical Analysis’

Berlin et al., Essays on J. L. Austin

  • first collection on Austin

  • Berlin describes ‘Oxford philosophy’ in introd.

1974

Wittgenstein, Philosophical Grammar

  • written 1930–3

Davidson, ‘On the Very Idea of a Conceptual Scheme’

  • attacks dualism of scheme and content—the ‘third dogma of empiricism’

Nagel, ‘What is it like to be a bat?’

  • started the bat-wagon about phenomenal consciousness

Kirk, ‘Sentience and Behaviour’

  • coins term ‘zombie’

Plantinga, The Nature of Necessity

  • develops actualist possible worlds semantics

  • applies modal metaphysics to ontological argument and to free will response to problem of evil

Montague, Formal Philosophy

  • selected papers

Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia

  • adopts ‘flashy’ analytic style (cf. p. x)

Brandt, A Theory of the Good and the Right

  • John Locke Lectures, Oxford

  • pub. 1979

Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Karl Popper

  • 14th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

  • first collection on Popper

Death of Lakatos

  • 2 February, London

1975

Putnam, Philosophical Papers

  • vols. 1–2; vol. 3 1983

Putnam, ‘The meaning of “meaning”’

  • uses Twin Earth thought experiment to argue that ‘“meanings” just ain’t in the head!’

  • advocates causal theory of reference

Grice, ‘Logic and Conversation’

  • develops idea of conversational implicatures

Grice, ‘Method in Philosophical Psychology’

  • Presidential address to APA, San Diego, 28 March

Shoemaker, ‘Functionalism and Qualia’

  • argues that functionalism can account for qualia

Fodor, The Language of Thought

  • develops his representational theory of mind

  • argues for the innateness of concepts

Sellars, Essays in Philosophy and its History

  • ‘variations on Sellarsian themes’ (p. vii)

Feyerabend, Against Method

  • subtitled ‘Outline of an anarchistic theory of knowledge’

  • originally planned as For and Against Method, co-authored with Lakatos

Hacking, Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy?

  • discusses heydays of ideas, meanings, sentences

  • answer: because sentences interface between knower and known, and perhaps even constitute knowledge

Corrado, The Analytic Tradition in Philosophy

  • Part 1: ‘The Background’; 2 chs. on logic and metaphysics; knowledge and meaning

  • Part II: ‘The Problems’; 4 chs. on theory of knowledge; philosophy of mind; ethics; logic and analytic philosophy

Clark, The Life of Bertrand Russell

  • second biography

Relaunch of Erkenntnis

Founding of Grazer Philosophische Studien

  • subtitled ‘International Journal for Analytic Philosophy’

  • founding editor Rudolf Haller

1976

Frege, Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel

  • first edn. of Frege’s correspondence (as known then)

  • tr. as Philosophical and Mathematical Correspondence 1980

Lakatos, Proofs and Refutations

  • subtitled ‘The Logic of Mathematical Discovery’

Chisholm, Person and Object

  • argues that a satisfactory metaphysics of persons must accord with certain pre-analytic data

Dummett, The Logical Basis of Metaphysics

  • William James Lectures, Harvard

  • pub. 1991, revised

Wiggins, ‘Truth, Invention, and the Meaning of Life’

  • applies Wittgenstein’s ideas about objectivity in mathematics to ethics

Thomson, ‘Killing, Letting Die,…’

  • discusses trolley problem

Geach, ‘Saying and Showing in Frege and Wittgenstein’

  • inspires later debate about the ‘new Wittgenstein’

Evans & McDowell, eds., Truth and Meaning

  • collection marking the ‘Davidsonic boom’ hitting Oxford in 1970s

Popper, Unended Quest

  • intellectual autobiography

Lewis, ed., Contemporary British Philosophy (Fourth Series)

  • contributors: Anscombe, Bambrough, Dummett, Flew, Geach, Hamlyn, Hare, Harrison, Hepburn, Körner, Strawson, Swinburne, Urmson, Vesey, Walsh, Warnock, Williams, Winch

Schirn, ed., Studien zu Frege, 3 vols.

  • first multi-volume collection of papers on Frege

Fogelin, Wittgenstein

  • ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series; 2nd edn. 1987

Ackermann, The Philosophy of Karl Popper

  • first monograph on Popper

Tugendhat, Lectures…

  • introduces analytic philosophy of language in German-speaking world; tr. 1982

Death of Heidegger

  • 26 May, Freiburg, Germany

Death of Ryle

  • 6 October, Whitby, Yorkshire

1977

Wittgenstein, Remarks on Colour

  • written 1950–1

Mackie, Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong

  • argues against objective values, using ‘argument from relativity’ and ‘argument from queerness’

Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously

  • criticizes legal positivism and utilitarianism

Kuhn, The Essential Tension

  • subtitled ‘Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change’

McDowell, ‘On the Sense and Reference of a Proper Name’

  • reconstructs Frege’s notion of sense in a Davidsonian framework, arguing for ‘object-dependent’ thoughts

Kaplan, ‘Demonstratives’

  • first presentation of his theory of demonstratives

  • pub. 1989, though widely circulated before

Perry, ‘Frege on Demonstratives’

  • argues that demonstratives pose a problem for Frege

  • response by Evans (1981)

Ayer, Part of my Life

  • autobiography up to 1946; sequel 1984 (More of my Life)

Hempel to Pittsburgh

  • Professor 1977–85

Kripke to Princeton

  • McCosh Professor of Philosophy 1977–97

1978

Lakatos, Philosophical Papers, 2 vols.

  • vol. 1: ‘The methodology of scientific research programmes’

  • vol. 2: ‘Mathematics, science and epistemology’

  • published four years after his death

Goodman, Ways of Worldmaking

  • pluralism about right yet conflicting world-versions

Dummett, Truth and Other Enigmas

  • first collection of his papers

Dennett, Brainstorms

  • essays on mind and psychology

Armstrong, Universals and Scientific Realism

  • argues for the existence of universals, as required for there to be laws of nature

Block, ‘Troubles with Functionalism’

  • presents absent qualia argument

Foot, Virtues and Vices

  • first collection of her papers

Cohen, Karl Marx’s Theory of History

  • founding text of analytic Marxism

  • 2nd edn. 2000

Rée, Ayers & Westoby, Philosophy and its Past

  • criticizes analytic philosophers’ approach to history of philosophy

Malcolm to London

  • Visiting Professor, King’s College

Wright to St Andrews

  • Professor of Logic and Metaphysics 1978–2009

Death of Gödel

  • 14 January, Princeton

Death of Stevenson

  • 14 March, Bennington, Vermont

1979

Rorty, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

  • attacks epistemological foundationalism, seen as characteristic of philosophy since Descartes

Kripke, ‘A Puzzle about Belief’

  • raises his puzzle about Pierre

Burge, ‘Individualism and the Mental’

  • argues for social externalism, using thought experiment concerning ‘arthritis’, among others

Perry, ‘The Problem of the Essential Indexical’

  • he makes a mess

Goldfarb, ‘Logic in the Twenties’

  • discusses development of understanding of quantification

Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle

  • conversations recorded by Waismann 1929–32

Cavell, The Claim of Reason

  • subtitled ‘Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy’

Churchland, Scientific Realism and the Plasticity of Mind

  • his first book, arguing for eliminative materialism, rejecting folk psychology

Sainsbury, Russell

  • ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series

Platts, Ways of Meaning

  • first book defending Davidsonian theory of meaning

Diamond, ‘Frege and Nonsense’

  • her first paper exploring issue of nonsense in connection with Frege and Wittgenstein; followed by Diamond 1981

Brandt, A Theory of the Good and the Right

  • develops his utilitarianism

Levy, Moore: G. E. Moore and the Cambridge Apostles

  • first biography of Moore—but only covering his life up to First World War

  • remains, to date, the only biography

Dummett succeeds Ayer

  • Wykeham Professor of Logic, Oxford; retires 1992

Kuhn to MIT

  • Professor of Philosophy 1979–89

1980

Wittgenstein, Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, 2 vols.

  • remarks in vol. 1 written 1946–7 (TS 229)

  • remarks in vol. 2 written 1947–8 (TS 232)

Davidson, Essays on Actions and Events

  • first collection of his papers

Searle, ‘Minds, Brains and Programs’

  • introduces Chinese Room argument

Fodor, ‘Methodological Solipsism…’

  • defends a form of rational, as opposed to naturalistic, psychology, based on methodological solipsism

van Fraassen, The Scientific Image

  • develops his constructive empiricism

Field, Science Without Numbers

  • defends nominalism

Block, ed., Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology

  • vol. 1 on mental representation, imagery, innate ideas

  • vol. 2 on behaviourism, physicalism, functionalism

Sluga, Gottlob Frege

  • written in reaction to Dummett 1973

  • sought to position Frege more accurately in the history of philosophy, as influenced by a host of German thinkers

  • ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series (but more historical than most in the series)

Resnik, Frege and the Philosophy of Mathematics

  • first monograph devoted to Frege’s philosophy of mathematics

Baker and Hacker, Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning

  • vol. 1 of their analytical commentary on Philosophical Investigations (§§ 1–184); rev. Hacker 2005

  • vol. 2 1985 (§§ 185–242); rev. Hacker 2009

  • vol. 3 1990 (§§ 243–427), by Hacker alone

  • vol. 4 1996 (§§ 428–693), by Hacker alone

Wright, Wittgenstein on the Foundations of Mathematics

  • pioneering work on the topic

Lyons, Gilbert Ryle

  • first monograph on Ryle

O’Hear, Karl Popper

  • ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series

Founding of History and Philosophy of Logic

  • founding editor Ivor Grattan-Guinness

Timothy Smiley succeeds Williams

  • Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy, Cambridge

  • retires 1998

Death of Sartre

  • 15 April, Paris

Death of Evans

  • 10 August, London

1981

Dummett, The Interpretation of Frege’s Philosophy

  • Dummett’s substantial reply to his critics, written as he was preparing the 2nd edn. of Dummett 1973

Putnam, Reason, Truth and History

  • ch. 1: ‘Brains in a vat’

Chisholm, The First Person

  • subtitled ‘An Essay on Reference and Intentionality’

Dretske, Knowledge and the Flow of Information

  • bases theory of knowledge and belief on theory of information

Fodor, RePresentations

  • essays on functionalism and propositional attitudes

Nozick, Philosophical Explanations

  • offers truth-tracking account of knowledge

Hare, Moral Thinking

  • argues that universal prescriptivism entails preference utilitarianism

MacIntyre, After Virtue

  • critique of modern (post-Enlightenment) moral theory and defence of an Aristotelian virtue ethics

Habermas, Theory of Communicative Action

  • critique of theories of rationality and development of his universal pragmatics and discourse theory

  • 2 vols. tr. 1984. 1987

Dworkin, ‘What is Equality?’

  • part 1: equality of welfare; part 2: equality of resources

Holtzman & Leich, eds., Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule

  • contributors include Baker, Peacocke, Wright, Evans, McDowell, Blackburn

Block, ed., Perspectives on the Philosophy of Wittgenstein

  • includes Kripke on rules and private language

French et al., eds., The Foundations of Analytic Philosophy

  • 32 papers, from Chisholm on Brentano and Benacerraf on Frege to Devitt on Donnellan

Munitz, Contemporary Analytic Philosophy

  • chs. on Peirce, Frege, Russell, early Wittgenstein, verificationism, later Wittgenstein, Quine

Death of Kotarbin´ski

  • 3 October, Warsaw

Death of Mackie

  • 12 December, Oxford

1982

Wittgenstein, Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. 1

  • remarks written 1948–9: preliminary studies for Part II of Philosophical Investigations

  • vol. 2 1992: ‘The Inner and the Outer 1949–1951’

Kripke, Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language

  • interprets Wittgenstein as offering a ‘sceptical solution’ to a sceptical paradox

  • provokes much controversy among Wittgenstein scholars

Evans, The Varieties of Reference

  • begins with Frege, Russell, and Kripke

McDowell, ‘Criteria, Defeasibility and Knowledge’

  • criticizes ‘highest common factor’ (hybridist or conjunctivist) conception of experience

Jackson, ‘Epiphenomenal Qualia’

  • birth of Mary the colour scientist and formulation of the knowledge argument

Wolf, ‘Moral Saints’

  • finds the idea unattractive, criticizing Kantianism and utilitarianism

Ayer, Philosophy in the Twentieth Century

  • intended as a sequel to Russell’s History of Western Philosophy

  • concentrates on the ‘two main schools for which I have a personal predilection, the American pragmatists…and what is loosely called the analytic movement’ (p. vii)

  • six chapters on philosophers of these schools, one on Collingwood, one on phenomenology and existentialism (to ‘diminish what might appear to be a bias in favour of Anglo-Saxon thought’; p. viii)—Husserl receives one page and Heidegger five pages

von Wright, Wittgenstein

  • collection of his papers, some on composition of texts

Mohanty, Husserl and Frege

Plantinga to Notre Dame

  • John A. O’Brien Professor of Philosophy

  • director of Center for Philosophy of Religion 1984–2002

1983

Russell, Collected Papers, vol. 1

  • ‘Cambridge Essays 1888–99’

  • 1st vol. published, with 28 vols. planned

Wright, Frege’s Conception of Numbers as Objects

  • reinvigorated work on Frege’s logicism

Fodor, The Modularity of Mind

  • argues that the mind contains ‘modules’

Searle, Intentionality

  • theory of intentionality seen as central to philosophy of mind

Stich, From Folk Psychology to Cognitive Science

  • argues for eliminative materialism

Barwise & Perry, Situations and Attitudes

  • develop situation semantics

Levine, ‘Materialism and Qualia’

  • formulates explanatory gap argument

Parsons, Mathematics in Philosophy

  • selected essays

Grice, ‘The Conception of Value’

  • Carus lectures, pub. 1991

Death of Tarski

  • 27 October, San Francisco

1984

Russell, Collected Papers, vol. 7

  • ‘Theory of Knowledge: The 1913 Manuscript’

  • 2nd vol. published

Davidson, Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation

  • second collection of his papers

Parfit, Reasons and Persons

  • parts on self-defeating theories, rationality and time, personal identity, and future generations

Stroud, The Significance of Philosophical Skepticism

  • discusses Austin, Carnap, Moore, and Quine

  • explores internal/external distinction

Stalnaker, Inquiry

  • applies possible worlds semantics to theory of belief

Millikan, Language, Thought and Other Biological Categories

  • naturalistic account of intentionality

  • teleological theory of mental content

Shoemaker, Identity, Cause, and Mind

  • collection of his essays

Baker & Hacker, Frege: Logical Excavations

Rorty, Schneewind, & Skinner, eds., Philosophy in History

  • collection of essays addressing both methodological questions and specific developments in the history of analytic philosophy

  • reacting to the ahistorical approach to history of philosophy of many analytic philosophers

  • contributors: C. Taylor, MacIntyre, Rorty (identifying four genres of historiography), Krüger, Hacking, Kuklick, Lepenies, Schneewind, Skinner, Burnyeat, M. Frede, Dunn, Ayers, Sluga (on Frege), Baldwin (on Moore), Hylton (on Russell)

Gracia et al., eds., Philosophical Analysis in Latin America

  • collection of work by Latin American analytic philosophers (cf. Gracia 1984)

Kim, ‘Concepts of Supervenience’

  • distinguishes ‘weak’, ‘strong’, and ‘global’ supervenience

Mulligan, Simons & Smith, ‘Truth-makers’

  • first full discussion of idea of truth-makers

  • first published use of term Simons 1982

Railton, ‘Alienation…’

  • argues for ‘objective consequentialism’

Founding of the British Society for the History of Philosophy

  • ‘to promote and foster all aspects of the study and teaching of the history of philosophy’

  • its journal, the BJHP, founded in 1993

Founding of History of Philosophy Quarterly

  • founding editor Nicholas Rescher

Blackburn succeeds Hamlyn

  • Editor of Mind 1984–90

Death of Foucault

  • 25 June, Paris

Death of Price

  • 20 November, Oxford

1985

Quine, The Time of My Life

  • autobiography

Rosen, The Limits of Analysis

  • criticizes analytic philosophy for failing to do justice to its limits and context

Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy

  • describes his approach as ‘analytical’ (p. vi)

Foster, A. J. Ayer

  • first monograph on Ayer

  • ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series

Hookway, Peirce

  • ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series

Wright, ‘Facts and certainty’

  • sees failure of transmission of warrant in Moore’s proof of an external world

Herman, ‘The Practice of Moral Judgment’

  • offers normative reconstruction of Kantian ethics

Tomberlin & van Inwagen, eds., Alvin Plantinga

  • collection of essays, incl. Plantinga’s ‘Self-Profile’

Passmore, Recent Philosophers

  • supplement to Passmore 1957/1966

  • discusses theories of meaning; realism and relativism

Rajchman & West, eds., Post-Analytic Philosophy

  • contributors include: Rorty, Putnam, Nagel, Danto, Cavell, Davidson, Hacking, Kuhn, Rawls, Scanlon

  • restricted to American philosophy

Death of E. Nagel

  • 20 September, New York

1986

Lewis, On the Plurality of Worlds

  • fullest defence of his modal realism and counterpart theory

Burge, ‘Individualism and Psychology’

  • argues for anti-individualism about perceptual states

  • discusses Marr’s theory of vision

Salmon, Frege’s Puzzle

  • defends naïve theory of information content

Patricia Churchland, Neurophilosophy

  • subtitled ‘Toward a Unified Science of the Mind/Brain’

Cohen, The Dialogue of Reason

  • subtitled ‘An Analysis of Analytical Philosophy’

  • chs. on language, reasoning, rationality, computation

Nagel, The View from Nowhere

  • explores tension between subjective and objective standpoints

Railton, ‘Moral Realism’

  • defends ‘stark, raving moral realism’

Ayer, Ludwig Wittgenstein

  • short, critical account of all main works

Malcolm, Nothing is Hidden

  • subtitled ‘Wittgenstein’s Criticism of his Early Thought’

Haaparanta & Hintikka, eds., Frege Synthesized

  • contributors: Weiner, van Heijenoort, Sluga, Ricketts, Burge, Haaparanta. Resnik, Cocchiarella, Brandom, Kitcher, Currie, A. Moore & Rein

Schilpp & Hahn, eds., The Philosophy of W. V. Quine

  • 18th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

Proust, Questions of Form

  • subtitled ‘Logic and the Analytic Proposition from Kant to Carnap’, discussing Bolzano and Frege as well

Canfield, ed., The Philosophy of Wittgenstein

  • 15-vol. collection on Wittgenstein

Shanker, ed., Ludwig Wittgenstein: Critical Assessments

  • 4-vol. collection on Wittgenstein

  • second series 2002 (Shanker & Kilfoyle)

Founding of Mind and Language

  • founding editors M. K. Davies and S. D. Guttenplan

McDowell to Pittsburgh

  • Professor 1986–

Fodor to New York

  • Distinguished Professor, CUNY 1986–8

1987

Dennett, The Intentional Stance

  • full exposition of his view that mental states are ascribed from the intentional stance

Fodor, Psychosemantics

  • defends folk psychology

Schiffer, Remnants of Meaning

  • criticizes theories of meaning and content, advocating ‘no-theory theory’

Davidson, ‘Knowing One’s Own Mind’

  • creates Swampman

Cocchiarella, Logical Studies in Early Analytic Philosophy

  • collection of his essays on Frege, Russell, Meinong, and Wittgenstein, reconstructing logicism and logical atomism; first use of ‘early analytic philosophy’ in a title

Founding of Philosophical Perspectives

  • founding editor James E. Tomberlin 1987–2002

  • supplement to Noûs from 1996

Kim to Brown

  • Professor

Death of Bergmann

  • 21 April, Iowa City

1988

Putnam, Representation and Reality

  • criticizes his earlier functionalism

Dretske, Explaining Behavior

  • subtitled ‘Reasons in a World of Causes’

  • representational theory of belief, desire, and action

Baker, Wittgenstein, Frege and the Vienna Circle

  • first monograph exploring connections between Frege, Wittgenstein, and logical positivism

McGuinness, Wittgenstein: A Life: Young Ludwig 1889–1921

  • first book-length biography of Wittgenstein, though covering only first half of his life

  • 2nd vol. has never appeared

Haller, Questions on Wittgenstein

  • considers Wittgenstein in the context of Austrian philosophy

New series of Ratio

  • subtitled ‘An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy’

Fodor to Rutgers

  • Professor

Death of Feigl

  • 1 June, Minneapolis

Death of Black

  • 27 August, Ithaca, New York

Death of Grice

  • 28 August, Berkeley, California

1989

Publication of Frege’s letters to Wittgenstein

  • tr. Dreben and Floyd, pub. 2011

Taylor, Sources of the Self

  • subtitled ‘The Making of the Modern Identity’

O’Neill, Constructions of Reason

  • subtitled ‘Explorations of Kant’s Practical Philosophy’

Brink, Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics

  • criticizes non-cognitivism and defends moral realism

Kim, ‘The Myth of Nonreductive Materialism’

  • Presidential Address to Central Division of APA, April

  • critique of nonreductive materialism

Quinn, two papers on ‘Actions, Intentions, and Consequences’

  • discusses ‘doctrine of doing and allowing’ and doctrine of double effect

Warnock, J. L. Austin

  • first monograph; ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series

Schilpp & Hahn, eds., The Philosophy of Georg Henrik von Wright

  • 19th vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

Death of Ayer

  • 27 June, London

Death of Sellars

  • 2 July, Pittsburgh

1990

Russell, Collected Papers, vol. 2

  • ‘Philosophical Papers 1896–99’

  • 7th vol. published

Quine & Carnap, Dear Carnap, Dear Van

  • Quine–Carnap correspondence, ed. Creath

Hylton, Russell, Idealism, and the Emergence of Analytic Philosophy

  • first substantial scholarly account of the development of Russell’s philosophy (up to 1913)

  • introduction: argues for the importance of studying the history of analytic philosophy

Baldwin, G. E. Moore

  • examines full range of Moore’s work

  • remains the most substantial account to date

Weiner, Frege in Perspective

  • first monograph on Frege from the Harvard school

Monk, Ludwig Wittgenstein: The Duty of Genius

  • first (and to date only) full-length complete biography of Wittgenstein (McGuinness 1988 only covered first half of his life)

Sahlin, The Philosophy of F. P. Ramsey

  • first monograph on Ramsey

Bell & Cooper, eds., The Analytic Tradition

  • contributors: Bell, Skorupski, Burge, Hookway, Dummett, Künne, Baldwin, Hylton, Sacks, Hart

Neale, Descriptions

  • defends and develops Russell’s theory

Etchemendy, The Concept of Logical Consequence

  • criticizes Tarksi’s conception

van Inwagen, Material Beings

  • explores problem of material composition

Gibbard, Wise Choices, Apt Feelings

  • offers naturalistic theory of normative judgement

Nussbaum, Love’s Knowledge

  • subtitled ‘Essays on Philosophy and Literature’

Walton, Mimesis as Make-Believe

  • offers eliminativist account of fiction

Bell, Husserl

  • offers an analytic philosopher’s account

  • ‘Arguments of the Philosophers’ series

Sainsbury succeeds Blackburn

  • Editor of Mind 1990–2000

Williams at Oxford

  • White’s Professor of Moral Philosophy 1990–6

Death of Braithwaite

  • 21 April, Cambridge

Death of Kneale

  • 24 June, Grassington

Death of Malcolm

  • 4 August, London

Death of Skinner

  • 18 August, Cambridge, Massachusetts

1991

Dummett, Frege: Philosophy of Mathematics

  • long-awaited sequel to his book on Frege’s philosophy of language, finally correcting imbalance in view fostered

  • adopts an approach more sensitive to the development of Frege’s philosophy

Dummett, Frege and Other Philosophers

  • collection of Dummett’s papers on Frege, incl. replies to some of his critics

Coffa, The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap

  • a history of the development of views on the a priori

  • Part I: ‘The semantic tradition’

  • Part II: ‘Vienna, 1925–1935’

Griffin, Russell’s Idealist Apprenticeship

  • offers detailed account of the development of Russell’s thought up to his final break with idealism

  • draws on the extensive archives at McMaster

Diamond, The Realistic Spirit

  • collection, incl. papers on Frege and Wittgenstein

Dennett, Consciousness Explained

  • proposes ‘multiple drafts’ view of consciousness

  • rejects qualia, and hence ‘hard problem’

Hill, Autonomy and Self-Respect

  • collection of essays

Jackson, ‘Decision-Theoretic Consequentialism…’

  • argues that consequentialism can accommodate concern with nearest and dearest

Vlastos, Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher

  • presents Socrates as not merely a critical thinker but as having positive views

Deleuze & Guattari, What is Philosophy?

  • argues that philosophy is the creation of concepts

Köhnke, The Rise of Neo-Kantianism

  • subtitled ‘German Academic Philosophy between Idealism and Positivism’

Dreben to Boston

  • Professor 1991–99

Death of Stegmüller

  • 1 June, Munich

Death of Vlastos

  • 12 October, Berkeley

1992

Strawson, Analysis and Metaphysics

  • seeks to replace ‘reductive’ by ‘connective’ analysis

Russell, Selected Letters

  • Vol. 1: ‘The Private Years, 1884–1914’

  • Vol. 2: ‘The Public Years, 1914–1970’; pub. 2001

Searle, The Rediscovery of the Mind

  • develops his theory of consciousness, based on Chinese Room argument (1980)

Williams, Unnatural Doubts

  • subtitled ‘Epistemological Realism and the Basis of Skepticism’

  • defends epistemological contextualism

Campbell, Truth and Historicity

  • first history of development of conceptions of truth

Hahn, ed., The Philosophy of A. J. Ayer

  • 21st vol. in ‘The Library of Living Philosophers’

Simons, Philosophy and Logic…

  • essays on Central European analytic tradition

DeRose, ‘Contextualism and knowledge attributions’

  • first semantic contextualist account of knowledge attributions

Death of Hung

  • 27 February, Beijing

Death of Hart

  • 19 December, Oxford

1993

Rawls, Political Liberalism

  • moves from his earlier Kantian constructivism to ‘political constructivism’

Dummett, Origins of Analytical Philosophy

  • offered not as a history but ‘a series of philosophical reflections on the roots of the analytical tradition’ (p. viii)

  • argues that analytic philosophy and phenomenology have the same roots, focusing on Frege and Husserl, with no discussion of Russell, Moore, or the Vienna Circle

  • claims that analytic philosophy was born when the ‘linguistic turn’ was taken—in Frege’s Foundations

  • orig. pub. in German 1988

Dummett, The Seas of Language

  • collection, incl. papers on theory of meaning

Blackburn, Essays in Quasi-Realism

  • develops expressivism

Dancy, Moral Reasons

  • defends moral particularism; elaborated in Dancy 2004

Kim, Supervenience and Mind

  • selected essays

Plantinga, two books on warrant

  • argues that knowledge requires warrant rather than justification (1993a)

  • develops theory of warrant as proper function (1993b)

von Wright, ‘Analytical Philosophy’

  • subtitled ‘A Historico-Critical Survey’

Russell, Collected Papers, vol. 3

  • ‘Toward the ‘Principles of Mathematics’ 1900–02’

  • 9th vol. published

Irvine & Wedeking, eds., Russell and Analytic Philosophy

  • contributors include Sainsbury, Blackburn & Code, Neale, Griffin, B. Linsky, Shanker, Detlefsen, Hylton, Landini, Hunter

Sluga, ed., The Philosophy of Frege, 4 vols.

  • the second multi-volume collection on Frege, containing many of the classic papers published up to 1988

  • vol. 1: general assessments and historical accounts

  • vol. 2: logic and foundations of mathematics

  • vol. 3: meaning and ontology

  • vol. 4: sense and reference

Moore, Selected Writings

  • the first Moore reader, ed. Baldwin

(Barcan) Marcus, Modalities

  • collection of her papers

Founding of British Journal for the History of Philosophy

  • journal of the BSHP

  • founding editor G. A. J. Rogers 1993–2011

Founding of European Journal of Philosophy

  • founding editor Mark Sacks

Wiggins succeeds Dummett

  • Wykeham Professor of Logic, Oxford; retires 2000

Death of Feyerabend

  • 11 February, Genolier, Vaud, Switzerland

Death of Wisdom

  • 9 September, Cambridge

1994

Brandom, Making It Explicit

  • main work presenting his inferentialism

  • introd. to main ideas later provided in Brandom 2000

McDowell, Mind and World

  • aims to show that there is no gulf between mind and world to be bridged

Skorupski, English-Language Philosophy 1750–1945

  • vol. 6 in OUP ‘History of Western Philosophy’ series

  • first half of the twentieth century discussed as ‘modernism’, with one chapter on Frege and Cambridge, one on Vienna

Carl, Frege’s Theory of Sense and Reference

  • places Frege in Kantian epistemological tradition

  • pub. in CUP ‘Modern European Philosophy’ series

Smith, Austrian Philosophy: The Legacy of Franz Brentano

  • defends the ‘Neurath–Haller thesis’, that there is a distinctive Austrian tradition of analytic philosophy (cf. Haller 1991)

Steiner, An Essay on Rights

  • analytic Marxist account

Death of Popper

  • 17 September, Croydon

1995

Dretske, Naturalizing the Mind

  • defends representational theory of consciousness

Demopoulos, ed., Frege’s Philosophy of Mathematics

  • first collection bringing together work inspired by the rediscovery of Frege’s theorem

Hintikka & Puhl, eds., The British Tradition in 20th Century Philosophy

  • proceedings of 17th International Wittgenstein Symposium

Malcolm, Wittgensteinian Themes

  • essays 1978–89

Kusch, Psychologism

  • offers account of debates about psychologism in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Germany

  • subtitled ‘A case study in the sociology of philosophical knowledge’

Smith & Smith, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Husserl

  • contributors: B. Smith, D. Smith, Mohanty, Hintikka, Simons, Willard, Mulligan, Philipse, Tieszen, Fine

Founding of Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

  • founding editor Edward N. Zalta

  • initial funding from Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford, directed by John Perry

Death of Church

  • 11 August, Hudson, Ohio

Death of Deleuze

  • 4 November (suicide), Paris

1996

Chalmers, The Conscious Mind

  • raises the ‘hard’ problem of consciousness

  • argues against reductive materialist accounts

Korsgaard, Creating the Kingdom of Ends

  • develops and defends Kant’s ethics

Korsgaard, The Sources of Normativity

  • defends Kantian appeal to autonomy, synthesizing voluntarism, realism and reflective endorsement

Publication of Carnap’s notes on Frege’s lectures

  • tr. as Frege’s Lectures on Logic 2004

Hacker, Wittgenstein’s Place in Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy

  • an account of analytic philosophy with Wittgenstein’s philosophy (both early and late) firmly at the centre

  • Frege and Russell are discussed as part of the background and Quine in a later chapter on ‘post-positivism’

  • final chapter on ‘The Decline of Analytic Philosophy’

Beaney, Frege: Making Sense

  • focuses on development of Frege’s conception of sense

Dejnozka, The Ontology of the Analytic Tradition and Its Origins

  • subtitled ‘Realism and Identity in Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, and Quine’

Monk, Bertrand Russell: The Spirit of Solitude

  • vol. 1 of biography

  • vol. 2 2000, subtitled ‘The Ghost of Madness’

Monk & Palmer, eds., Bertrand Russell and the Origins of Analytical Philosophy

  • contributors: Monk, Griffin, Noonan, Candlish, Sainsbury, Palmer, Hylton, Rodríguez-Consuegra, Grayling, Kilmister, Landini, Pigden, Greenspan

Sluga and Stern, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein

  • contributors: Sluga, Fogelin, Ricketts, Summerfield, Garver, Gerrard, Glock, Diamond, Cavell, Stroud, Bloor, Scheman, Kober, Stern

Giere & Richardson, eds., Origins of Logical Empiricism

  • described as ‘an effort on the part of the Minnesota Center for Philosophy of Science to recover its own historical origins’ (p.vii)

Sarkar, ed., Science and Philosophy in the Twentieth Century

  • collection of works on logical empiricism, 6 vols.

Baillie, ed., Contemporary Analytic Philosophy: Core Readings

  • readings divided into six sections: (1) Frege, Russell, Moore; (2) Wittgenstein; (3) Logical Empiricism (Schlick, Carnap); (4) Ordinary Language Philosophy (Ryle, Austin, Strawson, Grice); (5) Quine; (6) Truth, Meaning and Interpretation (Tarski, Davidson)

  • 2nd edn. 2002, with 7th section added on ‘Reference and Essence’ (Kripke, Putnam, Burge)

Ewald, ed., From Kant to Hilbert

  • source book on foundations of mathematics

Sokal, ‘Transgressing the Boundaries…’

  • hoax article submitted to Social Text, provoking debate about postmodernism as part of the ‘Science Wars’

Death of Kuhn

  • 17 June, Cambridge, Massachusetts

1997

Frege, The Frege Reader

  • first single-volume edition to include all Frege’s seminal papers as well as substantial selections from his three major works; ed. Beaney

Gabriel & Kienzler, eds., Frege in Jena

  • first collection devoted to Frege’s Jena context

Tait, ed., Early Analytic Philosophy: Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein

  • contributors: Burge, Friedman, Gerrard, Goldfarb, Hylton, B. Linsky, Reck, Ricketts, Tait, Weiner

Glock, ed., The Rise of Analytic Philosophy

  • contributors: Føllesdal on analytic philosophy, Sluga on Frege, Monk on Russell, Hacker on the rise of analytic philosophy, and Skorupski on why language mattered

Künne, Siebel, & Textor, eds., Bolzano and Analytic Philosophy

  • first book on Bolzano’s relation to analytic philosophy

  • signals recognition not so much of his direct influence but of his anticipation of ideas of analytic philosophy

Clarke, Philosophy’s Second Revolution

  • subtitled ‘Early and Recent Analytic Philosophy’

  • argues against the naturalistic—and more specifically, materialistic—turn that took place in the 1960s

Hahn, ed., The Philosophy of Hans-Georg Gadamer

  • 24th vol. in ‘The Library of the Living Philosophers’

Hahn, ed., The Philosophy of Roderick M. Chisholm

  • 25th vol. in ‘The Library of the Living Philosophers’

Haldane, ed., Analytical Thomism

  • special issue of Monist

  • first use of term in title of book; earlier use Haldane 1995

Death of Berlin

  • 5 November, Oxford

Death of Hempel

  • 9 November, Princeton

1998

Scanlon, What We Owe to Each Other

  • development of his contractualism

Blackburn, Ruling Passions

  • develops expressivist theory of practical reasoning

Jackson, From Metaphysics to Ethics

  • subtitled ‘A Defence of Conceptual Analysis’

McDowell, collected papers

  • vol. 1: Mind, Value, and Reality

  • vol. 2: Meaning, Knowledge, and Reality

Lowe, The Possibility of Metaphysics

  • argues for the foundational nature of metaphysics in analytic philosophy

Richardson, Carnap’s Construction of the World

  • stresses neo-Kantian roots of Carnap’s philosophy

Kamm, Morality, Mortality

  • vol. 1 entitled ‘Death and Whom to Save from It’

Biletzki & Matar, eds., The Story of Analytic Philosophy

  • subtitled ‘Plot and Heroes’

  • contributors include Hacker, Hylton, Sacks, Skorupski, Floyd, Friedlander, Putnam, Hintikka

Mancosu, ed., 1998, From Brouwer to Hilbert

  • subtitled ‘The Debate on the Foundations of Mathematics in the 1920s’

Hahn, ed., The Philosophy of P. F. Strawson

  • 26th vol. in ‘The Library of the Living Philosophers’

Craig, ed., Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Death of Goodman

  • 25 November, Needham, Massachusetts

1999

Friedman, Reconsidering Logical Positivism

  • collection of papers, mainly on Carnap

Hursthouse, On Virtue Ethics

  • fullest presentation of her virtue ethics

Irvine, ed., Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments, 4 vols.

  • vol. 1: life, work and influence

  • vol. 2: logic and mathematics

  • vol. 3: language, knowledge, and the world

  • vol. 4: history of philosophy, ethics, education, religion, and politics

Hahn, ed., The Philosophy of Donald Davidson

  • 27th vol. in ‘The Library of the Living Philosophers’

Tooley, ed., Analytical Metaphysics

  • 5 vol. collection of essays

O’Hear, ed., German Philosophy Since Kant

  • includes: Simons on Austrian realism, Glock on German analytic tradition, Bell on Brentano’s influence on Moore and Russell, Hacker on Frege and Wittgenstein, Uebel on the Vienna Circle, Inwood on nothing

White, A Philosopher’s Story

  • autobiography

Rogers, A. J. Ayer: A Life

  • first biography

Death of Chisholm

  • 19 January, Providence, Rhode Island

Death of Dreben

  • 11 July, Boston

2000

Wittgenstein, Nachlass

  • Bergen electronic edition

Williamson, Knowledge and Its Limits

  • defends knowledge-first approach to epistemology

Stroll, Twentieth-Century Analytic Philosophy

  • main chapters on Frege’s and Russell’s philosophical logic, logical positivism and the Tractatus, Moore, later Wittgenstein, Ryle and Austin, Quine, and direct reference theories

Friedman, A Parting of the Ways

  • account of the meeting at Davos in 1929 between Cassirer, Heidegger, and Carnap

Crary and Read, eds., The New Wittgenstein

  • contributors include Diamond, Conant, Floyd, Hacker

Timothy Williamson succeeds Wiggins

  • Wykeham Professor of Logic at Oxford

M. Martin succeeds Sainsbury

  • Editor of Mind 2000–5

Death of Quine

  • 25 December, Boston

2001

Baldwin, Contemporary Philosophy

  • subtitled ‘Philosophy in English since 1945’

  • final vol. in OUP ‘History of Western Philosophy’ series

Floyd & Shieh, eds., Future Pasts: The Analytic Tradition in Twentieth-Century Philosophy

  • dedicated to Dreben, most contributors having Harvard connection

  • organized around key events in the history of analytic philosophy from Frege’s Begriffsschrift

  • contributors: Goldfarb, Weiner, Føllesdal, Hintikka, Ricketts, Parsons, Floyd, Minar, Quine, Friedman, Hylton, Putnam, Neiman, Scheman, Parikh, Cavell, Hart, Shieh, Hatfield, Sacks, Rawls

Hale and Wright, Reason’s Nearest Kin

  • essays on neo-Fregean philosophy of mathematics

Crane, Elements of Mind

  • defends Brentano’s thesis, that intentionality is the mark of the mental

Martinich & Sosa, eds., A Companion to Analytic Philosophy

  • 39 chapters summarizing the work of the 41 greatest analytic philosophers, according to the editors: Frege, Russell, Moore, Broad, Wittgenstein, Carnap, Popper, Ryle, Tarski, Church, Gödel (the last three treated together), Ramsey, Hempel, Goodman, Hart, Stevenson, Quine, Ayer, Austin, Malcolm, Sellars, Grice, von Wright, Chisholm, Davidson, Anscombe, Hare, Strawson, Foot, Marcus, Rawls, Kuhn, Dummett, Putnam, Armstrong, Chomsky, Rorty, Searle, Fodor, Kripke, David Lewis

Martinich & Sosa, eds., Analytic Philosophy: An Anthology

  • 7 sections: philosophy of language, metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of mind, freedom and personal identity, ethics, methodology

  • selections from the work of those in the editors’ Companion, except Broad, Popper, Ryle, Tarski, Church, Gödel, Ramsey, Hart, von Wright, Hare, Marcus, Kuhn, Dummett, Chomsky, Rorty, Fodor

  • includes work, instead, by Black, Gettier, Nagel, Williams, Langford, hence offering a different perspective on the canon

Hanna, Kant and the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy

  • an account of the relationship between the views of Kant and analytic philosophers on the notions of the analytic and synthetic, a priori and a posteriori

Kreiser, Gottlob Frege: Leben—Werk—Zeit

  • first (and to date only) full-length biography of Frege

Kuklick, A History of Philosophy in America 1720–2000

  • Part II: ‘The Age of Pragmatism, 1859–1934’

  • Part III: ‘Professional Philosophy, 1912–2000’, with chapters on ‘Professional Realism’, ‘Europe’s Impact on the United States’, ‘Harvard and Oxford’, and ‘The Tribulations of Professional Philosophy’

Founding of Philosophers’ Imprint

  • pub. online by University of Michigan

Death of Anscombe

  • 5 January, Cambridge

Death of D. Lewis

  • 14 October, Princeton

2002

Brandom, Tales of the Mighty Dead

  • inferentialist reading of certain texts in the history of philosophy; two essays on Frege

Williams, Truth and Truthfulness

  • subtitled ‘An Essay in Genealogy’

Reck, ed., From Frege to Wittgenstein: Perspectives on Early Analytic Philosophy

  • explores work of Frege and early Wittgenstein

  • contributors: Reck, Gabriel, Gerrard, Sluga, Shieh, Ruffino, Weiner, Goldfarb, Macbeth, Ricketts, Diamond, Proops, Floyd, Ostrow, Conant (89-page essay on ‘The Method of the Tractatus’)

Horgan et al., eds., Origins

  • collection on the common sources of the analytic and phenomenological traditions

Death of Hare

  • 29 January, Ewelme, Oxfordshire

Death of Gadamer

  • 13 March, Heidelberg

Death of Rawls

  • 24 November, Lexington, Massachusetts

2003

Soames, Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, 2 vols.

  • vol. 1: ‘The Dawn of Analysis’; 5 parts: Moore; Russell; early Wittgenstein; logical positivism; early Quine

  • vol. 2: ‘The Age of Meaning’; 7 parts: later Wittgenstein; Ryle, Strawson and Hare; Malcolm and Austin; Grice; later Quine; Davidson; Kripke

  • series of rational reconstructions of some canonical texts

  • no discussion of Frege or Carnap

  • narrative: the Whiggish story of gradual clarifications of modal notions culminating in Kripke’s work

Baldwin, ed., The Cambridge History of Philosophy 1870–1945

  • Part I 1870–1914, Part II 1914–45, each Part divided into sections covering different areas of philosophy

  • first section of Part I on positivism, idealism, and pragmatism

  • first section of Part II on ‘the analytic programme’, with chapters on logical atomism (Simons), logical positivism (Richardson), Polish logic (Wolenński), and logic and philosophical analysis (Baldwin)

Griffin, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Bertrand Russell

  • contributors: Griffin, Grattan-Guinness, Cartwright, Beaney, Godwyn and Irvine, Hylton, Landini, Urquhart, Hager, Tully, Linsky, Demopoulos, Baldwin, Grayling, Pigden

Stalnaker, Ways a World Might Be

  • collection of his papers on metaphysics

Gibbard, Thinking How To Live

  • develops expressivism

Beaney, ‘Analysis’

  • Stanford Encyclopedia entry, outlining the history of conceptions of analysis, with extensive bibliography

  • § 6 on analytic philosophy

Lamarque and Olsen, eds., Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art

  • subtitled ‘The Analytic Tradition: An Anthology’

Shields, ed., Process and Analysis

  • first book exploring connection between Whitehead, Hartshorne, and the analytic tradition

Haaparanta & Niiniluouto, eds., Analytic Philosophy in Finland

  • first survey of Finnish analytic philosophy

Founding of British Philosophical Association

  • established out of the National Committee for Philosophy, set up in early 1980s

Kripke to New York

  • Professor CUNY

Death of Williams

  • 10 June, Rome

Death of von Wright

  • 16 June, Helsinki

Death of Davidson

  • 30 August, Berkeley, California

2004

Wittgenstein, complete correspondence

  • Innsbruck electronic edition

Armstrong, Truth and Truthmakers

  • defends truth-maker principle

Pryor, ‘What’s wrong with Moore’s argument’

  • defends Moore’s proof of an external world

Baker, Wittgenstein’s Method

  • collection of his last papers, seeing Wittgenstein more as a psychotherapist than a policeman (cf. p. 1)

Awodey & Klein, eds., Carnap Brought Home: The View from Jena

  • exemplifies growing interest in the history of analytic philosophy in Germany, as scholars there seek to reclaim the work of those philosophers—such as Carnap—who were forced to leave Germany as a result of Nazism

Feferman & Feferman, Alfred Tarski

  • first biography

Gibson, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Quine

  • contributors: Gibson, Fogelin, Creath, de Rosa and Lepore, Bergström, Hylton, Kirk, Føllesdal, Isaacson, Ullian, Dreben

Complete translation of Frege’s Basic Laws underway

  • work begins on a complete translation, directed by Crispin Wright at St Andrews

  • eventually published 2013

2005

Wittgenstein, The Big Typescript

  • composed 1933–7

Davidson, Truth and Predication

  • discusses problem of the unity of the proposition

Burge, Truth, Thought, Reason

  • collection of his papers on Frege

  • substantial introduction

Hylton, Propositions, Functions, Analysis

  • collection of his essays on Russell

Neale, ed., 100 Years of ‘On Denoting’

  • special issue of Mind marking centenary

Stevens, The Russellian Origins of Analytic Philosophy

  • offers account of development of Russell’s philosophy focusing on problem of the unity of the proposition

Beaney & Reck, eds., Gottlob Frege: Critical Assessments, 4 vols.

  • third multi-volume collection on Frege

  • contains key papers pub. 1986–2005

  • vol. 1: Frege’s philosophy in context

  • vol. 2: Frege’s philosophy of logic

  • vol. 3: Frege’s philosophy of mathematics,

  • vol. 4: Frege’s philosophy of thought and language

  • comparison with Sluga 1993 shows increasing concern with philosophy of mathematics

Sorell & Rogers, eds., Analytic Philosophy and History of Philosophy

  • essays by historians of early modern philosophy reflecting on the relationship between analytic philosophy and history of philosophy

  • but no essays on the history of analytic philosophy itself

Jackson & Smith, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy

  • ‘contemporary philosophy’ understood as contemporary analytic philosophy

Baldwin succeeds Martin

  • Editor of Mind 2005–

2006

McGinn, Elucidating the Tractatus

  • seeks a way between ‘metaphysical’ and ‘resolute’ readings

Travis, Thought’s Footing

  • reads Wittgenstein as responding to Frege

Wilson, Wandering Significance

  • subtitled ‘An Essay on Conceptual Behavior’

Textor, ed., The Austrian Contribution to Analytic Philosophy

  • collection exploring roots of analytic philosophy in work of Bolzano, Brentano, Meinong, and others

Auxier & Hahn, eds., The Philosophy of Jaakko Hintikka

  • 30th vol. in ‘The Library of the Living Philosophers’

Horgan & Timmons, eds., Metaethics after Moore

Corradini, Galvan, & Lowe, eds., Analytic Philosophy Without Naturalism

  • defends analytic non-naturalism in epistemology, ontology, philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, practical philosophy

Death of Strawson

  • 13 February, Oxford

2007

Williamson, The Philosophy of Philosophy

  • ch. 1: ‘The Linguistic Turn and the Conceptual Turn’

  • ch. 6: ‘Thought Experiments’, discussing Gettier

Sosa, A Virtue Epistemology

  • manifesto of virtue epistemology

Burge, Foundations of Mind

  • collection of papers defending his anti-individualism

  • substantial introd.

Candlish, The Russell/Bradley Dispute and its Significance for Twentieth-Century Philosophy

  • first monograph devoted to the dispute

  • argues against received view that Russell ‘won’

  • repr. 2009 as 3rd vol. in ‘History of Analytic Philosophy’ series

Hylton, Quine

  • views Quine’s philosophy as rooted in his naturalism

  • ‘Argument of the Philosophers’ series

Carus, Carnap and Twentieth-Century Thought

  • subtitled ‘Explication as Enlightenment’

Friedman & Creath, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Carnap

  • contributors: Creath, Friedman, Carus, Mormann, Gabriel, Ryckman, Pincock, Uebel, Reck, Ricketts, Awodey, Demopoulos, Zabell, Richardson

Richardson & Uebel, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Logical Empiricism

  • contributors: Richardson, Uebel, Stadler, Hoffmann, Reisch, Friedman, Galavotti, Mormann, Awodey and Carus, Ryckman, Hardcastle, Nemeth, Stern, Creath

  • 47-page bib.

Auxier & Hahn, eds., The Philosophy of Michael Dummett