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date: 25 February 2020

(p. 939) Index

(p. 939) Index

15D 790, 794

abbreviated new drug application 534
ability to pay 339
access to health care 819
and child health 176–7
equal access for equal need 814, 817
equality in 341–2, 819
preventive care 141
primary care 470–2
racial bias in 150
accountability 456
acculturation 153
achievement index 843
activity-based funding 659–60, 665
actuarial fairness 820
addiction
cue-triggered 210
rational 209
time inconsistency 209–10 see also substance use
adjusted needs-based model 489
advance market commitment 545
adverse selection 257–8, 299–300, 369
counteracting 298
advertising
alcohol, bans on 214
direct to consumer 540, 541, 542–4
pharmaceuticals 542–4
Afghanistan, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
African-Americans
distrust of medical system 150
mortality rates 149–50
age 18
government financing by 881–2
health investment demand 105–6
health spending by 870–7
changes with time 873–7
cross-country comparisons 871–3 see also child health; elderly patients; population aging
agency relationships 466–7
alcohol 206
advertising bans 214
health-related effects 220–3
traffic safety 222–3
wage losses 222
regulation of sales 207
taxation 213, 567
Algeria
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
allocative efficiency 823
allostatic load 145
Alma Ata declaration 463, 474–5
altruism 300, 376, 437, 441, 495, 602
American Medical Association 413
Angola, health worker emigration 508, 509
anti-trust policy 296
antimalarials 198
artemisinins 198–9
Apgar score 166, 167
AQoL 790, 794
artemisinins 198–9
ASCOT tool 579
Ashenfelter dip 912
asymmetric information see information asymmetry
attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) 180
Australia
chronic disease mortality 25
coordinated long-term care 594
health care cost growth 309
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
as share of GDP 310
inequity in health use 855
mental health care, resource allocation 234
(p. 940) private health insurance 263
technology 23
Austria
chronic disease mortality 25
education and mortality 125
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
average cost 717
average elasticity 844, 846
average treatment effects 890–1, 910
local 907, 909–10
on treated 910
avoidability 820, 832
Azerbaijan, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
balancing score 900–1
Bangladesh, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
bargaining theory 441
Barker, David 164
Baumol's Cost Disease theory 20
Bayh-Dole Act (1983) 522
Becker, Gary 110
behavioral change 142
financial incentives 568
present-bias and small incentives 224–5
problems in rewarding 569–71
behavioral economics 215–16
Behavioral Problems Index 180
Belgium
education and mortality 125
health care spending 12, 16
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
Belize, health worker emigration 509
benchmarking
external 532
internal 531–2
beneficient moral hazard 375–7
benefit packages 289
Benin
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
best practice 696
Bhutan, nurse-to-population ratios 493
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 474
biologics 536&3x2013;7 biopharmaceuticals s ee pharmaceuticals
biotechnology 522–3
big ticket technologies 312
black-white health disparities 149–50
genetic characteristics 152
history of 151–2
infant mortality 151–2
blended payments 628
blocking 901
Blue Cross 366
Blue Shield 366
bootstrapping 776, 903
Botswana, health worker emigration 509
bounded rationality 215
Brazil
Family Health Program 467
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
breast cancer
clinical trials 762–3
cost-effectiveness analysis 740
decision rules 753
decision-making 761–8
approval, delay or coverage with evidence 767–8
probabilistic sensitivity analysis 764–7
searching and synthesis 762–3
breastfeeding and child health 170–1
Buchanan, George 63
budgets 628–9
constraints 438
Burkina Faso, health worker emigration 509
Burundi
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
physician-to-population ratios 494
business stealing (p. 941) 677
caliper matching 903
Cambodia, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
Cameroon
health worker emigration 508, 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
physician-to-population ratios 494
Canada
health care cost growth 309
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
as share of GDP 310
inequity in health use 855
mental health care
psychiatric beds 236
rationing of 241
resource allocation 234
technology 23
capability 559
capability theory 736
Cape Verde, health worker emigration 509
capital 720–1
accumulation 81
education 99, 117–18
health 2, 101–2, 557
human 2, 22, 101–2, 109
health effects on 81
lack of 293
physical 22, 721
capitation 47, 275, 278, 411, 412, 452–3, 604
as incentive 626
primary care 472–3
and service use 571
capture theories 65–6
cardiac disease, primary prevention 561
care rationing see rationing of health care
case management 410
catastrophic health expenditures 340
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 930
Central African Republic, health worker emigration 509
centrally set prices 681–2
Certificate of Need Programs 319
certified nurse-midwives 501
Chad
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
child health
determinants of 164–88
access to health care 176–7
breastfeeding 170–1
environmental factors 168–9
low birth weight 168
maternal behavior 180–1
maternal employment 169–74
mental health 179–80
non-parental care 173
obesity 179
smoking 177–8
socioeconomic status 174–6
and educational status 139–40
fetal origins hypothesis 164
infants 167–9
Integrated Management of Childhood
Illness 861–3
life-cycle perspective 101, 154
measures of 166
medical home 467, 602–3
paying for 603–5
and parental income 144
special needs 603
twin studies 167
China, barefoot doctors 463
choice 280, 734–6
between options 739
direction of 739
equity of 829
foods 568
lifestyle 2, 564
making choices 736–8
non-welfarist approaches 736
of provider payment 278–80
and reduced waiting times 660–2, 665
and social health care 301–2
welfarism 735–6
chronic disease in industrialized countries 24–5 –789 cigarettes s ee tobacco
clinical trials 525
co-payments 289, 329, 479–80
cocaine 214
cognitive ability 141
(p. 942) cognitive development, and maternal employment 171–2
collective action theory 64–5
collective funding of long-term care 586–7
community care 585–6
community rating 393–5
drawbacks 393–4
popularity of 394–5
Comoros, health worker emigration 509
comparative effectiveness research 322
competition
among providers 318–20
between hospitals 672–4
centrally set prices 681–2
entry barriers to 293
and health outcome
outside USA 677–9
impact on health care markets 672–4
increasing 671–87
managed 316–17
and reduced waiting times 660–2, 665
yardstick 691 see also incentives
competitive price discounting 530
complementary private insurance 261–2, 299
concentration index 839–43
alternatives for bounded variables 849–51
extensions 846–7
factor decomposition 844–6
generalized 850–1
concierge medical practices 604
concurrent review programs 409
condition specific measures 799–801
conditional independence 898
confounders 894, 896
Congo
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
physician-to-population ratios 494
consumer choice 280
consumer cost-sharing 259–60
consumer sovereignty 558
contingency management 224
contingent valuation 746
continuity of care 467
contracts
design of 447
managed care 407–9
with payers 448–51
physicians 407–8
public contract systems 275
selective contracting 407–9
Cookson, Richard 818
corrective taxation 212–14, 567–8
alcohol 213, 223–4
fat tax 567
smoking 218–19
costs 747–9
average 717
collection 264
containment 314–23
marginal 717
maximum allowable 535 see also health spending
cost containment 314–23
competition among providers/supply
restrictions 318–20
cost sharing at point of service 314–16
disease management/′pay for performance′ initiatives/wellness programs 320–1
information interventions 322–3
managed care/managed competition 316–17
payment reforms 317–18
cost sharing 259–60, 365–6
and demand for health care 367
drugs 370–1
and health care use 369–70
patient 363, 412
point of service 314–16
provider 363
value-based 373–5
cost shifting 449–50
mental health care 246
cost utility analysis 788–813
comparison of generic measures 795
condition specific measures 799–801
experience vs. preferences 807
health and quality of life 789–94
mapping 796–9
(p. 943) middle way 808
ordinal measures 805–7
patient values 807–8
policy implications 796
preference weights 794–5 QALYs s ee QALYs
source of values 795–6 standard gamble see standard gamble
states worse than dead 801–2
time trade-off see time trade-off
cost-benefit analysis 737
decision rules 754
cost-effectiveness 823
cost-effectiveness analysis 5, 279, 475, 733–58, 760
acceptability curves 780
choice see choice
clinical scenario 739–40, 745
costs to be included 747–8
current evidence 769–71
sufficiency of 771–2
decision problem 738–9
decision rules 750–3
ICER 751, 760
measuring/valuing costs 748–9
outcomes measurement 740–7
QALYs see QALYs
uncertainty in see decision uncertainty
vehicles for 754–5
cost-effectiveness ratio, incremental 751
cost-of-illness accounting 713
Cote d'Ivoire
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
counseling 196
counterfactuals 890–93
coverage
industrialized countries 11
limits on 289
COX-2 inhibitors 527
creaming 674, 678, 682, 683
cross-country studies 83–6
cross-pricing 334–5
cross-subsidies 383–93
explicit 383–7
excess-loss compensations 386–7
risk-adjusted vs. premium-based 384–6
implicit 387–91
guaranteed renewability 387–9
universal premium-raterestrictions 389–91
cross-walking see mapping
cue-triggered addiction 210
Cyprus, projected employment changes 581
Czech Republic
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
DALYs, loss of through tobacco use 206–7
dangerous behaviours 2–3
data envelope analysis 697–9
de-worming treatments 200
death costs 302–3, 877
decision rules
cost-benefit analysis 754
cost-effectiveness analysis 750–3
decision uncertainty 759–87
clinical scenario 761–8
consequences of 772–4, 781–4
evaluation of 774–81
current evidence 774–5
parameter uncertainty 775–7
value of information 779, 781
significance of 761–74
deductibles 372–3
defensive medicine 19–20
deflation 716–17
demand 490–1
containment 660, 664–5see also rationing
elasticity 368, 657–9, 663–4
physician-induced 606, 607–10
demand factors
aging 18
and health insurance 354–79
empirical evidence 366–72
income 15–17
industrialized countries 15–19
preventive care 194–5, 374
treatment 194–5
demand-for-health model 98–103
benefits of good health 100
cost of household production 98–9
depreciation of health 99
empirical formulations 112–13
equations of motions for health and wealth 101–2
individual's optimization problem 102–3
interpretation 103
life-cycle perspective and time preferences 101
optimality condition 103
public policy aspects 115–19
theoretical extensions 109–12
demand-side incentives 260
demand-side moral hazard 615
demographic change
and health spending 877–80
implications for government budgets 880–3
endogenous changes in financing 882–3
financing by age 881–2
population aging 580–3, 875
availability of financial resources 582–3
demography and need 580–1
informal care supply 581
unit cost of services 581–2
Denmark
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
depreciation of health 99
determinants
of child health 164–88
of health 2-3, 724–7
of ill health 817
developed countries
chronic disease 24–5
health workers as resource 504–7
developing countries
education and health status 140
health worker emigration 507–11
pharmaceuticals 544–5 see also low- and middle-income countries
diagnosis related groups 411, 435, 448, 673, 932
effect of prospective payment 637
diagnostic tests 311
difference-in-differences 889, 910–13
direct quantity index 717–18
direct to consumer advertising 540, 541, 542–4
disability, reduction in 876–7
disability-adjusted life years see DALYs
discharge planning 410
discount rate 566
discrimination 149
disease eradication 197–8
disease management 320–1, 410
disease prevalence 193–4
disease-specific interest groups 65 see also diagnosis related groups
disease-specific spending 313
distribution of health care 6–7
Djibouti
health worker emigration 509
physician-to-population ratios 494
double marginalization 292
drugs see pharmaceuticals
dual practice 478–9
duality theory 723
dumping 673, 678, 682, 683
duplicate private insurance 262–3
Dworkin's cut 829
dying, cost of 302–3, 877
dynamic complementarity 165–6
dynamic moral hazard 363
economic evaluation see cost-effectiveness analysis
economic structure 44–6
economics
behavioral 215–16
economies
of scale 295, 448, 453–4
of scope 295, 453
education 137–42
and access to preventive care 141
and health 113–14
and health investment demand 107–8
and health status 139–40
developing countries 140
inter-generational health benefits 139
and lifestyle factors 140–1
and mortality 125, 128
preschool 172, 173–4
school entry age 175–6
and socioeconomic status 175
and uptake of medical technologies 141–2
educational capital 99, 117–18
efficiency 696, 702, 925–6
in long-term care funding 588
in social health insurance 269, 299–300
efficiency effect 107
egalitarianism 822
elasticity
average 844, 846
prevalence-response 194, 196
price 208, 218
supply-side 657–9, 663–4
elderly patients 146
health care funding 271–4
opting out 274
health spending trends 874 see also age population aging
emigration of health workers 507–11
empirical estimations of health 112–14
employer-based health schemes 298–9
employers, health promotion programs 569
employment, projected changes 581
envelope theorem 191–2
environmental factors
constraints to performance 695–6
infant health 168–9
equal access for equal need 814, 817
equal need 819
equal opportunities 828–31
equality see equity
equality vs. health maximization trade-off 833
equations of motions for health and wealth 101–2
Equatorial Guinea
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
equitable inequalities 818, 820
equity 702, 814–36, 926–7
of choice 829
concepts of 818–22
definition of 819–20
as equal shares 819
health gains 826–7
horizontal 268–9
intergenerational 5
in long-term care funding 588
outcomes vs. opportunities 828–31
social health insurance 300–1
total expected lifetime health 827–8
user charges 339–43
in access to health care 341–2
exemption mechanisms 342–3
in finance 339–41
equity-efficiency trade-off 822–6
Eritrea
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Estonia, projected employment changes 581
Ethiopia, health worker emigration 508, 509
ethnicitysee race/ethnicity
European Medicines Evaluation Agency 523
–744, 789, 790, 794, 797–8
EuroQuol-5D-Y 789
evaluation of health policies 890–923
counterfactuals 890–93
ex ante evaluation and microsimulation 915–16
selection bias 994–7
selection on observables 894, 897–904
matching 899–900
propensity scores 900–4
regression analysis 897–9
selection on unobservables 894, 904–15
difference-in-differences 910–13
instrumental variables 906–10
panel data models 913–15
regression discontinuity 910
structural models and control functions 904–6
treatment effects 890–3
average 893–4
Evercare program 595
(p. 946) evidence 769–71
demand factors 366–72
health status and income 83–6
need for 781–4
sufficiency of 771–2, 782
synthesis of 774–5
type of 782
ex ante evaluation 915–16
ex ante moral hazard 287, 363
ex post moral hazard 287
excess cost growth 879–80
excess-loss compensations 386–7
effectiveness 392
market distortions 392
exemption mechanisms 342–3
exogenous price level changes 632
expected value of sample information 783
external benchmarking 532
externalities 61–3
extra billing 347–8
extra-welfarism 558
extrapolation bias 896
factor productivity 20–1
fairness 820–1, 832
actuarial 820
as non-envy 820–1
family structure, concepts of 110–11
fat tax 567
fees 609
average cost 615–16
demand side moral hazard 615
economic neutrality 612
and physician-induced demand 614–15
primary care 611–13
prospective component 613–14, 616–17
supplementary 347–8
user 52 see also payments
fee-for-service 277–8, 370, 411, 421, 571
as incentive 627
primary care 472
quality of care 641 see also Medicare
fertility, decline in 877–8
fetal health 167
fetal origins hypothesis 164
fight-or-flight response 145–6
financial access to health care 470–2
financial incentives 474, 477
effects of 629–32
managed care 410–12
prevention programs 568
and provider behavior 632–40
quality of care 634–40
type and amount of care 633–4
provider payment 625–9
budgets 628–9
capitation 626
fee-for-service 627
prospective payment 627
salary 627–8
financial resources 142–5
financing
equity in 339–41
external dependence for 48–52, 53
long-term care 586–92
carer-blind vs. carer-sighted 591
collective funding arrangements 586–7
definition of eligibility 591
efficiency 588
equity 588
minimum safety-net systems 589
one system for all 590
progressive universalism 590
revenue-raising mechanism 590–1
sustainability/acceptability 588–9 see also health insurance; private health insurance
Finland
chronic disease mortality 25
education and mortality 125
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
fiscal federalism 71
Fisher index 716–17
food choices, incentives for 568
Food and Drug Administration 523
Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (1938) 523
forcing variables 910
formularies 410–11
(p. 947) France
chronic disease mortality 25
Couverture Maladie Universelle 854–5
health care cost growth 309
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
as share of GDP 310
inequity in health use 855
mental health care 250
psychiatric beds 236
rationing of 241
resource allocation 234
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
fraud and abuse
by consumers 290–1
by insurers 293
free-riding 300
full information maximum likelihood estimation 905
fund-holding GPs 452, 666, 678
Gabon
health worker emigration 509
physician-to-population ratios 494
Gambia
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
game theory 110, 441
gatekeeping 452, 464, 465–6
by primary care physicians 410, 413
GAVI Alliance 474
GDP
and health spending 16, 17, 310, 878–10
and life expectancy 84
general practitioners 433
fund-holding 452, 666, 678
Quality and Outcomes Framework 473, 933
role of 666 see also primary care physicians
generalism 466
generalized concentration index 850–1
generalized method of moments 914
generics 534–7
biologics 536–7
entry to market 536
maximum allowable cost 535
patient incentives 535
physician-driven markets 535
price competition 535
substitution 535–6
genetic differences 152, 153
genetic screening 563
Georgia, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
Germany
chronic disease mortality 25
drug pricing 533–4
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
mental health care 250
psychiatric beds 236
rationing of 241
resource allocation 234
primary care 618
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
gestational length 167
Ghana
health worker emigration 508, 509
physician-to-population ratios 494
Gini coefficient 847
Global Alliance for TB 545
Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria 474
good health benefits 100
governance 439–41
government funding of health care 264–6
collection costs 264
cost-sharing 265–6
government involvement in health care 58–77
political economy theories 63–72
scope of 58–63
Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee 489
Greece
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
gross domestic product see GDP
(p. 948) Grossman, Michael 95, 109 see also demand-for-health model
Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound 413
group-model HMOs 407, 414
guaranteed renewability 387–9
effectiveness 392
limitations 388
market distortions 392
Guinea
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
physician-to-population ratios 494
Guinea-Bissau
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Hatch-Waxman Patent Term Restoration and Generic Competition Act (1984) 534
Head Start program 172
health
measures of 789–90 see also individual measures
quality-adjusted life years see QALYs
and social welfare 558
valuing of 790–4
health account 724
health capital 2, 101–2, 557
health care
access to
child health 176–7
equality in 341–2
preventive care 141
racial bias in 150
choice in see choice
demand for see demand factors
incentive structures 933–4
and managed care 417–19
patterns of use
cost-sharing 369–70
insurance deductibles 372–3
resources 5–6
health care cost growth 308–28, 555–6
cost containment 314–23
competition among providers/supply restrictions 318–20
cost sharing at point of service 314–16
disease management/″pay for performance″ initiatives/wellness programs 320–1
information interventions 322–3
managed care/managed competition 316–17
payment reforms 317–18
level vs. rate of change in 313
past experience vs. future potential 314
population expenditures vs. unit costs 313
technology as driver of 311–13
health care funding 6-7, 257–84
general tax revenue 264–6
cost-sharing within government 265–6
social health insurance 267–71
efficiency of contributions 269
elderly people 271–4
horizontal equity 268–9
single vs. multiple funds 269–71
user charges 335–8
health care market see market
health care providers 3–5
agency relationship with 60
compensation for 4
performance see performance
health determinants 2-3, 724–7
health disparities 1 see also inequity
health economics 1, 3, 928–9
impact on policy 929–35
mental health 232–56
substance use 206–31 see also health spending
health education 3
health financing see financing
health frontier 823–5
health improvements 876–7
health inequalities see inequity
health insurance 7, 257
adverse selection 257–8, 299–300, 369
counteracting 298
affordability 380–404
cross-subsidies 383–93
effectiveness of strategies for 392
deductibles 372–3
and demand factors 354–79
empirical evidence 366–72
(p. 949) imperfect supply-side competition 364–5
incentives for 569
indemnity
benchmark model 356–7
feasibility 357–8
industrialized countries 9–10
interrelated demands 363–4
mental health care 237
moral hazard 7, 237–9, 289–90, 344, 354, 355–6
beneficient 375–7
dynamic 363
ex ante 287, 363
ex post 287
income effects 358–61
mental health care 237–9
new technology 375 single-period independent demand 362–3
value-based cost sharing 373–5
voluntary insurance coverage 365–6
premiums
community rating 393–5
guaranteed renewability 387–9
and risk 381–3
vs. payout 359
and pricing of biopharmaceuticals 529
single-period independent demand 362–3
spread of 19
standard coverage 383
subsidy payments 395–400
universal access to 380–404
value-based design 345
voluntary see voluntary insurance
health investment demand 104–8
age effects 105–6
education effects 107–8
wage effects 106–7
health loss 286–7
health maintenance organizations 316, 406, 571, 633, 674
group-model 407, 414
hospital networks 408
independent practice associations 407–8
network-model 407–8, 414
quality of care 417–19, 636–7, 641
selection 417
staff-model 407, 413, 414
health outcomes 422–3
effect of competition
outside USA 677–9
effect of information on 680–1
equality of 827–8
income-related inequalities in 858–63
as productivity measure 714–16
health policy
definition of 924–5
global goals 925–8
efficiency 925–6
equity 926–7
macro-economic expenditure control 927–8
health economics impact on 929–35
health production 2, 95–123, 557
demand-for-health model 98–103
utility and household production 97
health professionals 475–9
health redistribution 302
health risk see risk
health spending 12, 16, 62, 494–5
by age 870–7
changes with time 873–7
cross-country comparisons 871–3
by sector 14
and demographic change 877–80
disease-specific 313
drivers of growth 15
excess growth 18–19
and GDP 16, 17, 310, 878–80
industrialized countries 11–15
macro-economic expenditure control 927–8
and managed care 412–13, 423
and medical technology 310
public sector see public health spending
public vs. private 13–14
health status
and educational achievement 139–40
developing countries 140
and income 78–94, 143
aggregate effects 81–2
(p. 950) capital accumulation 81
direct effects 79–80, 83–91 empirical evidence, cross-country studies 83–6
micro-level evidence 86–91
and occupation 146
and optimal wealth level 287
risk of deterioration 288
self-reported 128, 129, 469
and income 131
and race 134
health stock 165
health technology see technology
health utility 97
measurement see cost utility analysis
physicians 608–9
health utility index 864
health variables 848–52
boundedness 848–9
health workers 486–519
as economic actors 494–503
interest groups 497–8, 502
licensure 496–503
literature on 498–503
theories of 496–8
as necessary resource 503–11
developed countries 504–7
health worker emigration 507–11
nurses 446
oversupply 495
planning 487–94
demand 490–1
literature 488–9
population ratio 492–4
service targets 491
political power 502–3
primary care 475–9
shortages 478, 495 see also GPs; primary care physicians
health-related quality of life 741
EuroQuol-5D 744
standard gamble 743
time trade-off 743
health-socioeconomic status gradient 125–7
heroin 214
hierarchical data 699
high-cost illnesses 358–61
Hispanic paradox 152
historical institutionalism 72
HIV/AIDS, testing for 195–6
Honduras
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
hookworm eradication 89, 140
horizontal equity 268–9
horizontal inequity 853–8
indices of 845, 854
short-run vs. long-run 857, 858
hospital care
mental disorders 248–51
pricing of 932
hospital networks 408
Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration 933
hospitals 432–62
autonomy of 46–7
competition between 672–4
contracts with payers 447–51
demand for 436
differential treatment 677
economies of scale/scope 436–7
financing 665
functions of 434–7
governance and control 439–41
incentives 441–7
managed care payments to 411
mergers 676–7
models of behavior 437–9
ownership 455–7
private 433, 440
public 433, 440
referrals 451–3
requirements of 437–41
size and diversification 436
teaching 455
technology 453–5
household production 97
cost of 98–9
HUI1/2/3 789, 790, 794
human capital 2, 22, 101–2, 109
health effects on 81
(p. 951) Hungary
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
hyperbolic discounting 209–10
hyperpluralism 67
Iceland
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
technology 23
ignorability 898
illegal drugs 207
incentives 933–4
behavioral change 224–5
demand-side 260
financial see financial incentives
food choices 568
hospitals 441–7
centralization vs. decentralization 446–7
doctors and nurses 446
infectious disease control 192–6
managed care 410–12
mental health care 243–8
performance-related 702–3
prevention programs 374, 568–9
supply-side 260
use of generics 535
income 142–5
alcohol impact on 222
and health status 78–94, 143
aggregate effects 81–2
capital accumulation 81
direct effects 79–80, 83–91
empirical evidence 83–6
infectious diseases 190–1
micro-level evidence 86–91
moral hazard effects 358–61
and mortality 130
parental, and child health 144
relative 147
and social status 147
income-related health inequity 858–63
incremental cost-effectiveness plane 779
incremental cost-effectiveness ratio 751, 760
indemnity insurance 414
benchmark model 356–7
feasibility 357–8
independent practice associations 407–8, 411, 618
India
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
inducement 607–8
industrialized countries 8–29
chronic disease 24–5
comparison of health systems 8–11
pooling 9–10
service provision 10
types of health systems 10–11
coverage 11
demand factors 15–19
health care spending 11–15
quality of care 26–7
supply factors 19–21
technology 21–4
waiting lists and care rationing 26
inequality see inequity
inequitable inequality 818
inequity 40, 815, 816–18
horizontal 853–8
indices of 845, 854
short-run vs. long-run 857, 858
income-related 858–63
measurement of 837–69
concentration index 839–48
health variables 848–52
infants
health 167–8
environmental factors 168–9
health spending trends 872
mortality rate 151–2 see also child health
infectious diseases 3
economic impact 190–2
impact of development on 191
individual incentives for control 192–6
(p. 952) demand for testing 195–6
demand for treatment and prevention 194–5
prevalence and demand for risk 193–4
institutional and national incentives for control 196–9
resource allocation 199–200
informal care 581
informal payments 346–7
information 691
and health outcome 680–1
provision of 212
use of 679–80
value of 563, 779, 781
information asymmetry 442, 448, 466
health risks 287–8
and licensure 497
information gaps 59–60
information interventions 322–3
infrastructure 422
as public good 61
initial conditions problem 914
inputs
performance measurement 694–5
to medical care 720–3
institutional care 585–6
institutions 69–72
concentration of authority 70–2
historical institutionalism and path dependency 72
instrumental variables 221–2, 892, 906–10
weak instruments 908
insurance see health insurance
insurers
lack of capital 293
management know-how 293
market power 292
medical know-how 293
opportunistic behavior and fraud 293
risk aversion 291
Integrated Management of Childhood Illness 861–3
integration of health care 467–8
interest group theory of licensure 497–8
interest groups, theories based on 64–7
capture 65–6
concentrated benefits and diffuse costs 64–5
oligarchy and policy networks 66–7
intergenerational equity 5
intergenerational issues 870–89
demographic change
and health spending 877–80
implications for government budgets 880–83
health spending by age 870–7
changes with time 873–7
cross-country comparisons 871–3
public health spending 883–7
internal benchmarking 531–2
internalities 216
International AIDs Vaccine Initiative 545
International Classification of Diseases 712–13
international purchasing 303
interpolation bias 896
interval matching 901
interventions
approval of 783–4
information 322–3
substance use economics 224–5
iodine supplementation 88, 140
Iraq
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Ireland
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
Italy
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
itemized billing 275, 277
Ivory Coast, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
(p. 953) Japan
chronic disease mortality 25
health care cost growth 309
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
as share of GDP 310
technology 23
justice 821–2
Kahneman, Daniel 215
Kaiser Permanente 408, 413
Kaldor-Hicks compensation 735
Kefauver-Harris Amendments (1962) 523
Kenya, health worker emigration 509
kernel density matching 903
Korea
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
technology 23
labor input 722
labor productivity 708
labor supply 475–9
Laos, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
Laspeyres and Paasche price indexes 717
Latvia, projected employment changes 581
Layard, Richard 241
lead time trade-off 804–5
Lee-Jones report 489
Lerner index 537
Lesotho, health worker emigration 509
Liberia
health worker emigration 509
physician-to-population ratios 494
licensure 496–503
literature on 498–503
licensure effects 500–2
market structure 498–500
political power 502–3
shortcomings of 503
theories of 496–8
interest group 497–8
public interest 496–7
life expectancy
effect on health expenditure 876–7
and GDP 84
increase in 876–7
and national income 469
life-cycle perspective 101, 154
individual optimization of 102–3
lifestyle choices 2, 564
and health inequality 816
health-related 832
unhealthy behavior 830
Lithuania, projected employment changes 581
little ticket technologies 312
Living Standards Measurement Study 860
loading of health care premiums 288–91
benefit packages 289
co-payments and limits on coverage 289
fraud and abuse 290–1
moral hazard effects 289–90
pool size 289
quality/proximity of health care services 290
regulatory framework 290
reinsurance 289
local average treatment effects 907, 909–10
London Patient Choice Project 661
long-term care 578–601
definition of 578
economic analysis 579–80
financing 586–92
carer-blind vs. carer-sighted 591
collective funding arrangements 586–7
definition of eligibility 591
efficiency 588
equity 588
minimum safety-net systems 589
one system for all 590
progressive universalism 590
revenue-raising mechanism 590–1
sustainability/acceptability 588–9
governance 592–5
integration 594–5
market reforms 592–3
population ageing 580–3
availability of financial resources 582–3
demography and need 580–1
(p. 954) informal care supply 581
unit cost of services 581–2
provision 583–6
community vs. institutions 585–6
health vs. social care services 583–4
provider sector 584–5
low birth weight 168
low income settings 1
low-and middle-income countries 30–57, 330
categorization/evaluation of health systems 40–3
characteristics of 43–52
economic structure 44–6
external dependence for health financing 49–52
management capacity 48–9
political and social institutions 46–7
health care use 334
integration of health care 468
lack of training facilities 478
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
pharmaceuticals 544–5
regulation 40
resource allocation and purchasing 37–8
revenue collection 32–4
revenue pooling 34–7
service provision 38–40
unresolved issues 52–5
user charges 471–2
workforce shortages 478
Low-income Countries Under Stress (LICUS) 31
Luxembourg
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
McMaster Health Utility Index 859
macro-economic expenditure control 927–8
Madagascar, health worker emigration 509
malaria
eradication 89–90
treatment 198–9
Malawi, health worker emigration 509
Maldives
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Mali
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Malmquist index 698
Malta, projected employment changes 581
managed care 316–17, 405–31
area-level effects 419–23
health expenditure 421–2
infrastructure and capabilities 422
treatments, quality and health outcome 422–3
covered services 412
development of 412–16
effect on competition 675
financial incentives 410–12
growth in 406
and health care 417–19
and health spending patterns 423
patient cost sharing 412
point-of-service plans 415
selection 416–17
selective contracting and provider organization 407–9
types of plans 412–16
utilization review 409–10
managed care organizations 618
managed competition 316–17
management capacity 48–9
mapping 796–9
preferences vs. statistical association 799
marginal cost 717
marginal treatment effects 910
market clearing 733
market competition see competition
market goods subsidy 116–17
market reform 592–3
market structure 294–6, 498–500
anti-trust policy 296
barriers to entry 295–6
barriers to exit 296
contestability of markets 296
diversity of preferences 294–5
(p. 955) economies of scale 295
economies of scope 295
matching 899–900
caliper 903
kernel density 903
nearest-neighbor 903
radius 903
maternal behavior and child health 180–1
maternal employment
and child health 169–74
and cognitive development 171–2
maternity leave 169
Mauritania
health worker emigration 509
physician-to-population ratios 494
Mauritius
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
maximum allowable cost 535
Medicaid 176, 264, 366, 473
medical care
goods 99
redistribution of 301–2
technological change 303–4
medical home 467, 602–3
paying for 603–5
medical poverty trap 340
medical technology see technology
Medicare 262, 263, 371, 421, 473
cost sharing in 314
as third-party payer 450–1
Medicare Modernization Act (2003) 530
Medicare Trust Fund 272, 273
Medicines for Malaria 545
Medigap insurance plans 262
mental disorders 232–56
children 179–80
exceptionalism 233
prevalence of 233
social stigma 245
mental health care
demand response 237–8
government involvement 235–6
institutional-community mix 236
moral hazard 237–9
psychiatric beds 236
QALYs 245
rationing 239–48
hospital care 248–51
national approaches to 241–3
shadow prices vs demand prices 247–8
resource allocation 233, 234–5
cost shifting 246
incentives 243–8
merit good, health care as 59
methadone 214
Mexico
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
technology 23
micro-simulation 912–13
Millennium Development Goals 479, 487
mixed payment systems 610–17
physician preferences 614
monopoly pricing 364–5
Monte Carlo simulation 764, 776, 778
moonlighting by physicians 656
moral hazard 7, 237–9, 289–90, 344, 354, 355–6
beneficient 375–7
demand side 615
dynamic 363
ex ante 287, 363
ex post 287
income effects 358–61
mental health care 237–9
new technology 375
single-period independent demand 362–3
value-based cost sharing 373–5
voluntary insurance coverage 365–6
morbidity 80
and educational achievement 140
morphine 214
mortality
chronic disease 25
and education 125, 128
and income 130
and occupation 132
and race 131–3
black-white health disparities 149–50
reductions in 90–1
telomere shortening 146
(p. 956) Mozambique, health worker emigration 508, 509
multi-attribute utility theory 794–5
multifactor productivity growth 708
multiple providers 4–5
multiple risks 303
Myanmar
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
Namibia, health worker emigration 509
National Health Insurance 10
National Health Service 10, 440
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Study of Early Child Care 173
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) 66, 310, 322, 533, 567, 931–2
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 171–2
nearest-neighbor matching 903
neoclassical welfare economics 212–15
corrective taxation 212–14
prohibition 214–15
provision of information 212
regulation 214
Nepal, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
net health benefit 760
uncertainty in 769, 772
net monetary benefit 760
Netherlands
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
mental health care 250–1
psychiatric beds 236
projected employment changes 581
risk equalization 398
technology 23
network providers 409
network-model HMOs 407–8, 414
new chemical entities 523
new medical entities 524
New Zealand
direct to consumer advertising 540–1
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
technology 23
newborns, health status of 167–8
nicotine replacement therapy 207
Niger
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Nigeria
health worker emigration 508, 509
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
Niskanen, William 63
non-parental care 173
non-pecuniary inducements 477
non-price rationing 336, 649–70
normalized difference 904
normative economics 558
North American Product Classification System 713–14
Norway
chronic disease mortality 25
education and mortality 125
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
primary care 618
technology 23
nurse-to-population ratios 493
nurses 446
nursing home/residential care, lack of voluntary coverage 366
nutrition 79–80
children 87–8
importance of 86–7
iodine supplementation 88
iron supplements 87
obesity 320, 556
and child health 179
reduction initiatives 321
occupation
and health status 146
and mortality 132
and rank 146
oligarchy 66–7
(p. 957) Olson, Mancur 64
Oman
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
omitted variable bias 896
Omnibus and Reconciliation Act (1990) 530
open-plan arrangements 409
optimal control theory 199
optimality 103
opting out 262–3
health insurance for elderly 274
option pricing 773
option value 773
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 8, 308
organizational performance see performance
Orphan Drug Act (1983) 524
out-of-pocket payments 52, 331–2
world regions 331
outcomes see health outcomes
outcomes index 714–16
outcomes measurement 740–7
outlier payments 386
outputs 692–3
ownership 439, 455–7
oxycotin 214
Pakistan
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
physician-to-population ratios 494
panel data models 910–12
parallel trade 521
parallel trends 896, 911
parameter uncertainty 775–7
parental income, and child health 144
Pareto efficient 823
Pareto improvement 735
patent rights, international exhaustion 521
patents, alternatives to 539–60
path dependency 72
patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) 934–5
patient values 807–8
pay for performance schemes 4, 320–1, 571
low- and middle-income countries 54
primary care 473–4
payers
contracts with 448–51
multiple 449
third-party 448
payment by results 660, 681
payments
informal 346–7
out-of-pocket 52
prospective 278, 421, 613–14, 616–17
effect on diagnosis related groups 637
as incentive 627
and quality of care 616–17
provider see provider payment
reforms 317–18
user charges 329–53 see also fees
pensions 884
performance 468–70
incentives 702–3
measurement 688–706
analytical techniques 696–700
inputs 694–5
outputs 692–4
political and environmental constraints 695–6
unit of analysis 692
primary care 468–70
personalized medicine 526
pharmaceuticals 6, 520–54
average sales price 530
characteristics 520–2
consumer price sensitivity 521
developing countries 544–5
efficacy 198
formularies and cover limitations 410–11
generics 534–7
industry structure and competition 528–9
industry structure and productivity 538–9
patent alternatives 539–40
prescribing
cost sharing 370–1
four-tier system 529
physician behavior 371
three-tier system 371, 529
(p. 958) price sensitivity 529
profitability and rates of return 537–8
promotion 541–2
effects of 542–4
R&Dsee R&D
regulation 540–1
market access 523–4
use of 206
withdrawals 526
pharmaceutical budgets 532
pharmaceutical price regulation 540
cost-effectiveness requirements 533
effects of 533–4
ex-USA 531–2
pharmacy benefit managers 529
physical capital 22, 721
physician agency 602–23
medical home 603–5
target income and physician utility 605–7
physician assistants 477–8
physician behavior 371
effect of financial incentives 633–4
physician bias 150–1
physician practice equilibrium 642–5
quality effects 644–5
quantity effects 643–4
physician-induced demand 606, 607–10
and fee level 614–15
inducement 607–8
physicians
contracting of 407–8
hospital 446
moonlighting 656
prescribing behavior 371, 529
primary care 410, 413
gatekeeping role 410, 413, 466
incentives 611–13
shortage of 477
target income 605–7 see also general practitioners
utility function 608–9
PIAT reading scores 171–2
placebo regression 912
point-of-service cost sharing 314–16
point-of-service plans 415
Poland
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
policy networks 66–7
political constraints to performance 695–6
political economy theories 63–72
institutions 69–72
interest groups 64–7
voting behavior 67–9
pollution, and child health 168–9
pooling, industrialized countries 9–10
population aging 580–3, 877
availability of financial resources 582–3
demography and need 580–1
informal care supply 581
unit cost of services 581–2
population average treatment effect on treated (PATT) 894, 898, 900–1, 903, 911
population ratio 492–4
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Portugal
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
post-treatment bias 896, 900
poverty 151
Practice Incentive Program 473
pre-admission review 409
pre-approval 409
pre-commitment 225
pre-payment
group practices 413
primary care 470–1
preconditions for health 816
preference 807
preference weights 794–5
preferred provider organizations 406, 414, 415
premium regulation 297
access to risk information 297
(p. 959) risk diversity 297
premium-based subsidies 384
effectiveness 392
market distortions 392
premiums
community rating 393–5
drawbacks 393–4
popularity of 394–5
guaranteed renewability 387–9
and managed care 421
and risk 381–3
vs. payout 359
prenatal screening 563
preschool education 172, 173–4
prescribing
cost sharing 370–1
four-tier system 529
physician behavior 371, 529
price competition 529
three-tier system 371, 529
prescription drug plans 530
Prescription Drug User Fee Act (1993) 524
present-bias 210, 224–5
prevalence-response elasticity 194, 196
prevention
alcohol consumption 213, 214
capital value 561–2
definition of 557–9
focus on 571
screening 563
tobacco use 213–14
under-investment in 560–4
value for money 561
prevention programs 141, 363, 565–71
access to
educational status 141
racial bias 150
demand for 194–5, 374
discount rate 566
incentives for 374
financial 568
health insurance and employment 569
problems with 569–71
infectious disease control 192–6
taxes and subsidies 567–8
vaccination 194–5, 200, 560, 564, 566
price effect 332–5
price-elasticity 208, 218
pricing
biopharmaceuticals 529–30
regulation see drug price regulation
centrally set 681–2
competitive price discounting 530
cross-pricing 334–5
hospital care 932
monopoly 364–5
time-price effect 107
primary care 463–85
agency relationships 466–7
comprehensiveness and integration 467–8
definition and role 465–8
financing and access 470–2
gatekeeping 452, 464, 465–6
payment for 602–23
mixed system 610–17
physician fees and incentives 611–13
performance 468–70
provider remuneration 472–5
strength of 468
waiting times 662–3
workforce 475–9
primary care physicians 464, 476
gatekeeping role 410, 413, 466
incentives 611–13
shortage of 477
target income 605–7 see also general practitioners
principal-agent framework 690–1
principle of solidarity 300–1
prior authorization 409
prioritization of waiting times 654–5, 664–5
priority services 491
private health insurance 10–11, 257–8
cost of dying 302–3
insurers see insurers
international purchasing 303
loading of premiums 288–91
benefit packages 289
co-payments and limits on coverage 289
fraud and abuse 290–1
moral hazard effects 289–90
pool size 289
(p. 960) quality/proximity of health care services 290
regulatory framework 290
reinsurance 289
multiple risks 303
with public health care funding 260–3
opting out 162–3
supplementary/complementary private insurance 261–2
spending on 13–14
technological changes 285–307
counteracting risk selection 298
demand theory 286–8
employer-based schemes 298–9
premium regulation 297
supply of 288–96
voluntary insurance, complementary to public health insurance 299
waiting times 655–7, 665–6
probabilistic sensitivity analysis 764–7
productivity 707–32
estimation of 711–23
inputs to medical care 720–3
output 711–16
treatment expenditure/quantity 716–20
and welfare gain 709
productivity change 708–11
KLEMS 708
progressive universalism 590, 597
prohibition 214–15
promotion, pharmaceutical 541–2
effects of 542–4
propensity scores 900–4
proselytizing 924–38
prospective payments 278, 421, 613–14, 616–17, 674
effect on competition 675
effect on diagnosis related groups 637
as incentive 627
and quality of care 616–17
provider payment 275–80, 624–48
capitation 47, 275, 278
choice of 278–80
and consumer choice 280
fee for service 277–8
incentives see financial incentives
itemized billing 275, 277
managed care 410–12
primary care 472–5
prospective 278
public reimbursement model 276–7 see also fees; payments
providers
competition among 318–20, 671–87
long-term care 584–5
provision of information 212
psychotherapy 237
public contract systems 275
public health care 13–14, 257–84
beneficent moral hazard 375–7
effect of demographic change 880–3
endogenous changes in financing 882–3
financing by age 881–2
intergenerational transfers 883–7
measures of 885–7
provider payment 275–80
capitation 47, 275, 278
choice of 278–80
and consumer choice 280
fee for service 277–8
itemized billing 275, 277
prospective 278
public reimbursement model 276–7
raising revenue for 264–74
elderly people 271–4
general taxation 264–6
social health insurance 267–71
scope of 259–63
consumer cost-sharing 259–60
private insurance contribution 260–3
public interest theory of licensure 496–7
public reimbursement model 276–7
purchasing 37–8
QALYs 435, 533, 540, 558, 562, 738, 741–2, 760, 788
calculation of 805–6
cost per 561
criticisms of 745
mental health care 245
mutually exclusive alternatives 751, 752
valuation of 833 see also cost-effectiveness analysis
(p. 961) quality of care
effect of competition 675–6
effect of managed care 422–3
exogenous price level changes 632
fee-for-service 641
health maintenance organizations 417–19, 636–7, 641
hospitals 438
incentives for 629–32
effect of 634–40
industrialized countries 26–7
licensure of health workers 500–1
market price mark-up 629–30
over-production 673
and prospective payments 616–17
quality of life 789–90
valuing of 790–4
Quality and Outcomes Framework 473, 933
Quality of Well-being scale 789, 790, 794
quality-adjusted life years see QALYs
quantile-quantile plots 904
quantity-quality model 438
effect of incentives 629–32
R&D 23–4
costs 520, 524–5
lead times 521
regulation 523–4
costs and benefits 525–7
markets and tort liability 527–8
technology 522–3 see also biopharmaceuticals
race/ethnicity 149–53
black-white health disparities 149–50
genetic differences 153
and mortality 131–3
physician bias 150–1
and self-reported health status 134
radius matching 903
Ramsey's reset test 909
RAND Health Insurance Experiment 238–9, 366, 367–70, 892
random utility model 802–4
randomized controlled grials 890
rank 145–9
and occupation 146
rational addiction 209
rationing of health care 664–5
by price 654
by waiting times 649, 651–2
industrialized countries 26
mental health 239–48
non-price rationing 336, 649–70
threshold rationing 653–4
Rawls' difference principle 822
reference price reimbursement 531
referrals to hospitals 451–3
regression analysis 897–9
regression discontinuity 892, 910
regulation 214
drug industry 540–1
regulatory framework 290
regulatory review 525–7
reinsurance 289
relative income 147
reputational effects 292
research
comparative effectiveness 322
design of 782–3
substance use economics 217–25
research and development see R&D
resource allocation 37–8
infectious diseases 199–200
mental health 233
Resource Based Relative Value Scale 611
resources
financial 142–5
health care 5–6
responsibility 820, 829
retainer medical practices 604
revealed preference 746
revenue collection 32–4
revenue pooling 34–7
risk
access to information 297
adverse selection 257–8, 299–300
counteracting 298
asymmetric information on 287–8
diversity 297
infectious diseases 193–4
level of 856
multiple 303
pooling 257
protection 47
(p. 962) risk aversion of insurers 291
risk equalization 386
Netherlands 398
risk-adjusted compensation to insurers 390–1
subsidy payments 396–7
risk rating 381
risk segmentation 381, 382
risk selection 381, 382
unfavorable effects 389–90
risk selection effort 291
risk taking 193–4
risk-adjusted subsidies 384–6, 395–6, 400
effectiveness 392
market distortions 392
rofecoxib 527
Romania, physician-to-population ratios 494
Rubin Causal Model 893
Rwanda
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
safety-net systems for long-term care 589
salaries 627–8
salmon bias 152
Sao Tome and Principe
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
SARS 197
school entry age 175–6
screening 563
seemingly unrelated regression 699
selection bias 418, 894–7
selection for managed care 416–17
selection on observables 894, 897–904
matching 899–900
propensity scores 900–4
regression analysis 897–9
selection on unobservables 894, 904–15
difference-in-differences 910–13
instrumental variables 906–10
panel data models 913–15
regression discontinuity 910
structural models and control functions 904–6
selective contracting 407–9
self-assessed health 128, 129, 469, 859, 914
and income 131
and race 134
Sen, Amartya 559
capability theory 736
Senegal
health worker emigration 509
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
service provision
cartelization in 293–4
comprehensiveness of 467–8
industrialized countries 10
low-and middle-income countries 38–40
service targets 491
service-specific spending 313
services 722
Seychelles, health worker emigration 509
SF-6D, 794
SF-12, 797
SF-36, 797–8
shadow prices 735
vs demand prices 247–8
Sierra Leone, health worker emigration 509
sin taxes 207
Singapore, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
single-period independent demand 362–3
skills migration 478
skimping 673, 678, 682, 683
Slovak Republic
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
Slovenia, projected employment changes 581
smallpox 197
Smith, Adam 63
Smith, Vernon 215
smoking
DALYs lost 206–7
taxation 218–19
young people 177–8 see also tobacco
smoking cessation 207, 219
social care services 583–4
social health insurance 267–71
efficiency of contributions 269
(p. 963) elderly people 271–4
opting out 274
horizontal equity 268–9
long-term care 590
reasons for adopting 299–302
efficiency 299–300
equity 300–1
public choice 301–2
single vs. multiple funds 269–71 see also public health care
Social Insurance Systems 10
social security 884
social status 145–9
and health 146, 154
and income 147
social welfare, and health 558
social welfare function 825–6, 832
socioeconomic related health transfers 842
socioeconomic status 124–63
and child health 174–6
education 137–42
and educational level 175
financial resources 142–5
health gradient 125–7
measures of 126
race and ethnicity 149–53
rank 145–9
Somalia, health worker emigration 509
South Africa, health worker emigration 508, 509
Spain
chronic disease mortality 25
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
Sri Lanka, nurse-to-population ratios 493
staff-model HMOs 407, 413, 414
standard gamble 743, 791
states worse than dead 801–2
states worse than dead 801–2
Stigler, George 63
stochastic frontier analysis 697–9
stop-loss provision 259
stratification 898
stress, health effects of 145–6
subsidies, prevention programs 567–8
subsidy payments 395–400
comparison of models 399
risk equalization 396–7
risk-adjusted 384–6, 395–6, 400
vouchers 395
substance use economics 206–31
empirical research 217–25
alcohol taxes 220–4
cigarette taxes and smoking bans 217–20
interventions 224–5
models of 208–11
cue-triggered addiction 210
empirical tests 211
rational addiction 209
time inconsistency 209–10
policies 211–17
behavioral economics 215–16
neoclassical-based 212–15
welfare effects 216–17
price-elasticity 208, 218
substitute private insurance 262–3
Sudan
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
supplementary fees 347–8
supplementary private insurace 261–2
supplier-induced demand 19–20
supply factors
defensive medicine 19–20
factor productivity 20–1
industrialized countries 19–21
supply-side
elasticity 657–9, 663–4
incentives 260
restrictions 318–20
survival 741
survival probability 435–6
sustainability of long-term care funding 588–9
Swaziland
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
Sweden
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
(p. 964) inequity in health use 855
projected employment changes 581
technology 23
swine flu 197
Switzerland
chronic disease mortality 25
education and mortality 125
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
inequity in health use 855
technology 23
Tajikistan, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
Tanzania
health worker emigration 508, 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
target income for primary care physicians 605–7
target waiting times 662, 666
targeted payments 571
tax-funded systems for long-term care 590
taxation, corrective see corrective taxation
teaching 455
technology
and age-related health spending 873–5
assessment 931–2
big ticket 312
changes in 303–4
as driver of health costs 310, 311–13
affirmative studies 312
residual studies 312
effect on age-related health spending 873–5
effects of education on uptake 141–2
effects of managed care on adoption 422
hospital-based 453–5
industrialized countries 21–4
labor augmenting 22
little ticket 312
and moral hazard 375
telomere shortening 146
testing, demand for 195–6
Th ailand 469
threshold rationing 653–4
time inconsistency of addiction 209–10
time preferences 101
time trade-off 743, 791–2
data modeling 802–4
lead time 804–5
states worse than dead 801–2
time-price effect 107
Tinor-Leste, physician-to-population ratios 494
tobacco
Master Settlement Agreement 207
regulation of sales 207
taxation 213–14, 567 see also smoking
Togo
health worker emigration 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
out-of-pocket expenditure 332
physician-to-population ratios 494
top-down programs 474
Tönqvist index 716
tort liability 527–8
total expected lifetime health 827–8
total factor productivity 708
Trade Related Intellectual Property see TRIPs regulations
training 476
treatment
availability at lower cost 719–20
demand for 194–5
drug efficacy 198
improved 718–19
patterns of, effect of managed care 422–3
as productivity measure 711–14
quantity 717–18
treatment effects 890–3
average 893–4, 910
local 907, 909–10
on treated 910
marginal 910
natural experiments 892
population average on treated 894, 898, 900–1, 903, 911
selection bias 418, 894–7
treatment expenditure 716–20
treatment index 714–16
(p. 965) TRIPs regulations 535–6, 545
Tullock, Gordon 63
Tunisia, nurse-to-population ratios 493
Turkey
health care spending 12, 16
technology 23
Tuskegee Syphilis Study 150
Uganda
health worker emigration 508, 509
nurse-to-population ratios 493
physician-to-population ratios 494
UK
chronic disease mortality 25
competition in 678
education and mortality 125
GPs 433
fund-holding 452, 666, 678
role of 666
health care cost growth 309
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
as share of GDP 310
inequity in health use 855
mental health care
psychiatric beds 236
rationing of 241
resource allocation 234
National Health Service 10, 440
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) 66, 310, 322, 533, 567, 931–2
payment by results 660, 681
pharmaceutical price regulatory scheme 540
projected employment changes 581
quality indicators 618
technology 23
waiting times 651
uncertainty 111–12, 118–19
in decision-making see decision uncertainty
parameter 775–7
presentation of 778–9
sources of 777–8
unconfoundedness 898
unhealthy behavior 830
unit costs 313
unit value index 720
universal premium-rate restrictions 389–91
effectiveness 392
market distortions 392
upcoding 455
USA
biopharmaceutical pricing/ reimbursement 529–30
black-white health disparities 149–50
distrust of medical system 150
genetic characteristics 152
history of 151–2
infant mortality 151–2
mortality rates 149–50
cross-pricing 334–5
Evercare program 595
Food and Drug Administration 523
Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (1938) 523
Hatch-Waxman Patent Term Restoration and Generic Competition Act (1984) 534
health care cost growth 308–9
health care spending 12, 16
health expenditure 62
Hispanic paradox 152–3
behavioral differences 153
inequity in health use 855
Medicare Modernization Act (2003) 530
mental health care
psychiatric beds 236
rationing of 241–2
resource allocation 234
mortality
chronic disease 25
and education 125, 128
and income 130
and occupation 132
and race 131–3
Omnibus and Reconciliation Act (1990) 530
Orphan Drug Act (1983) 524
Prescription Drug User Fee Act (1993) 524
self-reported health status 129
and income 131
and race 134
technology 23
(p. 966) user charges 329–53
equity 339–43
in access to health care 341–2
exemption mechanisms 342–3
in finance 339–41
official/unofficial 346–8
extra billing 347–8
informal payments 346–7
optimisation of 343–6
out-of-pocket payments 331–2
price effect 332–5
primary care 470–2
as revenue-raising mechanism 335–8
User Fee and Priority Review systems 526
user fees 52
utilitarianism 821
utility see health utility
utilization 608
utilization review 409–10
vaccination programs 194–5, 560, 564, 566
free-riding on 195, 200
valdecoxib 527
value-based cost sharing 373–5
value-based design 345
vertical integration 292–4
cartelization of service providers 293–4
double marginalization 292
entry barriers to competitors 293
insurer's lack of capital 293
insurer's management know-how 293
insurer's medical know-how 293
insurer's opportunistic behavior and fraud 293
legislative aspects 294
market power of insurers 292
medical arms race 293
reputational effects 292
vertical programs 474
Vietnam, out-of-pocket expenditure 332
visual analogue scales 791, 792–3
voluntary insurance 285–307
complementary to public health insurance 299
counteracting risk selection 298
demand theory 286–8
asymmetric information in health risks 287–8
deterioration of health status 288
ex ante moral hazard 287
ex post moral hazard 287
health loss 286–7
employer-based schemes 298–9
long-term care 586–7
and moral hazard 365–6
premium regulation 297
supply of 288–96
loading of premiums 288–91
market structure 294–6
risk selection effort 291
vertical integration 292–4 see also health insurance; private health insurance
voting behavior theories 67–9
wage rate, and health investment demand 106–7
waiting times 649–70
average 650
cross-country variation 650
dynamics of 657
industrialized countries 26
interruption bias 650
length bias 650
measurements of 650–1
median 650
prioritization 654–5, 664–5
private sector 655–7, 665–6
rationing by 649, 651–2
reasons for 657–9
demand and supply 657–9
long-run equilibrium and steady state 657
reduction of 659–63
activity-based funding 659–60, 665
choice and competition 660–2, 665
demand containment 660
primary care 662–3
targets and guarantees 662
temporary increase in activity 659
targets 662, 666
willingness to pay for reductions 650–1
(p. 967) Wald test 909
weak instruments 908
wealth 142–5
wealth redistribution, social health care as vehicle for 301
welfare policies 216–17
welfarism 735–6
wellness programs 320–1
Whitehall studies 146
Whitehead, Margaret 815
will-power, lack of 225
Williams, Alan 818, 928–9
willingness to pay 650–1, 723
withhold pools 411
workforce see health workers
World Health Organization
Global Atlas of the Health Workforce 492
International Classification of Diseases 712–13
World Trade Organization, TRIPs regulations 535–6, 545
yardstick competition 691
Yemen
health worker emigration 509
physician-to-population ratios 494
Zambia, health worker emigration 509
Zeckhauser proposition 362–3
Zimbabwe, health worker emigration 508, 509
zoonoses 197