- The Oxford Handbook of: Health Economics
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Boxes
- List of Contributors
- Health Systems in Industrialized Countries
- Health Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
- The Political Economy of Health Care
- The Promise of Health: Evidence of the Impact of Health on Income and Well-Being
- Health Production
- Socioeconomic Status and Health: Dimensions and Mechanisms
- Determinants of Health in Childhood
- Economics of Infectious Diseases
- Economics of Health Behaviors and Addictions: Contemporary Issues and Policy Implications
- Economics and Mental Health: an International Perspective
- Public-Sector Health Care Financing
- Voluntary Private Health Insurance
- Health Care Cost Growth
- User Charges
- Insurance and the Demand for Medical Care
- Guaranteed Access to Affordable Coverage in Individual Health Insurance Markets
- Managed Care
- Hospitals: Teaming Up
- Primary Care
- The Global Health Workforce
- The Economics of the Biopharmaceutical Industry
- Disease Prevention, Health Care, and Economics
- Long-Term Care
- Physician Agency and Payment for Primary Medical Care
- Provider Payment and Incentives
- Non-Price Rationing and Waiting Times
- Increasing Competition Between Providers in Health Care Markets: The Economic Evidence
- Measuring Organizational Performance
- Health System Productivity
- The Methods of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to Inform Decisions about the Use of Health Care Interventions and Programs
- Analyzing Uncertainty in Cost-effectiveness For Decision-making
- Health Utility Measurement
- Concepts of Equity and Fairness in Health and Health Care
- Measuring inequality and Inequity in Health and Health Care
- Inter-Generational Aspects of Health Care
- Econometric Evaluation of Health Policies
- Health Economics and Policy: the Challenges of Proselytizing
Abstract and Keywords
Health care systems exhibit their features and nuances that impose constraints on the appropriate way to analyze interventions and make decisions about their implementation. This article seeks to explain the theoretical foundations of these methods and their implementation in practice. It focuses on a budget constrained health care sector, where implementing a new technology with additional costs will result in other health care services being displaced hence forgoing health improvement elsewhere. It is intended to provide grounding in the policy motivation for economic evaluation and the underlying normative issues in undertaking studies. The article further develops the key elements of undertaking economic evaluation in practice. It outlines a simple scenario regarding the comparison of chemotherapy treatments for breast cancer. This example helps to illustrate some of the conceptual issues raised in this article. The approaches that have been taken to quantify outcomes and costs from health care interventions are also discussed.
Simon Walker is a member of the Team for Economic Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment in the Centre for Health Economics, University of York. He joined in October 2006 after completing an M.Sc. in Health Economics at York. He had previously graduated from Clare College, Cambridge, with a B.A. in Economics.
Mark Sculpher is Professor of Health Economics at the Centre for Health Economics, University of York, where he is Director of the Programme on Economic Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment. He has over 160 peer-reviewed publications and is a co-author of two major text books in the area. Sculpher has been a member of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal Committee and currently sits on the NICE Public Health Interventions Advisory Committee. He chaired NICE's 2004 Task Group on methods guidance for economic evaluation. He is also a member of the Commissioning Board for the UK NHS Health Technology Assessment program and the UK Medical Research Council's Methodology Research Panel.
Michael Drummond is Professor of Health Economics and former Director (December 1995-September 2005) of the Centre for Health Economics at the University of York. His particular area of interest is the economic evaluation of health care treatments and programs. He has undertaken evaluations in a wide range of medical fields including care of the elderly, neonatal intensive care, immunization programs, services for people with AIDS, eye health care, and pharmaceuticals. He is the author of two major textbooks and more than 600 scientific papers, has acted as a consultant to the World Health Organization, and was Project Leader of a European Union Project on the Methodology of Economic Appraisal of Health Technology. He has also served on the boards of directors of the International Society of Technology Assessment in Health Care and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. He has been president of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. He is currently coeditor-in-chief of Value in Health. His recent projects relate to the conduct of economic evaluations and their use in health care decision making.
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