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date: 18 August 2019

(p. 694) (p. 695) Index

(p. 694) (p. 695) Index

Abandoned Shipwreck Act (1987)398
Abela, G. F.85
Aboriginal Bora Ring, Lennox Head, New South Wales, Australia185
Aboriginal people
of Australia15, 31–2, 388–9
cognitive ownership of places189, 190–1
Aboriginalization of a place180
Abu el-Haj, N.258
academic archaeologists, roles378
academic archaeology
vs. compliance archaeology662
disabled people in680–1
academics in Participatory Action Research (PAR)216–18, 219
access to archaeology, education about575–6
accessibility for disabled people677, 680
in fieldwork for students683–90
accessibility to GIS data509–10
Ad Hoc Historians635, 638, 654
Adams, President John631
Adam's Bridge/Ram Setu127–8
Addyman, P. and N. Brodie60
administration and the National Park Organic Act (USA, 1916)48–51
Adshead, D.161
aesthetic value as aspect of heritage156, 158, 161
African-American communities
archaeological sites630
descendants of Van Winkle's Mill619
in Freedman's Cemetery, Texas, USA609–13
history in Houston, Texas
insistence on preservation of archaeological sites652–4
in Juliette Street, Texas, USA614–18
of Rosewood, Florida, USA622–4
slaves
buried in Freedmen's Cemetery645–9
on Henrietta Marie ship641–5
to President George Washington631, 634–41
students in Hampden526
in Texas, USA224–6
African Burial Ground, New York City649–52, 651
African Diaspora606–7
age
as aspect of heritage156, 161
of heritage sites299–300
agricultural demand on planning policy338
agricultural impact on archaeological sites336–7
Agriculture Act (1986)340
agriculture and farming policy339–42, 344
Aidonia, Greece247
Airlie House sessions (1974)387
Aitchison, K. and R. Edwards382–3, 678, 681
Alexander, J. and F. Christie67
Alexandra Dock, N. Ireland207–8
Alexandria, Virginia, USA402, 645–9
Alexandria Archaeology645, 647
Alfonso IX, King103
Ali, I. and R. Coningham237
Allen Parkway Village housing project, Houston, Texas225
All-Party Parliamentary Archaeology Group (APPAG)675
(p. 696) Alstonville, NSW, Australia186–9, 188
Althusser, L.519
Altschul, J. H.669
Ambum Stone, investigation into trade242
Americasee North America; USA
American Academy for the Advancement of Sciences (AAAS)570–1
American Academy of Arts and Sciences587
American Anthropological Association (AAA)567, 591
American Cultural Resources Association (ACRA)388
American Enterprise Institute (AEI)585
American Indian Movement (AIM)403
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, 1990)674
Amin, Haryana, India128
anchor179
ancient historical archaeology14–15
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act (1979)162, 341
Ancient Monuments Protection Act (1882)157, 158
Andalusia, Spain, damage from looting237
Andrade, M. de106
Animal, Vegetable, Mineral? BBC quiz show539
animator role in Participatory Action Research (PAR)217
Annapolis, Maryland, USA518–19
annexation of Italy21
anniversaries of institutions as catalyst for studies of history139
anthropogenic heritage transforms279, 281–3, 288
anthropological archaeology in India124
anthropology514
Cultural Resource Management as220
history of143–4
antiquarianism139–40, 145
historical14–15
Antiquaries College at Uppsala, Sweden18
antiquities, materiality277–8; see also artefacts
Antiquities Act (USA, 1906)37, 38–9
modernized55
Antiquities Bill (1969)67
antiquities market247–8, 285
ethnographic surveys243–4
history230–1
investigations into240–3
market research234–6
participant observation244–7
Roman17
Antiquity journal539
Anyon, R. et al.661
Appadurai, A.259
Arbury Banks, Northamptonshire, UK340
archaeological analytical perspective177
Archaeological Archives Forum354, 358
‘archaeological collection’351
Archaeological Heritage Management (AHM)13–15, 281
in Australia31–2
in Britain26, 29
components19
in India24
in sixteenth and seventeenth century Scandinavia17–18
in the USA31–2, 38, 54–5
Archaeological Institute of America (AIA)234, 544–5, 547
archaeological literacy570–8
Archaeological Resource Management (ARM)see Archaeological Heritage Management (AHM)
archaeological resources, diversity276–7
Archaeological Resources Committee326, 328
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) (USA, 1979)55, 400, 538, 542, 572
Archaeological Settlements of Turkey (TAY) project237
Archaeological Skills Self-Evaluation Tool kit (ASSET©)685, 687–90, 688
Archaeological Survey of India (ASI, 1861)24, 28, 29, 124–5, 126–7
archaeologists
choice of clothing84
and metal-detector users60–1, 68–9, 75–8, 76
Archaeology Advisory Group/Council542
Archaeology beyond Dialogue (Hodder)301
Archaeology Education Clearinghouse595
(p. 697) Archaeology Education Handbook (Smardz and Smith)548
Archaeology Fairs for families with children545, 546, 547
Archaeology Magazine545, 547–8
architecture16–17
archive archaeology351–9, 365–6
Archive Archaeology project360
archives351
at LAARC360, 361–3, 362, 364, 366
in North America363–5
use for360–1
ArchNet546–7
Arizona, USA
Canyon de Chelly National Monument54
Casa Grande Ruin42
San Pedro River Valley662
social studies education586
Arkansas, USA, Van Winkle's Mill618–22, 620
art historians, study of representations83
artefact continuum260
artefacts
commodity chains255–7
illegal trade6, 230, 240–3, 400
legal value262
lootedsee looted artefacts
representation83
artistic value as aspect of heritage156, 158, 161
Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)344
artworks around 290 Broadway, New York City650–1, 651
Aryan/Dravidian debate124–5
Asociación Profesional de Arqueólogos de Galicia (APAG), Spain386
Aspeberget, Sweden, rock carvings484, 486–90, 487, 488
Association of Archaeological Illustrators and Surveyors (AAI&S)384
Association of Art Museum Directors234
Association of Hungarian Archaeologists386
Assunção, P. de109
Aston, M.443, 455
attitudes of the public301
towards archaeologists581–2
towards educators590
Atwood, R.247
Aubry, M.398
auction houses234–6
investigations into240–3
Australasia, professionalization of archaeology388–9
Australia
Alstonville, NSW186–9, 188
Botany Bay, Sydney184–6
Burra Charter (ICOMOS, 1999)388, 390, 398, 481
Jacaranda Avenue, Grafton, NSW192
legislation for preservation of artefacts30–2
Maclean, NSW186, 187
multiple perpectives302–4
Australian Archaeological Association Inc. (AAA)388
authenticity479–83
as aspect of heritage156, 161
preservation of288
vs. preservation489–90
and the rock carvings at Tanum, Sweden483–90
authorized heritage discourse (AHD)153–4, 155–6, 166–7
and heritage reform164–6
legislation158
organizations supporting160–3
political and material consequences159
Avebury, Lordsee Lubbock, J.
Avenging the Ancestors Coalition (ATAC)635, 640–1
Avrami, E. et al.290
Ayodhya dispute, India126–7
Bab Edh Dhra, Jordan, looting in264
Bagnall, G.203
Baldus, H.107
Balmer, R.586
Balter, M.323
Baltimore, Maryland, USA524–7
Ban Non Wat, Khorat, Thailand178
banking education554–5
(p. 698) Banyan/Dubash model of archaeology123
Baram, U.426
Barata, F.104
Barile, K. S.225
Barkat, A.262
Barker, P.339
Barmah-Millewa Forest, NSW/Victoria, Australia189
Barthel, D.158
Bartoy, K. M.7, 552, 574
basic human needs283–4
Battle Creek Historical Society422, 423
Baudet469
Baudrillard, J.254–5
Baugh, M.261
Bayley, Major, Governor of Gozo88
BBC92, 539
Beach, Michael67
Beachmere Aboriginal midden, court case190–1
Beaudry, M.519
Becchina, G.240–1
Bedaux, R. M. A. and M. Rowlands266
behaviour of archaeologists towards communities220–1
Behrens, J.521–2
Belfast, Northern Ireland206–9
Belize
damage from looting237
education programmes573, 575
subsistence diggers245
Bell, M.233
Bell, S. and S. Morse292
Bellwood, P.121–2
Bender, B.201
Bender, S. J. and G. S. Smith415, 416
benefits of archaeology to the public396–407
Bengtsson, L.485
Bennett, T.156
Benton County School District Students620
Berezan, J.95
Bergunder, M.125
Bernardini, W.670
Bernbeck, R. and S. Pollock126
Bertilsson, U.479, 489, 491
Bertsch, A.646, 648
Bettini, D. et al.499
Bezerra, M.100, 111
Bezerra, M. and R. Najjar109
Bezzina, E.308
Bhabha, H. K.183
Bilbao Effect202
Binford, L.514
Biodiversity Action Plan343
biographies and historical studies138–9
biomapping304
Biscayne National Park (BISC)644–5
Bisheh, G.263
Black, Donald205
Black Dallas Remembered, Inc.610, 615, 617
‘Black Sam’ (Samuel Fraunces)638–9
black slaves
in Freedmen's Cemetery645–9
on Henrietta Marie ship641–5
in New York City African Burial Ground649–52, 651
to President George Washington631, 634–41
Blake, J.285
Blakey, M.650, 653
Bland, R.69, 71, 73
Blockson, C.635, 638
Bogdanos, M.238–9
Bonaparte, Napoleon86
bone and ivory trade246
Booker, B.638
Boott Mills complex in Lowell, Massachusetts, USA519
bora rings185
Borodkin, L.259
Botany Bay, Sydney, Australia184–6
Botwick, B. and D. A. McClane519
Boulting, N.23
Bourdieu, P.109, 255, 261, 262
Bowman, B.243, 244
Boyd, W. E.172
Boyd, W. E. and M. M. Cotter191
Boyd, W. E. et al.178, 180, 184, 186, 193
brain surgery analogy with archaeology447
Brandi, C.282
Brandon, J. C.605
Brazil101
first archaeological sites103–5
(p. 699) law on protection of archaeological heritage104, 105–8
public archaeology in108–13
Brazilian Empire (1822–89)103–4
Brazilian Geographical and Historical Institute104, 105
Brazilian Heritage106, 107
Brazilian Society for the Fine Arts105
Brent, M.237, 266
Bristol, UK, public and landscapes309–12
Britain, division of ‘nations’ or ‘races’27
British Library242
British military in Maltese Islands87, 89–90
British Museum69
British prehistoric archaeology, early26
Broadwater, J.643
Brock, D.585
Brodie, N.230, 235–6, 242, 245
Brodie, N. and C. Luke261
Brodie, N. and C. Renfrew234
Brodie, N. and J. Doole233
Bronze Age, migration to Italy21
Bronze Age Campaign (1993)465
Brown, E.649
Brown, M. R. III and E. A. Chappell540
Brumfiel, E.517
Bryce, Lord James44
Buchanan, C. and partners309
Buddhist temples, destruction128–9
Bure, J.17–18
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)542, 572
Bureus, J.374
burial ground in New York City649–52, 651
burial tumuli in Turkey, looting of237
Burley, D.503
Burley, D. et al.503
Burra Charter (Australia ICOMOS 1999)388, 390, 398, 481
Butler, T.194
Byrne, D.157
Byzantine oil lamp, value254, 260
California, USA, Cultural Resource Management in319, 321, 326–30
California Archaeological Survey (CAS)320–2
California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)321, 325, 328
California problem325
Campbell, A.425
Campbell, A. and M. S. Nassaney425
Canada575–6; see also North America
ownership of antiquities538
Signal Hill, St Johns179
tourism during First World War44
Canadian Archaeological Association (CAA)547
code of ethics594
canal dispute in India127–8
Cantwell, A. M. and D. dZ. Wall652–3
Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona, USA54
Cape Cod National Seashore56
Cape Town, South Africa522
capitalism and value of artefacts254
Carabinieri, Italian240–1
Carabott, M.308
careerists, role orientation380
careers in archaeology7, 325–6, 448–50
Carman, J.1, 6, 13, 29, 68, 156, 157, 176, 192, 194, 254, 258, 277, 301, 474
Carter, L.428
Carver, M.281, 291
Casa Grande Ruin, Arizona, USA42
Cass County, Michigan, USA431
Cassell, M.521
Castilians101–2
Catlin, George39
Caton-Thompson, G.91
Cedro, L.106
Center for American Archaeology544
ceramic analysis, method105
Ceremonial Aboriginal Bora Ring, Lennox Head, NSW, Australia185
Chakrabarti, D.5, 116, 117, 123
Chambers, E.571, 664
Champion, T.469
Chandler, J.373
Chang, N.178
Chapin, M. et al.499
Charsadda, Pakistan, damage from looting237
(p. 700) Charter for the Interpretation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage Sitessee Ename charter
Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage (ICOMOS, 1990)399
Chatterji, S. K.125
Chesapeake fishing villages519
Chidester, R. C.513
Chidester, R. C. and D. A. Gadsby526
Childe, A.105–6
Childe, G.467, 469
children
books on archaeology567
interest in archaeology576
Childs, T.328, 359
Chilton, E. S. and S. M. Hart423
China, professional organizations390
Chinese communities in Australia303
Chippindale, C.276
Chippindale, C. and D. W. J. Gill231
Chippindale, C. et al.236
Choay, F.157
Church
in Iberian kingdoms102
and preservation of British monuments29
and preservation of Irish monuments25
Church, Denver S.36
cities, ‘compost heaps’299, 306, 308
citizenship and community service learning (CSL)417–18
civic identity and cognitive ownership186–9
Clark, J. et al.348, 574
Clark, J. G. D.359
Clark, K.74, 75, 77, 398
Clark, M.22
Clarke, D.136
class
and contemporary archaeology522–7
issues in the USA516–20
studies in historical archaeology517–22
classical ruins as architectural inspiration16
Clauson, G.92
Cleere, H.374, 463–4
climate change and planning policy338–9
clothing of archaeologists84
Coard, M.640
Code of Practice for Responsible Metal Detecting in England and Wales76
Codes of Conduct379–80; see also ethics
in Australasia388–9
for European Association of Archaeologists (EAA)381–2, 384, 385–6
Institute for Archaeologists678
in North America387–8
Coggins, C.232, 544
cognitive abilities685
cognitive ownership172, 176–9, 184–9
fluidity180–2
and maps183
in other disciplines182–3
and power189–93
studies193–4
Cohn, B. S.28
Coin Monthly72
Cole family, Juliette Street, Texas616–17
collaborationsee community collaboration
collaborative archaeology435–6
and class issues523
collaborative research426, 665
collaborator role in Participatory Action Research (PAR)217
collecting areas for finds357–8
collections
of antiquities, inheritance17
curation328–9
invisible market trade235
provenance research233–4
Scandinavian18
collective identity in Levuka, Fiji506
collectors, value of looted artefacts259–61
Colley, S.406
colonial government influence on archaeological study in the Third World117
colonial nature of archaeology145–6
colonialist archaeology29
Colt Hoare, Sir Richard374
Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C. and T. J. Ferguson407, 665
Committee on the Public Understanding of Archaeology (COPA)542
commodity chains255–7
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP)336–7
(p. 701) communication
one-way488–9
with the public426
community
and cognitive ownership180, 190
and Cultural Resource Management220–1
defining6, 216
looting ethos258
and Participatory Action Research (PAR)215, 216–18
separation506
community archaeology403, 467, 524, 669, 675
community-based research (CBR)524
community collaboration301, 426, 498–500, 504
and Cultural Resource Management222–3
and Geographical Information Systems499–500, 503–11
and Indigenous archaeology666
rejection in Houston, Texas224–6
community engagement606–7
community groupssee Indigenous groups
community service learning (CSL)415, 417–21
challenges434–5
and connecting with the public425–30
critical reflection430–2
forming partnerships432–4
in practice420–5
compliance archaeology vs. academic archaeology662
Confederated tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation661
confidentiality clauses223
Congressional Committee, USA40–2
Conlan, T.590
Connecticut River Valley, Massachusetts, USA423
Connolly, D.73
conservation281–2, 286–7, 290–1
conservation debates156, 157–8
conservation philosophy291
conservative movement
and academics515–16
attitudes towards educators590
and education585–7
constructivism theory of education553–6, 561–3
consultants, roles217, 378
consumer behaviour models518
contact with artefacts, public490
contextual understanding in Participatory Action Research (PAR)218
Contraband and Freedmen's Cemetery Memorial Project648
contract archaeology7, 541, 608
in Brazil110, 111
contractors, roles378
Contreras, D. and N. Brodie238
control of antiquities16
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime231
Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICHC)158, 159
Cook, J.448
Cooke, B. and U. Kothari221
Cooney, G.25
Cooney, R. and B. Dickson291
Cooper, M.474
corruption in the Third World119–20
Cortes de Léon103
Costa Rica, subsistence digging in245
Costa, A.104
Cotgrove, S.375, 377
Cotter, M. et al.175
Cotter, M. M.172, 186, 190
Cottman, M.642
Council for British Archaeology (CBA)63, 66, 676
Antiquities Bill (1969)67
refusal to collaborate with metal-detector manufacturer67–8
Council of Europe (CoE)334, 465
countryside, archaeological sites in336–7
Countryside Stewardship Scheme337, 340
Cowell, B.162
Crabbe, M. J.284
Crawford, O. G. S.539
Creative Landscapes project676
Cressey, P. J.402, 645
Cressey, P. J. and N. Vinton646, 647–8
Crews, R. J.418
(p. 702) Crist, T. A. J.426
critical discourse analysis (CDA)154–5
Critical Theory and constructivism554
critical thinking557–8
Crosby, A.503
Crouch, M.158
Crow, P.343
Crow Canyon Archaeological Center (CCAC)544, 573, 577
cultural capital concept255
cultural heritage283, 284–7, 290
as accepted terminology464, 465
authenticity479–83
and economic values287–8, 290
ethical guidance492–3
cultural heritage management175–6, 183–9, 191, 344–5
and landscape298–300, 498
timeline466
cultural landmarks, imbalance with public multiculturalism297
Cultural Landscape Project, Levuka, Fiji497, 500–501, 503–11
cultural protection
Antiquities Act (1906) vs. National Park Organic Act (1916)38–9
vs. protection of nature42
cultural relativism557–8
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)213–14, 220, 319–20, 415–16
benefits of322–4
in California319, 321–2, 326–30
and community collaboration222–3
drawbacks324–5
and New Archaeology592
and Participatory Action Research (PAR)227
and public education541–3
in the USA220–2, 402
culture of antiquarianism15
culture wars and education in the USA583–96
CultureBank266–8
Cunliffe, B.361
curation328–9
of archives353–7
curation crisis365
curators, roles377
Curzon, George, Viceroy of India24, 28–9, 117
Cycladic figurines from Greece, provenance research232–3
Cypress/West Oakland archaeology project329–30
Cyriacus of Ancona (first archaeologist)17
Dallas, Texas, USA
Freedman's Cemetery609–13
Juliette Street614–18
damage from looting237–9
Danebury Iron Age Hillfort361
Daniel, G.67, 135, 138, 145, 374, 539
Daniel, P.516
Danish Royal Collection18
Darvill, T.339, 373, 377, 379
Darvill, T. and A. Fulton336
databases for finds75
Datta, B. N.124
David Fredrickson Archaeological Collections Facility, Sonoma State University329
Davidson and Brandon636
Davidson, J. M.605, 609, 615, 618
Davis, Adrian588
Davis, H. A.375, 387
Davis, M. E.541, 554, 558, 574
Dawe, G.165
De Brocktorff, C. F.88–90, 89
De Cardi, B.66, 72
De Cunzo, L. A.518
De Tocqueville, A.581
Dead Sea Scroll fragments257–8
dealers, value of looted artefacts259
decontextualized artefacts257
Deetz, J.519
deficit model of education569–70
definition of public archaeology569
Deganwy Castle ‘prospectors’66, 67
Delle, J. A.517
Deloria, Vine398
democracy in Brazil (1945–64)104, 107
Denmark17–19
Denton, M. H.225
Department for Communities and Local Government (CLG)334
Department for Culture, Media, and Sport (DCMS)160, 162, 163–4, 333–4
Department of Education, USA589
Department of the Environment339–40
Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA)333, 341, 343
Department of the Interior, USA41, 43, 45, 48–51, 56
Department of National Heritage (DNH)71
Derry, L.607, 624–5
descendant communities;see also Indigenous groups
and Freedman's Cemetery, Texas609–13
involvement in archaeology663–5
Juliette Street, Texas614–18
multiple scales607–8
partnerships with618–22
shared archaeological resources606–7
destruction and contract archaeology608
Detector Information Group (DIG)72
Deubel, T.266, 267
Deubel, T. and M. Baro266, 268
development of archaeology374, 661
development on heritage sites279–81
Dever, W. G.125–6
Devine, R.587
Dewey, J.553
Dhar, Madhya Pradesh, India, religious dispute127
Dharmapala, A.129
Dhavalikar, M.125
Diamond, J.470, 559
Diamond, J. and P. Bellwood122
diary records of Malta88
Diaz-Andreu, M.473
didactic, expository education554, 561
Dig magazine545
Dig That Site548
Digital Globe238
digital publications471
Dilsaver, L. M.39
Dincauze, D. F.545
Dinkins, Mayor David649
Directorate General (DG) for Culture, European Commission334
Directory of Qualified Archaeological Consultants, California321, 322
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA, 1995)674
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA, 2005)674, 681
Disability Rights Commission Act (DRC, 1999)674
disabled people
in archaeology673–5, 677–80
in education680–90
inclusion policies675–7
discipline of archaeology145, 374
discourse, definition154–5
discovery learning554, 561
disposal of archives358–60
Diving With a Purpose (DWP) programme645
Djenné area of Mali, looting from237
DNA samples
and ethnicity121
and Freedman's Cemetery611–12
Dobinson, C. and S. Denison70–1
Documentation Centre, Andalusian Institute of the Historical Heritage237
Dominguez, V.256
donations of collections of antiquities17
Dongoske, K. E. et al.387
Doole, J.242
Douglass, F.640
Dowdall, K. and O. Parrish407
Downum, C. E. and L. J. Price417
Draft Heritage Protection Bill (2008)163, 164–5
Droop, J. P.323
Drumchapel Housing Estate, Glasgow, Scotland209–10
Duarte, P.104–5, 106–7
Dubash/Banyan model of archaeology123
Dubrow, G.297
Duke, P. and D. J. Saitta517, 520
Dunlap, D. W.652
Dye, T. T.622
(p. 704) Dyke Hills, Oxfordshire, UK339–40
dyslexia and higher education682
Dyson, S. L.545
Eagle Forum News586
early archaeologists17, 73–4
Early Bronze Age Cycladic marble figurines, Greece, provenance research232–3
Early Day Motion (EDM), support for Portable Antiquities Scheme73–4
early republican period in Brazil (1889–1920s)104
Eastlick, N.422
Ebbitt, A.573, 574, 575
Eberlein, H. D.638
Ebert, C. et al.182
Echo-Hawk, R.661–2, 667
economic values and non-economic values287–8, 290
economics
and the National Park Organic Act, USA44–8, 51–3
in Western society400
Ede, J.235
education
in archaeology7, 449–50, 454–9
four approaches554, 561
banking554–5
in Brazil108, 111–12
cognitive ownership in182–3
community service learning (CSL)415, 417–21
and Cultural Resource Management541–3
and culture wars in the USA583–96
deficit model569–70
evaluation558–9
in India, university117–18
learning objectives556–9
national vs. international scope470, 472–3
policy-makers585–6
public547–9
public archaeology as537–8
as responsibility for archaeologists552
in social studies584–8, 594
through tours560–3
Education and Archaeology Work Group coalition567, 591
education programmes7, 544–7, 572–6
anti-looting400–401
importance of577
Project Archaeology (2002)572–3, 577
educational institutions, value of looted artefacts261
educational theory553–6
educators, relationship with archaeologists595
Egloff, B.242
Egyptian Predynastic site of Ma’adi, stolen artefacts235–6
Eisenberg, J.243
Eleanor Crosses, protection for28
Eley, G.514
Elia, R. J.236
Ellemore, H. M.189–90
Ellick, C.667–9
embourgeoisement in the USA516
Emory, E.612
employment in archaeology416, 448–50
Ename charter (ICOMOS, 2007)479, 481, 485, 489, 492
Encyclopedia of Archaeology (Murray)140, 143
engaging in effective action in Participatory Action Research (PAR)218–19
England, R.94
England Forestry Strategy343
English Heritage160–2, 163, 297–8, 333, 336, 341, 342, 348, 356, 464
inclusion policies675–7
Ennis, R. H.214
environmental impact of archaeology345–9
environmental management182
environmental organizations337
Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) scheme337
Eric's Club, Liverpool, UK314
Ervin, A. M.215, 219, 220
ethics;see also Codes of Conduct
and cultural heritage492–3
and Cultural Resource Management325
of interpreting the past5
of preservation and public accessibility479
professional379–80, 384, 388–9
(p. 705) and stewardship593–4
ethnic identity120–1
and cognitive ownership186–9
tracing122
ethnographic analysis of looting266
ethnographic approach482–90
ethnographic surveys231, 243–4
Europae Archaeologiae Consillium384–5
Europe
archaeology journals471
national heritage20–3
political motivation for Archaeological Heritage Management19
professionalization of archaeology in381–6
European Association of Archaeologists (EAA)381–2, 384, 385–6, 465, 474
European Association of South Asian Archaeologists123
European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Valletta Treaty)385
European Landscape (Florence) Convention299, 300, 335
European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH)470
European Research Council474
European Science Foundation470
European Union (EU)334, 381
disabilities acts674
public and cultural heritage492–3
evaluation of education in archaeology558–9
Evans, C.84, 104–5
Evans, J.27, 92–3
Evett, D.93
excavation of heritage sites279, 280–1, 352
exhumations of graves in Freedman's Cemetery610–11
export of artefacts, illicit65
extra-mural education449–50, 456–7
Eyler, J. and D. E. Jr. Giles418, 426, 429
Fabri de Peiresc, N.373
facsimile earthworks345–6
Fagan, B.136, 324, 663
Fairclough, G.300
Fairclough, N.154, 155
Falk, J. H. and L. D. Dierking555–6
Fals Borda, O.218
family collections of antiquities17
Farchakh Bajjaly, J.247
farming policy339–42, 344
Farrell, S. and D. Alberge240
Federation of Independent Detectorists (FID)62, 72–3
Felch, J.241
Fennell, D. A. and K. Ebert291
Ferguson, L. M. and D. M. Murray353, 354
Ferguson, T. J.660, 661, 669
Ferguson, T. J. and C. Colwell-Chanthaphonh662
Fernandez Cacho, S. and L. García Sanjuán237
fetishized objects, value255
feudalism in Iberian kingdoms102–3
Ficacci, L.278
field manuals323
fieldwork352, 591
in universities683–90
Fiji, Levuka Cultural Landscape Project497, 500–511
Fiji National Trust504
find-spots and provenance232–3, 236, 257
Finds Liaison Officers (FLOs)63, 74, 458
Finklea, L.646–8
Finlay, N.680
first archaeologist17
First Nations personssee Native American Indians
First World archaeologists
interaction with Indian archaeologists122–5
vs. Third World archaeology117–20
First World War and the tourist industry in the USA44–5
Fischler, F., EU Agriculture Commissioner334
Fisher, M. A.641–4
Fisherman Village Project, Botany Bay, Sydney184–6
Fitzjohn, M.205
Five Points district of New York, USA519–20
Flannery, K. V.566, 578
(p. 706) Fletcher, E.61, 71–2
Florida, USA, Rosewood622–4, 623
Florida Public Archaeology Network (FPAN)573
Folk House Arch. Club66
Foot and Mouth crisis of 2001341
Ford, J.105
Ford, R. I.402, 416
Forestry Commission343
forestry policy342–3, 344
Forrest, B.584
Fort Burgwin, New Mexico, USA543
Fort St Joseph Archaeological Project421–3, 422, 424, 427–8, 428, 429, 432
Foster, Norman142
Foster, R.448
Foucault, M.183
Four Corners region, USA544
Fowler, D. D.538, 542
Fowler, D. D. and B. Malinky538
Fowler, P.67–8, 453
Frammolino, R.241
Frank, T.590
Franklin, M. E.566, 567, 606, 615, 615, 625
Franklin, M. E. and L. McKee607
Franklin, M. E. and J. M. Moe4
Franklin, M. E. et al.572
Franks, A. W.26–7
Fraser, M.680
Fraunces, Samuel ‘Black Sam’638–9
Freedman's Cemetery, Texas, USA609–13
Freedmen's Cemetery, Alexandria, Virginia, USA645–9
Freedom of Information requests in investigations242–3
Freire, P.213, 218, 553–5, 557
French interest in colonizing Malta86
Friedman, E.543
Fritz, J. M.416
Fugitive Slave Act (1793)632
Funari, P. P. A.100, 101, 103–4
Funari, P. P. A. and Robrahn-Gonzalez111
Funari, P. P. A. and S. Pelegrini105–6
fundamental concepts of archaeology, education about573–4
funding
for archaeology4
scepticism403
for history education587
for National Parks in the USA50
Gadsby, D. A.513, 520
Gadsby, D. A. and R. C. Chidester5, 524
Gaimster, D.354
Gallant, T. W.20–1
Gard’ner, J.298
Garden, M.-C. E.6, 199, 202, 506
Gardiner, J.186–9
Garfield, G. M. and S. McDonough548
Garuba, H.183
Garver, L. et al.574, 576
Gathercole, P. and D. Lowenthal5
Gehry, F.202
general service norm378
Generations Unlimited635, 636
genuineness, authenticity as480
geographical attachment studies182
Geographical and Historical Institute, Brazil104, 105
Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology496–7, 525
and community participation499–500, 503–11
geology446
German rule in Greece21
Gero, J. M. et al.416
Gerson, E.631
Getty Grant Program362
Getty Museum241
Ġgantija temples89
Gherkin (30 St Mary Axe)142
Ghiya, V.240, 241
Ghor es-Safi region of Jordan, looting in263–5
Gianighian, G.22
Gibbons, M. et al.380
Gibbons, Thomas639–40
Gilchrist, R.673, 681
Gilgan, E.236
Gill, D. W. J. and C. Chippindale232–3, 241, 248
Giolitti, Giovanni (Italian Prime Minister c.1900)22
(p. 707) Gladstone, William Ewart (British Prime Minister)27
Glasgow Housing Corporation209
Glassow, M.325
Global Justice Movement405, 523
globalization474
Glover, I.140–3
goddess pilgrimages to Malta95
Goeldi, E.104
Goldstein, L.590
González-Ruibal, A.474
Gonzalez-Tennant, E.624
Google Earth238, 238
Google search for ‘archaeology’547–8
Gordon, B.260
Gore, A.590
Government Accounting Office, USA365
government ministries333–4
GPS surveys505–6
Gradual Abolition Act631
graduate programmes in Brazil111–12
Graepler, D.233
Graham, B. et al.166
Gramsch, A.469
Grand Canyon, advertisement for46
Grave-Müller, A. and M. Hjalmarsson470, 472
grazing and planning policy339
grazing rights in the USA52–3
Greece
Aidonia247
Cycladic figurines, provenance research232–3
‘glorious past’16
national heritage15, 20–1, 22–3
Greek pottery, auction sales234
Green, B. and T. Gregory68
Green, J.524
Greenham Common301
Greer, S. et al.669
Gregory-Lincoln Education Center Collaborative Historic Preservation Project Research Program224
Grenville, J.332
Griggs, H.520
Grima, R.84, 88, 89
Gross, D.516
Grosskurth, J. and J. Rotmans284
Ground Truth publication649
growth in archaeology field382
guardianship290
Guerrero Project, The644
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain202
Guha, S.83
Guide to Migrant Heritage Places in Australia (King)302–3
Guidi, A.21
Gustafsson, A.478
Gustafsson, A. and H. Karlsson490
Gustawsson, K. A.483
Gutchen, M.237
Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum94–5, 94
Hale, C. R.219
Halfin, S.63
Hall, M. and S. Silliman517
Halley's Comet and Project 2061570–1
Hallström, G.483
Hamilakis, Y. and P. Duke5
Hampden Community Archaeology Project (HCAP)524–7
Handler, R.257
Handler, R. and E. Gable621
hands-on activities504, 554–5, 561
in museums84, 93
Handy, C. B.380
Hantman, J. L.664
Hardesty, D. L.517, 521
Harland and Wolff shipbuilders206, 207
Harper, D.205
Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, USA518–19
Harrington, J. C.539–40, 540
Harrington, V.540
Harris matrix323
Harrison, D.501, 502
Hartoonian, H. M.548
Hartt, C. F.103
Harvard University Museums234
Harvey, D. C.157
Haskins, Lord Christopher341
Hata, N. I.321
Haughton, K.73
Hawkes, J.67
Hayden, D.297
Hearne, T.374
Heath, B.522
Heath, D.245
Hebrew University of Jerusalem242
Hecht, R.235, 240–1
Hein, G. E.553–4, 558, 564
Heizer, R.320
Hemment, J.219, 227
Hemp, W.91
Hempel and Popper136
Henderson, A. G. and L. S. Levstik573, 575
Henrietta Marie ship641–5
Henry, Joseph539
Hercules (George Washington's cook)631
heritage
as accepted terminology464–5
and authorized heritage discourse155–6, 158, 159
consumption279
defining6, 153–4, 497
development279–81
human need for157
on Isle of Lismore, Scotland204–6
legislation158, 334
marketing428–9
national
in Greece15, 20–1, 22–3
in India23–4
in Ireland24–6
in Italy21–3
organizations protecting160–3
parameters of156–63
places/sites
as landscapes200–204
‘new’203, 206–9, 211
new housing on209–10
register164–5
situated in the countryside336–7
policy498
preservationsee preservation
reform164–6
representation of public297–8
roles of166
trails209–10
transforms291–2
Heritage at Risk Register for England336, 348
Heritage Lottery Fund362
Heritage Malta95
heritage management177; see also cultural heritage management
heritage managers
and public, relationship490–1
view of authenticity480
heritage movement, modern289–90
Heritage Protection Bill334–5
Heritage Protection Reform159, 163
Heritage Protection Review155–6, 341
Heritage Register for England164–5
heritagescapes6, 203–4, 210–11, 506
Titanic Quarter as207–9
Hermitage, The559–63
Heydenreich, T.101
Heyworth, M.63
Hicks, Allen, president of the Hampden Community Council525
Hicks, Marilyn619, 621
Hicks, R.238, 400
hidden disabilities678–9, 682
higher education, disabled people in681–90
Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)360, 363
Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA)681
Hills, C. and J. D. Richards4
Hilton of Cadboll, Scotland, ownership of Pictish stone190
Himmelfarb, G.515
Hindu–Muslim dispute125–7
Hinton, P.359, 360
Hirst, K. Kris547
Hispanic Americas101–2
Historic Environment Advisers342
Historic Environment Records (HERs)458; see also Sites and Monuments Records
Historic Landscape Characterization programme348
historic properties owned by heritage organizations160–2
Historic Sites Act (USA, 1935)55–6
historical archaeology513–14, 588, 593, 630
and class517–22
(p. 709) vs. prehistoric archaeology540–1
histories apparent through archaeological study7
Histories of Archaeology (Murray and Evans)137
history education587
‘History in the Ground’ poster64
History of Archaeological Thought, A (Trigger)147
history of archaeology373–4
approaches to writing143–5
benefits146–8
publications on138–43
studies in135–8
in the USA591
Hodder, I.68, 301, 323
Hodder, I. and S. R. Hutson214
Hodges, J.240
Hofman, N. G. and H. Rosing417–18, 434
Hofstadter, R.590
Hollowell, J.231, 245, 246
Hollowell-Zimmer, J.245
Holt, S.635, 640, 654
Holtorf, C.83–4, 474
Hooge, Paul543
Hooper-Greenhill, E.285
Hope-Taylor, Brian63–4
Hopkins, T. and I. Wallerstein255–6
Hopkirk, P.65
Hoüel, J.-P.86–7, 86
House with No Walls, A (Gibbons)640
housing demand on planning policy338
Houston, Texas, USA224–6
Houston, David F., Secretary of Agriculture in USA50
Houston High School for the Performing and Visual Arts (HSPVA)224
Houston Independent School District (HISD)224–6
Howard, P.286
Hritz, C.238
Huber, M. T.418
Hubert, J.680
human remains, Native American and Aboriginal Australian31
humanities
vs. science, archaeology as514
and social sciences, conservativist approach515–16
humans
basic needs283–4
need for heritage157
in illustrations89–90
Hume, I. N.323
Hungary, professional organizations386
Hunt, J.143
Hunter, T.72
Hyatt, S. B.417
Hypogeum, Ħal Saflieni,94–5, 94
Iberian Americas101
Iberian kingdoms102–3
ICHC (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage)158, 159
ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites)280, 282, 397
Burra Charter (1999)388, 390, 398, 481
Charter for the Protection and Management of the Archaeological Heritage (1990)399
Ename charter (2007)479, 481, 485, 489, 492
Venice Charter (1964)390
idealism and realism553–4
identity
and cognitive ownership186–9
and ethnicity120–1
in Greece following Ottoman rule20–1
and landscapes6, 199–200
in Latin America101
illegal trade6, 230, 240–3, 400
stakeholders in256
Illinois, USA, Kampsville544
illustrations of Malta86–92, 89
imagery499, 505–8
Images of Change (Penrose)211
inclusion in fieldwork for disabled students683–90
inclusion policies675–7
Inclusive, Accessible, Archaeology (IAA) project685
Inclusive Curriculum Project (ICP)682
(p. 710) Independence National Historical Park (INHP)635, 638
independent archaeologists, roles378
India
Amin, Haryana128
British interest in antiquities23–4
colonial government influence on archaeological study117
and First World archaeology117–20, 122–5
Madhya Pradesh127, 129
as model for British governance28–9
professional organizations389–90
religious issues126–9
Indian merchants122–3
Indiana Jones movies547
Indigenous archaeologists215, 217
Indigenous archaeology as a sub-discipline665–70
Indigenous groups;see also descendant communities
in Australia15, 31–2
in Australasia, protection for388–9
in Brazil, education about108
claims to land ownership175–6
in Fiji501–2, 509
fluidity of cognitive ownerships180
identification with landscapes6, 199–200
and industry521–2
needs661
North Americansee Native American Indians
oral literature661–2
relationships with archaeologists145–6, 660–1
represented by heritage298
use of archaeology5
Indus Civilization studies124–5
industrial order and Indigenous people521–2
information boards485–9, 487
inheritance
of collections of antiquities17
concept of285–6
initiator role in Participatory Action Research (PAR)216–17
Institute for (Field) Archaeologists (IFA/IfA)382–4, 677–8
Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland (IAI)385
intangible heritage158, 159, 166
integrated project work345–9
integrity282, 288
interest in archaeology444–7, 450–60
children576
interest in the past
intergenerationality285–6, 290–2
interior spaces as landscapes202
intermental knowledge561–3
International Conference on the protection of the North Sea (ICPNS, 1984)291
International Council on Monuments and Sitessee ICOMOS
International Council of Museums233
internet
education programmes546–7, 573
searching for ‘archaeology’547–8
interpretations, archaeological5, 416
interviews for ethnographic surveys into antiquities market243–4
intramental knowledge and problem solving555–6, 561–3
inventory
British national29
history of17–18
Inveresk Blacksmith Shop, Launceston, Tasmania180–2, 191–3
invisible market235, 246
Iraq, looting in238, 247
Iraqi antiquities, illegal trade with museums242
Ireland;see also Northern Ireland
national heritage24–6
professional organizations in385
Irish Church Act (1869)24
Irish Home Rule27
Irish peers, connections with early British archaeologists27–8
Isle of Lismore, Scotland204–6
Isle of Man458–9
Israel125–6
antiquities market245–6
Hebrew University of Jerusalem242
Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA)262
(p. 711) Israelis and Palestinians, common heritage404
Italian Carabinieri240–1
Italy
‘glorious past’16
market in antiquities17
national heritage21–3
ivory and bone trade246
Jacaranda Avenue, Grafton, NSW, Australia192
Jackson, Andrew559
Jacobs, J. M.180
Jakobsen, T.140
James Ossuary257
Jameson, J. H. Jr.364, 569
Jenkins, Lizzie623
Jensen, O.84
Jeppson, P. L.7, 569, 581, 593, 594, 636
Jeppson, P. L. and G. Brauer592, 593
Jericho Center Cemetery Association434
Jerusalem, Hebrew University242
job titles463–4
Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)276, 285
Johnson, L.255
Johnson, M.175
Johnston, C.188
Jokilehto, J.282
Jones, A.83, 574
Jones, J.644
Jones, S.190
Jones, W.117
Jordan, E.522
Jordan, looting in238, 238, 239, 263–5, 264
Jordanian Department of Antiquities263–5
Jorde, Peggy King649–50
Jorgensen, D. L.244
Jorvik Viking Centre, York, UK324
journals in archaeology470–3
national vs. international scope472
Joyce, R. A.483
Judge, Ona ‘Oney’631, 639–40
Juliette Street, Dallas, Texas, USA614–18
‘just third way’404–5
Kalm, P.490–1
Kampsville, southern Illinois, USA544
Kane, P. V.124
Kaplan, E.590
Kapp, N.595
Karlsson, H.478, 487–8
Karlström, A.390
Keefe, P. R.241
Keeffe, G.299
Keene, A. S. and S. Colligan426, 430
Kehoe, A. B.7, 537, 547, 549
Kelly, R.571
Kelly/Maiello, Architects & Planners640
Kelso, W.540
Kemmis Betty, P.457
Kennedy, M.447
Kenoyer, J. M.125
Kersel, M. M.244, 245–6, 253, 258, 262
Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh129
Kiddey, R.296
Kilkenny Archaeology Society25
King, P.302–3
King, T. and F. Plog402
King, T. F.222, 327, 375
King, T. F. and M. M. Lyneis321
Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B.161
Klein, B.183
Knapp, A. B. and W. Ashmore173
Knox, R.143–4
Knudson, R.541
Koch, A. M. and R. Elmore254
Kohl, P.119
Kong, L.176
Kristiansen, K.5, 8, 461, 463, 467–9
Krueger, N. F. Jr.182
labour, relationship with class517–22
Laet469
Lamb, D.162–3
Lambrick, G.344–5
landscape
cognitive ownership172–83, 184–9
and cultural heritage management298–300, 498
(p. 712) formation of National Parks334
heritage sites as201–4
and identity6, 199–200
importance206–7
on Isle of Lismore, Scotland204–6
loss of278–9
meaning of6
and the public302, 304–15
relocation209–10
tangibility210
landscape archaeology300
land-use, diversity343–4
land-use debate338–9
Lane, F. K.48–9
Lane, M. B.190
Lane Fox, A. H.see Rivers, Pitt
Lang, V.467, 468
Lange, F.245
language families and ethnicity121–2
languages in archaeology467–70, 473–4
Lanzendorf, B.644
LaRoche, C. J.629–30, 637, 643–4, 654
LaRoche, C. J. and M. L. Blakey606, 649
Larsen, K.481
Lashua, B.296
Latin America100–2; see also Brazil
Launceston City Council, Tasmania, cognitive ownership of blacksmith shop180–2, 191–3
laundry, analysis of522
Lawler, E. Jr.632, 634, 635
laws5–6
abolition of slavery631, 632
and Cultural Resource Management practice220, 222
Cultural Resource Management in California321
discrimination against disabled people674–5, 681–2
education in the USA586–7
export of artefacts65
heritage158, 334
illegal trade in antiquities230
knowledge of571–2
looting400
metal-detector use62, 68–70
national heritage in Greece20–1, 22–3
national heritage in Italy21–3
National Monuments in the USA51
ownership of archives353–4
preservationsee preservation
protection of archaeological heritage in Brazil104, 105–8
protection of natural features in the USA37–53, 55–7
for the ‘public good’37
reporting finds69–71
Layton, R. et al.473
Lazrus, P.399, 401–2
Lea, Joanne547, 572, 575–6
learning objectives556–9
Lees, W. and J. King402
legal value of looted artefacts262
legibility of a site's past282–3
legislationsee laws
Leland, J.373–4
Lennox Head, NSW, Australia, Ceremonial Aboriginal Bora Ring185
Leon, Rodney651
Leone, M. P.517, 518
Leone, M. P. and P. A. Shackel518
Lepper, Bradley543
Letts, C. A. and J. M. Moe568
Levi-Jordan Plantation, Texas, USA571, 575, 664
Levin, J. and J. Collins595
Levin, M.676
Levine, M. A. and J. A. Delle418, 427
Levuka Cultural Landscape Project, Fiji497, 500–11
Levuka Historical and Cultural Society502
Liberty Bell Pavilion632, 633–41
Liddle, P.458
Lipe, W.287, 415, 544
Lismore, Scottish Isle204–6
literacy, archaeological570–8
literature
on archaeology in India117
classical16
Little, B. J.395, 402, 407, 418, 425, 429–30, 518
Little, B. J. and F. P. McManamon52
Little, B. J. and P. A. Shackel417
Liu, G.417
(p. 713) Liverpool, UK, public and landscapes312–15
Liverpool Maritime and Mercantile City World Heritage Site203
Lobo, Bruno, President of the Brazilian Society for the Fine Arts105
Locke, T.154
Lockhart, B., Chairperson of English Heritage163, 164
Lockland, S.184
Londo, J. P. et al.122
London Archaeological Archive and Research Centre (LAARC)360, 361–3, 362, 364, 366
looted artefacts253–4
commodity chains255–7
legal value262
value255, 268–9
to archaeologists257–8
to collectors259–61
to dealers259
to looters258–9
looting6, 230–1, 233
in Ghor es-Safi region of Jordan263–5
investigations236–9
in Mali237, 265–8
prevention399–401
Lopes, R.106
Los Angeles, USA, multiculturalism297
Loviglio, J.634
Lowell, Massachusetts, USA519, 520
Lowenthal, D.288, 464
Lubbock, J.25, 26–7, 157, 339
Ludlow Coalfield Wars, Colorado423
Ludlow Collective520–1
Lujan, Manuel Jr541–2, 543
Lund, P. W.103
Lundén, S.242
Luria, A.555
Lynott, M. J. and A. Wylie552, 556, 593
Ma’adi, stolen artefacts235–6
Maastricht Treaty (1992)381
McAdam, E. et al.363
McCain, John (US presidential candidate)516
McDavid, C.224, 571, 575, 608, 625, 664
McDavid, C. and P. Jeppson404–5
McDavid, C. et al.226
McDermott, C. and P. La Piscopia385
MacDonald, C. and P. Burtness548
Macedonian communities in Australia303–4
McEwan, J. M.25
McFarland, J. Horace, President of the American Civic Association42–3
McGhee, F.213, 224, 420, 594
McGhee, R.660, 667, 670
McGimsey, C. R.4, 387, 415, 419, 541
McGimsey, C. R. and H. A. Davis415, 416, 552
McGuire, R.215, 217, 221, 406, 670
McGuire, R. H. and M. Walker520
McGuire, R. H. and P. Reckner520–1
MacIlleDhuibh, D.205
Mack, M. E. and M. L. Blakey607
McKee, L.559
Mackenzie, S. R. M.244
Mackey, L. A.538
Mackintosh, B.39
McKnight, M.610, 611–12
McLaughlin, S. A.434
Maclean, NSW, Australia186, 187
McManamon, F. P.56, 543, 572
MacRory, R. and S. Kirwan25
McTighe, J.577
Madhya Pradesh, India127, 129
Magness-Gardiner, B.259
Magnusson, J.483
Magyar, Z.386
Maiden Castle539
Mali, looting from237, 265–8
Malloy, M. and P. Jeppson595
Malta
illustrations of86–92, 89
public and landscapes304–8
Malta Conventionsee Valletta Treaty
Malta Historical and Scientific Society90
Malta Independent Online, The308
Maltese archaeology, 1971 Survey84–7, 88–90, 92–3
Maltese Islands
British rule87, 89–90
study of prehistory90–2
Maltese landscape development280
(p. 714) Management of Archaeological Sites in Arable Landscapes project344–5
Management of Research Projects in the Historic Environment356
Mandal, D. and S. Ratnagar126
Manesiotis, C.546
Manuscript Collector, The: On the Trail of Tomb Robbers242
Manzo, K.586
mapping173, 183
in Levuka, Fiji505, 507–8, 510
marble figurines from Greece, provenance research232–3
Marcus, G. E.254
maritime heritage179
market in antiquitiessee antiquities market
market research231, 234–6
marketing heritage428–9
Marquis, A. L.644
Marschalk, N.373
Marsh Station Archaeological Project programme668–9, 668, 669
Marshall, J.124–5
Marshall, R. B.40
Marshall, Y.403–4, 407, 499
Marx, K.102, 254, 259–60
Marx, K. and F. Engels322
Maryland, USA518–19, 524–7
Maryland Humanities Council525
Mason, R.662, 667
Massachusetts, USA423, 519, 520
Massoud, Louise647–8
material landscapes203
materiality of antiquities277–8
materiality theories518
Mathers, C. et al.398
Matsuda, D.231, 245
Mayan objects in auction sales236
Mayan sites in Belize, damage from looting237
Mayes, E.640
Mayr, A.93
media
investigations231, 239–43
and public interest in archaeology444–5, 450–6
television shows242, 452, 539
Medici, G.240, 241
Meggers, B.104–5
Mel Fisher Maritime Heritage Society (MFMHS)641–4
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), Freedman's Cemetery610, 612
memorials
to the African Burial Ground, New York City650–1, 651
for Freedmen's Cemetery648
to slaves of President George Washington640–1, 641
Mendoza, R. G.430, 434
mental landscapes203
Merriam-Webster Online584
Merriman, N.68, 175, 177, 301, 354, 567, 569, 570
Merriman, R. B.103
Mesa Verde National Park, USA42
Meskell, L.119, 497
Metal Detecting and Archaeology in England (Dobinson & Denison, 1995)70–1
metal-detector licences72
metal-detector manufacturer, offer of collaboration with CBA67–8
metal-detector users76
and archaeologists, relationship60–1, 68–9, 75–8
definition62
emergence of hobbyists66
growth in number71–2
nighthawks62, 69, 75–6
and Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS)61, 73, 74–5
servicemen as65
vs. STOP campaign72
trade in artefacts66–7
and the Treasure Bill (1996)73
Metcalf, F.401
Metropolitan Museum of Art235
Metzler, I.680
Meyers, A. D. and D. L. Carlson521
Michaelides, C.241
Michalowski, P.257
Middle East, illegal trade in256
Miliband, David338–9
military, British in Maltese Islands87, 89–90
(p. 715) military period in Brazil (1964–85)104–5, 107
Millennium Development Goals405
Miller, G.516
Miller, J.643
Miller, R.638
Miller, S. G.247
Miller, T. G.634
Miller, T. M.645
minds-on education554–5
Minetti, A. and K. A. Pyburn111
Minnis, P. et al.403
minorities in academic research515
missionaries, role orientation380
modern heritage movement289–90
Moe, J. M.566, 573
Moe, J. M. and L. Y. Clark574
Moe, J. M. et al.573
Molenda, J.526
Molinar, M.642
Monacan tribe of Virginia664
monogenist/polygenist debate143
monolingualism in archaeology467–70
monuments
in India23–4
in Ireland24–6
in Malta85, 94
national, in the USA51
owned by heritage organizations160–2
preservation in Britain26–9
religious, destruction of126–9
Monuments at Risk Survey (MARS) (English Heritage)341
Moore, D.641–2
Moore, D. and C. Malcolm642, 643–4
Morazé, C.537
Morris, W.156, 158, 279, 282, 291
Mortensen, L. and M. Bezerra110
Moser, S.84
Moser, S. and S. Smiles83
mosques, demolition of126–7
Moss–Bennett Bill (1974)541
Mouliou, M.20
Moundbuilders, lost culture in USA30
Mount Rainier National Park48
Mrozowski, S.520
Mrozowski, S. et al.519
Muir, J.39
multiculturalism297
in the archaeology profession636, 643
and education585
in Fiji501–2
multiple ethnicities, problems of119
multiple perspectives of public302–4
multi-sited ethnography254
Murray, M.91
Murray, T.5, 135, 144
Murray, T. and C. Evans137
museum-based archaeologists, roles378
Museum of London, LAARC360, 361–3, 362, 364, 366
Museum of London Archaeology Service (MoLAS)361
Museum Wormianum (Worm)18
museums
as archivists353–7
in Brazil104
collecting areas for finds357–8
vs. community, cognitive ownership190
CultureBank266–8
disposal of material358–60
illegal trade in antiquities242–3
invisible market trade235
on Isle of Man459
provenance research233–4
representation in83, 84
and spaces as landscapes202–3
value of looted artefacts261
Museums Association384
Museums, Libraries, and Archives Council (MLA)73
Muslim–Hindu dispute125–7
Musteata, S.406
Muwakkil, S.590
NAGPRA (1990)31, 215, 222–3, 387, 398–9, 403, 435–6, 538, 607–8
ethics594
protests416
Nara Document on Authenticity481
Nash, G.585, 634
Nash, G. et al.584
Nassaney, M. S.414, 423, 434
Nassaney, M. S. and M. A. Levine415
(p. 716) Nassaney, M. S. et al.421
Nathan, J.584
National Antiquities Act648
National Artistic and Historic Heritage Service, Brazil106
National Association of Black Scuba divers (NABS)642–5
National Association of Tribal Historic Preservation Officers (NATHPO)663
National Council for Metal Detecting (NCMD)62, 72–3
National Council for Social Studies (NCSS)548, 584, 587–8, 594
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA, 1971)541, 542
National Gallery of Australia242
National Geographic Society643
national heritage
emergence in Britain15
in Greece20–1, 22–3
in India23–4
in Ireland24–6
in Italy21–3
vs. private property220
National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA, 1966)220, 328, 397, 541
Amendments (1992)662–3
national identity in Latin America101
National Institute of Historic and Artistic Heritage (IPHAN), Brazil108, 109, 111
National Monuments, USA51
National Monuments Preservation Bill (1873)339
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)642
National Outreach Strategy (English Heritage)676
National Park Organic Act (USA, 1916)37–40, 43, 54–7
administrative implications48–51
economic implications44–8, 51–3
necessity for42–3, 44
National Park Service (NPS)633–8, 663
USA39, 43, 53–6, 359, 364
National Parks in America30
early formation41–2
National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (1949)334, 338
National Parks and Wildlife Act (NSW, Australia, 1967)31
National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS)303–4
National Program of Archaeological Research (PRONAPA)104–5
National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)397
National Resources Defense Council587
National Trust157–8, 160–2
Australia191
nationalism and archaeology473
Nations World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)285
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Actsee NAGPRA (1990)
Native American Indians15, 398–9, 403, 538, 549; see also Indigenous groups
artefacts30–2
involvement in archaeology663–5
perspectives660
protection for387
protests416
traditions662
Natural England333, 341–2
natural features in the USA, protection for37–53
nature, protection
vs. cultural protection42
under National Park Organic Act (1916)38–9
Nederlandse Vereniging van Archeologen (NVVA)386
Netherlands, professional organizations386
Neto, L.103–4
Neumann, T. W. and R. M. Sanford219–20
Neustupný, E.467, 473
Nevill, H. R.126
New Archaeology136, 592
new heritage sites203, 206–9, 211
New Mexico, USA402, 543
New York, USA
African Burial Ground649–52, 651
Five Points district519–20
Philadelphia233–4, 630–9
(p. 717) New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission650
New Zealand Archaeological Association (NZAA)388–9
Newcastle Society for the Blind (NSPB)676
Newland, C. et al.300
Newport, Rhode Island, USA520
Nicholas, G. P.499, 662, 665, 666–7
Nicholas, G. P. and T. D. Andrews665
Nicholls, Patrick, Conservative MP for Teignbridge73
nighthawking62, 69, 75–6
Niles French Market432
nimbyism302
No Child Left Behind Act (2001)586, 588
Nold, C.304
non-salvage excavation281
Norman, R.176, 177, 180–2, 191–3
Nørskov, V.231, 233, 234–5, 243
North America;see also Canada; USA
archives in363–5
conservatives in515–16
history538, 548–9, 584, 591
Indigenous groups15, 30–2, 387,398–9, 403
legislation for preservation of artefacts30–2
professionalization of archaeology387–8
Northern Ireland, Belfast206–9
Northern Ireland Science Park (NISP)207, 208
Norton, C. E.544
Norway, State Antiquarians462
Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK)242
Nostrant, C. and M. S. Nassaney427
Nyden, P. and W. Wiewal217
O’Connor, A.140
objects as landscapes202–3
Ockerby Initiative191
Office of Historic Preservation (OHP), California325, 326, 328
Office of Works29
official heritage sites, designation6
Ogborn, M.189
Olivier, A.385
Olivier, A. and K. Clark466
Olmsted, F. L.39
Olsen, W.320
Oppenheimer, S.122
oral literature661–2
Order of St John, Malta85, 86
Ordnance Survey Place-Names and Antiquities Section in Ireland25
organizations, professional
in Australasia388–9
in Europe381–6
in North America387–8
in the rest of the world389–90
organizer role in Participatory Action Research (PAR)217
Orientalism (Said)261
origins of public archaeology538–41
Ortner, S. B.516
Ottoman rule, Greek independence from20–1
Our Common Future (WCED, 1987)275, 283–4
outreach programmes399, 400–401, 426, 591–3, 594
and class issues523
and education395–6
Owen, J.84
ownership607–8
of antiquities in North America538
of archives353–4
cognitivesee cognitive ownership
concerns70
of landscapes173–6
and provenance research232
of Van Winkle's Mill621
Oxford Archaeology75–6
Oxfordshire, UK, Dyke Hills339–40
Ozarks, Arkansas, USA618–22
Pace, A.94, 275
Paddayya, K.119
Pakistan, damage from looting237
palaeontology, confusion with archaeology567–8
Palestinian Department of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage262
(p. 718) Palestinians and Israelis, common heritage404
Panella, C. et al.237
Papayannis, T.180
Parallel Destinies639
Parallel Perspectives programme667–9, 668, 669
parameters for defining heritage156–63
Parman, S.183
Parry, G.117
participant observation231, 244–7
Participatory Action Research (PAR)213–15
and community collaboration222–3
and community projects216–18
and Cultural Resource Management227
participatory researcher role217–18
rejection in Houston, Texas224–6
Passport in Time (PIT)542
Past under the Plough, The339–40
Paterson, Senator David A.649, 650
Patterson, Revd. S.615, 617
Pavilion (The Pivvy), Liverpool, UK312–15
peace between warring nations404
peanut stooking188
Pearce, S.354
pedagogy in archaeologysee education
Pedersen, A.280
peer polity interaction19
Peers, Sir Keith379
Pellegrini, M.241
Pendle, G.101
Pene, C.509
Penna, F.103
Penrose, S.211
People's Republic of Stokes Croft (PRSC)309–12, 310, 311
perceptions of archaeology7
Perrin, K.357
Personal Development Planning (PDP)688
Pessina, A. and N. C. Vella92
Peter II, Emperor104
Peters, D. E.610
Petrie, W. F.357, 564
Petzet, M.282
Phanom Rung, Khorat, Thailand181
Philadelphia, New York, USA630–9
Philadelphia declaration233–4
Phillips, J.83
Phillips, T.673
Phillips, T. and J. Creighton679, 682
Phillips, T. and R. Gilchrist678, 681, 682
Phillips, T. et al.685
photo elicitation in studying heritage205
Phu Long, Loei, Thailand174
Pickard, R.281
Picket, the, Liverpool, UK314–15
Piggott, S.467, 469
Pikirayi, I.405
Pinder, D.173
Pippenger, W.645
Piranesi278
planning policy338–9
Planning Policy Guidance 16 (PPG16)67
ploughing346, 347
political authority of the Pope16, 19
political influence in Indian archaeology124–5
political motivation for AHM in northern Europe19
political struggle, and Participatory Action Research (PAR)219
political viewpoints5
politics and education584–7
Politis, G.263–5
‘polluter-pays’ funding model348
Pope Leo X17
popes, political authority16, 19
popular educator role in Participatory Action Research (PAR)217
Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS)61, 63
relationship with metal-detector users73, 74–5
review of77–8
support for73–4
Portable Antiquities Working Group (PAWG)69
Portuguese Americas101–2
Possehl, G.125
Possehl, G. et al.124
postcard of Yellowstone National Park41
post-processual archaeology214–15, 406, 467, 594
(p. 719) pottery sherds, sale of262
Povoledo, E.261
Powell, R.642
power and cognitive ownership189–93
power differential of archaeologists and Indigenous groups660–1
Power of Place (English Heritage)297–8
Power of Place (Hayden)297
power sharing and Participatory Action Research (PAR)215
Praetzellis, A.319, 662
Praetzellis, M.322
Praetzellis, M. and A. Praetzellis329
Prehistoric Antiquities of the Maltese Islands (Evans)93
prehistoric archaeology vs. historical archaeology540–1
Prehistoric Malta: The Tarxien Temples (Zammit)91
Prehistory Commission, São Paulo State University104–5, 107
preservation406
of archaeological sites6, 652–4
of artefacts
in Australia30–2
in Sweden18
in the USA30–2, 613
and authenticity288, 489–90
disputes over meaning42
of monuments
in Britain26–9
in India23–4
in Ireland24–6
of the past, as a modern idea15
vs. public accessibility479–83
by record352–3, 359
of ruins16
of sites and antiquities, education about572–3
President's House archaeological project631, 632–41, 632, 633, 637
Prince, E.508
Prince, R.611
Pritchard, C. and S. E. Miller573, 574
private property vs. national heritage220
private sector archaeology219–22, 227
privatizations464
processualism514
profession of archaeology7
disabled members677–80
racial diversity636, 643
professional norms378
professional responsibility324
professionalization of archaeology374–81
in Australasia388–9
in Europe381–6
job titles463–4
in North America387–8
rest of world389–90
Project 2061 (AAAS, 1990)570–1
Project Archaeology (2002)572–3, 577
protection for archaeological sites in the USA56–7
protests against developments on burial grounds649–50
proto-museums17
Prott, L. V. and P. J. O’Keefe21
Prous, A.110
provenance in auction sales235–6
provenance research231, 232–4
public
cultural diversity297
and heritage managers, relationship490–1
insistence on preservation of archaeological sites652–4
interest in archaeology444–7, 450–60
and landscapes302, 304–15
multiple perspectives302–4
perceptions of archaeology7
physical contact with artefacts490
represented by heritage297–8
support for archaeologists323–4
workshops504–11
public accessibility vs. preservation479–83
Public Archaeology journal465, 594
public awareness of archaeology414–15
public education in archaeology547–9
and Cultural Resource Management541–3
Public Education Committee (PEC)542
‘public good’, laws for37
Public Lands Committee, USA49
publications, accessibility7
publicity and funding for St Paul United Methodist Church617
(p. 720) Pumphouse, N. Ireland207
Purser, M.496, 524
Putnam, R. D.418
Pyburn, A.594, 606, 624
Pyburn, K. A. and M. Bezerra111
Pykles, B.539–40
Pyro (Liverpool hip-hop MC)313–15
Qian, F.390
questionnaire surveys243
Races of Men, The (Knox, 1850)143
racial diversity in the archaeological profession636, 643
Räf, E.485
Rains, A. et al.158
Rajer, A.546
Ralegh-Radford, C.92
Ram Setu/ Adam's bridge127–8
Ramaswami Naicker, E. V.125
Ramaswamy, S.125
Ramptown Project425
Randsborg469
Raphael17
rationale of archaeology446
Ravelli, L. J.483
Real George Washington, The (TV programme)640
realism and idealism553–4
reciprocal archaeology669–70
Reckner, P.520
Reckner, P., P. Duke, et al.423, 426
reconstructions of ancient scenes83
recorded architectural drawings of monuments17
recording of British monuments29
recording finds
in databases75
in Malta87–90
Reeves, M. B.625
register of heritage sites164–5
Register of Professional Archaeologists (R(O)PA)322, 387–8
regulations on compliance archaeologists662
Rehabilitation Act (RA)674
Reilly, U.208
relics of Aboriginal origin in Australia31
religious issues in archaeology125–9
religious monuments in Ireland25
religious suspicion of ancient artefacts16
relocation of landscapes209–10
Renaissance Italian antiquities, market in17
Renan, E.104
Renfrew, C.19, 65, 467, 469
Renfrew, C. and P. Bahn173
reporting finds, legislation69–71
reports, readability329–30
representation82–5
sense of smell92
of senses, Malta93–6
Request for Qualifications (RFQ)635, 640
rescue archaeology281
research in the antiquities market231
Research Assessment Exercise (RAE)344, 457
research process223
restoration291
of historic monuments in Malta94
restorative justice403–5
Revista arqueologia pública journal, Brazil111
Rhode Island, USA520
Rhodes, S.636
rice cultivation, questions of ethnicity121–2
Richard, Julian456
Richardson, M.646
Riddell, F.320–1
Riddle, D.339
Riegl, A.287
Riley, R.518
Rio Summit, UNCED (1992)291
Ripping up History (English Heritage)341
Rivers, Pitt25, 26–7, 28
Rivet, P.104, 107
Rizvi, U.127
Robbins, E.259
Roberts, J. C.387
rock carvings, Tanum, Sweden479, 483–90, 484, 487, 488
Rodrigues, B.103
Rodríguez-Valls, F. and A. A. Montes183
Rogers Historical Museum621
(p. 721) role orientation380
role specialization377–8
Rollston, C.257
Roman antiquities, market in17
Rome, ‘glorious past’16
Roosevelt, C. H. and C. Luke237
Roosevelt, President Theodore41, 42
Rose, J. C. and D. L. Burke245
Rose, M.95
Rosewood, Florida, USA622–4, 623
Rothman, H.52
Rounds, Ralph543
Rountree, K.93, 95
Rowan, Y. and U. Baram428
Rowlands, M.497
Rowley, T.448, 450
Rowley-Conwy, P.140
Royal Commissions for recording of British monuments29
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (RSAI)25
ruins as architectural inspiration16
Rundkvist, M.471
Runte, A.39
Ruppe, C. V. and J. F. Barstad644
rural archaeological sites336
Ruskin, J.156, 157, 279
Rwandan ethnicity121
Sabloff, J.406, 545, 590
Sadilek, O.573
Said, E.261
Saitta, D.406
salaries for educators590
Salisbury, S.636, 638
Salisbury, S. and I. Saffron634–5
salvage archaeology281
Salwen, B.328
Sampaio, T.104
Sampson, D.661
San Jose's Chinatown521
San Pedro River Valley, Arizona, USA662
Sanjek, R.523
Sankalia, H. D.124
Sanogo, K.265–6
Sant Cassia, P.88
Saxon, E.305
scaffolding teaching555–6
Scandinavia
early archaeological management17–18
investigations into illegal antiquities trade242
political motivation for authorized heritage management19
Scarpinato, D.586
sceptic's question on public funding403
Scerri, V.308
Schaan, D. P.109
Schaden, E.107
Scham, S. and A. Yahya404, 406
Scheduled Monuments at Risk project340
Scherman, N. and M. Zlotowitz330
Schermer, S. J.400–401
Schiffer, M. B. and G. L. Gumerman463
Schildkrout, E. and C. A. Keim261
Schine, J.418
Schmidt, P. and R. McIntosh265
Schnapp, A.16, 17, 18, 139–40, 285, 373–4
Schneider, G.586
Schoen, J.516
Schofield, J.296, 301, 302, 304
Schofield, J. and E. Morrissey306
Schøyen, M.242–3
Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1990)570–1
science
education584, 592
vs. humanity, archaeology as514
scope, national vs. international470, 472–4
Scotland
antiquities in539
Drumchapel Housing Estate, Glasgow209–10
Isle of Lismore204–6
ownership of Pictish Stone190
Sebastian, L.220
Second World War63
Select Committee for Culture, Media, and Sport163, 165
self-evaluation tool kit685, 687–90, 688
Selkirk, A.329
senses in representation84
(p. 722) Serrano, A.104
servicemen from the USA, export of artefacts65
Shackel, P. A.518–19, 523, 571, 575, 664
Shackel, P. A. and E. J. Chambers625, 664
Shaffer, J. G.124
Shanks, M. and C. Tilley214
Shanks, M. and R. H. McGuire523
Shannon, R.28
shared archaeological resources606–7
Shaw, J.650
Shaw Trust678
Sheftel, P. A.545
Shelby, J.650
shipwreck salvage641–5
Shnirelman, V. A.473
Shor, I.585
Shoup, D. and L. Monteiro474
Signal Hill, St Johns, Newfoundland, Canada179
Silchester Town Life Project684, 686
Silliman, S.517
Silverman, H. and D. Fairchild Ruggles405
Simon Fraser University503
Simpson, F. and H. Williams467
site presentation280
Sites and Monuments Records448–9; see also Historic Environment Records (HERs)
Sivan, R.280
Skeates, R.82, 286
Skipper, J.618
slave ship Henrietta Marie641–5
slave workers
buried in New York City Burial Ground649–52, 651
for President George Washington631, 634–41
Smardz, K. and S. J. Smith548
smells of human remains92
Smith, C. and H. M. Wobst665
Smith, G. et al.6
Smith, J.184–6, 526
Smith, K.247
Smith, L.30–1, 153, 154, 155–6, 157, 159, 501, 670
Smith, L. and E. Waterton13
Smith, S. and K. Smardz574
Smith, S. D.559
Smith, S. J. et al.571, 574
Smithsonian resource centre365
Smul, M.546
social construction theory176, 177
of disability675
social exclusion from interest in heritage163
social history, development of514
social justice, promoting5
social sciences and humanities, conservativist approach515–16
social studies education584–8, 594
Society for American Archaeology (SAA)471, 542–3, 545, 547, 567, 591, 593
Principles of Archaeological Ethics556–7
Public Education Committee (SAA/PEC)578
Public Relations Committee (PRC)592
Vancouver symposium (2008)572–3
Society of Antiquaries of London384
Society for Applied Anthropology (SfAA)594
Society of Brazilian Archaeology (SAB)110
Society for California Archaeology (SCA)321
Society for Historical (and Underwater) Archaeology (SHA)545, 567, 591, 593–4, 643
Society of Professional Archaeologists (SOPA)387
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB)157, 158, 282
Soderland, H. A.4, 5, 30, 36
Sole, L.63
solidarity building in Participatory Action Research (PAR)218
Somerset County Planning Department448–9
Sonoma State University (SSU)327–8, 329, 504
Soros, G.400
Sotheby's auction house234, 236, 261
investigation into240–1
South Africa
Cape Town522
Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)276, 285
(p. 723) SPACE project, University of Plymouth682
Spain;see also Iberian kingdoms
damage from looting237
Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao202
professional organizations386
Sparrow, C.67
Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (SENDA, 2001)674, 681
Spencer-Wood, S. M.517
Sri Lankan ethnicity121
St Andrew Undershaft141, 142
St Lawrence Island, subsistence digging on245–7
St Paul United Methodist Church, Dallas, Texas, USA614–18, 614
stakeholders575–6
in illegal trade256
Staley, D.245
Stanish, C.259
Star Carr, Yorkshire, UK359
State Antiquarians462
State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs)222–3, 224
statutory provision of archaeological services447
Stearns, P.593
steering committees649–50
Stern469
Steuer469
stewardship290–1, 593–4
education about572–3
Stewart, E. et al.499, 500
Stewart, K.644
stimulus-response education554, 561
Stocking, G.144
Stoddart, S.205
Stoecker, R.213–15, 216–18, 223
Stokes Croft, Bristol, UK309–12, 310, 311
stolen artefacts235–6
Stone, E.238
Stonehenge280, 288
STOP (Stop Taking Our Past) campaign (1980)61, 68, 69, 77
opposition to72
storage of archives357
Stow, J.140
memorial141
Strait Street, Valletta, Malta304–8, 305, 307
Street, Mayor John635–6, 638
street tree project191–3, 192
Strömer, C.489
structured questionnaire surveys243
Struever, S.544
students406
connection with public425–30
studying archaeology7
sub-discipline, public archaeology as552–3, 558, 564
subsistence digging244–5
Sullivan, G.642
Sullivan, L. P. and T. S. Childs351, 359, 364–5
Support the Fort, Inc. (STF)421–3, 422, 429
Surrey Archaeological Society69–70
Survey of London (Stow, 1598)140
sustainability283–4, 289–90, 292, 335
sustainable development283–4, 285, 289
sustainable heritage286
sustainable tourism276
Swain, H.351, 352, 357, 360, 361
Swanwick, C. et al.334
Sweden
early archaeological management17–18
local scope in universities472
political motivation for AHM19
public and cultural heritage492
rock carvings at Tanum479, 483–90, 484, 487, 488
State Antiquarians462
Sweet, R.140
Sydney, Australia184–6
Sykes, O.642
symbolic shorthand souvenirs260
symbolic values268
of looted artefacts258–9, 260
Symcox, L.586
Symes, R.241
Tadarnadur Isrira (Ħaġar Qim), illustration86–7, 86
Taft, President William Howard44
Tagliaferro, N.90, 92
Takano, G. T.501
Take Pride in America Award645
(p. 724) Taking Part Survey165
Taksa, L.522
Talbot, J., Lord/Baron de Malahide24, 25, 27
Tale or Two from Lismore, A (MacIlleDhuibh)205
Taliban128–9
Tancredo, T.587
tangatawhenua389
Tanum, Sweden, rock carvings479, 483–90, 484, 487, 488
Task Force for the Oversight of the African Burial Ground649
Tattershall Castle28
Taylor, B.377
Taylor, F.63
Taylor, G.184
Taylor, H.641
Taylor, K. and K. Altenburg498
Taylor, Tim451
Taylor, W.136
teaching about archaeology vs. teaching through archaeology557–8
television shows539, 640
documentaries exposing illegal antiquities trade242
Time Team (Channel 4)444–5, 451–6, 452
Temple, R., Duke of Buckingham and Chandos88
temples of Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh129
‘teoria pigoriniana’21
terminology462–6
terra nullius31
Texas, USA
African-Americans in Houston224–6
‘categorical exclusions’221–2
Freedman's Cemetery609–13
Juliette Street614–18
Levi-Jordan Plantation571, 575, 664
social studies education586
Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT)609–10
Texas Historical Commission (THC)224–5
Thacker, P.426
Thailand
Ban Non Wat, Khorat178
Phanom Rung, Khorat181
Phu Long, Loei174
Thapar, B. K.23–4
Theoretical Archaeology Group (TAG)680
Third World archaeology
colonial government influence on117
vs. First World archaeology117–20
religious issues125–9
Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, The585
Thomas, D. H.433
Thomas, J.507
Thomas, M.303
Thomas, S.60, 75, 78
Thompson Dock, N. Ireland207–8
Thompson, R. and M. Harper324
Thompson, R. H.387
Thosarat, R.178
Three Age System140
Throsby, D.290
Tijhuis, A. J. G.244
Tilley, C.201, 203, 210, 406, 557
Time Team (Channel 4)444–5, 451–6, 452
Times of Malta306, 308
Tinnie, G.642, 645
Titanic Quarter, Belfast, N. Ireland206–9
Titanic Signature Project (TSP)207
Titbits magazine305–6
Toft, K. and M. Sanglert472
Toman, J.63
Toner, Mike643
Totoga Village, Fiji508, 509
tourism278
and economic values287–8
and National Parks in the USA44–8, 47, 52–3
tours of The Hermitage560–3
Tower Hamlets (London, UK)298
Town and Country Planning Act (1947)336, 338
trade in antiquities
in Brazil, illicit108–9, 113
illegal6, 230, 240–3
legal246
by metal-detector users66–7
transformation of archaeological monuments279, 281–3
transmission-absorption theory of education553–4
transport and tourism in the USA45, 47, 47–8
(p. 725) Treasure, definition62–3
Treasure Bill (1996)63, 70–1, 73
Treasure Hunting magazine72
Treasure Hunting Working Party (THWP)68
Treasure Trove27
treasure trove law, reform69–71
trees, cognitive ownership191–3, 192
triangulation241
Tribal Historic Preservation Officers663
tribal programmes663
Trigger, B. G.16, 17, 26, 29–30, 135, 136–8, 139, 140–3, 145, 147, 575, 576–7
Trouillot, M. R.214
Troup, A.617
Trow, S.332, 337
True, M.241
Tsosie, R.594, 660–1
tumuli in Turkey, looting of237
Tunbridge, J. E. and G. J. Ashworth464
Turbo Island, Bristol, UK312
Turkey, looting in237
Twohig, E.25
Tzanidaki, J.465
Umatilla Indian Reservation661
UNESCO94–5, 230, 276, 277, 282
on authenticity480
ethics594
unification of Italy21–2
United Kingdom Detector Finds Database (UKDFD)75
United Kingdom Detector Net (UKDN)73
United Nations, disabilities acts674
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)see UNESCO
Universal Ethical Code for Scientists (RCUK 2007)379
universities
and Cultural Resource Management221
disabled people in681–90
fieldwork683–90
national vs. international scope470, 472–3
university-based archaeologists, roles378
University of Bristol450
University College London (UCL)242
university departments457–8
and teaching methods360–1
University of Gloucestershire, England682
University of Maryland526
University of Plymouth682
University of Vermont434
university students406
connection with public425–30
Uppsala, Sweden, Antiquaries College18
urban development on heritage sites279–80
USA;see also North America
archaeology journals471
archives in363–5
California319–22, 325–30
class issues516–20
Cultural Resource Management practice220–2, 402
culture wars583–96
ethics codes593–4
European heritage values158
heritage management31–2, 38, 54–5
National Park Organic Act (1916)see National Park Organic Act (USA, 1916)
National Park Service (NPS)39, 43, 53–6, 359, 364
ownership of antiquities538
social studies education584–8
USA servicemen, export of artefacts65
uses of archaeology, education about574–5
Valletta Treaty385
Valletta, Malta, public and landscapes304–8
value
of artefacts254–5
of heritage sites, economic and non-economic287–8, 290
non-economic400
value of looted artefacts255, 268–9
to archaeologists257–8
to collectors259–61
to dealers259
legal262
to looters258–9
Van Dyke, R. M.499
Van Winkle's Mill, Arkansas, USA618–22, 620
(p. 726) Vargas, G., President of Brazil (1937–45)106–7
Vargas, I. and M. Sanoja473
Varien, M. D. and R. R. Lightfoot544
Vasari, G.278
Vella, N. C. and O. Gilkes90, 92
Velthuis, O.236
Venice Charter (ICOMOS, 1964)390
Viollet-le-Duc, E.156, 157
visual representation86–7, 88–92
Vitelli, K. D.109
voluntary work417–18
Von Arbin, S. and T. Svensson472
von Ihering, H.104
Voss, B. L.521
Vygotsky, L.555
Wagner, J. K.225
Wainwright, G.453–4
Waldbaum, J.545
Wall, D. diZerega519
Walsh, K.157, 469
Wanborough, Surrey, nighthawking in69–70
Warner, M. S. and D. Baldwin666
warring nations, benefits of archaeology404
Washington, President George630–41
Waterfield, J. and B. West682
Waterton, E.153, 498
Waterton, E. et al.155, 497, 498, 499
Watkins, J.5, 398, 659, 665
Watson, P.231, 235, 240–1
Watson, P. and C. Todeschini231, 240, 241
Watson, R. J. and J. H. Winkelman180
Waugh, K. E.386
Waverly Report65
Wavertree, Liverpool, UK313–14
WCED (World Commission of Environment and Development, 1987)275, 283
wealth from Roman antiquities17
Weckmann, L.101
Wedgwood, C.19
Weil, S. E.285
Weinberg, A. K.548
Weisman, B. R.432
Welch, E.14–15, 17
Wendorf, Fred543
West, C.639
West Virginia, USA518–19
Western Michigan University (WMU)420–2, 427
Westmoreland House, Stokes Croft, Bristol, UK309–10, 310
Wheeler, M.67, 323, 329, 353, 539
white descendant communities619–22, 620
White, L.514
White, S.638
Wiener, C.103
Wiggins, G.577
Wikipedia302
Wildlife and Countryside Link337
Wilensky, H.375–6, 378, 380
Wilkie, L. A.522, 607
Wilkie, L. A. and K. M. Bartoy519
Will, E. L.544
Willem, W.465, 474
Willems, W.385, 386
Willey, G. R. and J. A. Sabloff136
Willey, G. R. and P. Phillips625
Williamsburg, USA621
Wilson, President Woodrow39
Wilson Bridge, Alexandria City646–9
Winckelmann, S.125
Wisconsin Social Studies Advisory Committee548
Wolff, L.183
women, predominance in education543
Wood, J. J. and S. Powell417
Wood, M. C.521
workshops504–11
World Archaeological Congress (WAC)404
World Archaeology (Trigger and Glover)140–3
World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987)275, 283
World Conference on Sustainable Tourism (WCST, 1995)276
World Conservation Strategy (1980)285
World Heritage Convention158, 277, 280, 282
World Heritage List282
landscapes on299
Levuka, Fiji nomination501–2, 503, 510
World Heritage Site management plans276
(p. 727) World Heritage Site of Phanom Rung, Khorat, Thailand181
Worm, O.18
Wright, H.649
Wurst, L. A.517
Wurst, L. A. and R. McGuire518
Wylie, A.517
Wylie, A. and V. Pinsky591
Xagħra monuments, Malta88–90, 89
Yamin, R.519
Yee, A.119
Yell, Michael548
Yellowstone National Park41, 41, 47
grazing rights52–3
Yentsch, A. and M. C. Beaudry517
York Archaeological Trust324
Yorkshire Dales National Park347
Yosemite Valley National Park41, 49
Young Archaeologists’ Club (YAC)458, 676
Young, C. et al.276
Zammit, T.91, 91
Zicchi, D.240
Zierden, M.594
Zimmerman, L.157, 584, 594
Zimmerman, L. and J. Welch299
Zinman, T.640
Zirganos, N.241, 247
zone of proximal development555
Zuniga, G. L.268