- List of Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- Language and Translation of the Old Testament
- Language, Translation, Versions, and Text of the Apocrypha
- Language and Translation of the New Testament
- Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament
- Textual Transmission and Versions of the New Testament
- The Growth of the Old Testament
- The Growth of the Apocrypha
- The Growth of the New Testament
- Authors, Books, and Readers in the Ancient World
- Textual Criticism
- Form, Source, and Redaction Criticism
- Rhetorical and New Literary Criticism
- Feminist Criticism and Related Aspects
- Social, Political, and Ideological Criticism
- Old Testament Theology
- New Testament Theology
- Biblical Theology
- The Bible in Ethics
- Jewish Interpretation of the Bible
- Historical Criticism and the Authority of the Bible
- Index of Subjects and Names
- Index of References
Abstract and Keywords
This article begins with a brief linguistic sketch of the Hebrew and Aramaic of the Bible. It then focuses on the inherent difficulty of ascertaining meaning in the Hebrew Bible (or, in the Christian tradition, the Old Testament, without the deutero-canonical, or apocryphal, books), from both a textual and a linguistic perspective. The lens through which the issue is viewed is mainly that of translations, in particular the most important of the ancient versions, the Old Greek (more loosely, the Septuagint, or LXX, much of which was completed in the late third and second centuries BCE), but also other ancient versions and modern translations.
John Elwolde is Translation Consultant to the United Bible Societies.
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