- List of Contributors
- List of Abbreviations
- Language and Translation of the Old Testament
- Language, Translation, Versions, and Text of the Apocrypha
- Language and Translation of the New Testament
- Ancient Versions and Textual Transmission of the Old Testament
- Textual Transmission and Versions of the New Testament
- The Growth of the Old Testament
- The Growth of the Apocrypha
- The Growth of the New Testament
- Authors, Books, and Readers in the Ancient World
- Textual Criticism
- Form, Source, and Redaction Criticism
- Rhetorical and New Literary Criticism
- Feminist Criticism and Related Aspects
- Social, Political, and Ideological Criticism
- Old Testament Theology
- New Testament Theology
- Biblical Theology
- The Bible in Ethics
- Jewish Interpretation of the Bible
- Historical Criticism and the Authority of the Bible
- Index of Subjects and Names
- Index of References
Abstract and Keywords
This article first gives a schematic outline of the history of the Hebrew text in four stages. It then presents the elements that readers will meet in modern editions of that text. These modern editions find a common focus in the great Tiberian manuscripts of about 1000 CE linked with the name of ben Asher. These manuscripts are presented in conjunction with the editions. The possibility of finding variant Hebrew traditions in manuscripts from after that date is considered, and largely rejected. The discernment of differing traditions in witnesses from before 1000 CE is discussed with reference to the ancient versions and the manuscript traditions from Qumran.
Gerard J. Norton is a former Reader at the University of Birmingham.
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