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date: 26 May 2019

(p. 815) Index

(p. 815) Index

Aargau, Switzerland 236
Abbt, Thomas 5, 98, 121, 130, 138 n. 4, 236–8
Abel, Wilhelm 191
Abelshauser, Werner 350, 668
Abendroth, Wolfgang 656
abortions 81, 649–50, 657, 767–8
absolutism 129, 213, 286, 427
Abyssinia 311
acculturation 557, 668
Adelson, Leslie 65
Adenauer, Konrad 609, 623–6, 634, 637 n. 30, 724, 730, 785, 788
and CDU 618–19, 777
and FRG 619, 731, 736, 740, 764, 778
government 621, 632, 780
and other politicians 627, 737
and Third World politics 739
Adolph, Gustav 8
Adorno, Theodor W. 484, 646, 699, 713–14, 718
AEG 349, 402, 408
Afghanistan 17, 744, 785, 806
Africa 218, 362–70 passim, 504, 508, 578, 646, 699, 738
and Asia 123, 311, 361, 462, 512, 738
and the New World 175
South 274, 310, 561, 575, 645, 802
West Africa Conference 362
age pyramid 20
Agrarian League 317–19, 324, 432
agrarian
order 170, 173, 198
sector 309, 314, 338, 340
agricultural sector 5, 188, 309, 386, 584, 669, 671
Ahlen program 604
Ajala, Adekunle 646
Akin, Fatih 803
Akubir 100
Al-Jazeera 810
Albright, Madeleine 791
Alexander I, Tsar of Russia 103, 108–9, 220
Alexander II, Tsar of Russia 310
Alexander the Great 33
Alexanderplatz 782
Aliens Act 800
Alldeutsche Bläter 504, 522 n. 19
Allgä 288
Alliance'90 765–6
Alliance for Germany 765–6
Alliance of Young Democrats 756
Allied Control Council 16
Alps 31, 49–50, 103, 185, 484
Alsace-Lorraine 12, 386
Alsatia 249, 254, 513, 520, 526 n. 69
Altenberg, Peter 483
Altgeld, Wolfgang 217
Altintop, Hamit 799
Altona 4
Aly, Götz 445, 554, 558, 562
America 59, 123, 205, 274, 397
after 1918/19; 405, 408–15 passim, 418, 529, 553, 559, 747, 791
Americanization 59, 61, 486, 615, 625, 679
Amsterdam 107, 170, 172, 181, 789, 796, 801
Amtskirche 701, 703
An-na'im, Abdullahi 808
Anabaptists 212
anarchism 61, 325, 705
anarchy 61, 129, 147, 325, 429, 705
(p. 816) ancien régime 44, 94, 106, 111, 128, 142 n. 62, 172, 183, 188, 353
Anders, Günter 487
Anderson, Benedict 234–5, 544
Anderson, Margaret Lavinia 10, 295
Andreas-Salomé, Lou 486–7
Andreas, Ruth 607
Anhalter Bahnhof 65
Anna, Tsarina of Russia 93
Annan, Noel 604
Anschluss (of Austria) 517, 553
Anschütz, Gerhard 291
anthropology 64, 122–7 passim, 137, 360–3, 367, 372 n. 14, 374 n. 39, 454, 808
anti-capitalism 387, 617, 702
anti-Catholicism 96, 247, 320, 360, 372 n. 7, 460, 502, 504
anti-communism 778
anti-democracy 236, 431, 445, 533
anti-fascism 470, 594, 603, 608, 617, 633, 644, 652, 713, 721, 723
anti-Jewish policy (Judenpolitik) 548, 552, 554–5, 558–9, 563–5, 567 n. 2, 569 n. 27, 570 n. 45, 689
anti-Judaism 468, 550, 562
anti-Polish politics 310, 360–1, 372 n. 9, 503–4, 586
anti-republicanism 428, 430, 532, 677
anti-Semitic
discourse 385
ideology/propaganda 384, 394, 548, 550, 560, 568 n. 6
riots 220, 309, 466–8, 477 n. 57, 554, 561, 565, 633
anti-Semitism 13, 395, 469, 507, 514, 548–53, 558–60, 562–3, 568 n. 10, 578–81
and anti-Zionism 655
dispute (Antisemitismusstreit) 458–60
in Europe 583
in the nineteenth century 245–6, 273, 301, 319–20, 329 n. 8, 366–7, 374 n. 38, 516
anti-socialism 301, 310, 319–20, 324, 505, 566
Anti-Socialist Laws 291, 297, 320, 353
anti-war movement 381, 387–8, 534–5, 556, 640
anti-Zionism 655
anticlericalism 106, 151, 269, 621
antiquity 125–6, 133, 237, 239, 242, 253, 485
Antwerp 185, 205
apartheid 551, 645
apprentices 72, 119, 178, 202, 468, 512, 519, 672
Arabia 127
archbishops 34, 38, 149, 212, 219, 226, 288, 702, 813 n. 43
architecture 61, 212, 731
Archiv für Rassen-und Gesellschaftsbiologie 368
Arctic 555
Arelat 34
Arendt, Hannah 13, 487–8, 521, 632
Argentina 309, 575, 582
aristocracy 36, 100, 134, 267, 316, 322, 609
and clergy 310
higher 41
and monarch 110
reforms and
Aristotle 42
Armenia 530
Arminius 98
armistice 383, 390, 403
arms race 17, 323, 327–8, 415, 742, 745, 754
Army Bill 327–8
army budget 10
Army Supreme Command 387, 389, 424–5, 530
army, conscript 150
Arndt, Ernst Moritz 53, 109, 134, 159, 220, 244–7, 249–50
Arnim, Achim von 263–4, 464
artillery 401, 529, 566
artisans 72, 75, 149, 158, 160, 170, 175, 179, 201, 315, 507
arts 7, 61–2, 552, 803
‘aryanization’ 553
Asad, Talal 454, 457
Asamoah, Gerald 795
Asia 59, 94, 100, 126–7, 175, 580, 609, 642, 804
and Africa 123, 311, 361, 462, 512, 738
assimilation 92, 251, 282–3, 299, 301 n. 4, 467, 503, 574–5, 801, 807
Association for Reform 228
Association Law 317, 327
Association, Bonifatius 289
(p. 817) associations;
church 456–7, 465
missionary 462
nationalist 161, 332 n. 66, 504–507, 515
patriotic 95–6
political 149–50, 247–8
singing 54
veterans 111, 318, 320, 533, 538
voluntary 146–7, 183, 285–7, 297, 316, 432, 444
youth 535
asylum 582, 798, 800–1, 804, 811 n. 13, 812 n. 30
Ataman, Kutluğ803
Ates, Seyran 806
atheism 119–20, 220, 225, 229, 267, 461, 693, 698
Atlantic Ocean 4, 145, 159, 162, 204, 530, 582, 668
atrocities 96, 360, 379, 393, 531, 517, 632, 814
war 98, 532, 538
Auerbach, Erich 271, 275, 488, 492
Aufklärung 120, 123–4, 133, 135, 214, 216–7, 221–2, 483see also Enlightenment
Augsburg 4, 33–4, 37–8, 109, 198
Augstein, Rudolf 631
Augusterlebnis (experience/euphoria of August) 380–3, 414, 464
Augustinians 213
Auschwitz 379, 418, 482, 484, 541, 557–9, 632, 655
art after 712–13, 715, 723–4, 727
death machinery at 543, 549
industry at 416, 606
photographs of 596
technology in 566
Trial 644, 714
victims of 558, 547
women and 81
Australia 317, 326, 561, 575, 796, 810 n. 4
Austria-Hungary 8, 10, 185, 309–10, 312–13, 322, 326, 429, 510–11, 579
Austria, Anterior 4, 106, 110
Austria, Hereditary Crown Lands of 4
Austro-Hungarian Empire 8, 10, 312–13, 328
autarky 130, 351
authoritarianism 297, 360, 559, 641, 644, 650
autobahn 62–3, 68 n. 43, 411, 443
autocracy 10, 310, 440
automobile 381, 443, 679, 681
autonomy 73–5, 111, 271, 300, 468, 679, 703–4, 807
economic 363
local 9, 513
personal 315
political 247
principal 712, 724
youth 640, 642
Auxiliary Service Law 382, 401
avant-garde 484–6, 716, 719, 725
Baader, Andreas 653
Baader, Benjamin Maria 224
Baberowski, Jörg 446
Bach, Johann Sebastian 60, 66 n. 13, 459, 483
Bachmann, Ingeborg 493
Backe, Herbert 556
Bad Boll 698, 708 n. 24
Baden 74, 174, 207, 219, 287–8, 298, 316, 500, 537, 696
and Württemberg 102–3, 111, 151, 185, 188, 199, 206, 248, 286
Baden-Durlach 146
Baden-Württemberg 16
Badt-Strauss, Bertha 488
Baghdad 362
Bahr, Egon 732, 755
Bahr, Hermann 484
Bakunin, Mikhail 61
balance of power 3, 91, 93, 471, 506, 769, 771, 776
Balkan 156, 596, 800
Baltic Sea 49, 103
Baltimore 170
Balzac, Honoré de 260
Bamberger, Ludwig 250–1, 258 n. 65
Banat 146
Bandello, Matteo 271
Bank für Handel und Industrie 187
Bankier, David 538
Baptists 464–5
barbarism 123, 125, 690, 713, 723
Barcelona 181
Barmen 169, 177, 180, 313
Barmen declaration 696, 704
(p. 818) Baroque 53, 120, 213, 216, 239
‘Barracks Police’ 628
Bartov, Omer 379
Basel Missionary Society 222
BaŞer, Tevfik 803
BASF 348
Basic Law (Grundgesetz) 83, 616–18, 621, 703, 740, 762, 764, 788, 800
Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) 733, 743
Basque Country 310, 482
Batavia 102, 119
Battle of
Auerstedt 155
Austerlitz 136
Berlin 598
Dybbøl 292
Jena 136, 155
Königgrätz 292
Kursk 541
Leipzig 111
‘Nations’(Völkerschlacht) 247
Trafalgar 101, 103
Vienna 798
Warterberg 370
Baudelaire, Charles 488, 491, 493
Bauer, Bruno 227
Bauer, Gustav 426
Bauhaus 60
Baum, Vicky 486
Bauman, Zygmunt 562
Baumgarten, Hermann 292
Baumgarten, Sigmund Jacob 125, 214
Bayer Chemical Works 348
Bayle, Pierre 120
Bayly, Christopher A. 1
Bayreuth 483
Beatles 642–3
Bebel, August 76, 296
Becker, Rudolf Zacharias 241
Becker, Winfried 362
Beckett, Samuel 484, 492
Beer Hall Putsch 425
Beer, Johann 52, 66 n. 11
Beethoven, Ludwig van 721
beggars 183, 188
Bekennende Kirche (Confessing Church) 469, 471, 696–7, 702
Belarus 530, 540, 550, 559
Belgium 145, 160, 170, 177, 179, 182–3, 185–6, 253, 292
after 1870/71; 9–10, 12, 21, 311
after 1914 531, 539, 580–1, 583, 777
belle époque 2, 348
Below, Heinrich von 221
Belzec 541
Benedictines 60, 213, 217
Bengal 126
Benjamin, Walter 486, 488–9
Benn, Gottfried 493
Bennette, Rebecca Ayako 226
Berdahl, Daphne 64
Berg, Grand Duchy of 105, 152
Bergen-Belsen 596
Bergson, Henri-Louis 485
Berkeley 640
Berlin Agreement 732
Berlin airlift 16, 607
Berlin Blockade 607, 616–17
Berlin East 650, 656, 733, 738, 757–8, 760–2, 766–7, 769
Berlin Wall 615, 624, 634, 642, 675, 678, 730, 745, 767
fall of the 753, 758–60, 787
Berlin-Brandenburg 177, 689
Berliner Handelsgesellschaft 187
Bermann, Gottfried 485
Bernadotte, Jean Baptist 104, 109
Bernhard, Thomas 493
Bernhardi, General Friedrich von 327
Bernstein, Eduard 376 n. 59
Berthold, Erika 650
Besold, Christoph 38, 42
Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobald von 328, 389
Beuth, Peter 189
Beuthen 313
Beuys, Joseph 725–6
Beyer, Frank 721
Białystok 557
Bible 42, 127, 216, 366, 491, 638 n. 47
Hebrew 225
readings of 461, 700
scholars 264
translation 490
Biedermeier 134, 261
Biermann, Wolf 643
Bild-Zeitung 652, 680
Bildung 73, 225, 228, 241, 256 n. 34, 394, 514; see also education
Bildungsbürgertum 241, 244–5, 252, 287, 315, 379
Bildungsroman 260, 271–2
Bill of Rights 147
Birmingham 180–1
birth
control 207, 649, 699
rate 13, 182, 199, 203, 207, 352, 665, 667, 684 n. 12
births 75, 174, 197–8, 200, 204
bishops 690
Austrian 216
Protestant 696, 703–4
Bishops Conference 289, 468
Bismarck, Otto von 18, 274, 309–11, 316, 321, 323, 401, 459
and Anti Socialist Laws 310, 320
departure of 320, 503, 518
and economic policy 207, 354
and Kulturkampf 308, 310, 360, 501–2
as Prussian minister president 9, 11, 290–5, 297–8
as Prussian envoy 285
and social insurance 76, 405
supporters of 254, 316
and unification 501
Bismarckian Archipelago 365
Bismarckian turn 308, 310, 354
Black Death 42
Black Forest 59, 175, 206, 395, 434, 467, 488–9
Black Panthers 653
Black Power 651
Black Sea 101, 416, 555, 560, 681
‘Black September’ 733
Blackall, Eric A. 6
Blackbourn, David 11, 274
Blaschke, Olaf 225, 475 n. 33
Blaskowitz, Johannes 539
Bleichröder, S. 346
Blessing, Werner 222
Blitzkrieg 415, 595
Bloch, Ernst 487
Blockwart 439
Blücher, Gebhard Leberecht von 109
Boccaccio, Giovanni 271
Bochum 313
Böckenförde, Ernst-Wolfgang 806
Bodensee 63
Bodin, Jean 34
Boers 505–6
Boff, Leonardo 700–1
Bohemia 32–5, 39, 52, 135, 177, 180, 249–50, 504
after 1933; 511–12, 517–18, 522 n. 19
Bohley, Bärbel 757
Böhringer, C.F. 349
Böll, Heinrich 715–6, 718
Bonaparte, JerÔme Napoleon 103, 105, 152
Bonaparte, Joseph Napoleon 106
Bonapartism 294
Bonn 621, 735, 768
Bonn Republic 29, 40, 634, 677, 765, 777, 780, 782, 785
Bonn government 609, 626–7, 738, 740, 744–5, 760, 762, 784, 786–7, 790
book production 6
Borchert, Wolfgang 716
Börne, Ludwig 266
Borsig Engineering Works 186
Borsov, Valerie 731
Bosnia 326
Botswana 370
Bourbons 104
Bourdieu, Pierre 664
bourgeoisie 287, 292–3, 363, 394, 403, 433, 447, 490; see also Bürgertum
and Communists 140 n. 33, 646–7, 663, 678
and cosmopolitanism 190
democratic 111
economic 267, 315, 353
educated 315
enlightened 100
and family 73
and law 183
liberal 43, 282, 294, 321–2
petty 170, 315
and religion 457, 459, 464
rise of 95–6, 245
urban 106
and workers 429–30, 663
Boxer Uprising 370
Boy-Ed, Ida 486
boycott 293, 467, 507, 517, 538, 745
Brahms, Johannes 483
Brandenburg 30, 35, 39, 41, 172, 184–5, 796
Brandenburg gate 18
Brandenburg-Prussia 92, 94, 213
Brandenburg, Kurmark 198, 203
Brandes, Georg 308
Brandt, Willy
as Chancellor 625, 646, 657, 731–4, 739–40, 742, 744, 746
and Ostpolitik 732–3, 735, 740, 755, 764, 782, 788
as Foreign Minister 737
as Mayor of Berlin 738
Braudel, Fernand 337
Braunschweig 106, 161, 181
Brazil 197, 309, 575, 577, 582, 700, 795
Brecht, Berthold 482, 714
Bremen 107, 180–1, 205, 222, 312, 392, 696
Bremerhaven 579
Brentano, Clemens 263–4
Breslau 49, 65, 181, 228, 599
Bretton Woods 743
Breuilly, John 3, 8
Brezhnev doctrine 754
British Raj 50
Britishness 29, 97
Brittany 42–3
Broch, Hermann 484
Brophy, James 160
Brown, Callum G. 706
Brubaker, Roger 8
Brügelmann, Johann Gottfried 177
Brüning, Heinrich 408–11
Brunswick 34–5
Brussels 160, 181, 648, 776, 778, 780, 786, 788
brutalization 379, 385, 393, 425, 467, 529, 539
Buber, Martin 490–91
Buchenwald 596, 602
Buchholz, Friedrich 130
Büchner, Georg 266–70, 272, 488
Büchner, Ludwig 272
Budapest 15, 181, 599, 757
Buddhism 126, 266, 705
Bukovina 519
Bülow, Bernhard von 323–4, 350, 354, 505
Buna 606
Bundesbank 766, 783
Bundesliga 695
Bundesrat 298–9, 301, 616, 766
Bundestag
before 1870/1 245
after 1945; 295, 616, 731–2, 736, 746, 769, 785, 788, 808
bureaucracy 4, 154–6, 240, 245, 315–16, 322, 568 n. 9
eastern 763
European 778
FRG 781, 802, 809
Japan 609
ministerial 412, 432
Nazi 412, 516
Prussian 344
royal 152
bureaucratization 704
bureaucrats 130, 135, 160, 204, 577
Burgdorf, Wolfgang 99
Bürgertum 48 n. 62, 226, 315, 393, 609
Burgfrieden (domestic peace) 381, 383–4, 387, 393, 528, 531
burghers 41, 55, 126, 183
Burgundy 31, 33–4
Burke, Edmund 123
Burundi 362
Bush, George H.W. 19
Buß, Franz Joseph Ritter von 288
Calcutta 119
Calenberg 35
California 560
Calvinists 38–9, 212–13, 217
Câmara, Dom Hélder 700–1
Cameroon 362
Campbell, Brian 64
Campenhausen, Gottfried Rudolf 282
Camphausen, Ludolf 182
(p. 821) Canada 309, 575, 675, 743, 810 n. 4
capitalism 363–4, 485, 560, 566, 594, 604, 608
agrarian 170, 172–3, 353
and communism 630, 663, 759
consumer 647
and democracy 400, 607
and fascism 655
global 11, 336–7, 682
industrial 11, 71, 75–6, 170, 336, 340
and Jews 193 n. 42
market 763
merchant 175–7, 188
model of 350–2
modern 178
organized 350–1, 402
and unification 766
untamed 551, 602
and war 388
capitalists 182, 201, 387
Caprivi, Leo von 354
Capuchin order 213
Caribbean 93, 100
Caritas 701, 704
Carlsbad Decrees 243, 245, 248
Caroline Islands 362
Carpathians 584
Carter, Jimmy 744–5
Cassis 786, 793 n. 23
Castilia 41
Catalonia 310
Catherine the Great, Tsarina of Russia 205
Catholic League 39
Catholicism 213, 289, 456, 465–6, 468, 470, 472, 502, 524 n. 13
Austrian 216
‘Critical’ 699
Crypto- 217
and France 97, 242
political 228, 296, 501
and Protestantism 157, 220, 229, 282–3, 292, 360, 475 n. 33
and SPD 779
ultramontane 225, 253, 319
Caucasus 402, 769–71
CDU 618–19, 626, 731, 736, 738, 768–9, 788
and CSU 82, 621, 763, 771, 811 n. 15
East-762, 765–6
and FDP 739, 763, 771
Celan, Paul 482, 488–90, 493, 714
Center Party 12, 296, 327, 362, 372 n. 11, 389, 501–4 passim, 508, 513, 618
after 1918/19; 426–9, 466, 468, 533, 535
and elections 294, 297, 319, 321, 325
foundation of 289
and gender 79
and Liberals 228, 283
Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith 318–19, 383
Central Association of German Industry 317
Central Committee 619, 643, 761
central government 7, 161, 199, 298, 513
Central Institute for Youth Research (Zentralinstitut für Jugendforschung) 643
Central Office 633
centralism 96, 253, 460, 619
Cervantes, Miguel de 271
Chamisso, Adalbert 50
Champollion, Jean-François 133
‘chancellor democracy’ 618, 763–4, 768
charismatic leader 402, 440
charity 74, 77, 136, 147, 214, 217, 219, 457, 461–3
Charlemagne Division 564
Charles Albert, King of Piedmont-Sardinia 36
Charles Albert, King of Bavaria 36
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor 32
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 37
Charles X, King of France 281
Charter'77; 754
Charter of the United Nations 19, 733
Che Guevara, Ernesto 641
Chekhov, Anton 485
Chelmno 541
Chemical Society 349
Chemnitz 60, 176–7, 180–1, 386
Chernobyl 18
Chicago 640
Chickering, Roger 509
Chiellino, Gino 807
China 8, 123, 126, 201, 362, 365–70, 374 n. 31
after 1914; 481–2, 561
after Cultural Revolution 648, 730, 738
Chinese Exclusion Act 367
Christian Democracy 325, 603
(p. 822) Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 18, 604, 618, 762, 777; see also CDU
Christian Socialist Union (CSU) 82, 618, 621, 731, 763, 765, 771, 811 n. 15
Christians 228–9, 455, 465, 470, 693, 697–8, 701, 704, 708 n. 34
and Jews 21, 212, 214, 226–7, 230 n. 15, 467, 490
church attendance 215, 453, 455–6, 465, 693–5
Church of England 703
Church of Rome 36–8
church, territorial 39–41, 43–4
Churchill, Winston 585
CIA 780
Cicero 30, 42
cinema 442, 625, 716, 721, 728 n. 14
Cisalpine 102, 126
citizen movement (Bürgerbewgung) 753, 758–61
citizen-soldier 74, 290
citizenship 65, 242, 387–93 passim, 519, 562, 583, 672, 760
active 501
debate about 71
dual 800, 805, 811 n. 15
and family 83
German 364, 507, 576, 740, 797, 799–802 passim, 812 n. 26
and Jews 8, 218, 220, 507, 551, 553
Prussian 361, 364, 369, 579–80
racial 515
rights 73–4, 507–8
‘second-class’ 204
and suffrage 10, 76
urban 182–3, 199
and women 10
city-dweller 204
Civic Forum 756, 758, 766
civic rights 72, 216–17, 754
civil;
code 74, 83, 182, 296
rights movement 645
servants 104, 120, 135, 199, 389, 583, 668
and antisemitism 385
European 786
female 80
higher 278, 394
and nationalism 504
and Nazi ideology 413, 468, 629
and parliament 432
West German 675, 768
service 74, 518, 676–7
society 238, 284, 308, 317, 432, 505, 534
and church/religion 214, 224
and consumption 17
development of 54, 71, 83, 105, 235
East German 758
and Jews 218
liberalism and 73, 80
men and women 74
modern 183
versus society of orders 152
state and 413
West German 82
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) 444
civilization 123, 137, 246, 253, 288, 378, 486, 519, 641, 785
urban 12, 20
modern 288
early 125–6, 133
‘struggle for’ 360–1
Civitella 596
Clark, Christopher 214, 221
class;
antagonism 608, 630, 634
as a category 50, 74, 79, 196–7, 295, 322, 456–7, 598
consciousness 317, 353, 643
formation 73, 287, 353
and gender 6, 74, 79, 379
lower 6, 100, 160, 240, 286, 294, 394, 629
religion and 287–8, 456–7
riots of the 107, 149, 248, 271, 429
women and 461, 531
middle 380–2, 393–4, 396 n. 27, 663, 694, 719
and anti-Semitism 385
and aristocracy 273
and associations 316, 461
and Bildungsbürgertum 241
bourgeois 324
Catholics 699
(p. 823) civil servants 72
culture of 183
ideals/values 501, 721
leaders 321
lower 78, 179, 288, 391
nationalist 514, 519
and Nazi Party 435
opinion 504
party 621–2
Protestant 8, 224, 320, 389, 465
and separation of spheres 10
society 448, 609, 629, 664
upper 228, 532
urban 223
women 390, 461, 666
political 182, 403, 430–31, 433, 437, 419, 555
and religion 322, 499, 575
society 240, 311, 352–3, 433
after 1945; 448, 409, 629, 663–4, 679, 681–2
struggle 425, 531, 535
upper 6, 313, 322, 528, 531
working 175, 414, 444, 594, 609, 663–4, 666, 670, 693, 758
children 675–6
industrial 353, 672
men 74
and Nazi Party 439, 517, 539, 673
newspaper 228
organized 317
radicalized 76
and religion 463
as soldiers 532
and SPD 403, 619, 621
and strike 390
urban 313, 386, 456
and welfare state 405
women 73, 387
classicism 146, 266, 717, 731
clergy 151, 157, 213, 218, 227, 268, 360, 458
after 1945; 696, 757
Catholic 120, 153, 216–17, 223–6, 229, 296, 310
Protestant 47 n. 53, 215, 221–2, 265
Cleve 35, 39, 43, 58, 198
Clinton, Bill 791
closed factory system 177
clubs;
cultural 680
film 642
football 799
gymnastic 248
literary 74
music 54
political 150, 162
reading 147
and societies/associations 244, 247, 353, 461, 466
and Turkish minority 807
workers' 432
‘co-ordinated market economy’ 350–1
‘Coalition for the German Church’ 465
Cold War 603–5, 609–10, 615–17, 730–33, 742–4, 770–1, 779–81, 784–9
agenda 724–5
American-Soviet rivalry 16, 607, 626, 663, 680, 682, 721
arms race and 323, 745
beginning of 16, 602, 604
and Communism 360, 586, 640
constellation 594
demands of 418
end of 764, 790, 800
era of 640–1, 735, 754
and Nazis 602
order 661 n. 48
politics 82
realignments of the 600
and two German states 628, 712
collective factory labor contracts 630
collective guilt 599, 696, 720
collectivization 620, 627, 631, 669
Cologne 35, 39, 41, 65, 180–2, 219, 223, 285, 408
after 1945; 15, 598, 618, 690, 699–700, 702, 807
population of 180–2, 598
Cologne Cathedral 183
Cologne Controversy 225–7, 288
colonial;
policy 107, 362, 500
rivalry 91, 94, 96, 101
colonialism 128, 311, 363, 369, 463, 645–6
German 362, 364, 502, 570 n. 35
neo-641, 647
colonists 148, 204, 218, 554, 576
COMECON 627, 744, 754, 781
commerce 57, 119, 130, 136, 162–3, 300
benefits of 129, 132
chambers of 182, 188, 286, 315
with England 154, 159
handicrafts and 184
and industry 188–90
private 186
‘spirit of’ 123
and trade 217
trans-Atlantic 145, 159
commercial court 182
Commercial Employees Association 315, 319
Commissar Order 540, 555
Committees of Correspondence 147
Common Agricultural Policy 780, 786
common land 173–4
communication system 14
communism 82, 267, 515, 564, 607, 702, 758–9, 765
and capitalism 663, 682
and Cold War 360, 586, 640
Eastern European 437, 677, 755
and fascism/Nazism 594, 603
and Vietnam War 646
Communist Manifesto 190, 267, 318
Communist Party of the Soviet Union 17, 410, 628–9
Communist Party of Germany 190, 391, 428–9
after 1945; 616, 619, 653, 677, 759, 761, 763
community;
of descent 99, 242–3, 246, 351, 363, 508
cultural 99
Compagnie des Indes Orientales 94
comradeship 79, 434, 534–6
Comte, August 453–4
concentration camp 4, 14, 521, 582, 602–6, 714
in Africa 370
and Bekennende Kirche 469
and Catholic Church 471
first 413, 516
political prisoners and 438, 553, 621, 704
and SS 441, 596
survivors of 598, 600, 712
system of 441
women and 81
concordat 36
concubinage 363
Condorcet, Nicolas Marquis de 197
Confederacy of the United States 7
Confederation of the Rhine 36, 92, 103–4, 106, 110–11, 133, 135, 152, 155–6, 158
Confederation, German 8-9, 159, 161, 174, 220, 243–54 passim, 284–5, 289–90
Confederation, North German 10–11, 178, 228, 293–6, 304 n. 52
Conference;
of Algeciras 326
on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) 743, 754, 784
Confession of Faith Movement 702
confessional;
divide 31, 34, 37, 39, 212, 247, 254, 695
identity 36, 39, 41, 212
confessionalization 36–7, 40, 47 n. 49
Confucianism 126–7
Congo 311, 561, 570 n. 35, 645, 647
Congo Congress 308, 311
Congo Free State 561
Congo Reform Association 364
Congress of German Economists 286
Congress of Parliamentarians 286
Connecticut 541
Conrad, Johannes 353
Conring, Hermann 34
conscription 74, 96, 105–8, 174, 244, 290, 328
consensualism 563–4, 570 n. 39
conservatism 132, 179, 222, 296, 360, 389, 549, 697, 722
Conservative Party 296, 324, 327, 389, 507
constitution 40–1, 166 n. 38, 239–240, 256 n. 31
of 1849; 254, 258 n. 69
agricultural 5
estate based 106
European 101
FRG 19, 401, 616, 618, 634, 762, 768, 788–9, 807
Imperial 8–9, 11, 121, 252, 298, 320, 328, 404
liberal 249
March 284
(p. 825) medieval German 34
of Napoleonic Germany 105, 152
Prussian 160, 281–2, 284, 286, 289–90, 292
republican 253
states without 159
US 10, 148
Weimar 15, 80, 403, 426–9, 435, 439, 465–6, 470, 510, 703
constitutional;
conflict 290–2, 297, 299
control 10
convention 18
constitutionalism 111, 285, 290, 460
consumer;
demand 184, 624
goods 72, 97, 414, 555, 622, 642, 680
society 11, 18, 444, 624, 730, 742, 759
consumerism 667–8
consumption 17, 555, 637 n. 27, 642–3, 657, 720
alcohol 461
coal 186
in GDR 624, 673, 722
industry 402
and market 74
meat 313
in Nazi-Germany 443
private 244, 680
and (re)production 72, 75, 78, 140 n. 33, 175, 340, 717
taxes 323–4
Continental System 101, 104–5, 107–9, 154, 165 n. 24, 188, 244
contraception 197, 201–2, 705
Conway, Martin 604
corruption 33, 218, 267, 273, 362, 431
Corvin, Otto von 318
cosmopolitanism 119, 121–2, 128, 130, 133–6, 138 n. 6, 486, 785
cosmopolitism 132–3, 136
cotton 5, 175–7, 188, 201, 343, 364, 371, 414
Council of Europe 736, 776–7, 784, 801
Council of Trent 693
Counter-Reformation 39, 41
counter-reforms 155
craft association 178–9
craftsmen 5, 151, 155, 160, 178–9, 221, 273, 315, 622
Craig, Gordon 67 n. 27
Crédit Mobilier 187
Crimea 162, 205, 560
criminal investigation services (Kriminalpolizei) 441
Crimmitschau 177
Crispi, Francesco 310
crop rotation 5, 172
‘Crystal Night’ pogrom (Reichskristallnacht) 469, 553, 564, 570 n. 45, 583
Cuba 128, 645, 730, 732, 781
cuius regio eius religio 38, 44
culture;
mass 78, 608, 680–1, 722
popular 160, 642, 651, 721, 723
‘cumulative radicalization’ 549, 567 n. 3
currency;
crisis 411
union 681, 763, 765–6
Curzon line 15
Curzon, Lord George 15
Czechoslovakia 18, 436, 511–14 passim, 517, 538, 550, 552–3, 560, 581–3
after 1945; 18, 585–6, 650, 653, 655, 690, 754–9, 766, 781
Czepko, Daniel von 29
Czernowitz 482
Dachau 441, 596
Dagerman, Stig 605
Dahrendorf, Ralf 322, 644
Daily Telegraph 505
DANAT bank 409
Danzig;see Gdansk
Darmstadt 185, 315, 697
Darmstädter Bank für Handel und Industrie 187, 346
Darmstädter Wort 697
Davis, Angela 646
Dawes Plan 405, 408
DDP 426
de-Nazification 602, 629, 632–3, 691, 696
de-secularization 796
de-Stalinization 620, 627
(p. 826) death march 596
death rate 203, 208 n. 18, 352, 365, 596
Declaration of Independence 91, 147
decolonialization 512
Decree of Trianon 107
DEFA 716, 722
deference 235, 315, 698
deflation 340, 409
Delors Commission 786
Demetz, Peter 488
demilitarization 607
Democracy Now 758, 765
democracy;
liberal 79, 82, 322, 603, 607–9, 640
parliamentary 291, 396, 422, 425–6, 428, 435
Weimar 80, 425, 429, 431, 435, 533, 535
Democratic Awakening 758–9, 765, 772 n. 21
Democratic Farmers Party (Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands) 622
Democratic Forum 756
democratization 254, 295, 308, 385, 389–90, 437, 513, 515
after 1945; ;644, 652, 705
demographic;
catastrophy 196
differences 318
explosion 322
losses 666
order 202
shift 481, 631
‘transition’ 352
trends 321, 665
demystification 453–4
Denmark 4, 30, 41, 103, 173, 251, 291–2, 310, 539
after 1945; 778, 783, 788
denomination 454–5, 459–63, 467, 470–2, 473 n. 19, 474 n. 25, 475 n. 42, 586, 705
denunciation 128, 440, 470, 643
deportation;
in Africa 577
and church 469
in First World War 531
of French/Belgian civilians 530, 580
of Jews 471, 543, 555–8, 564, 583–4
of migrant laborers 502
Soviet 603
depression 163, 346, 351, 381, 410, 513–14, 533, 605
Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley 14th Earl of, 294
Dernburg, Bernhard 362, 364
desertion 79, 105, 109–10, 532, 534–5, 596, 601
despotism 111, 123, 129–30, 133, 138, 237, 436, 446, 469
détente 586, 730, 732–3, 735, 737, 743, 745–6, 782
Deutsch, Karl W. 234–5, 299
Deutsche Bank 346
Deutscher Schutzbund für das Grenz-und Auslandsdeutschtum 513
Deutscher, Isaac 605
Deutschkatholiken 227
Deutschlandlied 161, 268
Deutschmark 18, 765, 783
Diakonie 701
diaspora 65, 511, 574–7
Dibelius, Otto 689
Dickens, Charles 260, 268, 272
dictatorship 423, 426–8, 562–4, 615–17, 619, 753, 755–6
European 436–7, 445
Hitler's 15, 433, 435, 440, 442–3, 445–7, 553, 557, 563, 595
military 290, 424, 530
Nazi 440, 445, 437
Stalin's 446, 595
welfare 608–9
Diderot, Denis 214
Diederichs, Eugen 464–5, 468–9, 484–5, 488, 494 n. 12
differentiation 96, 201, 237, 242–3, 248, 251, 287, 683
social 200, 308, 316, 664
Dilthey, Wilhelm 271–2
Dippel, Horst 147
Dirks, Walter 779
Disconto-Gesellschaft 187, 346
discrimination 470, 507, 798, 803–5
of guest-workers 672
of Jews 383, 466–7
of Poles 579–80
political 248, 353
religious 161
social 552
of women 75, 80, 629, 671, 676
(p. 827) displaced persons 14, 52, 63–4, 584–5, 598, 603, 665
displacement 17, 53, 224, 482, 712, 715–17, 720, 723
dive bombers 415
diversity 1, 58, 60, 125, 138, 175, 296, 726, 795, 800–1
cultural 128, 796–7, 801, 805–8
ethnic 501, 796
of France 30
German 54, 57, 63
linguistic 501
‘natural’ 135
of place 55–6, 61–2
regional 170, 173, 379
unity in 124
division;
of Europe 137, 587, 732, 754–5, 781, 787
of German culture 719
of Germany 8, 81, 615, 640, 764, 777, 782
beginning of 616
and Berlin wall 627, 634
economic 16
overcoming the 732, 762
war and 20, 81
of labour 76, 83, 359, 672
political 227, 239, 264, 282, 433–4, 460, 501
of public and private 5, 10, 71
religious 37, 225, 227–9, 319–20, 424
social 240, 317, 515, 528, 537, 664, 674, 682, 802
divorce 74, 82, 174, 394, 649, 658, 665, 667, 684 n. 12
DNVP 79, 428, 431–2, 435, 437
Döblin, Alfred 58, 482, 593, 595
Documenta 726
Doering-Manteuffel, Anselm 446
Dohm, Christian Wilhelm 127, 217–9
Dohm, Hedwig 485–6
Dollfuβ Engelbert 436
domestic;
demand 176, 409
manufacture 175, 177, 180
security 20
sociability 73
domesticity 73, 78, 80, 86 n. 31, 577, 629
Donauworth 39
Dönhoff, Marion Gräin 14
Dortmund 180–1, 313, 702
Dostoevsky, Fyodor 484, 488
Dregger, Alfred 804
Dresden 15, 66 n. 13, 180–1, 262, 385, 428, 504, 522 n. 19, 543, 597
after 1945; 689, 757, 760
Dresdner Bank 346
dressmaking 176
Dreyfus affair 366
Droste-Hülshoff, Annette von 264, 268
Droste-Vischering, Clemens August von 226–7, 288
dualism 3, 92, 101
Dublin 492
dues, feudal 43, 155, 174
Duisberg, Carl 349
Duisburg 180–2, 313
Duma 10
Durkheim,Émile 454
Düsseldorf 12, 177, 203
Dutch East Indies 362
Dutschke, Rudi 652–3, 655–6
DVP 428
East Elbia 107, 170–2, 190, 294, 309, 368, 602
East India Company 94, 121
East Prussia 14–15, 108, 513, 584, 597, 599
Eastern Front 527, 542–3, 580
Ebert, Friedrich 427, 429, 447
Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie von 274
ecclesiastical;
corporation 34, 36, 42
princes 38, 102
states 151, 173–4, 212, 219
economic;
change 3, 170, 667
dominion (Wirtschaftsherrschaft) 171
growth 11, 338, 340, 345, 354, 622, 778
until 1914; 145, 153, 175, 186, 188–90, 273, 291
history 2, 338, 344, 346, 411
miracle;
and beatle 624
and CDU 618, 763
and democracy 437
explanation of 351, 622
(p. 828) and exports 344
Hitler's 411
and middle class society 448, 609, 719
and refugees 586, 599
planning 415, 604, 621, 624
take-off 11, 16
The Economist 410
economy;
colonial 363–5
command 623
European 404, 416, 606, 679
German 170, 178, 188–9, 336, 338, 340, 342–3, 345–8, 351–3
after 1914; 402–3, 405, 410
East 623, 636 n. 25
growth 11, 400
global 309, 350, 362, 402, 408, 427, 429, 433, 443–4
household 72, 174
industrial 5, 75, 170, 175, 338, 412, 668, 671, 675
international 309, 401, 410, 743–4, 755
planned 403
rural 180, 188
Edict of Potsdam 799
education 53–4, 108, 217, 223–4, 275, 643, 649, 674, 703, 706
access to 183, 682, 731
and art 7, 717, 725
basic 20, 241
bilingual 798
of children 644, 805
elementary 223, 650
female 486, 667, 676
higher 74, 77, 514, 630, 675–7
job 364, 512
nationalism and 242
and religion 148, 213, 228, 457–8, 460, 562
religious 216, 288, 702, 806
secondary 675
sex 806
standard of 400, 586
system 602
Edward VII, King of Great Britain 321
egalitarianism 514
Egypt 100, 133, 509, 739
Eichendorff, Joseph Freiherr von 136
Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried 136
Eichmann, Adolf 644, 714
Einsatzgruppen 538, 540, 555, 557, 584
Eisenach 245
Eksteins, Modris 378–9
El Salvador 700
Elbe River 32, 50, 103, 171, 593, 608–9, 616, 620, 628–31, 693
Elberfeld 176–7, 180
election of the king 31, 33, 36, 39
elections 18, 147, 150, 506, 603, 756
Bundestag 295, 621, 723, 732, 742, 763–4, 769, 771, 785
democratic 16, 293, 298, 761, 766
EU 785
free 317, 325, 435, 442–3
municipal 16, 523 n. 27, 603, 759, 766
National Assembly 161, 391, 426, 604
North German 295
Prussian 294, 434
Reichstag
before 1918/19; 293–6, 304 n. 52, 308, 317–18, 320–1, 327, 354, 362, 367
after 1918/9; 427–8, 430–1, 434–5, 438, 514
state 182, 293, 766
US 10
Volkskammer 765
Electoral Brandenburg 35
Electoral Saxony 35
electoral threshold 430
eleven-hour day 76
Eliot, George 261
Eliot, Thomas Stearns 493
elites 23 n. 37, 170, 235, 241, 436–7, 675, 677, 698, 767, 777, 788–9
change of 298
educated 95, 110, 213, 215–16, 220, 245, 253, 629, 674
local/territorial 41–3
old 100, 389, 435, 438, 440, 445, 602
political 320, 325, 368, 371, 582, 609
premodern 309
privileged 121
Elizabeth, Empress of Russia 3
Ellis Island 312
Eltis, David 4
(p. 829) emancipation 119, 124, 135, 165 n. 21, 173, 211, 432, 644
bourgeois 110, 241
of Jews 127, 218–20, 226–7, 309, 551
laws 245
peasant 187
political 236, 295, 368, 387
women's 79–80, 640–1, 654
Emergency Acts (Notstandsgesetze) 646, 653
Emergency Decree (Notverordnungen) 427, 429, 438–9
Emerson, Ralph Waldo 485
Emmerich 543
employment 121, 153, 512, 579, 581, 622, 666–73, 676, 680
female 80, 83, 314, 666–8, 670–2, 682
full 411, 414, 444, 622, 629, 672–3, 677
high 435
and public sector 41, 552
seasonal 203
Emscher River 313
Enabling Act (Ermächtigungsgesetz) 439, 467–8
Engels, Friedrich 76, 140 n. 33, 169–70, 294, 461–2, 476 n. 46
and Karl Marx 154, 190, 250, 267
engineering 78, 344–5, 350, 408
English Channel 96, 100
Enlightenment 73–4, 149, 217, 221–2, 235–9 passim, 287, 483, 551, 780
and Auschwitz 713
early 120
European 2, 119
French 214
‘fundamentalism’ 808
German 44, 119–138 passim, 214
ideas 72, 95, 146, 240
late 217
legacy of 720
people's 439
thinkers 123–4, 241
Ensslin, Gudrun 653
environmental destruction 20
Enzensberger, Hans Magnus 645
equality 193 n. 42, 219, 226–8, 235, 285, 443, 664, 677, 808
gender 80, 83, 667, 806
legal 83, 104, 146, 151–3, 158, 183, 296, 459, 466, 617
political 98, 126, 136, 162, 430
social 391, 466, 663
Equalization of Burdens Law (Lastenausgleichgesetz) 623
Erasmus 131
Erasmus program 790
Erdmann, Karl-Dietrich 435
Erdogan, Tayyip 807
Erfurt 4
Erfurt Program 12
Erhard, Ludwig 618, 623, 736–7, 778
Erinnerungsgemeinschaft 239
Erlangen 133
Ernst August of Hanover 284
Erzberger, Matthias 388–9, 427–8, 466
Essen 21, 60, 180–2, 313, 605, 694, 699, 701
Essex 42–3
estates (Stände) 5, 32–4, 153, 157, 161, 169, 281, 436–7, 705
Calvinist 39
Church 106
and feudal society 235, 245
hierarchy between 77
imperial 37, 41
king and 146
Lutheran 38
marriages and 72
under Napoleonic rule 135
order of the 284
provincial 148, 160
representation of 99
Swedish 104
territorial 40–3, 48 n. 61, 213
ethnic
categories 8
minorities 12, 310, 585
ethnicity 8, 360, 503, 506, 520, 664, 681, 811 n. 20
concept of 237, 240, 246, 249, 252, 798, 802
ethnicization 252
Ethnogenesis 234
ethnography 56
eugenics 207, 367–8, 374 n. 39, 562–3
Eupen 175, 177–8, 513
Eupen-Malmedy 513
European Atomic Energy Community 736, 778–80, 782
European Coal and Steel Community 418, 626, 736, 764, 777–82
European Community 400–1, 770, 782–8
European Court of Justice 786
European Defence Community 628, 764, 777–8
European Economic Community 627, 668, 736–7, 742, 778–84, 786
European Free Trade Association 779, 781, 784
European Monetary System 783, 786–7
European Union 19–20, 300, 670, 675, 736, 787–91, 800–1, 811 n. 14
Europeanization 747 n. 10, 782, 801, 805, 808
Euthanasia 13, 81, 469, 516, 539, 551, 557, 690
evacuees 622
evangelicalism 127, 146, 222, 700, 702–3
Evangelische Akademie 698
Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland 696–7, 704
Evangelische Kirchenzeitung 222, 227
expellees 13–14, 586, 665, 670, 690, 731, 736
export market 104, 175–7, 349
exports
German 11, 342–3, 350, 354, 392, 408
world 11, 311, 342, 349–50, 392, 741, 786
Expressionism 482, 490, 716
expulsion 537
of Germans 14, 573, 585–6, 602, 645, 690, 659
of Jesuits 460
of Jews 554
of Poles 310, 360–1, 369, 580
extermination (Vernichtung) 13, 98, 370, 416, 518, 552, 556–65 passim, 598
camp 13, 441, 538, 584, 596–7
of Jews 518, 556–7, 561–2, 565, 598
war of 536, 538, 540, 593, 607
Extra-Parliamentary Opposition 646
Eybel, Joseph von 217
Faith Movement of German Christians (Glaubensbewegung Deutscher Christen) 465, 469
Fallersleben, August Heinrich Hoffmann von 161, 268
Falter, Jürgen 427
familiarization 224, 490
family
life 394, 483
nuclear 71, 82, 263, 650, 664, 666, 668, 680
famine 11, 172, 607
Fanon, Frantz 645
fascism 83, 445–6, 482, 566, 594, 633, 652, 655, 721
fatherland 52–3, 222, 231 n. 30, 386–7, 531, 638 n. 47, 718, 761, 765
autobahn and 62
constitution of 253
death for 5, 19, 98, 121, 236–7, 529, 534
German 29, 34, 99, 292
love of 97–8, 237–8
Prussian 157
and Reich 33
spirit of the 252
territorial 31, 43, 99
traitor of 245
and women 74
Fatherland Party 389–90, 508–9, 523 n. 37
Faulhaber, Bischof Michael von 468
FDR 410, 412, 415
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) 616, 788, 793 n. 31, 812 n. 36
federalism 16, 162, 253, 283, 293, 297–300, 438–9
after 1945 764 , 785
Federation of Expellees (Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten) 621
Federation of German Women's Associations 77
Fehrenbach, Elisabeth 242
femininity 75, 78, 80, 467, 486–7, 577
feminism 77, 79–80, 82
feminist movement 77–9, 654
Fénelon, François 132
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor 38
Ferguson, Adam 119
Ferguson, Tom 366
Ferrarius, Johannes 42
fertilizer 173, 574
Feuerbach, Ludwig 227, 264
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 5, 130, 136, 220, 242, 245–6, 249, 276 n. 53, 430, 485
fiefs 32
film industry 715
fin-de-siécle 57
‘Final Solution’ 467, 541, 553–4, 556, 561, 565, 571 n. 45, 633
financial policy 15
Finland 318, 326
Firth, Steward 365
Fischer, Fritz 328
Fischer, Joschka 788
Fischer, Samuel 484–5
five-percent hurdle 621
Flanders 379, 700
Fleiβer, Marieluise 486–7
Florence 485
Fluxus movement 725
Fontane, Theodor 55–6, 58, 67 n. 27, 271–2, 274–5, 489
food
protest 387
shortage 384, 557
supply 196, 403, 531, 555–6, 560
forced sterilizations 81, 516, 503
Ford 408
foreign
exchange controls 411
exchange crisis 415
policy 41, 96, 152, 165 n. 26, 514, 518, 646, 734–6
FRG 618, 646, 734–6, 739–46 passim, 764, 769, 779, 786–8
GDR 626, 738
Nazi 447, 500, 515, 517
Prussian 9, 94
Reich 328
US 161, 745, 777
Weimar Republic 408–9, 425, 511
trade 159, 163, 342
Forster, Georg 128
Foucault, Michel 562
Four Year Plan 411–13, 415
fourteen-hour work day 313
Fraenkel, Ernst 438, 441
Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities 805
franc-tireurs 106, 531
franchise 10, 74, 76, 79, 182, 295–6, 322, 805
Franciscans 223
Francke, August Hermann 221
Franco, Francisco 445
François, Louise von 273
Franconia 29, 109, 171, 212, 219, 299–300, 456, 471, 618
Franklin, Benjamin 147
Franks 31
Franz II, Holy Roman Emperor 102
Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria-Hungary 284
Fraternal Council (Bruderrat) 697, 704
fraternities, student 158, 161, 244–5, 248–9, 380
fraternization 601
Free Corps (Freikorps) 54, 79, 157, 391, 393, 404, 425–6, 428–9, 509–10, 533
FDP 621, 636 n. 16, 731, 739, 746, 763, 767, 771
Free German Youth 643
Free Imperial city (freie Reichsstadt) 34, 42–3, 102, 105, 120, 151, 154, 240, 292
free trade 190, 206, 291, 307, 309, 410, 622–3, 778
freedom
political 224
of travel 754, 757
Freiburg 206, 287, 368, 394, 489, 509
Freiligrath, Ferdinand 268
Frenssen, Gustav 486
Freud, Sigmund 145, 263, 482–3, 493
Freytag, Gustav 272–3
Frick, Wilhelm 434, 438
Friedeburg, Robert von 179
Friedländer, David 230 n. 15
Friedländer, Saul 551–2, 554, 556–9
Friedrich (the Wise), Elector of Saxony 37
Friedrich II (the Great), King of Prussia 4, 8, 36, 92–4, 98–9, 120–1, 148, 157, 204, 215
Friedrich II, Holy Roman Emperor 31, 33
Friedrich III, Elector Palatinate of the Rhine 35, 39
Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Prussia 101
Friedrich Wilhelm III, King of Prussia 103, 108, 155, 221
(p. 832) Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia 160–1, 166 n. 46, 189, 268, 281
Friedrich, Caspar David 59
Friedrich, Crown Prince (later Friedrich III, German Emperor) 291
Fries, Jakob Friedrich 246
Frisch, Max 803
Frisia 172, 199–200, 801, 810 n. 9
Fritzsche, Peter 516
Fronius, Sigrun 654
front
generation 392
western 78, 390, 509, 533
Fukuyama, Frances 400, 401
Fulda 39, 289
functionalism 548–9
Gadamer, Hans-Georg 490
Gaddis, John Lewis 754
Gailus, Manfred 227, 471
Galicia 52, 101, 318, 578
Gall, Lothar 183, 286
Gallia 34
Gallitzin, Amalie 221
Gandhi, Mahatma 645
Ganzes Haus 72, 75, 77
Gartenlaube 57, 286, 302 n. 25
Gärtner 172
Garton Ash, Timothy 755–6, 761
gas chambers 81, 416, 557, 562, 714
Gatterer, Johann Christoph 124, 138
Gau 16
Gauleiter 518, 557
Gaulle, Charles de 736–7, 782
Gay, Peter 488, 494 n. 6
Gdansk 18, 49, 198, 482, 513
GDR mark 765
Gedike, Friedrich 125–6
Geiger, Theodor 433
Geiβler, Rainer 664, 677, 682
Gellner, Ernest 234
gender 10, 78–82, 32/45, 201, 387, 487–8, 641, 670–2, 676, 681–2
as a category 2, 6, 75, 327, 353, 379, 442, 454, 471, 664
equality 80, 83, 667, 806
norm 73
ratio 596
relations 72, 77, 80–1, 201, 315, 657, 666
roles 71–2, 76, 78, 81–2, 486, 629, 651
General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade 742
General Association of German Fraternities (Allgemeine Deutsche Burschenschaft) 244
General German School Association 504
General Government 518, 539, 554, 556–7, 561, 583
General Motors 408
General Treaty (Deutschlandvertrag) 778
Generalplan Ost 416, 556, 559
generational conflict 648, 656
Geneva 223, 581
genocide 14, 79, 521, 528, 532, 536, 538, 565–6, 568 n. 4, 584, 644, 697
of Armenians 530
cultural 554
of the Herero 369–71
Hitler and 446, 775
in Vietnam 653
Genscher, Hans-Dietrich 746, 768–70
Gentz, Friedrich von 158
geopolitics 364, 560–1, 594, 600, 736, 739
Georgia 446–7
Gerber, Karl 295
German Army League 318
German Association of the Chambers of Commerce (Deutscher Handeltag) 286
German Central Office For Field Workers (Deutsche Feldarbeiterzentralstelle) 579
German ‘Christians’ 469–71, 696
German Colonial Society (Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft) 318, 504, 522 n. 16, 575
German East Africa Company 362
German-French Office for the Youth 741
German Gymnastics Society 318
German Labor Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront) 413, 517
German National Association 285–6, 289
German Navy League 318
(p. 833) ‘German Question’ 19, 211, 252
after 1945; 734, 739, 746, 769, 771, 782, 790–1
German Singers Association 318
German Society for Anthropology, Ethnology, and Prehistory 367
German Society of the Eastern Marches 318, 504
German Völkisch Freedom Party (Deutschvölkische Freiheitspartei) 434
German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) 433
German
Jacobins 150–2, 154–5, 159, 164 n. 15
language 91, 120, 126, 490, 504, 555, 560, 723, 805, 807
areas of 6, 49, 92, 106
literature 147, 217, 504
modernists 491, 493
service in 228
and ‘Storm and Stress’ 241
use of 511
mind 50, 715
speaking areas 109, 146, 150, 249–50, 254, 517
cities 8
in Europe 31, 51, 235, 242, 511, 513
of the Holy Roman Empire 33
speaking people 104, 120, 251, 504, 511, 522 n. 13, 583, 65, 714
Germandom 465, 504
Germanization 81, 502–3, 509, 518, 530, 552, 556, 560, 575–6, 799
Germanness 20, 31, 34, 62, 107, 243, 245, 251,
after 1870/1
500, 506, 575, 577
after 1933 519, 576, 585, 807
Gewald, Jan-Bart 370
Geyer, Michael 17, 327, 722
Ghent 49
ghetto 14, 220, 539, 554–7, 584, 735, 804
Giscard d'Estaing, Valéry 744, 783–4
Glasgow 181
glasnost 18, 754–5
Gleim, Johann Wilhelm Ludwig 98
global economic crisis 408, 427, 429, 433, 443–4
globalization 307, 309, 337–8, 347–8, 353–4, 356 n. 34, 782, 790
Globke, Hans 632–3
Gneisenau, August Neidhardt von 108
Gobineau, Joseph Arthur Comte de 577
Godesberg Program 621, 624
Godwin, William 195
Goethe Institute 642, 741
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang 30, 44, 122, 266, 426, 459, 487
ideas 134
and Romantics 224, 262, 266
works of 272, 718
Gogh, Theo van 800
gold standard 408–10, 743
Gorbachev, Mikhail 17–19, 745–6, 754–5, 769–70, 786
Göring, Hermann 411–4, 416, 436, 438, 542, 556, 565
Görlitz Treaty 736
Görres, Joseph 134, 159, 226
Görtemaker, Manfred 765
Göttingen 122, 124–5, 128, 131, 137, 263–4, 464, 477 n. 58, 599
Gramsci, Antonio 7
Grass, Günter 68 n. 52, 482, 718–19
Great Depression 79, 337, 340, 410–11, 574, 668
Great Plague 32
Greater German Solution 253, 286
Greece 13, 241, 253, 437, 445, 539, 776, 784, 799
Greek Orthodox 216
Green Party 726, 766
Grégoire, Henri 219
Gregory IX, Pope 31–2
Grillparzer, Franz 269
Grimm, Jakob 263, 268
Grimm, Wilhelm 263, 268
Grimmelshausen, Hans Jacob von 43, 51
Gropius, Walter 55, 66 n. 10
Gross, Michael 228, 360, 460
Grossman, Vasily 607
Gründerboom 340, 344
Gründerzeit 261
Grundherrschaft 171
Guadeloupe 745
guerilla 531, 540, 652–4
Guernica 482
guild 72, 75, 105, 148, 152–3, 155, 175, 177–9, 182, 188, 212
GULAG 599, 601–2
(p. 834) Gölen, Fethullah 808
Gutiérrez, Gustavo 700–1
Gutsherrschaft 171–2
Gutzkow, Karl 266
Habermas, Jürgen 18, 644, 652–3, 656, 807–8
Habermas, Rebekka 224
Hagen, William 172
Hague Convention 595
Hague Summit 782
Halberstadt 198
Halder, Franz 540
Halle 125, 127, 198, 214, 227
Hallstein Doctrine 646, 734, 768–9
Hamann, Johann Georg 241
Hambach 161, 166 n. 47, 248
Hamburg 12, 15, 21, 49, 107, 149, 151, 180–1, 205, 217, 220, 228
after 1870/71 312–13, 315, 362, 386, 429, 475, 488, 579, 631, 654
Hamburger, Käte 488
Hammerer, Peter 387
Handke, Peter 493
Hanover 4, 30, 35, 93–4, 103, 180–1, 185, 199, 212, 215, 263, 288, 292
after 1870/71; 294–5, 456
Hanrieder, Wolfram 735
Hansa Bund 317
Hanseatic League 107
Hansemann, Adolph von 504
Hansemann, David 182
Hardenberg, Karl August von 104, 136, 155–6, 221
Hardy, Thomas 261
Harich, Wolfgang 620
Harkort, Friedrich 169–70
Harmel Report 737
Hartman, Geoffrey 488
Haskalah 127, 215
Hastings, Warren 128
Hauptmann, Gerhart 59, 484
Häusler 172
Hausvater 72, 77
Havel, Vaclav 759, 784
Havemann, Florian 650
Havemann, Frank 650
Havemann, Robert 650
health 20, 76, 351, 516, 562, 642, 649, 703, 757, 768
Hebbel, Friedrich 269–70
Heeren, Arnold Hermann Ludwig 136–7
Hege, Walter 60
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 122, 137, 225, 227, 246, 250, 261–2, 266, 269–70, 400, 401
hegemony 7, 308, 392, 703, 721, 735, 745–6
American 736, 781
British 323
continental 17
cultural 98, 283
European 566, 594, 754
French 104, 107, 120, 157
global 402
maritime 123
North German 103
policy 99
of remembrance 110
Soviet 754, 759
Heidegger, Martin 487–90, 714
Heidelberg 287, 812 n. 28
Heidelberg program 779
Heim, Susanne 554
Heimat 62–5, 66 n. 7, 199, 486, 575, 665
concept of 43, 50, 57, 465
of East Germans 16
-film 625, 720–1
-front 443
-kunst 485
love of 56
movements 312
and travel 53
Heine, Heinrich 44, 160, 242, 260–1, 264, 266, 268, 548
Heldt, Werner 698
Heller, Erich 488
Hellweg 313
Helsinki 743, 756
Helsinki Accords 17, 692, 754–5, 784
Helvetian Society 237
Helvetic Republics 102
Hendrix, Jimi 640
Hengsbach, Franz 701
Hengstenberg, Ernst Wilhelm 222, 227
(p. 835) Hennings, August 128
Hennings, Emmy (Ball-) 486–7
Henry VII, King of England 32
Heraclit 5
Herder, Johann Gottfried 122, 125, 128, 130, 132, 241–3, 246, 34/35, 263, 797
Herero 326, 369–71
heresy 455, 605
Hermann the Cherusc 289
Hermesianism 227
Herrigel, Gary 351
Herrnhut 213
Herwegh, Georg 160, 268
Herzog, Dagmar 226, 700
Herzog, Werner 725
Hess, Jonathan 218
Hesse 35, 41–3, 106, 111, 171, 174, 185, 248, 266, 434, 696
Hesse-Cassel 43, 148, 292
Hesse, Hermann 485
Hesse, Upper 206
Heydrich, Reinhard 416, 554, 556–7
Heye, Uwe-Karsten 796
Heyne, Christoph Gottlieb 125
Hielscher, Kurt 59–60
High Sea Fleet 391
hiking 49, 51, 53–55, 57–8, 536
Hilferding, Rudolf 346
Himalaya 50
Himmler, Heinrich 416, 418, 433, 441, 518–19, 536, 554, 556–7
Hindenburg Program 401–2, 415, 418, 529
Hindenburg, Paul von 401, 403, 409, 424, 427, 429, 439–42, 447, 509, 530
Hinduism 15, 126, 266
Hiroshima 18
Hirschman, Albert O. 758
Historical School of Law 263
historicism 137
history
of everyday life 2
universal 124–5, 131, 138
Hitler, Adolf 413, 438–47, 468–70, 517–18, 527–8, 538–41, 548–63, 566, 568 n. 4, 616, 719, 775, 791
before 1933 381, 430, 433–4
coalition against 254
dictatorship of 15
faith in 543
Germany 598
Mein Kampf 514
opponents of 582, 569, 600, 632
and other politicians 62, 401, 418, 595
salute 725
supporters 602, 605
and seizure of power 410, 435–7
Hobbes, Thomas 120, 402
Hobsbawm, Eric 234, 679
Hochstadt, Steve 312
Hoechst Chemical Works 348
Hofer, Karl 716
Hoffmann, E.T.A. 262–3
Hoffmann, Stefan-Ludwig 316
Hofmannsthal, Hugo von 483, 485, 493
Hohenborn, Adolf Wild von 384
Hohenzollern 3, 35–6, 213, 321, 459
Hölderlin, Friedrich 488
Holland 6, 106, 172–3, 182–3, 203, 804
Hollandgängerei 203
Holocaust 544, 554, 558, 561–6, 567, 2/4, 568 n. 10, 615, 632, 720–1
Catholic Church and 468
continuities of 385
genocide in Africa prefiguring 369, 570 n. 35
history of 726
knowing of 543
shadow of 801, 809
survivor 585, 598, 689
TV show 714
understanding the 548–9
war and 1, 7, 379, 536, 550, 559, 689
wehrmacht and 540
Hölscher, Lucian 215, 473 n. 11
Holstein 4, 291–2
Homann, Jean Baptiste 4, 8
home front 78, 379, 384, 418, 443, 510, 536, 584
front and 381, 388, 528, 543–4
unrest 390, 403
women at the 387, 532
Homeowner Association 432
(p. 836) Honecker, Erich 18, 643, 657, 661 n. 49, 678, 732, 738, 743–6, 755, 758
Hoover, Herbert 409
Hoppe, Emil Otto 60
Hornberg 106
Horthy, Miklós 445
House of Commons 128, 294, 296
housework 314, 666–7
Hoyerswerda 807
Hroch, Miroslav 310
Huch, Ricarda 60–3, 65, 68 n. 38, 486–7
Huguenots 213, 799
Hull, Isabel V. 370, 523 n. 38, 530
human rights 148, 594, 692, 743, 754, 762, 765, 784, 807
humanism 119, 235, 239
Humboldt Foundation, Alexander von 741
Humboldt, Alexander von 128, 134, 137, 741
Humboldt, Wilhelm von 133, 262
Humphrey, Hubert 648
Hungary 15, 18, 52, 101, 135, 188, 204, 250–1, 328
after 1993; 418, 436–7, 445, 520, 521 n. 7, 550, 558–9
after 1945; 585–6, 620, 627, 690, 754–60, 781
Hürlimann, Martin 60–1
Hürriyet 809
I.G. Farben 60
Iberian Peninsula 101, 249
Ibsen, Henrik 484
iconography 383, 385
idealism 252, 260, 262, 272, 284, 785
‘ideas of 1941’ 382
ideology 75, 144, 153–4, 195, 226, 400, 601, 643
anti-capitalist 353
anti-Semitic 548, 550, 560, 568 n. 6
communist 630–1, 722
counter- 156
of diaspora Germaness 575
following Gobineau 577
free labor 368
liberal 322, 371, 460
national/ist 2–3, 253, 516, 518, 523 n. 38
Nazi 413, 445, 514, 530, 584, 642, 797
Illinois 347
Illuminati order 133, 149, 152
Illustrated London News 56
illustrated magazine 56–7, 286, 311
Illustrirte Zeitung 56
‘Immaculate Conception’ 287
Immermann, Karl 267
immigration
to Berlin 180
control of 579
of Jews 309, 367
from Eastern Europe 352, 578
economic benefits of 586
to FRG 665, 800
from Germany 577
limit/blockage of 510, 560
policy 576, 582–3, 799
Polish 579
Imperial Aulic court 34
Imperial Diet 33–4, 37
imperialism 323, 327, 362, 549–50, 559, 567, 641, 645, 781
and colonialism 128
formal 311
modern 324
nationalism and 307, 360
overseas 359
racism and 370–1, 376 n. 59
social 521 n. 1
Indemnity Bill 292–3
India 15, 93–4, 100, 121, 126, 128, 176, 197
after 1870/71; 326, 369, 551, 805
Indian Ocean 100
individualism 460
individuality 61, 136–7, 246, 700
industrial
capital 346
economy 5, 75, 170, 175, 338, 412, 668, 671, 675
growth 174, 186, 348
homework 75
order 351
take-off 5, 11, 170, 187–8, 352
industrialization 62, 347, 351, 485, 586, 663–4
effects of 574
and globalization 338, 354
high tide of 204
and nation buildung 282
nature of 83
proto- 170, 173, 175, 177, 201
rapide 188, 322, 350, 352, 481
as a revolution 336
of the Rhineland 184
and the state 187, 189–90
and steam engine 340
theory of 337
transition toward 183
industry
armaments 78, 390, 599, 605–6
chemical 314, 344, 348–9, 408
cottage 176
domestic 171–2, 175–7, 187
electrical 314, 344, 348–50
electronics 668, 671
factory 179
heavy 75, 187, 207, 309,323, 345–8 passim, 354, 408, 401–2, 408, 624, 755
home 172, 176
metallurgical 170, 182, 184
mining 20, 182, 184, 189, 313, 340, 344–7, 365, 371, 404
pharmaceutical 348
proto- 175–7, 179
rural 5, 174–5, 178
textile 75, 107, 169–70, 175–79, 188, 201, 309, 314, 344, 411, 671
inequality 246, 354, 384–5, 388, 674, 678, 801
inflation 392, 404, 415, 430, 744, 766, 783
hyper-, 404, 429, 481, 580
Ingoldstadt 486
inheritance, partible/impartible 170, 174, 202, 206
Initiative for Peace and Human Rights 765
Inner Mission 222, 289, 462
Innerlichkeit 483
Innocence IV Pope, 31
innovation 120, 169, 177, 202, 207, 338, 366, 486, 490, 719
industrial 182
institutional 337, 756
technical/technological 187, 337, 340, 400
integration, national 92, 298, 381
intellectuals 120, 135, 149, 234, 240, 244, 391, 779
and artists 378, 487
Catholic 222
emigration of 583
Enlightenment 124
exile 160
German 7, 122, 127, 241
Jewish 466
liberal 110
nationalist 246, 531, 577
Protestant 222
protesting 628, 646, 654, 759, 761, 784
Social Democratic 382
and workers 756–7
intentionalism 548–9
international politics 12, 17, 582, 593, 608, 612 n. 31, 735, 742, 783
investiture 36
Iran 652, 744
Ireland 223, 393, 509, 520, 783
Irish home rule 9, 310
iron 78, 179, 184, 187, 291, 340, 402, 411, 413
and rye 309, 354
and steel 169, 186, 317, 344–7, 350
Iron Curtain 625, 640, 642, 644, 648, 718, 726, 730, 735, 755, 789
Iselin, Isaak 125
Islam 21, 126–7, 471, 800, 806, 808
Islamization 808
Israel 481, 632, 655, 734, 743, 769
Jacobinism 108, 221, 320, 446
Jacobitism 96
Jacobsohn, Siegfried 380, 383
Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig 53–4, 58, 62, 108, 159, 244–7, 249
Jansenism 213, 216
Japan 7, 17, 311, 402, 417, 557, 561
after 1945; 594, 608–9, 611 n. 22, 670, 677, 786
Jarausch, Konrad 17, 722
Jaspers, Karl 487, 646
Java 365
Jean Paul 44
Jelinek, Elfriede 493
Jellinek, Georg 9
Jena 244, 315, 464, 485
Jerusalem 490, 644, 714
Jesus Christ 127, 221, 228, 230 n. 15, 265, 287, 469, 471, 689, 700
‘Jewish Question’ 220, 395, 416, 538, 541–2, 556–8, 565, 697
Jewishness 282
Jews
European 518, 528, 593, 632, 638 n. 52, 697
German 43, 215, 273, 367, 467, 490, 551, 558, 564, 582, 598
Orthodox 459, 466, 472, 477 n. 71
Johann Friedrich, Elector of Saxony 35
Johnson, Lyndon B. 648
Johnson, Uwe 482, 486, 718–19, 724
Jonas, Hans 487
Joppke, Christian 759
Jordan 655
Jörg, Edmund 288
Joseph Clemens of Cologne 43
Joseph II Holy Roman Emperor, 105, 121, 129, 134, 147, 149, 151, 172, 216
Josephinism 216
journalism 57, 109, 605
journeymen 72, 77, 149, 170, 179, 203, 206
Joyce, James 492–3
Judaism 21, 215–16, 218, 225, 228–9, 472, 552, 712, 806
orthodox 215, 384, 460
reform 224
Judenzählung 384
Judt, Tony 608
Jugendweihe 692
Jülich 35, 39, 43
July 20; 632
Jung-Stilling, Johann Heinrich 219, 221
Jünger, Ernst 533
Junker 172–3, 309, 316, 322, 331 n. 46, 602, 608
Jura 203
Justi, Johann Heinrich Gottlob von 123
Kaelble, Hartmut 331 n. 50, 670, 673–4, 679
Kafka, Franz 482, 484, 492–3, 718
Kaiser, Jacob 779
Kaleka, Mascha 50
Kandinsky, Wassily 490
Kant, Immanuel 60, 122, 131, 136, 284
and colonialism 128
in other philosophers' reception 130, 132, 265–6
works 99, 131, 483
Kapp Putsch 404, 429
Kapp, Wolfgang 390, 428, 509
Kappelmeier, Michael 386
Karl I, King of Württemberg 284
Karl Leopold, Duke of Mecklenburg 43
Karl VI , Holy Roman Emperor 92–3
Karlsruhe 58, 168, 206
Kassel 41, 148, 292, 294, 598, 726
Katholikentag 288, 297, 699
Katholische Akademie 698
Kattowitz 313
Katyń 565
Katzenstein, Peter J. 16
Kaufhold, Karl Heinrich 175
Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton von 94
Kautsky, Karl 363
Keil, Ernst 57
Kelek, Necla 806
Kella 64
Keller, Gottfried 271, 273
Kennan, George F. 2, 15, 528
Kennedy, John F. 625, 736–7, 743
Kennedy, Paul 754
Kennemann, Hermann 504
Kershaw, Ian 440
Kessler Engineering Works 186
Kettler, Wilhelm Emanuel Freiherr von 288
Keun, Irmgard 486
Khomeini, Ayatollah 744
Khrushchev, Nikita 620
Kiderlen-Wächter, Alfred von 328
Kiefer, Anselm 725
Kiel 391
Kierkegaard, SØren 485, 488
Kiesinger, Georg 644, 737, 744
Kindergeld 82, 623
King, Martin Luther 653
Kinski, Klaus 725
Kippenberg, Anton 484
Kirchentag 698–9, 702
(p. 839) kitsch 496 n. 37, 512
Kleist, Heinrich von 269, 488
Klemperer, Victor 543, 609, 689, 697, 723