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date: 19 May 2019

(p. 581) Index

(p. 581) Index

Abbasid Caliphates69, 294, 295, 330, 351, 368, 370, 427, 504
Abel217
Abraham57, 213
Abū al‐Hasan' Alī al‐Mas'ūdī59–60
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al‐Tabari59, 443
Abu‐Lhugod, Janet29, 276
Acapulco548, 569
Achaemenid empire361, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 374
Acosta, José de222
Acre499, 504
Adam57, 59, 61, 65, 215
Adams, John199, 574
Adams, Paul V.202
Adas, Michael4, 78, 203, 356
Aden275
Gulf of464
Adena civilization509
Ado of Vienne59
Adriatic Sea189, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 501, 507
Aegean Sea496, 500, 505
Aemilius Sura56
Afghanistan289, 291, 350, 379, 401, 402, 424, 425, 427, 441, 522
Afrasian peoples457, 458
Africa7, 11, 27, 29, 38, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 65, 66, 78, 96, 99, 111, 127, 129, 130, 145, 147, 161, 163, 172, 182, 183, 203, 212, 213, 214, 216, 217, 222, 233, 248, 251, 252, 256, 260, 270, 272, 273, 277, 278, 288, 304, 309, 315, 316, 317, 325, 333, 334, 336–7, 355, 356, 380, 383, 385, 386, 388–9, 390, 448, 475, 477, 478, 480, 485, 486, 487, 488, 490, 494, 495, 499, 502, 506, 511, 521, 530, 531, 532–3, 534, 535, 538, 539, 541, 564, 568
in the Atlantic Age (1440–1900)468–71
Central222, 332, 355, 458
Eastern40, 45, 153, 163, 165, 230, 257, 270, 271, 294, 297, 299, 326, 332, 333, 350, 388, 421, 456, 464, 467, 538
equatorial466–7
era of agricultural elaboration (6500–3500BCE)459–60
era of empires465–8
First Great Transition456–9, 471
Second Great Transition460–2
Northern45, 49, 67, 134, 147, 157, 163, 164, 165, 172, 176, 212, 223, 234, 247, 257, 273, 274, 275, 284, 329, 330, 437, 438, 442, 449, 466, 472, 475, 476, 478, 489, 493, 496, 501, 503, 505, 556
Northwest388, 438
origins of455–6
Sub‐Saharan4, 5, 39, 49, 64, 67, 69, 146, 147, 152, 156, 161, 163, 212, 244, 257, 258, 259, 273, 274, 284, 329, 331, 348, 350, 351, 354, 463
Southeast326, 332
Southern98, 157, 169, 230, 331, 339, 456, 457, 468, 482, 485, 522
Southwest357
West98, 145, 147, 153, 214, 231, 232, 272, 273–4, 276, 282, 331, 335, 337, 457, 458, 459, 462–4, 469, 471, 472, 500, 533
in world history455–74
Afro‐Eurasia250
Afro‐Eurasian ecumene45, 49, 275
Age of Revolution101
Agrarian era128, 132–5, 136, 202; see also agriculture
agricultural revolution271–2
agriculture13, 21, 38, 67, 68, 128–9, 132, 133, 134, 135, 143–59, 172, 177, 178, 181, 191, 201, 204, 233, 234, 270, 290, 294, 304, 327–8, 349, (p. 582) 364, 365, 400, 403, 414, 420, 421, 425–6, 432, 435, 442, 471, 472, 483, 485, 487, 508, 511, 548, 551
advanced246–66
in Africa457, 458, 459, 460
in Europe478, 479
industrialization of modern154–7
in the industrial(izing) world252–61
origins and early development143–7, 148–50
in south and southeast Asia418–19
Agung, Sultan431
Ahura Mazda54
Aikin, Lucy200
Akbar, emperor430
Akkad dynasty361
Aksum465
al‐Biruni223
al‐Idrisi223
Al‐Khwarizmi235
al‐Mamun235
Alaska132, 146, 231, 327, 334
Albania189
Albuquerque, Alphonso430
Alembert, Jean‐Baptiste le Rond d'62
Alexander, William199
Alexander the Great21, 55, 56, 62, 65, 184, 219, 234, 291, 362, 370, 445, 502
Alexandria234, 295, 297, 422, 493, 495, 499, 502, 504, 506
Library502
Algeciras498
Algeria179, 279, 282, 388, 485, 489, 490, 498, 499, 506
Alor422
Amalfi296, 503
Amazon river (basin)40, 134, 145, 147, 339
Americas4, 5, 9, 38, 45, 62, 64, 66, 68, 76, 127, 128, 131, 135, 146, 181, 182, 183, 210, 218, 222, 232, 240, 248, 250, 253, 255, 272, 275, 276–7, 278, 279, 284, 298, 313, 315, 327, 328, 330, 331, 332, 333–5, 337, 338, 348, 354, 355, 356, 362, 380, 388, 405, 430, 468, 471, 472, 480, 495, 498, 505, 508–28, 531, 532–3, 534, 535, 537, 539, 564, 566, 568, 569, 570, 572, 576, 577
before European contact508–9
Central147, 231, 284, 392, 510, 517, 518, 521–2, 524
conquest, colonization, and settlement276–7, 480, 509–12
discovery of47, 64, 65, 333, 480
disease and death509–10
and the global Cold War (1941–2000)520–2
and the global economy (1941–2000)522–4
globalization in the late twentieth century524–5
Great Depression and World War II;519, 520
Latin (South)27, 49, 78, 98, 127, 145, 146, 147, 152, 155, 156, 160, 184, 202, 214, 221, 238, 241, 244, 253, 258, 259, 270, 279, 284, 285, 304, 309, 310, 311, 315, 316, 327, 332, 336, 347, 383, 389, 407, 482, 483, 484, 485, 498, 510, 514, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522–3, 524, 525, 531, 537, 539, 548, 564, 566, 567
migration and labor demands518–19
North4, 37–8, 47, 78, 79, 80, 83, 99, 112, 134, 145, 155, 214, 240, 241, 250, 252, 253, 257, 274, 278, 279, 280, 281, 308, 309, 319, 321, 327, 331, 335, 338, 339, 347, 350, 386, 388, 483, 498, 508, 509, 510, 512, 513, 530, 533, 534, 536, 537, 564, 567, 574
pre‐Columbian47, 67
revolutions and new republics512–15
rise of industrial economies515–18 see also Atlantic Ocean; Mesoamerica; New World
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions577
American Civil War183
American Revolution (1776)76–7, 483, 530, 533, 537, 538
American Society for Environmental History127
Amerindians331, 333, 334
Amsterdam (Netherlands)253
Amu Darya river400
Amur River Valley272
An Lushan Rebellion168
Anatolia144, 166, 172, 233, 272, 288, 289, 290, 294, 328, 330, 350
Plateau144, 163, 165, 166
(p. 583) Anaximander233
Andalusia330, 336
Anderson, Bonnie203
Andes134, 145, 146, 150, 182, 231, 232, 336, 362, 373, 509, 510, 511, 518
Angkor422
Anglican Church477
Anglo‐Burman war (1824–6)434
Anglo‐Japanese treaties (1905, 1911)554
Angola336, 337, 469, 472, 521
Annales27, 30, 127, 499
Anno II (Bishop of Cologne)59
Anson, George570
Antarctica130
Anthony, Saint355
Anthropocene era129
anthropological turn2, 347
anthropology5, 11, 28, 83, 84, 112, 164, 318, 344, 345, 376
anti‐Semitism220, 486
Antioch422
antiquity, classical3, 21, 68; see also Greece, ‘ancient’
Anu temple289
Anuradhapura422
ANZAC (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps)555
ANZUS Alliance557
Apologus291
Appadurai, Arjun101
Aqquyunlu166
Aquitaine476, 477
Ar Mountains (Niger)463
Arab empire235
Arab League:
Arab Petroleum Conference440
Arabia62, 65, 161, 163, 164, 165, 172, 335, 350, 424, 430
South291, 464, 465
Arabian Peninsula147, 223, 439
Arabian Sea464
Arabs20, 62, 64, 235, 236, 237, 295, 426, 476, 477, 496
Aragon479, 481
Aral Sea157
Aramaic366, 503
Arbenz, José520–1
archaeology97, 129, 272, 347, 422, 458
Archimedes69, 234
architecture25, 108, 229, 233, 423
Arctic147, 231
Arendt, Hannah382
Argentina42, 146, 155, 252, 280, 284, 338, 517, 519, 521, 522, 523, 524, 531
Aristotle234
Arkwright, Richard240
Armenia42
Arrighi, Giovanni383, 393
Asante kingdom337, 469
Asia5, 20, 24, 27, 29, 30, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 64, 67, 79, 92, 94, 96, 99, 127, 155, 160, 188, 190, 213, 216, 244, 252, 257, 271, 276, 278, 281, 304, 309, 311, 315, 316, 317, 321, 335, 355, 356, 383, 386, 390, 393, 415, 456, 457, 469, 475, 477, 480, 482, 483, 485, 486, 494, 495, 506, 518, 539, 557, 564, 566, 567, 577
Central44, 49, 50, 69, 146, 147, 163, 164, 170, 171, 172, 176, 178, 188, 213, 224, 258, 329, 348, 351, 361, 373, 374, 406, 416, 421, 426, 449, 478
East4, 43, 47, 49, 134, 146, 156, 188, 213, 221, 223, 235, 244, 250, 259, 274, 306, 309, 332, 362, 367, 375, 399–417, 464, 488, 556
Inner399
Minor274, 288, 361, 502
North49
South40, 45, 46, 47, 49, 83, 146, 235, 247, 258, 259, 277, 279, 283, 327, 333, 418–36, 484, 546, 568
Southeast5, 39, 43, 49, 79, 134, 146, 147, 151, 152, 155, 213, 221, 231, 232, 247, 250, 253, 254, 259, 271, 272, 273, 275, 279, 284, 293, 294, 327, 350, 387, 388, 389, 405, 407, 410, 411, 418–36, 487, 524, 547, 548, 556, 565, 568, 577
Southwest130, 133, 144, 145, 149, 161, 166, 177, 258, 326, 328, 329, 336, 437
Western47, 219, 284, 370, 372, 374
Asoka, emperor219
Assam252
Assur176, 289
Assyria55, 56, 58, 62, 64, 66, 176, 181, 211, 219, 290, 368, 370, 444
astronomy233, 236
(p. 584) Athens362, 422, 424, 497
Atlantic Ocean333, 405, 446, 480, 483, 493, 498, 500, 512, 564, 565, 567, 568, 570, 573, 574
basin529–45, 573
globalizing the history of536–41
migration in534–6
atomic bomb184, 243, 489, 556
Attila the Hun161
Aufklärung63–5; see also Enlightenment
Augustine of Hippo, Saint57, 58, 198, 211
Augustus58, 62, 219
Augustus Caesar292
Australasia127, 306, 313, 354, 546–63
‘Arc of Instability’558
Closer Economic Relations (CER) Agreement (1983)557
European settler societies and plantation colonies552–4
and the Great Depression (1929)555
impact of pre‐colonial European influences549–52
indigenous exploration and colonization547–8
intersection of European and indigenous worlds548–9
post‐war557–9
and the World Wars554–6
Australia98, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 145, 146, 147, 155, 157, 215, 230, 252, 253, 257, 258, 271, 278, 279, 280, 326, 327, 331, 332, 337, 338, 339, 347, 355, 380, 485, 487, 546, 547, 549, 551, 552, 553–5, 556, 557, 558, 559, 565, 571, 577
Aborigines549, 551, 552, 555, 557, 573, 575 see also Australasia; Oceania
Australopithecines230
Austria230, 488, 490
Austrian Succession War570
Austro‐Hungarian empire475, 487
Austronesia419, 548, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 577
automobile, invention of242
Avars476
Axial Age69, 214
Ayudhya422, 429
Aztec empire54, 65, 275, 362, 365, 370, 372, 375
Babones, Salvatore91
Babylon55, 56, 57, 58, 62, 176, 290, 443
Bacon, Francis74
Bactria65, 291, 295, 350
Bactria‐Margiana402
Baghdad223, 295, 365, 369, 427, 476
House of Wisdom235
Baghdadi al‐Masudi223
Bahia (Brazil)338, 511
Bahrain289, 290, 293
Bailyn, Bernard498
Bairoch, Paul308–9
Bakhtiari161
Balearics493
Balfour, Clara200, 201
Bali421, 435
Balkan Peninsula144, 328, 373
Balkan War281, 486
Balkans146, 438, 439, 442, 449, 475, 476, 479, 482, 486, 505
Baltic Sea274, 328, 494, 497, 498
Baltic states363, 487
Baltimore (US)512
Baluchistan425, 427
Bangladesh156, 285
Banks, Joseph572
Bantu people69, 152, 153, 273, 331, 332, 350, 458, 467
Mashariki467
Barbados512, 519
barbarians20, 21, 24, 233, 273, 348, 373, 403, 476; see also civilization
Barbarossa, Frederick59, 478
Barbarossa, Hayrettin505
Barcelona (Spain)422, 493, 496
Bardeen, John243
Barfield, Thomas187
Baron, E.202
Basra295
Basseri161
Batista, Fulgencio521
Batwa (‘Pygmies’)467
Baudelaire, Charles81
Bavaria477
Bayly, C.A.10, 72, 84, 96, 354
Bede, Venerable59
Bedouin161, 162, 164, 165, 172
(p. 585) Beijing (China)236, 409, 411
Beirut (Lebanon)295
Beja458
Belgium241, 252, 309, 470, 489, 515
Bell, Alexander Graham242
Bell Laboratories (US)243
Belorussia415
Benedict XVI, Pope212
Bengal29–30, 155, 248, 253, 298, 299, 386, 421, 422, 427, 428, 432, 484
Bay of339
Benin kingdom468
Bentley, Jerry, H.28, 69, 222, 276, 346–7
Benton, Lauren536
Benz, Karl242
Berbers496
Berenice292
Bering Strait272
Beringia131, 327
Berkeley School38
Berlin Act (1885)389
Berlin Wall, fall of559
Berners‐Lee, Tim244
Berrêdo Carneiro, Paulo E. de67
Bible1, 47, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 210, 213, 216, 219, 224, 485
Genesis216–17
New Testament56, 197
Old Testament57
Bin Wong, R.10, 187, 345
Bin Yang42
biography200, 201
biological exchange12, 13, 344
early days (to ca. 10,000BCE);326–7
from 11,000BCE to 1400CE;327–31
after 1400CE;333–9
seaborne331–3
in world history325–42
biosphere, see environment
Bismarck, Otto von388
Bismarck Archipelago565
Black Death329, 334, 431, 478, 504, 505
Black Sea45, 272, 291, 292, 296, 297, 330, 493, 494, 495, 497, 500
Bligh, Captain William381, 573–4
Bloch, Ernest19
Blom, Ida195, 204
Boccaccio197–8
Bodin, Jean480
Boer War (1899–1902)388, 486
Bohemia478
Bolivia511, 521, 524
Bolshevik revolution (1917)67, 390, 483, 487
Bombay (India)254, 432
Borneo40, 340
Boserup, Esther202
Bosphorus475, 493
Bossuet, Jacques Bénigne20, 22, 59, 61–2
Boston Harbor (US)530
Botswana182
Bougainville, Louis Antoine de238, 558, 571
Bougie (Algeria)499
Boulton, Matthew240
Bourbon dynasty481
Boxers (martial arts group)409, 486
Brahe, Tycho238
Brahmans419–21, 423
Brattain, Walter243
Braudel, Fernand27, 29, 96, 318, 422, 494, 496, 497, 499
Braun, Wernher von243
Brazil155, 252, 277, 278, 279, 280, 283, 284, 335, 337, 338, 339, 469, 472, 485, 494, 498, 510, 511, 514, 523, 524, 525, 537
Breasted, James Henry443–4
Brezhnev Doctrine522
Brinton, Crane72
Britain503
Britain, Battle of488
British Commonwealth434, 556
British empire222, 224, 280, 282, 432–3, 489–90; see also Great Britain
British Isles274
British Parliament387, 388, 481
British Raj433
Broken Hill (Australia)554
Bronze Age332, 495, 497, 500, 501
Brook, Timothy92
Brooks, Alison130
Brooks Higginbottom, Evelyn202
Broome, Richard551
Brosses, Charles de546, 570
Brown, V.198
Brown‐Grant, R198
(p. 586) Bruges494
Bruni, Leonardo480
Buddha69, 224
Buddhism46, 69, 213, 214, 219, 221, 291, 329, 350, 351, 353, 354, 356, 374, 375, 401, 403, 404, 406, 409, 415, 419, 420, 421, 423
Mahayana401, 403
Nichiren214
Sinhalese421
Zen/Chan214
Buenos Aires (Argentina)512
Bukhara295
Bulan (Khazar king)64
Bulgarian empire374, 477
Burckhardt, Jakob73
Burgundy296
Burma179, 556
British281, 389, 434
Burns, C. Delisle78
Burstein, Miriam200
Burstein, Stanley42
Burton, Richard422
Burundi470
Bush, George W.218, 559
Butterfield, Herbert27
Byblos290
Byzantium22, 64, 188, 274, 293, 296–7, 351, 368, 370, 373, 374, 375, 426, 446, 475, 476, 477, 495, 497, 498, 500, 502, 504
Cabot, John480
Cadiz514
Caesar62, 479
Caffa497
Cahokia509
Cain217
Cairo (Egypt)173, 223, 439, 497
Cairo Genizah documents497
Calcutta (India)253, 254, 299, 432
Calicut429
California (US)255, 339, 566
California School345
calligraphy236
Calvinism481
Cambay422, 429
Gulf of423
Cambodia420, 431, 435
Cameroon458
Campbell, Ian549
Canaan290, 501
Canada98, 146, 252, 279, 281, 284, 306, 513, 516–17, 518, 519, 523, 524
Canaries330, 479
Cannadine, David127–8
Cape of Good Hope534, 573
Cape Horn573
capital180–3, 190–1, 192, 249, 251, 256, 261, 298, 305, 306, 307, 313, 314, 316, 319, 321, 380, 381, 382, 414, 478, 533
capitalism6, 7, 22, 29, 67, 68, 77, 78, 96, 98, 99, 101, 306, 320, 357, 379, 381, 382, 383, 385, 393, 414, 415
and states and war189–92
Caribbean147, 182, 214, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 282, 283, 284, 335, 381, 392, 469, 482, 490, 494, 497, 498, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 518, 531, 537, 539
Carion, Johannes60
Carlyle, Thomas26, 81
Carneiro, Robert177
Caroline Islands548–9, 567, 569
Carolingian empire368, 424, 477
Carson, Rachel127, 256
Cartagena (Colombia)512, 514
Carter, Jimmy521
Carthage56, 288, 291, 463, 464, 495, 499, 501, 502
cartography41, 42, 236, 348, 354, 475, 477, 495; see also geography
Caspian Sea294, 339
caste9, 385, 421
Castells, Manuel101
Castilians468
Castor of Rhodes55
Castro, Fidel415, 521
Catalans496, 504
Catholicism20, 58, 213, 221, 222, 277, 355, 356, 477, 481, 482, 513, 537, 552, 577
Caucasus274, 294, 426
Celtic people274
Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation518
Ceuta493, 494, 498, 499
Ceylon275, 350
(p. 587) Chad, Lake463, 466
Chakrabarty, Dipesh6–7, 10, 30, 83
Chaldeans61, 291
Chamberlain, Joseph391
Chandler, Alfred308
Chang'an272, 294, 369
Chaophraya252
Chappe, Claude240
Charax291
Charlemagne62, 66, 370, 475, 476
Charles the Bald477
Charles V;480, 481
Charleston512
Chatterjee, Partha385
Chaudhuri, K.N.30, 203
Chavin181
Chennault, Claire412
Chernobyl (Ukraine)243
Chesapeake (US)338, 511
Chiang Kai‐shek410, 411, 412, 413
Chicago (US)253
Child, Lydia Maria200–1
Childe, V. Gordon68
Chile146, 252, 254, 339, 485, 508, 517, 519, 522, 523, 524
China4, 5, 10, 20, 22, 23, 31, 43, 46, 47, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 78, 79, 83, 92, 97, 98, 111, 128, 134, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151–2, 154, 155, 156, 157, 163, 165, 177, 178, 181, 183, 186–7, 188, 189–90, 213–14, 218–19, 221, 222, 224, 238, 241, 247, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 257, 258, 259, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 279, 280, 283, 284, 289, 291, 292–6, 297, 309, 311, 312, 314, 317, 319, 320, 321, 325, 327, 329, 330, 335, 336, 337, 339, 348, 350, 351, 353, 355, 357, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 372, 373, 374, 380, 381, 386–7, 388, 389, 391, 399, 400–1, 402–16, 421, 425, 429, 432, 434, 438, 444, 445, 471, 478, 479, 482, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 498, 518, 524, 529, 539, 547, 554, 558, 559, 568, 569, 573, 574–5, 576, 577
empire9, 166–73, 361–2, 402
and nomadic empires166–9, 170
technology and science232, 234, 236, 237, 244
Chinese Rites Controversy221
Chinggis Kahn161, 167, 172, 173, 220, 295–6, 370, 406, 430
Chirol, Valentine438, 443, 447–8
Chongqing411
Christendom20, 476, 505; see also Christianity
Christian, David39, 45, 70, 217
Christian, Fletcher574
Christianity1, 42, 46, 56–8, 59, 60–2, 66, 69, 97, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 219, 220, 221, 224, 238, 274, 293, 294, 295, 297, 350, 351, 354, 355, 356, 385, 401, 404, 407, 443, 465, 470, 475–6, 477, 478, 481, 494, 503–5, 550, 553, 556
chronology, see periodization
Chumash people566
Church of England512
Cipolla, Carlo Maria68
citizenship7, 21, 190, 273, 384, 555
civilization6, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 32, 37, 40, 45, 47, 48, 49, 62, 68, 69, 94, 97, 111, 199, 201, 212, 213, 217, 233, 237, 245, 272–3, 288, 348, 373, 384, 442, 443, 445, 449, 472, 476, 498
city‐states178, 181, 182, 183, 362, 365, 464, 465, 466, 480, 481, 508
class9, 30, 126, 164, 203, 383, 411
Clendinnen, Inga347
climate change132–3, 134–5, 149, 245, 261, 416, 425, 457, 508, 559
Clive, Robert386
Clovis64, 65
Cluniac reform477
Coclanis, Peter531
coercion180–3, 190–1, 192, 369
Cohn, Bernard S.356
Cold War99, 100, 258, 312, 315, 413, 416, 490, 520, 521, 522, 538, 540, 557, 558
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor483
collectivization414
Colombia155, 517
Columbian exchange154, 250, 276, 333–6, 337, 338, 340, 532, 533
Columbus, Christopher64, 220, 275, 333, 476, 478, 480, 505, 532
Comanche empire41, 335
Commercial Revolution, First464, 467
Common Era147, 151, 153, 508, 509
Commonwealth of Australia554
communication networks12, 13, 40, 100, 101, 136, 240, 241, 244, 305, 350, 367–8, 376, 488, 490, 539; see also trade
communism24, 100, 189, 282, 390, 411–13, 415, 483, 520–2
Communist International411
Company Raj432
Compte, Auguste110
computer, invention of243–4
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO)255
Condorçet, Antoine‐Nicolas de21, 22, 75, 80, 199
Confucianism69, 169, 215, 236, 237, 401, 403, 406, 409, 414
Confucius69, 221
Congo388, 457, 469, 470
Congo Free State470
Congo river (basin)147, 388, 467, 469
Congo‐Zambezi river153
Constance, Council of477
Constantine the Great219, 465, 475
Constantinople188, 234, 293, 422, 446, 475, 476, 479, 497, 500, 503, 504
fall of64, 66
constitutionalism484; see also democracy
Cook, Captain James220, 238, 337, 549, 571–3, 577
Cooke, William240
Cooper, Frederick384–5
Copernicus, Nicolas238
Coptos292
Copts496, 502, 506
Córdoba (Spain)274, 422
Martyrs504
Corfu496
Corinth496, 499, 502
Cornwall291
Coromandel coast295, 299
Coronil, Fernando11
Corsica496, 499
Cort, Henry240
Cortés, Hernán220
cosmography37
Cossacks482
Côte d'Ivoire458
Council of Trent57, 480
Counter‐Reformation480
Covenanted Indian Civil Service433
Cowden Clarke, Mary200, 201
Cranganore422
creation (myths)1, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59–60, 61, 62, 63, 216–17
Creoles282, 283, 530
Crete188, 330, 556
Crick, Francis244
Crimea497
Crimean War98
Criminal Tribes Act (UK)252
Crocombe, Ron558
Cromwell, Oliver481
Crosby, Alfred135, 333, 338, 532
Crown Colony493
crusades21, 65, 188, 223, 289, 297, 476, 477, 478, 495, 496, 504
Crutzen, Paul129
Ctesias of Cnidus56
Cuba279, 281, 338, 415, 486, 519, 521, 538
revolution392
cultural exchange12–13, 374
approaches to345–9
as a historical problem343–5
in modern times354–7
in pre‐modern times349–53
in world history343–60
Cultural Revolution (China)67, 414
cultural studies92
Cumae502
Curie, Marie243
Curie, Pierre243
Curtin, Philip42, 533
Cushites458, 459, 460, 464, 466, 467
Cuzco273, 369
Cyprus153, 188, 330, 493, 500
Cyrene464
Cyrus64, 65, 219, 291
Czechoslovakia488, 521
D'mt kingdom (Ethiopia)182
DNA244
Daendels, Willem434
Dahomey469
Dalai Lama415
Dalrymple, Alexander570
Damascus173, 294, 295, 465
Daniel58
Danube basin144
Daoism214, 217, 219, 402, 403
Dar‐es‐Salaam (Tanzania)464
Darby, Abraham240
Darby, Abraham II;240
Dardanelles493, 555
Darfur kingdom470
Darius57
Darius I;291
Dark Ages503
Darwin, Charles485, 572
Darwinism, social6, 380, 390
Datong (China)224
David57
De Gaulle, Charles556
De Groot, Joanna202
De Lorenzi, James42
Debal422
Debussy, Claude486
Deccan427, 428
Plateau151
decolonization282–5, 314, 386, 390, 489, 537–8, 539, 557–9
Defoe, Daniel212, 214
deforestation134, 136
deindustrialization311, 316
Delhi249, 427
DeLong, J. Bradford98
Demetrius of Phalerum56
democracy23, 64, 77, 179, 191, 416, 529
demography128, 148, 204, 269, 334, 337, 343, 364, 425, 533; see also population
Deng Xiaoping412, 414, 415
Dening, Greg347
Denmark478
Denoon, Donald551, 559
dependency theory383, 384
Descartes, René74
desertification157
despotism23, 48, 64
Diamond, Jared38, 202, 217
Dias, Bartolomeu64
Díaz, Porfirio517
Diderot, Denis47, 62, 97
Dinka161
Diocletian475
Dionysius Exiguus59
Dionysius of Halicarnassus56
diplomacy479, 480, 481
Dnieper River274
Doctors without Borders490
domestication, animal133, 134, 135, 136, 143, 144, 145, 147, 150, 152, 161, 232, 272, 325, 327–31, 334, 335, 456, 457, 471
Dominican Republic392, 519
Dominicans221
Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita355
Donbass region280
Dongola Reach461, 462
Dostoevsky, Feodor81
Douglas, Bronwen570
Doumer, Pauil435
Dowrick, Steve98
Duara, Prasenjit77
Dubrovnik (Ragusa)494, 497, 499, 505–6
Dumont D'Urville, Jules Sébastien546, 573
Dunhuang (China)292
Durkheim, Emile81, 82
(p. 590) Dutch East India Company430, 431, 434; see also English East India Company (EIC)
Dutch Republic289, 297, 298, 299, 337; see also Netherlands
Dutch Revolt (16th century)481, 483
dynasties, nomadic171–2
East, the48, 66, 204, 438, 440, 446, 477, 497; see also Far East; Near East; West, the
Eastern Railway (China)408
Eaton, Richard447
Ebla (Syria)289, 290
Economic Museum (Calcutta)253
economics9, 39, 89, 112, 114
economy66, 161, 168, 170, 189, 195, 247, 281, 294, 304, 310, 311, 314, 315, 317, 318, 319, 344, 345, 363, 371, 373, 383, 388, 406, 414–15, 421, 469, 477, 485, 511–12, 518, 519, 523, 554–6, 557
market77, 319
political344, 534–6, 538
Ecuador146
Edinburgh University21, 22
Edison, Thomas Alva241
Edo (Tokyo)407, 409
Egypt5, 20, 42, 55, 56, 57, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 95, 155, 177, 178, 181, 182, 183, 213, 223–4, 229, 232, 234, 235, 241, 257, 270, 272, 289, 290, 291, 293, 295, 297, 330, 350, 361, 369, 385, 388, 402, 426, 438, 440, 443, 444, 457, 458, 459, 460–2, 463, 469, 471, 472, 478, 487, 495, 496, 497, 501, 502, 503, 504, 506
New Kingdom361, 365, 369, 462
Egyptian exceptionalism460, 461, 462
Ehrenberg, Margaret202
Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried65
Einstein, Albert243
Eisenhower, Dwight David439
Eisenstadt, S.N.82–3
Ekkehard of Aura59
El Niño cycles548
El Salvador521, 522
Elam289, 290
Elath290
Elba499, 502, 504
Eliade, Mircea223
Elijah69
Eliot, George126
Elizabeth I, Queen481
Elliott, J.H.530
Elvin, Mark126
Emmer, Pieter97
empire183, 212
decline and fall371–3
justifying369–71
legacies373–5
modern362, 363; see also imperialism, ‘modern’
organizing365–8
pre‐modern361–78
and warfare363–5, 373 see also colonialism; imperialism
Engels, Friedrich66, 202
England154–5, 231, 248, 249, 250, 274, 289, 299, 336, 383, 386, 410, 475, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 484, 485, 506, 510, 511–12
English East India Company (EIC)288, 298–9, 386–7, 430, 484, 575
Enlightenment4, 5, 7, 19–35, 47, 62–3, 66, 75, 78, 79, 81–2, 84, 91, 211, 238, 356, 384, 385, 482, 483, 533, 537, 538, 549
Göttingen1, 63–5
Enlil (god)176, 180
Eolithic era316
Epeli Hau'ofa565, 566
epistemology105–21
Eratosthenes of Cyrene55
Eritrea388, 457
Esposito, John L.449
(p. 591) Ethiopia42, 65, 130, 145, 153, 156, 182, 212, 293, 297, 328, 335, 388, 426, 430, 457, 459, 465, 466, 470
ethnicity9, 180, 272, 373, 385
ethnocentrism11
ethnogenesis39, 273, 376
ethnography97, 201, 348, 354, 355, 571, 572–4
Etruscan495, 496, 501, 502
Etzel Pearcy, G.439
Euclid234
Euphrates river144, 145
Euphrates Valley146, 289, 317, 444
Eurasia1, 38, 40, 42, 44, 45, 47, 67, 69, 130, 131, 135, 161, 163, 169, 172, 173, 178, 182, 233, 247, 271, 273, 274, 296, 328, 329, 330, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 351, 364, 372, 380, 438, 476, 509
Central165, 166, 169, 399–417
East401, 405
Inner and Outer45
trade288–303
Eurocentrism2, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 22, 29, 31, 66, 67, 79, 94, 190, 556
Europa475
Europe4–7, 9, 10, 11, 20, 21, 22, 30, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 79, 83, 94, 96, 99, 100, 101, 127, 129, 132, 145, 146, 147, 155, 184, 187, 189–90, 203, 212, 214, 220, 233, 235, 236, 240, 241, 243, 244, 247, 250, 251, 257, 272, 278, 279, 294, 306–8, 309, 316, 317, 319, 321, 325, 327, 328, 329, 337–8, 347, 348, 351, 354, 355, 356, 357, 370, 375, 386, 388, 411, 419, 430, 456, 468–71, 472, 488, 506, 524, 530, 533, 534, 535, 539, 546, 549–554, 556, 566, 568
ancient475–7
Central254, 282, 488
classical233–5
downfall of empires489–90
early modern10, 77, 97
in the East (ca. 1100–1750)296–9
Eastern47, 247, 282, 285, 315, 320, 391, 392, 438, 478, 483, 485, 488, 489, 518, 524
global migration and communication490–1
imperial483–6; see also colonialism; empire; imperialism
medieval1, 29, 57, 60, 111, 233–5, 274, 296, 424, 477–9
nineteenth‐century2, 4, 5, 8
Northern146, 231, 234, 336, 478, 500, 505
Northwest98, 154
Renaissance247, 481–3
Southern134, 145, 468, 488, 518
twentieth‐century global warfare486–9
Western37–8, 47, 48, 50, 68, 75, 77, 78, 80, 98, 112, 177, 199, 234, 235, 237, 250, 252, 254, 280, 284, 439, 440, 441, 465, 468, 503, 521, 556
in world history475–92 see also Old World
European Economic Community (Common Market)490, 553
European Union213, 283, 475, 493, 507, 524
Eusebius of Caesarea57, 58, 60, 478
Evans, Arthur506
evidence107–8, 120
historical3, 8, 113
primary vs secondary108, 113
evolution39–40, 230, 485
human129, 138, 455–6
Ezana, King465
Faeroes479
Fage, Mary199
Falklands War (1982)522
Far East438
Faraday, Michael241
Fatimids295, 504
Federated Malay States434
Federico, Giovanni257
Feierman, Steven11
feminism195, 201, 202, 285; see also gender
Ferghana (Uzbekistan)292, 400
Ferguson, Adam20
Fermi, Enrico243
Fernández‐Armesto, Felipe128
Fernando VII;514
(p. 592) Fertile Crescent mountain range144, 272, 327
feudalism6, 66, 67, 78, 465, 478
Fiji550, 553, 558, 565, 567
Finland487
Firth, C.H.26
Fisher, W.B.439–40
Flanders251, 494
Flannery, Tim131
Flood, the54, 55, 56, 57, 61, 63, 65
flight, invention of242
Florence422, 479, 480, 481
Flynn, Dennis O.44, 45
Fonte, Moderata199
foraging128, 130, 133, 144, 146, 147, 150, 231, 272, 328, 456, 467, 471
Ford, Henry242
Forster, Georg572
Forster, Johann Reinhold572
fossil fuels129, 136, 245, 254, 261
Foucault, Michel81–2, 203
France21, 43, 190, 222, 238, 241, 252, 277, 280, 281, 282, 299, 315, 380, 381, 384, 386, 388, 389, 390, 391, 408, 409, 410, 413, 432, 470, 477, 478, 479, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 487, 488, 489, 490, 493, 497, 501, 505, 506, 510, 512, 513, 515, 518, 530, 531, 537, 550, 552, 556, 557, 564, 571, 572, 575, 577
Vichy government413, 556 see also French Revolution
Franconia477
Frank, Andre Gunder79, 345, 383
Frankish War374
Franks64, 188, 475, 476, 477
Frederick the Great482
Frederick II;478
French Revolution66, 76, 81, 307, 308, 384, 483, 514, 533, 537, 571, 575
Freud, Sigmund486
Friedlander, Saul220
Frisia476
Frye, Richard446
Fulton, Robert240
Futa Jallon mountains (Guinea)470
Galen234
Galileo Galilei74, 238
Gallagher, John384
Gallican Church477
Galoup, Jean‐François de571
Gandhi, Mahatma127, 385, 412, 487
Ganges river146, 147, 418, 419, 428
Ganges Valley151, 421
Gansu corridor292, 424
Gaonkar, Dilip Parameshwar83
Garamantes363
Gardiner, S.R.26
Garrard, Timothy464
Gatterer, Johann Christoph1, 7, 65
Gaul503
Gaur422
Gaza292
Geertz, Clifford11, 344
Geller, Daniel190
gender2, 9, 13, 127, 148, 195–209, 269, 285, 448–9, 554
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade393
General Electric516, 517, 523
genetics244, 260–1, 272, 325
Geneva (Switzerland)481
Genoa (Italy)188, 297, 479, 493, 495, 497, 499, 504
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)41, 42
geography6, 8, 13, 22, 36–53, 92, 107, 113, 115, 117, 127, 128, 210, 213, 223, 234, 346, 354, 424–6, 568
academic37–9
Georgia (US)338
German Historical School307
Germany9, 22–5, 43, 48, 59, 66, 99, 100, 220, 241, 242, 243, 254, 274, 284, 309, 315, 356–7, 382, 388, 389, 408, 409, 410, 413, 475, 477, 478–9, 480, 485, 487, 488–9, 503, 506, 515, 518, 519, 553, 554
Third Reich220, 282
Gerrha291
Gerschenkron, Alexander307
Geyl, Pieter26
Ghana182, 465
Ghaznavids166, 427
Ghurids427
(p. 593) Gibbon, Edward20, 22
Gibraltar438, 499, 506
Rock498
Straits493, 494, 500
Giddens, Anthony77
Giglio496
Gilbert Islands557, 564
Gills, Barry K.95
Gilroy, Paul534
Gimbutas, Marija202
Ginzburg, Carlo216
Giráldez, Arturo44, 45
Glacken, Clarence126
Glasgow (Scotland)512
globalization11, 12, 13, 30–1, 40, 44, 89–104, 222, 357, 388, 393, 399, 437, 440, 442, 444, 446, 448, 449, 490–1, 524–5, 559, 566, 567
biological333–9; see also biological exchange
contemporary99–101
cultural99, 340; see also culture
and global history93–5
modern10, 97–9
glocalism92, 93, 270
Glorious Revolution (1688)67, 481
Gobi desert292, 498
God8, 56, 568
Goddard, Robert243
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von99
Goitein, S.D.497
Goldcoast388
Golden Bull (1356)479
Goldschmidt, Arthur448
Goldstone, Jack345
Gondwanaland338
Goodrich, Samuel199
Goody, Jack10
Gorbachev, Mikhail S.100, 415
Gordon, T.R.438, 443, 447
governance98, 101, 366, 557
government(s)21, 23, 101, 111, 135, 157, 190, 229, 236, 237, 251, 258, 310, 312, 320, 339–40, 362, 365, 406, 416, 435, 447, 476, 477, 480, 490, 523, 550, 554
Gramsci, A.29, 30
Granada (Spain)505
Grand Canal (China)236, 294, 407
Grand Khan Möngke171
Great Britain43, 44, 64, 81, 99, 132, 184, 190, 191, 238, 239–41, 242, 252, 280, 282, 306, 308, 309, 311, 314, 315, 317, 318, 319, 320, 326, 328, 339, 380, 381, 383, 384, 386–9, 390, 391, 392, 404, 406, 408, 409, 410, 432, 439, 469, 478, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489–90, 506, 511, 512–13, 514, 515–17, 518, 522, 530, 531, 534, 535, 537, 550, 552, 555, 556, 557, 558, 572, 575; see also British empire; England
Great Depression (1929)281, 411, 488, 519, 520, 555
Great Divergence problem94
Great Schism476, 477
Great Seljuqs dynasty366
Great Wall of China161, 166, 173, 292, 406
Greater East Asian Co‐Prosperity Sphere389, 411
Greece146, 189, 317, 498, 500, 506, 556
ancient21, 38, 46, 62, 64, 66, 69, 233–4, 235, 236, 237, 290–1, 348, 365, 366, 374, 445, 446, 464, 477, 495, 496, 501, 502, 503
Greater (Magna Graecia)502
Mycenaean500 see also antiquity, classical; Athens; Hellenism
Greek orthodox religion476, 477, 478, 479
Green, William A.31–2
Green Revolution156, 257, 259
Greenland42, 274, 479
Grew, Raymond19, 91, 97–8
Grotius, Hugo568
Guam548, 569
Guangzhou (Canton)294, 298, 407, 408, 574, 575
Guatemala509, 520, 521
Guha, Ramachandra126, 127
Guha, Ranajit30
Guicciardini, Francesco479
Gujarat (India)427
‘gun‐powder revolution’172
Gupta dynasty151, 361, 423
Gutenberg, Johannes237
HIV/AIDS533
Haas, R. de199
(p. 594) Habsburg empire281, 380, 475, 479
Habsburg‐Valois conflict480, 481
Haggin, James B.518
Haiti384, 392, 483–4, 514, 519, 564
Revolution (1791–1804)338, 384, 514, 533, 537
Hajj223, 224
Hale, Sarah Josepha200, 201
Hamalainen, Pekka41
Han dynasty69, 151, 166–7, 168, 170, 171, 172, 181, 236, 247, 292, 329, 351, 361, 362, 365, 367, 373, 375, 403, 404, 405, 406, 410
Hangzhou (China)404, 405
Hanseatic League296, 498
Harappa418, 422
Hardt, Michael379
Hargreaves, James239
Harrison, John239
Harvey, William238
Hastings, Warren386
Hausa470
Havana512
Hawai`i220, 280, 488, 548, 549, 550, 551, 553, 566, 575, 576, 577
Hawkesworth, John572
Hay, Mary200
Hebrews1, 56, 64, 273, 280
Black214 see also Jews
Heers, Jacques499
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich4–5, 6, 8, 22, 23–4, 66, 75, 76, 110
Held, David90
Hellenism69, 213, 274, 445, 495
Helms, Mary W.346, 347
Henry IV;481
Henry VIII;481
Henry of Navarre481
Henry the Navigator, Prince479
Hephthalites (White Huns) empire424, 425
Herder, Johann Gottfried von22, 345
herding144, 146, 148, 150, 161, 163, 178, 231, 233, 328, 339, 459, 471, 505, 517
Herero people357
Herodotus7, 42, 46, 55, 196, 210, 292, 424
Herrad of Hohenbourg197
Hertz, Heinrich242
Hesiod55, 217
Heyerdahl, Thor566
Heylyn, Peter36
Hideyoshi406
Hildegarde of Bingen197
Himalaya333
Hindu dynasties419–20
Hindu Kush291
Hinduism1, 54, 211, 213, 214, 353, 354, 420, 421, 428
Hippalus291
Hiram I, King290
Hiroshima184
historical analysis2, 109–16
historical record1, 10, 60, 106
historical scholarship, professional1–16
and the problem of Europe4–7
and the problem of the Nation7–9
historicism26, 93
historiography6, 10, 31, 84, 111, 117, 118, 201, 354
Chinese361
Christian56–8, 60–2, 63
European62–6
Greek and Roman55–6, 58
and imperialism382–6
Marxist66–7
Medieval European58–9
Mediterranean422
Muslim59–60
and representation116–18
Subaltern School30, 269
history, universal (Universalgeschichte)1, 5, 20–2, 47, 63
Hitler, Adolf488
Hittites233, 290, 495
Hmong282
Ho Chi‐minh411, 413, 435
Hobbes, Thomas74, 480
Hobbs, C.201
Hobsbawm, Eric27
Hobson, J.A.382–3
Hodgson, Marshall G.S.45, 69–70, 143, 445
Hohenstaufen478
Hokkaido348, 408
Holl, Augustin463
Holland, see Netherlands
(p. 595) Holocaust81, 220
Holocene era70, 471, 472
Holsti, Kalevi J.190
Holy Land504
Holy Roman Empire475, 476, 478, 495
Homer69
Homo habilis230
Homo erectus130, 230
Homo sapiens40, 113, 129, 132, 137, 230, 270
migration271–2
homosexuality204
Hong Kong186, 254, 413, 414, 415
Honolulu575
Hopewell civilization509
Hopkins, A.G.96
Horden, Peregrine494
Horn, Georg61, 63
Horn of Africa182, 290, 291, 438, 457, 466
early towns and states in464–5
Horus181
Hoselitz, Bert305
House of Islam222
Hoysalas428
Hughes, Brady202, 203
Hughes, Donald126
Hughes, Sarah202, 203, 204
Huguenots277, 481, 482, 537
Hui, P.K.393
human rights416
humanism480
Humboldt, Alexander von572
Hume, David20
Hundred Years' War478
Hung, H.393
Hungary254, 285, 477, 478, 482
Huns162, 269, 475, 476
hunting and gathering128, 130, 143, 144, 148, 149, 153, 161, 178, 233, 271, 288, 349, 364, 456, 508, 547, 551, 552
Huntington, Samuel49, 449
Hurmuz296, 297
husbandry160, 163, 169
IBM Corporation243
Iberia274, 276, 279, 291, 383, 476, 514, 568
Ibn al‐Haytham (Alhazen)235
Ibn Jubayr223, 504
Ibn Khaldun1, 162, 165, 172, 222
Ibn Rushd (Averroes)235
Ibn Sina (Avicenna)235
Ibsen, Henrik81
ice age455, 456
Iceland274, 340, 479
idealism, dialectical22, 23–4
ideology2–3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 348, 356, 369, 370, 371, 373, 375, 384, 392, 537
Ife466
Igbo‐Ukwu466
Ile‐Ife466
Iltutmish427
Imperial Maritime Customs Agency (China)381
imperialism4, 7, 12, 13, 22, 29, 41, 45, 84, 96, 99, 273, 289, 291–3, 337, 343, 348, 350, 408, 437, 448, 450, 481, 482, 483–6, 521, 577
in Africa468–71
and capitalism381–2, 383, 385, 393
vs empire379–82
historiography382–6
Marxist/Lenin theory of382–3
‘metrocentric’ understanding of384
mid‐twentieth century transformation390–3
modern379–95
and nationalism381–2, 384, 385, 388, 389, 390, 393
‘new’362, 389, 485
nomadic166–9, 178, 362
in south and southeast Asia431–5
ultra‐393 see also colonialism; empire
Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI)522–3
Inca empire65, 275, 336, 362, 365, 369, 372, 374, 375, 509, 510
India4, 5, 9, 20, 22, 23, 30, 31, 47, 62, 65, 66, 69, 78, 79, 95, 98, 127, 134, 147, 151, 156, 213, 214, 222, 232, 233, 239, 241, 244, 253, 254, 257, 258, 275, 277, 279, 280, 283, 284, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 297, 298–9, 309, 311, 314, 315, 317, 319, 321, 329, 330, 332, 333, 339, 350, 351, 353, 356, 361, 374, 387, 388, 392, 401, 402, 405, 415, 424, 430, 445, (p. 596) 459, 460, 464, 480, 485, 487, 510, 518, 539, 553, 556
British283, 381, 432–5, 484, 570
Independence489
Mutiny (1857–1858)432, 433
Indian Ocean (basin)45, 69, 96, 176, 182, 214, 272, 274, 274, 275, 276, 277, 284, 288, 289, 291, 293, 294, 296, 297, 299, 330, 333, 337, 426, 429, 430, 431, 433, 464, 467, 468, 469, 471, 478, 494, 497, 504, 518, 564, 565, 568
Indian Rebellion (1857)485
Indies479, 506
East569
West275, 482, 575
Indo‐China213, 282, 389, 435
Indonesia132, 292, 298, 355, 419, 422, 426, 435, 464, 467, 489, 524, 546, 565
Indus332
Indus river (delta)146, 274, 289, 291, 292, 328, 350, 422
Indus Valley68, 146, 153, 177, 178, 181, 183, 232, 235, 350, 402, 418, 419
industrial revolution68, 316, 317, 318, 321, 381, 386, 404, 432, 484
acceleration of change (1869–1939)241–2
first (ca. 1750–1869)239–40, 306, 309, 319
second306, 308
‘third’310
industrialism68, 127
industrialization2, 4, 6, 10, 13, 77, 99, 154–5, 191, 202, 203, 204, 252–61, 269, 270, 304–24, 330, 354, 386, 506, 530, 533, 534, 541
in the Americas515–18
on a global scale316–21
as a historical process306–8 see also industrial revolution
Inland Sea408
Interdisciplinary Transcultural Societal Studies269
International Monetary Fund (IMF)393, 523
Internet100, 136, 229, 244, 415
Inuits (Eskimos)231
Investiture Controversy477
Ionian Sea496
Iran153, 163, 164, 165, 166, 172, 181, 289, 291, 294, 350, 351, 366, 368, 370, 372, 374, 380, 402, 405, 478, 487
Islamic Revolution (1978–1979)441, 449
Iraq366, 379, 393, 522
Ireland251, 336, 514, 518
potato famine255, 336
Irrawaddy deltas252
Isaac, Rhys347
Isabella of Castile476
Isaiah, Second69
Isidore of Seville58–9
Isis502
Islamic Empire, first465
Islamic Green Revolution247
Israel57, 69, 211, 213, 499, 507, 521
Istanbul498, 500
Italy43, 99, 144, 186, 188, 230, 289, 296, 309, 382, 388, 476, 477, 479, 480, 481, 485, 486, 487, 487, 488, 489, 495, 496, 497, 499, 500, 501, 503, 505, 506, 511, 520, 531, 556
Iulius Africanus56
Ivan III (‘the Great’)479, 482
Ivan IV (‘the Terrible’)482
Jains421
Jamaica381, 512, 519, 535
James VI of Scotland (James I of England), King481
Japan Sea497, 498
(p. 597) Jardin des Plantes (Paris)238
Jaspers, Karl1, 69, 214
Java248, 253, 295, 298, 421, 423, 431, 434, 435
War (1825–1830)434
Jerome, Saint57, 58, 197
Jerusalem46, 219, 476, 504
Jewish temple211, 213
Temple Mount224–5
Jesuits97, 215, 221, 482, 569
Jesus56, 57, 58, 64, 355
jet plane, invention of242–3
Jews55, 56, 57, 62, 64, 220, 222, 224, 273, 275, 281, 282, 294, 295, 404, 485, 495, 497, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 537
Jianxi372, 412
Jimmu Tenno215
Jin dynasty363, 404
Jingdezhen372
Johnson‐Odim, Cheryl203
Jordan197
Jordan (country)291
Judah57
Judaism211–12, 215, 274, 375, 443, 537; see also Jews
Judea66, 219
Jurchen Jin167
Justinian476
Juvaini7
Juvenal197
Kaarta kingdom470
Kabul (Afghanistan)427
Kalgoorlie554
Kalidasa126
Kamehameha dynasty575
Kames, Lord199
Kanauj422
Kandinsky, Wassily486
Kanem empire466
Kangxi emperor (China)482
Kanish290
Karabalghasun (Uighur)170
Karakhanid state405
Kasanje kingdom469, 472
Kashmir427, 428
Kazaks161, 406, 407
Kazan482
Keddie, Nikki449
Keller, Christoph (Cellarius)61
Kemal, Mustafa448
Kenya252, 279, 283, 284, 288, 295, 388, 460, 489–90, 522
Kepler, Johannes238
Kerma461–2
Khalajis427
Khartoum459
Khazanov, Anatoly M.163
Khazar empire375
Khitans366
Khoi273
Khrushchev, Nikita414
Khurasan291
Khwarazm Shahs166
Khwarezm400
Kierkegaard, Søren81
Kiev477, 478, 479
Kikuyu people490
Kim Il‐song413
Kinai (Japan)249
Kirghiz161
Kiribati, Republic of564
Kirk, George448
Klein, Richard129
Klieman, Kairn467
Knossos506
Kokoda Trail (Papua New Guinea)556
Kondratiev, Nicolai98
Kongo kingdom355, 467, 469
Konkan423
Korea147, 271, 315, 350, 364, 375, 391, 392, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 409, 410, 413, 414, 498
War (1950)413 see also North Korea; South Korea
Koror575
Krakatau422
Krishna river428
Kublai Khan429
Kuk swamp548
Kunitz, Stephen551
Kushan empire291, 292, 351, 361, 369, 375, 424, 425, 462
(p. 598) Kuznets, Simon304, 305, 306, 307
Kyoto (Japan)400, 405, 407
Kyrgyzstan404, 416
La Peyrère, Isaac60–1
Lagos385
Lahore422
Lake Van176
Lal, Vinay30
Lamprecht, Karl29
Landes, David S.38
Lane, Franklin393
language9, 21, 39, 40, 93, 97, 108, 138, 180, 213, 217, 230, 350, 352, 356, 366–7, 369, 401, 402–3, 456, 457, 458, 477–8, 480, 531, 565, 566
Laos435
Laozi69
Lapland238
Lapps161
Latin213, 374, 477–8
law380, 476, 477, 479, 480, 482
League of Nations99, 393, 411, 487
Lebanon290, 501
Lebrun, Albert390
Leclerc, Georges‐Louis65
Legge, James222
Leguia, August518
Leibniz, Gottfried97
Lenin, Vladimir383, 411, 412
Leopold, King388, 470
Lepanto battle505
Lerner, Gerda202
Levant144, 150, 153, 329, 330, 424, 455, 456, 464, 496, 500
Lévi‐Strauss, Claude68
Lewis, Bernard447, 449
Lewis, Robert Benjamin7
Liao dynasty365
Liao river400
Lima (Peru)518
Limpopo Valley468
Lindert, Peter191
Linné, Carl (Linnaeus)572
Lippershey, Hans238
Lisbon512, 514
literacy369
Lithuania478, 479, 482
Liverpool253
Livi‐Bacci, Massimo133
Livingstone, David222
Livorno495, 499, 505
Liberia279, 388, 470, 533, 537
liberty31, 73, 76, 385
Libya46, 506, 507
linguistic turn2
Lockard, Craig445
Locke, John76, 80
Lodis427
Lombardy188, 336, 475, 476
London512, 517, 553, 554; see also England; Great Britain
London Missionary Society577
Lono (god)220, 549
Loraine, Sir Percy439
Lorraine477
Lothair476
Louis, King of East Germany477
Louis XIV, King63, 482
Lualaba River467
Luba empire469
Luce, Henry412
Lukashenka, Alexander415
Lunda empire469
Lurs161
Luther, Martin60, 64, 480, 481
Luxembourg, Rosa383
Lydia367
Lyotard, Jean François11
Macao186, 297, 405, 406
Macaulay, Thomas Babbington26
McAuley, Beth203
McBrearty, Sally130
Macedonian empire56, 58, 64, 184, 274
McGrew, Anthony90
(p. 599) Machiavelli, Niccolò479, 481
McMichael, A.J.138
McNeill, John R.128, 129, 135, 137, 349, 445, 531
McNeill, William H.27, 28, 31, 48, 69, 127, 349, 444, 445, 446
Madagascar40, 332
Madeira330, 505
Magellan, Ferdinand337, 548, 566, 568
Magellan Exchange337, 338
Maghreb59, 295, 331, 496, 498, 504
Magyars477
Mahabharata215
Mahan, Alfred Thayer438, 441, 443, 447
Maitland, Frederic William26
Majapahit421
Majorca504, 506, 507
Makin, Bathsua199
Makran coast427
Malabar coast291, 292, 293, 421, 423, 431
Malagasy467
Malay‐Indonesian archipelago426, 428, 429
Malay peninsula293, 434
Malaya, British339, 389, 434
Malaysia284, 524
Mali331, 457, 463, 466, 469
Malta388, 438, 493, 499
Siege (1565)505
Maluku568
Malwa427
Mamluk188
Manchu Qing167
Manchu state406, 407
Manchukuo390, 391–2, 393, 411, 487
Manchuria147, 184, 252, 281, 348, 389, 390, 392, 399, 400, 401, 408, 411
Manchus64, 187, 409–10
Manetho55
Manhattan Project243
Manichaeism351, 375, 405
Manila44, 95, 276, 405, 548, 568, 569, 570
Manila Galleon trade564, 574–5, 577
Manning, Patrick539
Mansura422
Manu215
Mao Zedong221, 410, 412–13, 414, 415
Māori550, 551, 552, 555, 556, 557
Map, Walter197
Mapungubwe state182, 468
Maratha428
Marconi, Guglielmo242
Marcus Aurelius293
Marduk219
Mariana Islands549, 550
markets98, 100, 155, 169, 190, 244, 251, 314, 316, 320, 321, 372, 381, 382, 383, 387, 388, 407, 411, 414, 415, 468, 469, 511, 523, 539, 553, 568, 575, 576
Marks, Robert B.79, 345
Marquesas Islands347, 550, 569
Marseille422
Marsh, George Perkins127
Martel, Charles476
Martin, Lawrence439
Martin, Paul131
Martini, Martino60
Martinique282
Marx, Karl24, 27, 30, 66–7, 75, 77, 81, 82, 110, 306, 307, 411
Marxism12, 24, 27, 28, 29, 30, 66–7, 202, 382, 384, 414, 448; see also communism
Maryland338
Masai161
Massachusetts (US)534
materialism, dialectical24, 110; see also Marxism
Matthew Paris59
Mauretania462
Mauritius280
Mauryan empire351, 361, 367, 369, 423
Maxwell, James Clerk242
Maya empire1, 150, 152, 182, 275, 347, 362, 509
Mazlish, Bruce29, 31, 216
Mecca223
Black Stone224
Medes55, 56, 58, 62, 66
media77, 91, 99, 100, 412
Medicis62
Mediterranean4, 5, 6, 42, 61, 63, 135, 146, 152, 153, 176, 178, 188, 189, 273, 274, 275, 277, 283, 291, 297, 328, 330, 335, 350, 351, 362, 375, 402, 422, 438, 439, 445, 458, 464, 465, 466, 471, 479, 480, 489
classic499–507
First500–1
Third503–5
Fourth505–6
Fifth506–7
history493–507
Mediterranean Sea493, 494, 495, 497, 498, 500
Méhégan, Chevalier de21, 22
Meiji409
Meiners, Christoph199
Mekong252
Melaka (Straits)294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 405, 421, 422, 423, 429, 431, 434, 568
Melanchthon, Philipp60
Melanesia152, 419, 546, 548, 550, 556, 573, 576, 577
Melbourne (Australia)554
Melbourne school of ethnographic history347–8, 349
Meloria battle (1284)504
Melos500
Melville, Herman81
Mendel, Gregor244
Mendels, Franklin307
Menes, King181
Meroe 642
Merovingian kings (Francia)476
Merwick, Donna347
Mesoamerica134, 145, 152, 182, 232, 272, 275, 276, 316, 317, 328, 331, 362, 372, 508, 509
Mesopotamia1, 55, 61, 67, 95, 134, 146, 153, 213, 232, 235, 270, 272, 288, 289, 290, 291, 296, 327, 350, 351, 361, 370, 373, 374, 402, 439, 444, 476, 501
metageographies43–4, 47, 48, 49
metallurgy153, 229, 232–3, 241, 402, 418, 463, 471
métissage (mestizaje)270, 274
Mexica370, 509, 510
Mexico41, 65, 156, 157, 177, 220, 254, 275, 335, 392, 480, 482, 511, 517, 518, 519, 522, 523
Valley232, 509–10
Mezhirich131
Micronesia152, 485, 546, 548, 550, 554, 557, 573, 577
Middle Ages59, 64, 66, 67, 224, 237, 307, 316, 476, 478, 493, 495, 496, 497, 504; see also Europe, ‘medieval’
Middle East29, 146, 147, 164, 173, 231, 232, 234, 235, 237, 244, 290, 311, 316, 317, 385, 401, 402, 405, 456, 457, 459, 464, 466, 469, 471, 475, 477, 485, 487, 489, 501
ancient history443–5
classical and medieval445–7
as a concept437–41, 449–50
empires176–94
modern447–9
in world history437–54
Middle Eastern Studies441, 448
migration69, 91, 92, 130, 135, 137, 146, 160, 258, 269–87, 314, 327, 328, 332, 343, 349, 350, 374, 399, 407, 419, 476, 478, 485–6, 539, 557
in the Americas518–19
in the Atlantic ocean basin534–6
in Europe490–1
mass12, 13
Mediterranean494, 496, 498, 500
nineteenth‐century278–80
oceanic529; see also Oceania
seaborne272–3
since the 1950s282–5
and societies (500BCE–1500CE)273–5
systems‐approach269–70
Milan (Italy)479, 480
Milankovitch, Milutin132
Miles, Rosalind202
Millar, John199
Ming dynasty152, 167, 168, 236, 296, 297, 351, 375, 405–6, 410, 569
Minoan Crete290, 500
Minoans500
Minorca506
miracles351–2
misogyny197
Misra, Joya202
missiles race (US–USSR)243
missionaries5, 6, 97, 221–2, 273, 351–2, 354, 355, 356, 401, 480, 537, 550, 569, 577
Mississippi River (US)510
Mississippi Valley (US)275, 509
Moche508
Model T (automobile)242
modern era129, 135–6, 349
modernism25–8, 29, 31
(p. 601) modernity6, 12, 13, 20, 21, 24, 30, 72–88, 89, 93, 99, 220
critiques of80–2
European7, 10, 12, 13
global79–80, 83–4
as a project75–7
substantive77–9
in south and southeast Asia429–31
temporal vs substantial conception of72–3
modernization school344, 345
Mohenjo‐daro418, 422, 423
Mombasa299
monarchies362, 367, 477, 479, 481, 482, 514
Monastir507
Mongol Il‐Khans166
Mongolia1, 7, 64, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166–71, 181, 187, 188, 219, 220, 224, 238, 252, 269, 289, 293–6, 297, 329, 351, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 370, 372, 373, 399, 400, 401, 405, 406, 410, 415, 416, 424, 425, 427, 429, 476, 477, 478
monogenesis572
Monroe, James392
Monroe Doctrine392, 393
Monsanto261
Monteczuma482
Montesquieu7, 97
Montreal (Canada)512
Moorish kingdom476, 479
Mormonism218
Morocco257, 330, 351, 388, 496, 498, 503, 521
Morris, Marilyn204
Morse, Samuel240
Moruroa557
Moscati, Sabatino444
Moscow (Russia)478
Moses57, 63, 64
Mothe le Vayer, François de la61
Mughal empire96, 366, 371, 375, 380, 386, 430
Mughal Raj432
Muhammad62, 64, 66, 222, 223, 224, 237, 294, 476
Muhammad Tor422
Multan422
multinational corporations (MNCs)315, 316, 319
Mumbai385
Murphey, Rhoads184–5
Muscovy370, 482
music3, 496
Mussolini, Benito488
Myanmar434, 435
Mycenae500, 506
Mykonos507
myth1, 3, 108, 180, 215, 217, 218, 354, 400, 475, 502, 549, 566, 568
and history54–5N
Nabta Playa460, 461, 471
Nagasaki184, 407, 568
Namier, Lewis25
Nandy, Ashis203
Nanjing411
Nanjing Treaty484
Nantes Edict (1598)481
Napata462
Naples479
Bay503
Napoleon181, 381, 386, 475, 476, 506, 514
Napoleonic Wars81, 279, 434
Naqada471
narratives8, 9, 11, 19, 93, 116, 117, 118, 199, 216, 535, 538
Nasser, Gamal Abdel223
nation‐states2, 4, 36, 41, 43, 77, 94, 99, 101, 204, 269, 362, 381, 382, 386, 390, 391, 393, 406, 410, 480
as the focus of historical analysis7–9, 10, 11–13 see also nations; states
national communities8, 9, 12, 13; see also nation‐states
National Defense Education Act (US)49, 439
nationalism8, 9, 23, 31, 381, 382, 384, 385, 388, 389, 390, 393, 399, 410, 411, 412, 447, 448, 529
nations6, 21, 26, 31, 111, 270, 385, 480; see also nation‐states
Native Americans214, 216, 217, 218, 220, 231, 482, 484, 566, 570
NATO531, 538
Nazca508
(p. 602) Nazism25, 48, 220
neanderthals455, 499
Near East68, 163, 172, 188, 219, 438, 439, 442, 443, 444, 446, 448, 450, 503
Negri, Antonio379
negritude282
Negus293
Nehru, Jawaharlal7
Neidjie, Bill126
Neo‐Assyrian dynasty361, 369
Neolithic Age177, 231, 246, 418, 442
Neolithic revolution68
Nepal292
Netherlands64,