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date: 25 January 2022

Abstract and Keywords

For many centuries, South Asia and Southeast Asia did not constitute two distinct regions of the world but one. This one region encompassed the bulk of the landmasses, islands and maritime spaces which were affected by the seasonal monsoon winds. Throughout its fertile and often extensive river plains it adopted recognizably similar patterns of culture and settled organization. Early geographers mostly referred to it as ‘India’. This article describes the expansion of agriculture and settled society; kings and Brahmans; a graveyard of cites in the Mediterranean that were centers of power and civilization geography and the world-historical context; the Indo-Islamic world; pathways to early modernity; and the effects of European imperialism.

Keywords: India, Mediterranean, geography, Indo-Islamic world, European imperialism

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