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date: 19 October 2019

(p. 761) Subject Index

(p. 761) Subject Index

527 organizations619, 632
absentee voting:
and availability of182, 184
and demographic characteristics187
and long-established procedure183
and party/candidate mobilization efforts187, 188–9
and turnout111, 184, 187
and voter confidence in222 see also early voting
acquiescence response bias, and survey design38–9
and conventional participation145, 146
and marginal groups145, 147
tactical repertoires154–5
and protest activities147–8
and social movement perspective on149–50
and toolbox theory of participation151–4
advantages of153–4
assessing effectiveness of political actions153
data and methods156–8
impact of access to decision‐makers152
influence on tool deployment153
opportunities for engagement153
political action repertory151–2
questions and theory building155–6
and unconventional participation145–6
impact on policy outcomes148–9
increase in148
lack of attention to146
and ballot proposition elections533–4
and focus on battleground states338
and impact of tone on turnout62–3, 114
and interest groups621
in judicial election campaigns494–5
and mobilization:
issue content589
negative campaigning588–9
and primary elections518, 519
and voter behavior254, 333
and direct democracy533
and influence of the media60–1, 308
and interest groups620–1
ambition theory515
American Civil Liberties Union135
American Federation of Labor (AFL)616, 618
American Independence Party94
American National Election Studies (ANES)27, 138–9
and developments in708–9
and impact of research approaches690
and participation questions147
and representativeness of voters167
and survey questions asked28–30
and survey research11
probability based web surveys16
Association of Trial Lawyers of America (ATLA)636–7
attitude structure, and voter behavior703–4, 705
Australian ballot221
ballot order effects40, 227
ballot proposition elections, see direct democracy
behavioral revolution119
in media302–3
and survey design38–9, 42–3
and turnout116–17, 579
class bias116
and voter registration167–9
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) (2002)618–19, 632
boundary delimitation, see districting; redistricting
business, and campaign funding637–8 see also interest groups
(p. 762) campaign finance:
and 527 organizations619, 632
and advocacy to restricted classes617–18
and Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002)618–19, 632
and challenges for research on643–4
and donors633–5
coordination with interest groups634, 636–7
demographic composition of633–4
impact of internet634–5
motivations633, 636
multiple beneficiaries634
stability of donor pool634
and early twentieth‐century reforms615
and election outcomes638–41
candidate beliefs about spending640
challenger spending639, 640
debate over impact on638
election competitiveness640
incumbent spending638–9, 640
interest group spending641
models of impact on639–40
reciprocal causation639
types of spending641
and EMILY's List618
and expenditure on national elections629
and Federal Corrupt Practices Act (1925)615
and Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)616, 617, 632
and Federal Election Commission (FEC)616, 631
and impact on election outcomes75, 78–9
and independent expenditures617
and interest groups635–8
corporate donations637–8
political action committees (PACs)635–6
and the internet634–5
and judicial elections494
and policy influence630, 641–3
congressional committees642–3
congressional voting641–2
signalling to bureaucracy643
state level643
and political action committees (PACs)617, 631, 635–6, 641–2
and Publicity Act (1910)615
and regulation of616–17, 630–3
adaptation to631–2
contribution limits630–1
impact of new rules632
problems with research on impact of632–3
public funding631
source prohibitions630
spending limits630
state level632
and soft money618, 632
and Tillman Act (1907)615
and defining campaign effects327
and early voting188–9
and experiments on:
impact of campaign spending75, 78–9
influence of campaign communications75–6
influence of media59–63
information processing56–9
interpersonal influence79–81
role of political stereotypes54–6
source credibility78
voter mobilization77–8
and Federal Election Commission (FEC)616
and heterogeneity in campaign messages337–9
focus on battleground states338
impact of new media environment339
message content338–9
voter targeting338
and heterogeneity in voter decision‐making335–7
and issue awareness327, 331–2
and learning329–30, 336
and measurement and analysis of effects333–4
and minimal effects perspective326, 328–9
and mobilization effects327
and party identification331, 336–7
and persuasion332–3
and political communication:
influence of75–6, 97, 98–9
manipulability of voters97–8
optimal behavior of uninformed voters98–9
and primary elections:
advertising518, 519
forecasting models517
negative campaigning518–19
press releases518
variations in dynamics516–18
variations in strategies518–19
winnowing of candidates517
(p. 763)
and priming309, 327, 331–2, 336
and research on campaign effects326–7
and responsiveness to campaign information336–7
mediating factors337
and strategic voting96–7
and survey research on74–5
and voter behavior253–4, 273
and voter‐candidate interactions335
candidate choice, and representation724–5
candidate evaluations:
and congressional elections461
and images306–7
and judgmental criteria269–70
and multidimensional scaling approach 269–70
and personality judgments270–2
and voter behavior269–72
candidates, and influence on voter behavior:
candidate differentials558–9, 562–4
candidate investment558, 560–1, 561–2
experimental research on564–5
ideological polarization565–6, 568–70
interaction of factors559–60
issue voting563
mobilization hypotheses562
policy positions558, 561
survey research on565–71
valence differentials558–9, 561, 563–4, 570–1
voter ideology567–70
voting choice hypotheses562, 565
and mobilization578, 582, 584
and turnout77, 80, 114 see also mobilization
causal modeling, and voter behavior249–51, 252
chain‐referral sampling, and survey research20–1
Christian Coalition440
Christian Right440, 620
citizen engagement, and voter behavior560–1
citizenship, and nature of280–1
civic capacity, and low levels amongst voters280
Civil Rights Act (1964)136
civil rights movement620–1
and group‐based consciousness and mobilization692–3
and support bases of parties110
and turnout116–17, 167, 579
and voter behavior701–2
communication, see political communication
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES)709
confidence, and voting technology222
conformity, and field experiments82–3
congressional elections453
and candidate‐centered tradition455–7
and challenger emergence460
and characteristics of Congress454–5
and coattail effects457–8
and congressional voters460–2
campaign dynamics461
candidate evaluations461
election competitiveness461
issue attitudes461–2
and context of465
and contrast with presidential elections453–4
and diversity of454
and impact of national conditions459
and incumbency advantage455–7
campaign funding456
casework hypothesis456
challenger quality456
changing nature of457
network television456
overemphasis on457
trends in455
and midterm losses458–9
comparative perspective on674–7
surge and decline458
and scandal462–3
and strategic politicians theory459–60
and tensions between local and national forces454–5, 463
conversational norms and conventions, and survey design32–3
Cooperative Campaign Analysis Project710–11
Cooperative Congressional Election Study710
correlational studies:
and mobilization582–3
and survey research11
corruption, and voting220–1
culture wars439
Democratic Party, and support bases of110
democratic politics, and party competition 595–7, 604–6, 607–8
definition of598
definition of party system597–8
definition of political party597
intraparty competition/factions604–6
value of party labels for politicians601–4
value of party labels for voters598–601
(p. 764) direct democracy547–8
and ballot propositions:
diversity of issues532
length and complexity of533
and changing of institutions548
and citizenship542–3
and criticism of544–5, 547
and divided opinions over531
and framing effects on voter decision making538, 540, 541
and influence on views of candidates535–6
and influence on vote choice536–7
and initiative process532
fluctuating use of532
and introduction of532
and issue/partisanship relationship540–1
and mobilization of candidate support536
and new issues on ballot537–8
and prevalence of532
and priming of candidate campaigns536
and public opinion dynamics538–40
and public policy543–6
adverse effects on543–4, 544–5
California's Proposition13 544, 545, 546
impact on546–7
representativeness of opinion544
transmission of mass preferences545
and responsiveness to citizens543
and social policies547
and turnout536
and voter attitudes towards541–3
and voter decision making:
ease/difficulty of decision535
impact of spending and advertising533–4
use of cues533, 535
use of heuristics533, 535
and public neglect of649, 650 see also redistricting
divided government:
and economic voting383–4
and impact on turnout110
Dorr war (1834)130
Duverger's Law92–3
early voting182–3
and accessibility of polling places192
and characteristics of early voters186–7, 190
and conduct of party campaigns188–9
and costs of election administration195
and history of183–4
and impact of party campaigning187
and impact on infrequent voters186, 187
and media coverage of campaigns194–5
and popularity of192
and turnout185
impact on187, 195–6
types of election185–6
varying effects on186
and vote choice:
differences from election‐day voters190–1
informational availability189–90
partisan effects190, 191
and voter participation184–7
failure to increase191 see also absentee voting
economic voting253
and aggregate economy376, 378
and criteria for voters' economic evaluations391–2
and distributional impact of economic policy391–2
and divided government383–4
and endogeneity of economic perceptions 377, 388–90, 392
and groups385–7
refinement of376
and media impact on economic evaluations392
and personal economic situation376, 378
and pocketbook voting376, 378
and policy preferences377
and retrospective vs prospective voting 379–83
and sociotropic voting376, 378, 387
and sophistication of voters376–7
and subnational economic conditions387–8
and internet use212
and Latinos' political behavior403
and participation695–6
and social stratification695
and voter registration168
e‐government208–9 see also internet, and participation
election‐day registration (EDR)169–70
election reforms:
costs of election administration195
media coverage of campaigns194–5
methodological challenges195–7
models of voter turnout193–4
personality traits194
social influences194
(p. 765)
and turnout185 see also early voting
and impact of voting technologies229–30
and public policy256
and research approaches to:
changes in National Election Studies708–9
characteristics of700–1
comparative approaches709
comparison of706–8
experimental research709–10
internet‐based surveys710–11
rational‐choice approaches705–6
sociological approaches701–3
socio‐psychological approaches703–5
electoral change, and voter heterogeneity680–1
electoral competition:
and campaign finance640
and congressional elections461
and judicial elections501–2
and redistricting660, 662
and representation727–9
marginality hypothesis727–8
varying effects of728–9
and turnout130, 135, 136, 139–40, 670–1, 671–2
electoral proximity, and representation725–6
electoral realignments674–7
and comparative perspective on678
United Kingdom679
and compositional changes in electorate678, 680–1
and expansion of franchise678
and impossibility of old‐style of679–80
electoral rules, and primary elections519–20, 525
proportional representation520
reasons for changing520
run‐off primaries519–20
electoral salience, and turnout109–10
electoral systems109
separation of powers system109–10
weak party‐group linkage110
electoral systems:
and minority representation in local elections484–5
and number of parties92
and turnout109, 140
local elections480
elites, and formal modeling of behavior91
EMILY's List618
and construction of political meaning307, 313–14
mobilization appeals589
ethnicity, and definition of402 see also race
experimental research:
and campaign effects334
and forms of52
and growth of51–2
and limits of observational research81
and purpose of69
and survey research11
and value of63–4
and voter behavior709–10 see also field experiments; laboratory experiments
expertise, see political expertise
Federal Corrupt Practices Act (1925)615
Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)616, 617, 632
Federal Election Commission (FEC)616, 631
felon voting rights125, 137–8
field experiments71–2
and benefits of83
and campaign effects76
impact of campaign spending78–9
source credibility78
voter mobilization77–8, 577
and conformity82–3
and criteria for assessing approximation to real‐world69–70
and different forms of70
and distinction from other types of experiments70
laboratory experiments70
natural experiments71
survey experiments70–1
and elite/mass public interactions83
and growth of82
and history of72–4
and interpersonal influence76–7, 79–81
and learning from77
and mobilization77–8, 577, 583–4, 585–6
and voter behavior254
field theory704
forecasting, and presidential elections346–7
and 2000 election356–8, 367
and 2008 election368
(p. 766)
and citizen forecasts363–5
comparison with market forecasts365
and determinants of accuracy353–6
data points354, 355–6
lead time354, 355
retrospective elements354, 356
year of election354
and differential weighting of data367
and evaluating models353, 366–7
and forecasting accuracy (1996–2004)351–2
and forecasting models (2004)347–51
retrospective nature of350
variations in350–1
and incumbency effects358–60, 367
and learning from single elections367
and meta‐analytic approach to367
and political markets360–3
advantages of361–2
behavioral model362–3
comparison with citizen forecasts365
comparison with trial‐heat polls361–2
operation of360–1
and state‐level models365–6, 367
trial‐heat polls365–6
and trial‐heat polls361–2
state‐level forecasting365–6
Founding Era (1789–1824), and turnout129–31
and ballot propositions538, 540, 541
and influence of the media61–2, 301–2, 308
France, and voter registration669
game theory:
and formal models of voting behavior90
and political communication97, 98
gate‐keeping, and media effects301
gay marriage, and ballot propositions536
and 2008 presidential campaign415–16
and composition of court benches504
and differences in candidacy and officeholding422–3
gender gap422–3
impact on social beliefs about women424–5
political origins of423–4
and differences in political behavior416–17, 417–20
gender gap in political participation419–20
gender gap in voting behavior418
impact of interest differences417–18
magnitude of418–19
partisan identification418
political origins of420–1
and experiment on gender stereotypes54–5
and mobilization of women voters420–1, 426
and organization of American politics417, 426
and political construction of417, 427, 694
elite messages426
public beliefs about women424–5
generational effects:
and electoral change680–1
and turnout669–70
God gap, see worship attendance
group identity, and worship attendance440
Help America Vote Act (2002)137, 221
immigration, and impact of691
Immigration Act (1965)691
incumbency advantage:
and campaign spending638–9, 640
and congressional elections455–7
campaign funding456
casework hypothesis456
challenger quality456
changing nature of457
dispersion of network television456
overemphasis on457
trends in455
and forecasting presidential elections358–60, 367
and judicial elections501, 503
and locality rule672
and redistricting456–7, 659
and representation729–30
causes of729
consequences of729–30
information processing, and laboratory experiments on role of56
on‐line or memory‐based56–9
initiative, see direct democracy
interest groups:
and agenda‐setting620–1
and campaign funding635–8
527 organizations619
adaptation to legal changes631–2
advocacy to restricted classes617–18
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) (2002)618–19
bundling634, 636–7
corporate donations637–8
(p. 767)
independent expenditure617
political action committees (PACs)617, 635–6, 641–2
reforms of616–17
soft money618
and campaign services618
and campaign training schools618
and conflicting views of612, 623–4
and definition of613
and freedom of association611–12
and growth of616
and information provision616
and Madison's view of611
and mobilization effects619–20
and policy influence621–2
campaign finance641–3
and role of612
and strategies of613–14
impact of early 20th‐century reforms 615–16
impact of main goal614
impact of political context614
nineteenth‐century practices614–15
resource constraints614
internet, and participation200–1, 213, 305, 311–12
and advantages of201
and criticism of internet politics207
selective information207–8
weakening of social capital and interpersonal trust208
and digital inequality210–12
and fundraising634–5
and impact on voting203
and influence on offline participation201, 202–3
as information source200, 205, 304–5
‘accidental’ mobilization of individuals205
diversity of206
easy access205
expressive capacity206–7
micro‐targeting of campaign ads206
multi‐media capacity206
and interactivity201
and networks207, 209–10
and new forms of participation209–10
and potential for increasing201–2
and presidential campaigns201
and primary elections525
and remote internet voting229
and transformative potential of202
and trust in government208–9
and the young203–4
internet surveys14–16
and advantages of14–15
and comparison with other survey modes15
and disadvantages of16
and non‐probability samples18–20
assessments of19–20
debate over19
respondent recruitment18
sample selection and weighting19
interpersonal influence, and field experiments76–7, 79–81
Iowa Electronic Markets (IEM)360, 362
issue attitudes:
and campaign effects327, 331–2
and conditions for issue voting563
and congressional elections461–2
and directional theory of issue voting268
and incorporation into voting choices268
and issue proximity of candidates267
and issue salience267–8
and measurement of266–7
and median voter theorem725
and prospective issue voting724
and retrospective issue voting724–5
and voter behavior266–9
item response theory (IRT)157
Jim Crow era, and franchise restrictions126, 131, 133–5
judicial elections:
and campaigns:
impact on judicial legitimacy506
increase in television advertising494–5, 507
and campaign spending:
effects of501, 507
growth of494, 507
judicial impartiality506–7, 508
and candidate quality499
and challenger quality502, 503
and characterized as unimportant493–4
and composition of court benches503–4
gender diversity504
ideological positions504
and electoral competition501–2
and impact on confidence in courts506
(p. 768)
and impact on judicial behavior504–5
death penalty cases505
influence of money506–7, 508
responsiveness to public opinion505
and impact on judicial legitimacy506, 507–8
and increased saliency of500, 501
and incumbency advantage501
and incumbent defeats503
and institutional context503
and judicial impartiality506–7
and new conceptualization of500–1
and open‐seat elections503
and research on:
distribution by journal496
distribution by primary question496–8
increased interest in495
journals publishing495–6
questions studied in498–9
and turnout499, 500
and uninformed voters499, 500
and vote choice500, 501, 503
jury duty, and selection for112
Justice at Stake campaign494, 495
laboratory experiments52
and advantages of52–3, 66
causal relationships53
simplicity and economy53
untangling complex phenomena53
and influence of campaign communications75–6
and influence of the media59–63
tone of political advertising62–3
and information processing56
on‐line or memory‐based56–9
and limitations of53, 64, 76
external validity64, 65–6
replicating citizens' attention to politics64
‘true attitude’ vs ‘non‐attitude’64–5
and political communication290–3
and role of political stereotypes54–6
and significance of64
and voter behavior254
labor unions, and impact on turnout114, 620
Latinos and political behavior397–8
as ethnic or racial group401–2
and group consciousness404
and immigration policy408
and Mexican‐Americans398–9
and mobilization of409
and naturalization407–8
and nature of community among397–8
and pan‐ethnicity399–400
behavioral dimension400, 401
factors associated with400
multiple identities401
political ramifications400
and racial identification402–3
and situational identity399
and social identity399
and socio‐demographic variables403–4
generational status405–6
income level403–4
language use404–5
length of time in America405
occupational status404
and campaign effects329–30, 336
and field experiments77
and media's impact on310–11
Likert scales, and survey design38
literacy tests134
local elections:
and forms and functions of local government474–5
and methods of election477
and minority representation484
cross‐over voting486, 487
electoral systems484–5
racial voting485–6
rainbow coalitions486–7
and non‐partisan elections477, 479
and research on:
approaches to477–8, 488–9
macro‐level studies477
micro‐level studies477
multi‐level studies477–8
and timing of476
and turnout478
city size482
contextual factors482–3
electoral systems480
municipal forms of government478–9
non‐partisan elections479
off‐cycle elections479–80
(p. 769)
racial/ethnic characteristics of candidates480–2
socioeconomic factors482–3
local government:
and forms and functions of474–5
and offices and officials of475–6 see also local elections
locality rule668
and turnout672
McCarran Walter Act (1953)691
mail‐in registration170
mail‐in voting, see early voting
marginal groups, and participation145, 147
tactical repertoires154–5 see also minority representation
and agenda‐setting308
and bias302–3
and campaign momentum517
and changes in312–13
and constructionist approach to media effects301, 306
and construction of content306–7
and emotions and construction of political meaning307
and entertainment programs305, 309, 311, 330
and focus on candidates' personal qualities303
and framing of issues61–2, 301–2, 308
and gate‐keeping301
and identity‐based thinking308–9
and impact on perceptions of the economy392
and impact on voters' learning310–11, 330
and increased competition in306
and influence of300, 301
and the internet304–5
political engagement311–12
and journalists303–4
and laboratory experiments on influence of59–63
tone of political advertising62–3
and meta‐narratives302
and non‐traditional outlets300
and persuasion309–10
and political content301
and priming61, 308–9
and privileging of perceived winners over losers303
and racial attitudes308–9
and structural influences on303–4
and talk shows305, 310, 311
and use of images306–7
and voters' interpretation of content307
median voter theorem247–8, 256, 556, 705–6, 719–20
and issue voting725
and marginality hypothesis727–8
methodological individualism556
midterm loss:
and comparative perspective on674–7
and congressional elections458–9
surge and decline458
and first‐and‐second order elections effects674–7
minimal effects hypothesis, and campaign effects326, 328–9
minority candidates, and local election turnout480–2
minority representation730–2
and collective representation731
and descriptive representation732
and dyadic representation of731–2
and goals of scholarship on731
and identifying minorities730–1
in local government484
cross‐over voting486, 487
electoral systems484–5
racial voting485–6
rainbow coalitions486–7
and partisan minorities731
and redistricting658
and trustee model of representation732
and absentee voting187, 188–9
and campaign effects77–8, 327
and changes in nature of581–2
and definition of578
and direct democracy536
and effectiveness of578, 590
and field experiments77–8, 577, 583–4, 585–6
and interest groups619–20
and the internet:
‘accidental’ mobilization205
impact on young people203–4
and Latinos409
and marginal impact of584–5
and message communication578, 587–90
campaign advertising588–9
characteristics of campaign messages588
emotional appeals589
(p. 770)
importance of message587
issue content589
mobilizing effects of587–8
and participation579, 580
and personal canvassing77, 80, 114, 578, 582, 584
and political goal of579, 582
and racial group identity692–3
and rational prospecting587
and reducing costs of voting580
as strategic behavior582, 586
and turnout578
correlational studies582–3
field experiments577, 583–4
impact on580–4
as two‐stage process578, 587
and voter contact582, 584
impact of577, 578
of women voters420–1, 426
momentum, and primary elections516–17
multiple elections667–8
and split‐ticket voting673, 674
National Federation of Independent Business (NFIB)618
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)12
Nationalization Era (1952‐present), and turnout136–8
decline in138–9
electoral systems140
federal initiatives136–7
felon voting rights137–8
increased party competition136
increase in139
measurement error139
party competition139–40
removing barriers to voting138
state‐level experimentation137
uniform voting procedures137
National Voter Registration Act (1993)111, 136–7
and impact of171–3
non‐partisan elections, in local government477, 479
observational research81
organized interests, see interest groups
panel data, and survey research11
and calculus of voting579–80
and class bias in turnout579
and context of power696–8
and decline in201
and differential levels of579
and education695–6
and gender gap419–20
and individual‐level analysis689–90
and marginal groups145, 147
tactical repertoires154–5
and measurement of698
and mobilization579, 580
reducing costs of voting580
and multidimensionality of149
and narrow conception of144–5
and political agency:
assumption of uniformity of688, 693–4
impact of power structures694
inequalities in694
political context of694
and political context560–1
and political effectiveness704
and protest activities147–8
and ‘puzzle of participation’695
and race688
changing racial environment691–3
dynamic nature of categories692–3
and reconceptualization of145
and representation723–4
and requirements for202
and research approaches to687
compared with social movement research689–90
individual‐level analysis689–90
study of continuity689, 690
and social movement perspective on activism149–50
and socioeconomic status695
limitations as explanation of695, 696–7
and structural inequalities697–8
and toolbox theory of145, 151–4
advantages of153–4
assessing effectiveness of political actions153
data and methods156–8
impact of access to decision‐makers152
influence on tool deployment153
opportunities for engagement153
political action repertory151–2
as two‐step process174–6
and unconventional145–6
increase in148
lack of attention to146
(p. 771)
and unconventional participation, impact on policy outcomes148–9
and worship attendance440 see also activism; turnout; voter registration
party coalitions:
and religious traditions438, 439
and social composition of702
party identification672–3
and attitudes and behavior265
and campaign effects331, 336–7
and comparative perspective on673–4
and decline in113
and economic evaluations389–90
and gender gap418
and independent leaners265
as perceptual screen263, 389
and political integration264
as psychological state263
and religious traditions438
and social groups702–3
and stability of264–5
and theoretical importance of263
and voter behavior243, 251, 263–5, 703–4, 705
and weak partisans265
Party Machine Era (1828–1896), and turnout131–2
party system:
and definition of597–8
and voter behavior255–6
and campaign effects332–3
and definition of99
and the media309–10
and source credibility78
and voting behavior99–100
pocketbook voting376, 378
political action committees (PACs)617, 631, 635–6, 641–2
political behavior, and survey research10
political communication:
and decline in voter contacting113–14
and experimental strategies290–3
and expert citizens279, 286–7
and impact on voters98–9
and influence of75–6, 97
and knowledge/expertise distinction281–2
and manipulability of voters97–8
and optimal behavior of uninformed voters98–9
and political communication networks280
autoregressive influence285–6
clustered preferences within284
diversity within283
frequency of political discussion285
limits on persuasion285–6
network specialization284
observing interdependence289–90
selection criteria282
and political expertise280
and social communication288–9 see also media
political expertise278–9
and communication networks280, 286–7
autoregressive influence285–6
clustered preferences within284
diversity within283
experimental strategies290–3
frequency of political discussion285
limits on persuasion285–6
network specialization284
observing interdependence289–90
selection criteria282
and definition of expertise281
and distinction from knowledge281
and heterogeneous levels of281
and imitation282
and interdependent citizens281
and opinion leaders279
criticism of concept279
political parties:
and definition of597
and democratic politics595–7, 607–8
and party competition604–6
definition of598
intraparty competition/factions604–6
and party system, definition of597–8
and value of party label for politicians601–4
ambitious politicians602
guidance of conduct in office602–3
meaning to voters603
and value of party labels for voters598–601
prospective voting599
retrospective voting599–600
political science, as American discipline667
power structures, and participation697–8
pressure groups, see interest groups
(p. 772) primary elections514–15
and 2008 presidential nominations524
and campaigns:
advertising518, 519
forecasting models517
negative campaigning518–19
press releases518
variations in dynamics of516–18
variations in strategies518–19
winnowing of candidates517
and candidate field515–16
impact of number of516
women candidates515–16
and candidate positioning521–2
and divisive primaries521
and electoral rules519–20, 525
proportional representation520
reasons for changing520
run‐off primaries519–20
and technological innovation525
and turnout524–5
and voter decision making523–4
and campaigns309, 327, 331–2, 336
and influence of the media61, 308
Progressive movement:
and direct democracy532
and impact of reforms on turnout478
municipal forms of government478–9
non‐partisan elections479
and interest group reforms615
and turnout133
propensity matching, and survey research11
proportional representation, and primary elections520
prospective voting:
and economic voting379–83
and issue voting724
and value of party labels599
protest activism147–8
psychology, and voter behavior704–5
public policy:
and direct democracy543–6
adverse effects on543–4, 544–5
California's Proposition13 544, 545, 546
impact on546–7
representativeness of opinion544
transmission of mass preferences545
and interest group influence621–2
and public opinion733–4
and voter behavior256
question order effects, and survey design40–1
and changes in racial environment691–3
and dynamic categories688, 692–3
and experiment on racial stereotypes55–6
and group identity692–3
and Latinos401–3
and malleability of categories of692
and the media308–9
and participation688
structural inequalities697–8
and racial voting in local elections485–6
and redistricting654, 658, 661–2
as social construction402
and turnout in local elections480–2 see also minority representation
rainbow coalitions, in local elections486–7
Rasch models157
rational choice theory:
and paradox of voting118–19
and voter behavior246–9, 705–6, 707
rational retrospection, and voter behavior256–7
and bipartisan gerrymandering660
and competitive elections660
and courts' role in651–2
and criteria for652
candidate status655
communities of interest653
existing political units653
natural boundaries653
preservation of existing boundaries653–4
and distinction from apportionment650
and gerrymandering655
and impact of reapportionment revolution656–7
and incumbency advantage456–7
and incumbency protection659
and legal challenges to, grounds for651–2
and legal requirements for650–1
and line drawing655
(p. 773)
and long‐term effects:
party polarization663
political competition662
and malapportionment655, 656
and partisan gerrymandering659
and political elite's attention to650
and racial representation658
and responsibility for651, 657–8
impact on outcomes658
importance of control over process657–8
partisan control651, 657
reform proposals657
and tradeoffs among criteria for660
partisan and racial representation vs geography661
partisan representation vs racial representation661–2
population equality vs geography660
racial representation vs policy influence662
and Voting Rights Act (1965)651, 652, 654
reference group theory704
religious beliefs, and presidential vote438–40
religious traditions, and party coalitions438, 439
and candidate choice724–5
and collective representation719
and complex models of718, 733–5, 736
complex party‐defining issues734–5
constituency‐representative linkages734
issue‐based theory734–5
public opinion and policy733–4
and conceptualizing717–19
and definition of717
and descriptive representation718
and dyadic policy representation716, 724
and elections719
median voter theorem719–20
responsible‐parties model720
and electoral competition727–9
marginality hypothesis727–8
varying effects of728–9
and electoral proximity725–6
and empirical problems in assessing721–3
demographic indicators721–2
legislator action722–3
measurement of preferences721
and extent of718–19
and incumbency advantage729–30
causes of729
consequences of729–30
and instructed‐delegate model722
and issue voting:
median voter725
prospective issue voting724
retrospective issue voting724–5
and mechanisms for achieving719–21
passive representation720
and minority representation730–2
collective representation731
descriptive representation732
dyadic representation731–2
goals of scholarship on731
identifying minorities730–1
partisan minorities731
trustee model of732
and policy responsiveness717
interests vs preferences717–18
and research on716–17, 735
shortcomings of717
and sub‐constituencies719
and symbolic representation718
passive representation720
and trust718
and trustee model of policy representation718
and turnout116, 118, 723–4
Republican Party, and support bases of110
residual votes, and voting technology223–4
respondent‐driven sampling, and survey research20–1
response order effects:
and elections40
and survey design39–40
retrospective voting246–7, 248–9, 707
and economic voting379–83
and issue voting724–5
and value of party labels599–600
scandal, and congressional elections462–3
second‐order elections674
secret ballot:
as disenfranchising tool133–4
and introduction of221
Segregation Era (1900–1948), and turnout132–5
separation of powers668
and impact on turnout109–10, 670, 671
(p. 774) situational identity399
snow ball sampling, and survey research20–1
social capital:
and the internet208
and worship attendance440
social communication288–9
social desirability effects, and surveys17–18, 42–3
worship attendance435
social groups:
and party coalitions702
and party identification702–3
and voter behavior701–3, 706–7
social identity399
social movements689–90
and activism149–50
and definition of149
social networks, and respondent‐driven sampling20
social pressure, and voting80–1
social psychology:
and stereotypes54
and voter behavior703–5, 707
social stratification, and education695
sociotropic voting376, 378, 387
spatial models of voting247–8, 556
split‐ticket voting226
and multiple elections673, 674
state court elections, see judicial elections
stereotypes, and laboratory experiments on role of54–6
strategic voting, and formal modeling of92–7
Bayesian perfect equilibrium strategies95–6
Duverger's Law92–3
implications of96–7
Niou‐Kselman hypothesis93–4
perceptions of party positions96
third‐party supporters93–4
utility maximization94, 95
voters' estimation of election closeness94–5
survey design27, 43–4
and acquiescence response bias38–9
and American National Election Studies, types of questions asked28–30
and attitude recall41
and attitude strength37–8
and basic design principles:
basic rules33
conversational norms and conventions32–3
features of good questionnaires31
optimizing respondents31
survey satisficing respondents31–2
and closed questions33–4
benefits of34
disadvantages of34
problems with numerical answers34–5
and dangers of asking ‘why?’41–2
and ‘don't know’ options37–8
and Likert scales38
and open‐ended questions33–5
benefits of34
and poorly designed questions30
and question order effects40–1
perceptual contrast40–1
and question wording43
and ranking questions35–6
and rating questions35–6
and rating scale points36–7
verbal labels36–7
and response order effects39–40
primacy effects39
recency effects39
and seemingly open‐ended questions (SOEQs)39–40
and social desirability response bias42–3
turnout estimation42–3 see also survey research
survey research9–10
and American National Election Studies11
types of questions asked28–30
and campaign effects74–5, 333–4
and changing nature of12–14
changes in telephone use12
coverage issues12–13
response rates12, 13
and contextual data11
and correlational studies11
and experiments11
and face‐to‐face surveys12
and framing of questions11
and future of21–2
and importance of10
and internet surveys14–16, 710–11
advantages of14–15
comparison with other survey modes15
disadvantages of16
and mixed‐mode designs16–18
advantages of16–17
potential disadvantages17–18
(p. 775)
and non‐probability samples:
assessments of19–20
chain‐referral sampling20–1
debate over19
non‐probability internet samples18–20
respondent‐driven sampling20–1
respondent recruitment18
sample selection and weighting19
snow ball sampling20–1
and panel data11
and political behavior10
and propensity matching11
and response rates:
decline in12, 13
non‐response error13
and social desirability effects17–18
worship attendance435
and survey modes:
comparison of15
expansion of9
and telephone surveys12
and value of28
and wide application of10 see also survey design
talk shows305, 310, 311
telephone use, and survey research12
term limits, as proposed solution for low turnout671
Time‐sharing Experiments for the Social Sciences (TESS)710
transnationalism, and Latinos' political behavior406–7
and the internet208–9
and representation718
and accessibility of polling places191–2
and canvassing77, 80
and class bias579
and comparative perspective on668–72
and consequences of varying levels115
class bias116
partisan effects116, 117–18
patterns of representation118
policy outputs118
policy preferences of voters and non‐voters117
puzzle of voting118–19
and decline in113, 581
changes in labor unions114
decline of partisanship113
decrease in voter contacting113–14
explanations for139
impact of political advertising114
measurement error139
social changes113
and direct democracy536
and Downsian model of184–5
and early voting185
absentee voting184, 187
characteristics of early voters186–7
impact of187
impact of party campaigning187, 188–9
impact on infrequent voters186, 187
studying impact of195–6
types of election185–6
varying effects of186
and election reforms185
and electorate size140
and elite incentives120
and evolution of669–70
and fluctuations in112–13, 139
and increase in115, 139
and judicial elections499, 500
and local elections478
city size482
contextual factors482–3
electoral systems480
municipal forms of government478–9
non‐partisan elections479
off‐cycle elections479–80
racial/ethnic characteristics of candidates480–2
socioeconomic factors482–3
and low level compared with other democracies108, 668–72
characteristics of American people108–9
country‐level effects108–9
divided government110
electoral salience109–10
electoral systems109, 140
impact of separation of powers109–10, 670, 671
incentives to vote112
institutional differences109–10
locality rule672
making voting more convenient111
measurement differences112
safe districts669
turnout evolution669–70
uncompetitive elections670–1, 671–2
(p. 776)
voter fatigue669
voter registration111, 669
weak party‐group linkage110
and mobilization578
correlational studies582–3
impact of580–4
and negative campaigning588–9
and overestimation in surveys42–3
and party competition139–40, 670–1
and primary elections524–5
and procedural changes140–1
and representation723–4
and short‐term and long‐term components of669–70
and social pressure80–1
and stimulating voting177
and term limits671
and tone of political advertising62–3, 114
and vote centers193
and voter mobilization campaigns77–8
and voter registration111, 115–16, 164–6
impact of reforms169–72, 173
and worship attendance435, 436–7, 443–4 see also turnout, historical perspective on
turnout, historical perspective on:
and absolute number of voters125
and electorate expansion126
in Founding Era (1789–1824)129–31
congressional elections130
distant polling locations129
expansion of electorate130–1
limited political competition130
measurement error129
property requirements129–30
in Nationalization Era (1952‐present)136–8
in Party Machine Era (1828–1896)131–2
and rates of (1789–2006)127
problems in calculating128
in Segregation Era (1900–1948)132–5 see also turnout
United Kingdom, and electoral realignment679
United States Constitution:
and Fifteenth Amendment131
and Nineteenth Amendment135
and Twenty‐Fourth Amendment136
and Twenty‐Sixth Amendment136, 138
United States Supreme Court:
and Baker v Carr (1962)651
and Bandemer v Davis (1986)655
and Buckley v Valeo (1976)616–17
and Bush v Gore (2000)137, 506
and Caperton v A T Massey Coal Company (2009)508
and Gaffney v Cummings (1973)655
and Georgia v Ashcroft (2003)654
and Newberry v United States (1921)615
and Shaw v Reno (1993)654, 661
and Smith v Allwright (1944)135
and Thornburg v Gingles (1986)654, 655
US Election Assistance Commission231
valence issues, and voter behavior558–9, 561, 563–4, 570–1
vertical proximity effects, and ballots227
vote centers192–3
voter behavior239
and advances in study of700
and assumptions underlying research89–90
and atomistic model of279, 690
and calculus of voting579–80
and candidate evaluations269–72
judgmental criteria269–70
multidimensional scaling approach269–70
personality judgments270–2
and candidates' influence on557
and causal modeling249–51, 252
and class voting701–2
and the Columbia studies240–1
and contextual analysis252–4
and continuity in research findings272, 273–4
and eclectic nature of research on252–3
and economic voting253
and elite‐citizen interactions246, 255–6
and experiments on254
and factors affecting556
and heterogeneity in voter decision‐making335–7
and impact of campaigns253–4
and influences on262
and issue attitudes266–9
directional theory of issue voting268
incorporation into vote choice268
issue proximity of candidates267
issue salience267–8
measurement of266–7
and limitations of voter‐centered approach562–4
and measurement issues246
and median voter theorem247–8, 256, 556, 705–6, 719–20
and the Michigan model242–4
attitude stability245–6
influence of244
(p. 777)
long‐term and short‐term influences242–3
partisan loyalties243
political attitudes243
revisionist work on245–6
voters' limited familiarity with politics243–4
and party/candidate positioning556–7
and party identification243, 251, 263–5, 703–4, 705
and party labels, value of598–601
prospective voting599
retrospective voting599–600
and party system255–6
and political advertising254
and political context558, 571
candidate differentials558–9, 562–4
candidate ideological polarization565–6, 568–70
candidate investment558, 560–1, 561–2
candidate policy positions558, 561
candidate valence differentials558–9, 561, 563–4, 570–1
citizen engagement560–1
competitive elections560–1
experimental research on564–5
interaction of factors559–60
issue voting563
mobilization hypotheses562
survey research on565–71
vote choice561–2
voter ideology567–70
voting choice hypotheses562, 565
and primary elections523–4
and public policy256
and rational choice theory246–9, 705–6, 707
and rational retrospection256–7
and research approaches to555–6
changes in National Election Studies708–9
characteristics of700–1
comparative approaches709
comparison of706–8
experimental research709–10
internet‐based surveys710–11
newer approaches708–11
rational‐choice approaches705–6
sociological approaches701–3
socio‐psychological approaches703–5
and retrospective voting246–7, 248–9, 707
and social groups701–3, 706–7
and social psychology703–5, 707
and spatial models247–8, 556
and transient macropartisanship257 see also voter behavior, formal models of
voter behavior, formal models of:
and assumptions underlying90
simplification of reality91
and controversial nature of90, 91
and distinguishing characteristic of90
and inferential process90
and non‐cooperative game theory90
and roles of101–2
contextual effects101
institutional effects101–2
psychological explanations102
and strategic voting92–7
Bayesian perfect equilibrium strategies 95–6
Duverger's Law92–3
implications of96–7
Niou‐Kselman hypothesis93–4
perceptions of party positions96
third‐party supporters93–4
utility maximization94, 95
voters' estimation of election closeness94–5
and voter competence92, 97–101
knowledge threshold for competent voting100
manipulability of voters97–8
optimal behavior of uniformed voters98–9
sources of information99
voter competence92
and direct democracy533
and formal modeling of97–101
knowledge threshold for competent voting100
manipulability of voters97–8
optimal behavior of uninformed voters98–9
sources of information99
voter registration:
and concerns over effects of162–3
and influences on175–6
and limitations of research on163, 174, 176
and motivations for174–6
and National Voter Registration Act (1993)136–7, 171–3
and participation as two‐step process174–6
as political act173–4
and reforms of169–70
election‐day registration (EDR)169–70
future efforts177–8
(p. 778)
impact of169–72
mail‐in registration170
registration‐roll purging170
and representativeness of electorate166–9, 173
impact of reforms170
in Segregation Era (1900–1948)133
and state‐level variations137
and themes of research on163–4
and translating into voting177–8
and turnout111, 115–16, 173, 669
impact of reforms169–72
impact on164–6
Voting Rights Act (1965)113, 126, 136, 650
and redistricting651–2, 654
voting technology and procedures:
and ballot roll‐off224
and changes in219
and convenience voting228–9
remote internet voting229
and direct recording electronic voting equipment (DREs)219, 221, 224
and election auditing225
and election manipulation225–6
and election outcomes229–30
and growth of research on219–20
and history of220–1
and interdisciplinary approach to230
and residual votes223–4
and usability of voting systems226–8
ballot complexity226
ballot order effects40, 227
split‐ticket voting226
vertical proximity effects227
voting machines227–8
and voter confidence222
Voting Technology Project (VTP)223, 231
Watergate scandal616
welfare policy, and bias in turnout167
and enfranchisement of135
as primary election candidates515–16 see also gender
worship attendance, and voting in presidential elections444
and accuracy of reporting of435
and the God gap433–4
and impact on 2004 election434–5
on turnout435, 443–4
on vote choice434, 442–3
as measure of religiosity444–5
and presidential elections (1952–2004)436–7
and religious beliefs438–40
and religious engagement440–1
campaign contacts441
mobilization efforts440–1
and religious traditions437–8
and Republican presidential vote442–3
and turnout435, 436–7, 443–4
young people, and mobilizing impact of internet203–4