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date: 20 August 2019

(p. 881) Index

(p. 881) Index

a posteriori: knowable 402, 405, 685
a priori 22, 23, 93, 407, 416, 455, 460, 685, 739, 807–8
beliefs 740
contentually a priori 743–4, 761–2
the contingent a priori 405–7, 409–13,415–17, 423–4
conventionalist theories of 756, 758
and defeasibility 747–8
and determination theory 753–5, 758
and empirical indefeasibility 759–60
judgementally a priori 743–4
justification or entitlement 740–1, 744, 746–8
knowable 406, 408, 410–11, 415, 751
knowledge 400, 418, 754–5, 758–9
meta-semantic theory of 753–62
and naturalism 758–9;
and necessity 741–2
propositions 740–1, 744, 746, 754, 756–8
and rationalism 751, 755–7, 759, 762
scope of the 745
and truth in virtue of meaning 742
synthetic 802;
understanding-based views of 751–2, 756
Ackrill, J. L. 547 n
actions 12, 15, 50, 87, 270, 334–55
and common-sense psychology 334
Davidsonian reasons for 337–8, 349
desirability characteristic of actions 11, 15
folk concept of intentional 353–4
individuation of 335–6
intentional 88, 102, 104–5, 334, 336–40, 345, 352–5
and moral assessment 353–5
reasons for 14, 17, 19–21, 69, 86, 88, 92, 95, 102, 117, 204, 336–7, 345, 347, 349, 352
side-effect 353–5
theory of the explanation of 334, 338, 347
theory of the nature of 334, 338, 347
actualism in ethics 55 n
Adams, F., and Mele, A. 346
Adams, Robert 38 n
Adler, Matthew, and Dorf, Michael 187 n
adverbalists about sense experience 724
agent-neutrality in ethical theories 35, 41 n
Aharonov, Y., and Albert, D. 874 n
Aimola, Davies, A. M. 390
Akins, Kathleen 841
Albert, David 848 n, 867
and Loewer, B. 855 n
Albritton, Richard 102
Alexander, Larry, and Sherwin, Emily 196 n
Alexandrescu, Sorin 542 n
alienation (and moral psychology) 99–100, 102
Alston, W. P. 456 n
Altman, Jack, and Ziporyn, Marvin 541 n
analytical social and political theory 259
Anderson, Alan Ross 569
and Belnap, Nuel, D. 564, 566, 595
Anderson, C. Anthony 564 n, 569
Anderson, Elizabeth 237
Andrews, Lort, Fullerton, Jane, E., Holtzmann, Neil A., and Motulsk, Arno G. 840
androcentrism 232, 237–42
see also feminism
An-Na'im, Abdullahi 172
Annas, J. 117 n
Annis, D. 79 n
Anscombe,G.E.M. 11, 14–15, 19, 54, 122, 506, 724 n
Anscombre, Jean-Claude, and Ducrot, Oswald 475, 493 n
anthropology and ethics 114, 129–32
anti-descriptivist theories, see non-descriptivist theories
anti-rationalism in ethics 8
(p. 882) anti-realism (in philosophy of science) 774–6, 780, 787
Antony, L. 75, 241–2
applied ethics 76
Aquinas, T. 45 n 182, 192
argument for asymmetrical skepticism in moral epistemology 65–7, 77–81
argument from illusion or hallucination 329, 715, 717, 722, 726, 728, 733, 735
Aristotle 43, 98, 106 n, 117–18, 120, 336, 811–12
Armstrong,D.M. 313, 323 n, 326 n, 346, 456 n, 506, 510–13, 515–19, 522, 525, 621, 703 n, 724 n, 795–6
Arneson, Richard 210 n
Arpaly, Nomy 6 n, 101 n, 103
Arrow, Kenneth 216, 217 n, 218, 220, 262
Arrow's ‘impossibility theorem’ 262
Asher, Nicholas, and Lascarides, Alex 469, 475
associations 160, 163–5
non-voluntary 162, 164, 169, 172–4
right to exit from 163–4, 167, 169, 172–3
voluntary 161, 164, 166, 169–70, 172–4
Astell, Mary 233–4, 242, 254
Athanassoulis, N. 119–20, 123
Atherton, Margaret 233 n
Atlas, Jay 471, 483 n, 493 n
Atran, S. 304
Audi, Robert 69 n, 71–2
Audi, Robert, and Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter 41 n, 104, 117 n
Augustine 192
Austin, J. L. 242, 433–6, 438, 440, 456 n, 468, 491, 712, 719
Austin, John 182–3
autonomy (and moral psychology) 99, 101
Ayer, A. J. 4 n, 65, 565 n, 794
Ayers, I., and Braithwaite, J. 272
Bach, K. 288 n, 471 n, 475, 476 n, 481 n, 491
and Harnish, Robert Michael 475
Bacon, John 584 n
badness 11–12, 20, 26
Baier, K. 69, 77 n, 96
Bailenson, Jeremy N., Shum, Michael S., Atran, Scott., Medin, Douglas L., and Coley, John D. 304
Bailhache, Patrice 601 n
Baker, G. P., and Hacker, P. M. S. 367, 369
Baker, Lynne Rudder 671–6
Baldwin, Thomas 703
Bales, Eugene 31
Barba Escriba, J. 541
Barbour, Julian 871 n
Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. 387, 838
Baron J. 140 n
Barrett, Jeff 860 n
Barron, Marcia 43
Barry, Brian 157–60, 162–4, 166, 168, 170–3
Barry, Brian, and Hardin, Russell 216 n
Baumeister, Roy 249 n
Bayesianism 265, 684 n
Baynes, Kenneth 224 n
Bealer, G. 697 n
Beatty, J. 807, 822, 827, 841
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., and Damasio, A. R. 126
Bechtel, W., and Richardson, R. C. 811, 814, 834
Becker,L.C. 116 n
Beckner, Morton 819
Beebee, Helen 528
Begemihl, B. 239
behaviourism 312, 358–9
Behe, Michael 839
belief 4–10, 12, 21–5, 64, 294, 681–2
falsity indicative 685–8, 690
justified true 686, 693, 696; see also Gettier, E.
perceptual 697–8;
suspension of 681–3, 688, see also scepticism
truth-indicative 685–6
belief ascriptions 421, 423
de se reading of 422; see also de se
Bell, J. 874
Bender, Edward D. 544 n
Bennett, Jonathan 103, 508, 514
Bennett, W. J. 120
Bentham, Jeremy 33 n, 35, 182–3, 192, 259
Berlin, Isaiah 259
Beurton, Peter, Falk, Raphael, and Reinberger, Hans-Jörg 827
Bezuidenhout, Anne, and Morris, Robyn 472 n
Bigelow, John, and Pargetter, Robert 583 n, 585, 592, 829
and Dodds, Susan, and Pargetter, Robert 105
biology 807, 813
Bishop, J. 335 n, 336, 339, 340 n
Bittner, Rüdiger 89, 109
Blackburn, Simon 4 n, 5 n, 6 n, 8 n, 22, 23 n, 63 n, 64, 94 n, 116 n, 301, 535, 592, 839
Blair, R. J. 127–8
Blakemore, Diane 476 n, 493
(p. 883) Blamey, Stephen, and Humberstone, Lloyd 556
Blanchard, B. 456 n
Blanché, Robert 542, 548–9, 551–3, 568, 598–9, 605
Block, N. 301, 313, 319 n, 324, 332, 361, 388
and Dworkin, Gerald 836–7
Blum, L. A. 118 n, 121, 138 n
Blutner, Reinhard, and Zeevat, Henk 469, 475, 495
Boden, M. 387, 841
Bohm, David 852
Bohman, James, and Rehg, William 222 n
Bok, H. 116 n
Bolinger, Dwight 538 n, 539
BonJour, L. 692 n, 693 n, 742, 748, 751
Boolos, George 563 n
Boorse, Christopher 829
Bork, Robert 188
Boyd, Richard 4 n, 5 n, 66 n, 77–8, 131, 136
Boyd, Richard N. 770, 772, 774 n, 775–6, 782
Braddon-Mitchell, David, and Jackson, Frank 332 n
Bradley, F. H. 456 n, 534
Braithwaite, J. 272
Brand, M. 335–6, 339, 340 n, 341 n
Brandom, R. 458 n, 464
Brandon, Robert 822, 824–5
Brandt, Richard 10, 39, 118 n, 129–30, 131 n, 132, 138
Bratman, Michael 100, 143 n, 186, 352–5
Braun, D. 289 n, 291–2, 294, 424
Breheny, Richard, Katsos, Napolean, and Williams, John 472
Brennan, Geoffrey 260, 272
and Buchanan, J. 269
and Pettit, Philip 209 n, 275
Brennan, Samantha 57
Brentano, Franz 283–4, 289 n
Brentano's problem 283–4, 286–7, 293
Brink, David O. 4 n, 5 n, 22 n, 34 n, 65 n, 70 n, 74–5, 78,130–1, 135 n, 136–7
Brison, Susan 236
Broad, C. D. 16, 619, 703, 726
Brock, Stuart 593–4
Brooks, R. A. 387
Broome, John 33 n, 95
Brown, James Robert 771
Brown, Mark, A. 543 n, 544
Bruxelles, Sylvie, Ducrot, Oswald, and Raccah, Pierre-Yves 493 n
Buchanan, Allen, Brock, Dan, Daniels, Norman, and Wikler, Daniel 840
Buchannan, Allan 214 n
Bull, Robert A. 570, 580
Burge, Tyler 300 n, 302, 693 n, 740, 761
Burgess, John A. 537
Burgess, John P. 561 n, 563
Burke, Michael 666–9
Burks, A. W. 565
Buss, David 838
Buss, Sarah 104
Butterfield, J. 626, 633
Butler, Judith 242
Byrne, Alex 724 n
Campbell, J. 116 n
Campbell, Keith 314
Campbell, Richmond, and Sowden, Lanning 22
Campbell, Tom 192
Capgras delusion 390
Caramazza, A. 379–80
Carnap, Rudolf 468, 605, 756, 759, 801
Carritt, E. F. 36 n
Carroll, Lewis 24, 94 n
Carruthers, P. 370
Carston, Robyn 472 n, 473, 475 n, 478 n, 480, 481 n, 483 n, 489
Cartwright, Nancy 510, 799, 804, 808, 809 n, 810–11
and Shomar, T., and Suárez, M. 804
Casati, Robert, and Varsi, Achille 647
categorical imperative 22, 42–3
Caulfield, Mina 242 n
causalism (in philosophy of action) 334–6, 338–9, 341, 345–6, 355
and free will 336, 352
and the mind–body problem 336, 352
and negative actions 345–9, 351
problem of causal deviance for 338–9, 341, 345
problem of vanishing agents for 351–2
and trying 346–7, 349
see also actions
causally explanatory versus causally efficacious properties 375
causation 505–31
causal relata as events versus causal relata as facts 508, 524–6
as constant conjunction 505, 630, 793, 809; see also Hume, David; laws, Humean regularity account of
counterfactual accounts of 505–6, 509, 518, 523, 808; see also Lewis, David dependency accounts of 524, 526, 529–30
folk theory of 521–2
and laws of nature 508–9, 511, 514, 516–17, 519; see also laws (in philosophy of science)
intuitions about 512–14, 519
(p. 884)
lawful regularity accounts of 505–6
level-neutral constraint on accounts of 515, 518, 521, 523
nomological entailment ccounts of 509–11, 514, 520–1, 523–5, 531
and non-discriminating onception of properties and relations 516, 522
non-reductionist accounts of 506, 508, 510, 512–14, 518–19, 521
by omission 513, 524, 527–9, 531
and normative considerations 527–8
and pre-emption cases 520, 522, 524, 526–7, 529–30
physical connection accounts of 506, 509, 511, 514, 519–21, 523, 525
and primary versus secondary causal locutions 507–8
probabilistic accounts of 506, 809–10
reductionist accounts of 506, 508, 511–12, 515–18, 521
Shoemaker–Cartwright style non-reductionism 510, 515–16
and sparse conceptions of properties and relations 516–17, 522
sufficiency approach to 524–5, 528–30
Tooley–Armstrong style non-reductionism 510, 512–13, 515–19, 522, 525
topic-neutral constraint on accounts of 514
transitivity of 513–14, 523–4, 529–30
central state materialism 359
Chafe, Wallace, and Nichols, Johanna 541
Chagrov, A. V., and Zakharyaschev, M. 572 n, 576
Chalmers, David 314, 317 n, 407–10
Chellas, B. F. 556
and Segerberg, K. 560, 562–3
Cheng, Patricia, and Holyoak, Keith 838
Chierchia, Gennaro, Crain, Stephen, Guasti, Maria Teresa, Gualmini, Andrea, and Meroni, Luisa 472 n
Chihara, Charles 592, 595 n
Chisholm, R. 283, 543, 724 n
Chomsky, Noam 359, 365–9
Christiano, Thomas 209 n, 210 n, 218 n, 219 n, 261
Churchland, Patricia 841
Churchland, Paul 319, 775 n
Cicero 182
Clark, A. 387, 389
Clark, Herbert, H. 475, 483 n
Clarke, Thompson 710, 715–16
Clendinnen, F. J. 775 n
Coffa, A. 740
cognitive neuropsychology 379–80, 382
challenge of connectionism to, see connectionism
and double dissociation arguments 381–2, 385–6
and the dual-route theory of reading aloud 380–1, 385–6
cognitive neuroscience 362
cognitive science 358, 360, 362–4, 367, 375–6, 390, 494
classical 384, 386–7
connectionist 383, 385–6; see also connectionism
and homunculi 361–2; and intentionality 361
and ‘as if ’ intentionality 361–3
relationship with philosophy 364–5, 387–90; see also philosophy of cognitive science of spatial representation 387
cognitivism (in ethics) 4, 6 n, 21
about normative judgements within the domain of reason 25
about moral judgements 25; see also non-cognitivism (in ethics)
Cohen, G. A. 167–8
Cohen, Joshua 210 n, 225–7
Cohen, Rachel 92–3
Cohen, S. 688 n
coherentism (in epistemology) 73–4, 76, 79
coherentism (in moral epistemology) 64, 69, 73, 82
realist coherentism 73–8; see also moral epistemology
Coleman, Jules 185, 189–90, 192, 203
Coleman, Jules, and Ferejohn, John 217–18
Coleman, Sydney 859 n
collective principle of beneficence 37
see also Murphy, Liam
colour experience 318
Coltheart, M. 380, 386
and Davies, M. 382, 386
and Rastle, K., Perry, C. Langdon, R., and Ziegler, J. 386
communitarian critics of Rawls 52
communitarianism 155, 174–7
compliance problem 50
concepts 125, 295, 297, 300, 303, 305, 330–1
see also empty concepts; moral concepts; name-concepts; natural kind concepts
conceptual analysis 125, 192, 696–7
conceptual versus non-conceptual content 330
(p. 885) connectionism 382–7
as alternative to the computational theory of mind 382
as challenge to the methodology of cognitive neuropsychology 382, 385–6
as a challenge to nativism 382, 385
and modularity 385–6
and syntactically structure representations 383–4; see also tacit knowledge
consciousness 310–14, 316, 330
access versus phenomenal consciousness distinction 388; see also Block, N.
consequentialism 26, 33 n, 34, 35 n, 36–7, 41–2, 45–7, 49, 53, 56, 58
act consequentialism 40
demandingness problem for 38, 41, 46
global versus local 37, 38 n
indirect forms of 38–9
motive consequentialism 38
objective consequentialism 38, 40, 46; see also Railton, Peter
rule consequentialism 38–40
satisficer accounts 37
self-defeating objection to 39
schizophrenia objection to 39, 41; see also Stocker, Michael
subjective consequentialism 40, 44
two-levels view 38–9; see also Hare, R. M.
constitution 636–7, 642, 650, 657, 666, 670–2, 674–6
and co-occupancy 652, 657, 666–8, 670, 674
and d-parts 639–46, 653, 655, 658, 665–6, 670
and identity 639, 642, 647–8, 661–2, 666, 670
immediate 642, 670, 676
material 642, 648, 670
and mereology 636–7, 647, 651, 654, 657, 665, 672–3
and principles of division 639–42, 650, 665
and principles of unity 638–9, 641, 642–3, 646, 648–55, 657, 659–61, 663–5, 667, 669, 672, 675
and real kinds 638–9, 649–50, 660, 663, 671
and reductionism 639, 642–3
and simples 639, 644, 651, 656
and sortals 667–8, 670–1
constructivism (in philosophy of science) 768–9
constructivism (in ethics) 64 n, 66
contextualism (in epistemology) 79, 686 n, 688–9, 694–5, 697
contextualism (in moral epistemology) 64, 69, 79–83
see also Timmons, Mark
continuity theorists (in ethics) 67
contractarian ethics 41, 49–51, 53–4
contractualist ethics 34 n, 41, 45, 49–54, 97
contractualist principles of just outcomes 225, 228
conventions (in relation to legal philosophy) 182, 184, 187, 190–1, 204
and disagreement 185–6
convergence of moral views or judgements 129–32, 135, 137
Cooper,J.M. 117
coordination problems (in relation to legal philosophy) 184–5, 204
Copeland, B. J. 570
Copp, D. 68 n, 69
Cornell-style moral realism 67
Cosmides, Leda, and Tooby, John 838
Craig,E.J. 633, 686 n
Cresswell, M. J. 568 n
Crimmins, Mark 424
Cronin, Ciarin, and De Greiff, Pablo 223 n
Cullity, Garrett, and Gaut, Berys 6 n
Culp, Sylvia 834
and Kitcher, Philip 834
culture of honour 132–7
Cummins, Robert 829–30
Cummiskey, David 36 n
Cushing, James T., and McMullin, Ernan 769 n
and Fine, A., and Goldstein, S. 769 n
Czezowski, Tadeusz 569
D'arms, Justin, and Jacobson, Daniel 6 n, 128 n
Damasio, A. R., and Tranel, D. and Damasio, H. 126
Dancy, Jonathan 4 n, 5 n, 6 n, 64 n, 70 n, 71, 89, 560
Daniels, Norman 3 n, 68 n, 75
Darley, J. M., and Batson, C. D. 118
Darwall Stephen 71 n, 124 n
and Gibbard, Allan, and Railton, Peter 14, 67, 69 n, 75, 78 n, 114–16, 129
Darwin, Charles 807, 823–4, 826–7
Dascal, Marcelo 475
Davenport, W. 240
Davidson, Donald 9, 11, 14–15, 19, 88, 104, 313 n, 335–6, 338, 345 n, 353 n, 449 n, 450, 456–8, 469, 505–6, 508, 633, 698 n, 721 n
Davidson's scepticism about meaning 457–8
Davies, M. 373
and Coltheart, M., Langdon, R., and Breen, N. 390
and Humberstone, Lloyd 411–12, 413 n, 414, 743
Davis, Steven 469
Dawkins, Richard 823–5, 827, 840
de Gelder, B., and Vroomen, J., Pourtois, G., and Weiskrantz, L. 388
de Lavalette, G. R. Renardel 553
(p. 886) De Paul, M., and Ramsey, W. 697 n
decision theory 105
deep deliberative democracy 210, 214, 222, 224–5, 227–8
deep versus superficial necessity distinction 411
definitionally basic concepts 12, 17, 21, 23–4
Deigh, John 98, 124
Deiks, Dennis 853 n
deliberative democracy 210, 214, 222
Dembski, William 839
democratic: decisions 208, 210–11, 213, 224
procedures 211–18, 222, 225–7; see also political procedures
Dennett, D. C. 138, 142, 312 n, 313 n, 319, 330, 359–61, 363, 631, 827–8
Dent, N. J. H. 118 n
deontic concepts 10–13, 16–17
deontic the 11–12, 14
deontological ethical theories 31–2, 34 n, 41–2, 44–6, 48–50
see also contractarianism; contractualism; intuitionist approaches to deontological ethics; Kantian ethics
DePaul, M. 120
DeRose, K 79 n, 684 n, 686 n, 688 n
and Warfield, T. 698 n
Descartes, René 232, 234, 236, 254, 802
descriptivism 403, 406–7, 413, 417, 422–3, 785
about meaning of names 397, 399, 401, 408, 413
about natural kind terms 402, 408, 413, 418, 422; see also natural kind terms
about reference determination of names 397, 400–1, 408, 418, 422
as a priori irrefutable 407, 417–18
causal version of 408–10, 419, 421–2; see also Chalmers, David; Jackson, Frank; Kroon, Fred; Lewis, David; Searle, John
challenge of indexicals to 403–5, 414, 417–18; see also Kaplan, David; Perry, John; two-dimensionalism
Kripke's epistemological argument against 399, 408, 417, 420; see also Kripke, Saul
Kripke's modal argument against 398–9, 408, 417, 420, 423; see also Kripke, Saul
Kripke's objections to 288–9, 397, 400, 408; see also Kripke, Saul
Kripke's semantic arguments against 401, 408, 410, 417; see also Kripke, Saul
and metalinguistic descriptions 419–20
and reference fixing descriptions 408–9, 417–19, 420–3
desires 4–25, 33, 43, 104
for esteem and to avoid disesteem (in economics and political philosophy) 258, 275–8; see also economics; political philosophy
and reason 90–5
phenomenal 91, 100–1
hierarchy of 99–100
determinism and responsibility 141–5
Deutsche, David 857 n
Devitt, Michael 769 n, 771 n, 772 n, 774, 775 n, 776 n, 777 n, 779 n, 780 n, 781 n, 782, 786 n, 787
and Sterelny, Kim 785 n
DeWitt, B. 856
diaphanousness of experience 321–2, 326–7
discontinuity theorists in ethics 67–8
discrimination 156–7, 165
diversity 155–6, 163–4
Dixon, R. M. W. 539
Dobelle, W. H., Mladejovsky, M. G., and Girvin, J. P. 718 n
doctrine of doing and allowing 46 see also doing versus allowing harm distinction
doing versus allowing harm distinction 45, 47
Doris, J. M. 116 n, 118, 120 n, 121, 143 n
and Stich, S. P. 116 n, 119 n, 120, 123
Dowe, Phil 506
Dreier, James 4 n, 5 n, 20 n, 26, 63 n, 64 n, 80 n
Dretske, F. 335 n, 362, 686 n, 688 n, 795–6, 811, 841
Driver, Julia 3, 44 n, 55 n, 56
Dryzek, John 209 n, 222 n
and List, Christian 210 n
dualism 311, 314, 643, 718 n
Ducasse, C. J. 724 n
Ducrot, Oswald 475, 493
(p. 887) Duhem, P. 771, 778 n, 780, 804
Dummett, Michael 409, 431, 456 n
Dunn, J. Michael 546, 556 n, 587 n
Dunne, J. W. 315
Dupré, J. 303, 799, 827, 831–2, 834, 838
Duster, Troy 840
duties 43, 45
negative versus positive 46; see also Foot, Philippa
Dworkin, Andrea 250
Dworkin, Ronald 8–9, 50, 52, 66 n, 168, 182, 185, 190, 192, 196–8, 200–2
Earman, J. 618, 684 n, 686 n, 796–8, 806, 871 n, 872 n
and Glymour, C., and Mitchell, S. 808
economics 258, 263–8, 271, 273–5, 278, 808, 814
Eells, Ellery 506
egocentric goods 3
egoism in ethics 16
Ehring, Douglas 506, 520
Eilan, N., McCarthy, R., and Brewer, B. 387
Einstein, A. 615, 633, 805
Elder, Crawford L. 586
Eldredge, Niles 831
Ellis, B. 811
Ellis, Brian 770, 780 n
Ellis, H. D., and Young, A. W. 390
Ellsworth, P. C. 132
Elster, J. 223 n, 814
and Hylland, A. 216 n, 224 n
emotions 57
lack of intrinsic worth or moral significance of 43
empirical claims 22
empirical claims and ethics 115, 120–2, 125, 127, 145–6
empty:
concepts 284
definite descriptions 287; see also definite descriptions
expressions 286–7, 292
names 294, 422
singular concepts 294–5
Endicott, Timothy 189
Engel, P. 458 n
epistemic norms 64, 80–2
equality of opportunities 155, 157–9
equality of resources 159–60
Ereshevsky, Marc 831
error theory about morality 74 n
Estlund, David 209 n
ethics of care 57, 239
Euthyphro question 210
evaluative, the 14, 16
evaluative concepts 10–14, 16
Evans, Gareth 286 n, 287, 291 n, 296, 297 n, 368–9, 387, 411, 564
Everett, H., III 855–7, 874
Ewing, A. C. 17
externalism (in epistemology) 688, 693
externalism (in philosophy of mind), see psychological states, externalism about the content of
extrinsic good or value 32 n–33 n
and instrumental good 32 n–33 n
and relational good 33 n
Fair, David 506, 519
Fales, Evan 770
Fauconnier, Gilles 475
Feinberg, Joel 244–5
Feldman, Fred 33
Feldman, R. 688 n
female experience 57–8
feminism 231–55
and accounts of female orgasm in evolutionary biology 232, 238
and epistemology 238, 241–2
and dualism 232–7, 242, 254–5
and metaphysics of personal identity 232, 234–7
and moral epistemology 66, 75–6, 81–2, 234
and philosophy of science 232, 238, 240
and political philosophy 156, 163–4, 234
and pornography 242, 244, 246–8, 251, 253
relationship with philosophy 231–5
and speech act theory 242–3; see also speech acts
feminist ethics 57–8
feminist philosophy 52, 54, 57, 232
feminist philosophy of science 241–2
Feyerabend, P. 694 n, 768
Field, H. 293 n, 456 n, 457 n, 459 n, 465, 759–61, 776 n
filtering problem in moral epistemology 75–6
final good 33 n
Fine, Arthur 771, 774, 777 n
Fine, Kit 537, 572, 587–8, 591, 663, 673, 721 n
Finnis, John 8, 45 n, 181 n, 193
Firth, Roderick 17, 129 n, 724 n
Fish, Stanley 197 n
Flanagan, O. 116 n, 118–19, 122
(p. 888) Flax, Jane 234
Fleischer, Isidore 570
Flood, R., and Lockwood, M. 633
folk-biology 304
Foot, Philippa 4 n, 5 n, 9, 46–7
Forbes, Graeme 567–8, 588, 591–2, 594–5
Foster, John 322 n, 323 n
foundationalism (in epistemology) 70, 73, 79
foundations of physics, the 848–79
and absolutism versus relationism aboutspace 868–71
and asymmetries of human experience 865–7
and the bare theory 859–60
and Bohm's theory 852–3, 876; see also Bohm, David
and the measurement problem in quantum-mechanics 848–61, 872, 874; see also quantum mechanics
and the linear quantum-mechanical equations of motion 849–54, 856–7, 859–61; and the many worlds interpretation of quantum-mechanics 855–6, 874; see also Everett, H., III
and measuring devices 849–51, 855
and modal interpretations of quantum mechanics 853–5, 876
and statistical mechanics 866
and superpositions 850–2, 854, 856–61
and wave functions 852, 854–5, 873, 876
Frankena, William 4 n, 5 n, 124 n
Frankfurt, H. 336, 345, 352
Frankfurt, Harry 99–101, 103, 105 n, 109, 141–3
Frazier, R. L. 70
freedom to govern oneself versus freedom to govern others distinction 156, 161
Freeman, Samuel 160
Freeman, Samuel 222 n
Frege, Gottlob 284–7, 289, 397, 462, 468, 740, 751
Frege's puzzle (or problem) of failures of substitution of co-referential names in opaque contexts 285–7, 294, 402, 406, 409, 417, 421–2, 424
Fregean thoughts 285–6, 289
Frerejohn, J., and Satz, D. 799
Freud, Sigmund 97
Frey, Bruno 272 and Jegen, R. 272
Friedman, Michael 759, 798–9, 801–2
Fuller, Lon L. 182
Fumerton, R. 693 n
functionalism 359
Futuyma, Douglas 839
Gabbay, Dov M. 581, 583–5
Gale, R. M. 624
Gallois, André 559
Gallup, Gordon, and Suarez, Susan 240
Galston, William, A. 161, 163–4, 166–7, 176 game theory 814–15 evolutionary 839
Gardner, H. 358
Garson, James W. 595
Gaut, B. 72–3
Gauthier, David 50–1, 54 n, 69, 265–6
Gazdar, Gerald 471–2, 476, 493 n
Geach,P.T. 545 n, 546
Geerts, W., and Melis, L. 548 n
Gelman, S., and Hirschfield, L. 304
gender differences in moral thinking 57, 75
generic-species concepts 304
George, Robert 45 n
Gert, Bernard 41
Gettier, E. 686, 687 n, 696
Gewirth, A. 69
Ghez, Claude, Krakauer, J., Sainburg, R., and Ghilardi, M. 344–5
Ghirardi, G. C., Rimini, A., and Weber, T. 854
Ghiselin, Michael 831–2
Gibbard, Allan 4 n, 5 n, 6 n, 22, 63 n, 107–8, 116 n, 839
Gibbons, J. 693 n
Gibbs, Ray 485, 487
Giere, R. N. 804
Gilbert, D. T., and Malone, P. S. 120 n
Gilligan, Carole 57, 75, 237–8
Ginet, C. 335 n, 337, 354
Glennan, S. 814
Glucksberg, Sam 485, 487
Glymour, Clark 774 n, 836
Goble, L. F. 587 n
Gödel, K. 746, 751, 756–7
Godfrey-Smith, Peter 829–30, 835, 841
and Lewontin, Richard 825
Goldbatt, Robert 570, 574, 577
Goldie, Peter 107
Goldman, A. 80, 116 n, 335 n, 336, 339, 688 n, 693 n
Goldsworthy, Jeff 9
Good,I.J. 506
good, the 3, 32, 36, 41, 103
greater good 45
hedonism and desire satisfaction accounts of 32
(p. 889)
maximizing of 34–7, 39–40, 42 n, 46, 96, 98
see also Sidgwickian definition of the good
Goodin, Robert 222 n, 260
goodness 11–12, 17–18, 20, 26
as metaphysically simple 16, 18
Goranko, Valentin 601 n
Gottschalk, W. H. 542, 544
Goudge, T. A. 819
Gould, S. J. 807, 824–6, 831, 839
and Lewontin, Richard 827
and Vrba, Elizabeth 829
Grabosky, P. N. 272
Gray, John Chipman 194
Gray, Russell 828
Greco, J., and Sosa, E. 698 n
Green, Mitchell 472 n
Greenawalt, Kent 195–6
Greenspan, P. S. 108
Grene, Marjorie 819
Grice, H. P. 197, 428–33, 468–70, 471 n, 472–3, 475–9, 481 n, 483 n, 484–7, 493 n, 494
Griffiths, Paul, and Gray, Russell 828
Groenendijk, Jeroen, and Stokof, Martin 538 n
Gross, Steven 488
Grover, D. 463
and Camp, J., and Belnap, N. 458 n, 463
Grünbaum, A. 630
Guala, F. 799, 808
Gupta, A. 462 n
Gutmann, A., and Thompson, D. 226 n
Gutmann, Amy 160, 163, 177
Gutting, Gary 775 n
Habermas, Jurgen 223–5
Hacker, Edward, A. 597–9, 601
Hacking, Ian 770 n, 777 n
Haidt, J., Koller, S., and Dias, M. 140–1
Hall, Alison 493
Hall, Ned 514, 527, 529
and Paul, L. A. 524, 526
Halldén, Sören 563, 575–6
Halley, Janet E. 172
Halpern, Joseph Y. 560 n, 561 n, 567 n
Hamblin, C. L. 561
Hamilton, W. D. 823
Hamlyn, D. 355
Hampton, Jean 54
Haney, C., Banks, W., and Zimbardo, P. 118
Hardin, Russell 217 n
Harding, Sandra 241
Hare, R. D. 127
Hare, R. M. 3 n, 4 n, 5 n, 38–9, 65, 115, 538 n
Harman, Gilbert 4 n, 49 n, 65, 77, 116 n, 118, 119 n, 123, 129, 321–2, 353–5, 687 n, 724 n, 742, 561 n
Harnish, Robert Michael 475, 491
Harré, R., and Madden, E. H. 811–12
Harris, John 840
Harstock, Nancy 241
Hart, D., and Killen, M. 121
Hart, H. L. A. 182–3, 185–6, 192–3, 195, 202
Haslanger, Sally 243
Hausman, D. 808
Hayek, F. A. 200
health care ethics 57
Healy, Richard 853 n
hedonism 32–3, 35
Hempel,C.G. 829
Herman, Barbara 243
Herman, Barbara 42, 43 n, 75, 98
Herrnstein, Richard, and Murray, C. 836
Hesse, Mary 770
Heyd, David 840
Higginbotham, James 446
Hilbert, David 319
Hill,C.S. 458 n, 461
Hill, Thomas E., Jr 106 n, 122 n
Hilpinen, Risto 543
Hintikka, Jaakko 536, 539–40, 543, 557, 567
Hinton,J.M. 322 n, 726–9
Hirschberg, Julia 472 n
Hitchcock, C. 526–7, 809 n
Hite, S. 240
Ho, Mae-Wan, and Fox, Sidney 828
and Saunders, Peter, T. 828
Hoadley, Bishop 194
Hobbes, Thomas 41, 50, 192, 227
Hobbesian approach to morality 41
Hobbs, Jerry 475
and Stickel, Mark, Appelt, Douglas, and Martin, Paul 475
Hoefer, C., and Rosenberg, A. 778
Holmes, Oliver Wendell 204
Holton Richard 9 n
Holtzmann, Neil A. 840
Hooker, Brad 39–40, 92–3
Hooker, Clifford A. 770
Hoover, K. 810
Horan, B. L. 807
Horn, Laurence 471, 481 n
and Ward, Gregory 469, 472 n, 493 n
Horn, Laurence R. 542 n, 544 n, 549 n, 552 n
Hornsby, Jennifer 242, 353 n, 457 n
and Langton, Rae 242 n
Horowitz, Tamara 49 n, 140 Horty, John F. 543, 556 n
Horwich, Paul 455 n, 458 n, 460 n, 461 n, 462 n, 466 n, 633, 771
Howson, C., and Urbach, P. 684 n
Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer 242 n
Hubbard, Ruth, and Wald, Elijah 840
(p. 890) Huemer, Michael 559 n
Hughes, G. E., and Cresswell, M. J. 557 n, 562, 566, 568 n, 572, 576, 585, 590
Hull, David 819, 824, 831–3
Humberstone, Lloyd 543, 549 n, 550, 556, 558, 566, 568, 575 n, 589, 595, 596, 601 n
and Williamson, Timothy 546 n
Hume, David 8, 23 n 115, 129 n, 271, 274, 505, 519, 630, 793
Hume's ‘sensible knave’ 124, 127
Humean supervenience 797, 800
Humphreys, P. 804
Hurka, Thomas 16, 34
Hursthouse, Rosalind 55, 121–2
Husserl, Edmund 284 n
Hutcheson, F. 129 n
hypothetical imperatives 42
hypothetical social contracts or agreements 50, 52
as opposed to actual social contracts or agreements 50; see also contractarian ethics
ideal language philosophy 468; see also Carnap, Rudolf; Frege, Gottlob; Russell, Bertrand; Tarski, A.
idealized psychology 17
ideal-theory assumption (in political philosophy) 258–9, 261–3, 267, 274, 277
identification (and moral psychology) 99–102
Ifantidou, Elly 492
illiberal groups 161, 164–5, 176–7
see also liberalism
incentive-comparability approach (in economics) 258, 263–7, 269, 271–4, 276, 278
incentives 258, 264, 268, 272–6, 278
inclusion problem for contractarianism-contractualism 53–4
indexicals 403–5, 414
meaning of 403–4
reference of 403
indigenous peoples 18–23
inference to the best explanation 65
inferential capacities 24, 94
input objection in moral epistemology 75, 78
institutional design and compliance constraints 260
see also compliance (in political philosophy)
institutional design 267, 272–3, 275–6, 278
institutional principles 259
institutions 258–60, 264, 267–73, 275–8
intangible hand of esteem (in economics and political philosophy) 276
intending versus merely foreseeing harm distinction 47; see also doctrine of double effect
intentional objects 283–4, 322, 326–7
intentional states 323
intentionalism about experience 321–2, 326–9
intentionality 283–4, 360, 363
internalism (in epistemology) 688, 693
internalism (in ethics) 45, 55, 65, 89, 92–6, 104, 124–8
internalism (in philosophy of mind), see psychological states
intrinsic bad 32
intrinsic good or value 32, 35 n
intuitionism in moral epistemology 64, 67, 70–3
generalist accounts of 64, 67, 69–71; see also moral epistemology
particularist accounts of 64, 67, 69, 71–2, 80 n
intuitionist approaches to deontological ethics 44
monist version of 45
pluralist version of 44–5, 70; see also Ross, W. D.
invisible hand explanations (in economics) 266, 274–6
Irigaray, Luce 234
iron hand explanations (in economics) 275–6
Irwin, T. H. 118
Isen, A. M., Levin, P. F. 118
Iten, Corinne 493 n
Jackson, Frank 4 n, 5 n, 6 n, 22, 105, 125, 139, 141, 315 n, 322 n, 323 n, 329, 332, 407–10, 417–18, 469, 558, 702–5, 710, 712, 724 n
and Pargetter, Robert 55 n, 316, 558
and Pettit, Philip 4 n, 139, 375
and Smith, Michael 26
Jacob, P., and Jeannerod, M. 389
Jaggar, Alison 234, 241
Jaggar, Alison 57–8
James, Susan 232, 235–7
James, W. 456 n
(p. 891) Jennings, R. E. 542, 568
Jennings, Richard 770
Jensen, Arthur 836
Johnson, M. 116 n
Johnson, Phillip 839
Johnston, Mark 17
Johnston, Mark 642 n, 643
Jones, Andrew, J. L., and Pörn, Ingmar 558, 584 n
Jones, E. E. 120 n
Jones, K. 4, 70 n, 234
Jordan, M. 341 n
Joyce, Richard 5 n
Juola, P., and Plunkett, K. 386
jurisprudence 8–9, 182, 185–6, 188–9, 191–3, 203–5
justice 3, 35–6, 39, 52, 54, 155, 157, 176, 181, 190–1, 194, 201, 203–4, 209–11, 214–17, 221, 225–6, 259
distributive 159, 167
historical 174–5
justification of belief 67, 688–90, 693, 695, 697
analyses of 696–7
circular 70 n
closure principle on 687, 690–1
doxastic 68–9
inferential 73
non-inferential 70 n, 71, 73, 79
propositional 68
structure of 73
justified constraint 50
Kadmon, Nirit 469, 493 n, 495
Kagan, Shelley 34 n, 36, 45 n, 46 n, 49, 145
Kahneman, David and Slovic, P. and Tversky. Amos 140 n
and Tversky, Amos 49 n
Kamin, Leon 836
Kamm, F. M. 48–9
Kane, R. 141 n, 142
Kant, Immanuel 8, 39, 42–3, 51, 56, 122, 243, 249, 254, 260, 622, 631–2, 739–42, 768, 801–2, 811, 868
Kantian ethics 22, 39, 41–4, 45, 49, 52–3, 97–8, 116, 117 n, 122, 124, 126, 127 n, 128, 243–5
Kaplan, D. 287 n, 293 n, 403–5, 412, 417–18, 627, 742–3, 592 n
Kaplan, M. 686 n
Karttunen, Lauri, and Peters, Stanley 476 n, 493 n, 540–1
Kasher, Asa 469, 475
Katz, J. 288 n, 475, 491
Kauffman, Stuart 827
Kavka, Gregory 51, 227 n
Keeley, Brian 841
Kenneally, T. 122
Kennett, Jeanette 105 n, 106
and Smith, Michael 106–7
Kenny, A. 540, 559, 568 n
Keynes, J. N. 597, 599
Khamara, E. J. 547, 606 n
Kim, J. 115, 525, 526
Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., and Martin, C. E. 240
Kirkham, R. L. 458 n
Kittay, Eva 53 n
Klein, P. 691 n
Kneale, W. C. 794–5
Kneale, William 565
and Kneale, Martha 542 n
Knobe, Joshua 354
know-how 320
knowledge 65, 684–5, 690, 692, 695
analyses of 696–7
closure principle on 686–7, 690
as a mental state 693; see also Williamson, T.
knowledge argument, the 314–21, 328
objection from egocentric knowledge to 317–18
knowing one thing under different guises objection to 318–19
fallacy of inferring new properties from new concepts objection to 319
objection from hard-to-spot-patterns to 319–20
the ability reply to and recognitional capacities 320–1, 328–9
and intentionalism 328–9;
knowledge-that 321
Kohlberg, Lawrence 57, 126, 237
Kolodny, Niko 109 n
Kornblith, H. 685 n
Korsgaard, Christine 5 n, 6 n, 8 n, 9, 32 n–33 n, 43 n, 44, 92
Kracht, Marcus 587 n, 601 n
Kratzer, Angelika 538
Kroon, Fred 409
Kuenne, W. 458 n, 461
Kuhn, Steven, T. 542, 561 n, 585–6, 595 n
(p. 892) Kuhn, Thomas S. 78, 768, 785 n, 801
Kukathas, Chandran 162–3, 176–7
Kukla, Andre 770, 774 n, 778–81, 782 n, 783 n
Kupperman, J. J. 120, 122
Kvanvig, J. 68
Kvart, Igal 506
Kyburg, H. 687 n
Kymlicka, Will 157–9, 163, 165, 167–7
Lakoff, George 485
Lakoff, Robin 538, 539 n, 543
Larmore, C. E. 118 n
Lange, M. 799–801
Langton, Rae 242 n, 243 n, 253 n
and Lewis, David 621
language of thought hypothesis, the 292, 369–73
and concept possession 373–4
and compositionality 371
and intentional realism 370–1
and syntactic properties 370–1, 373
LaPorte, J. 303
Larson, R:
and Ludlow, Peter 424
and Segal, G. 287, 295
Laudan, Larry 772–4, 778 n, 784, 787 n
and Leplin, Jarett 778, 780, 782, 783 n
law, the:
normativity of 183
concept of 193
interpretation of 193–199
rule of 193, 200
laws (in philosophy of science) 792–815, 841
and ceteris paribus principles 806, 808–9
best systems accounts of laws of nature 793, 797–9, 802–3
and empiricism 793, 797, 802, 806, 809
Friedman's Kantian view of laws of nature 799, 801–2; see also Friedman, Michael
Humean regularity accounts of laws of nature 793–7, 811–12; see also causation, as constant conjunction; Hume, David
laws of nature in terms of stability 800–1; see also Lange, M.
Mill–Ramsey–Lewis account of laws of nature 797–8
and models 804–8
necessitarian views of laws of nature 793–7, 812
and powers 811–13, 815
pragmatic 806–8
of science 792
and symmetries 805–6
and unificationist view of scientific progress 798–9
Le Poidevin, R. 630, 632–3
and Macbeth, M. 633
Leeds, S. 459 n
legal judgments 7–8
separability from moral judgements 190, 192; see also separability thesis
legal norms 181, 204
reduction of legal norms to moral norms 9;
see also moral norms
legal philosophy 181, 191
legal positivism 8, 181–2, 185–7, 191–3, 204–5
exclusive 188–90
inclusive 189–90
legal precedent 199–203
enactment force of 200
gravitational force of 200
legal rules:
constructivist approach to purpose of 197–9;
normativity of 183
practices theory of 183
of procedure 186
primary 182–3
purpose of 196–7, 199
of recognition 188, 190–1
secondary 182–5, 187–8; see also Hart, H. L. A.
legal standards versus legal rules distinction 187, 189
legal systems 181–5, 188–91, 193–4, 197, 204
Le-Grand, J. 272
Leibniz, G. W., and Clarke, S. 618, 751
Leming, J. S. 121
Lemmon, E. J. 563, 565, 567, 569
and Scott, D. S. 561, 579 n, 580 n
Lenzen, Wolfgang 557, 567
Leonard, Henry, and Goodman, Nelson 636, 638
Leplin, Jarett 770, 774, 776 n, 784 n
Lesniewski, Stanislaw 636, 638, 651
Levesque, Hector, J. 601 n
Levin, Michael 772
Levins, Richard, and Lewontin, Richard, C. 828
Levinson, Stephen 471–2, 478, 481 n
Levy, Jacob T. 156, 177
Lewis, C. I., and Langford, C. H. 561–2, 567
Lewis, David 9, 17, 125, 129, 139, 264, 288 n, 407–10, 416, 419, 421–2, 456 n, 473, 475, 483, 488, 505–6, 509, 510, 514, 516, 521, 523, 526, 529, 543, 560, 562, 564, 567, 591–3, 595 630, 636, 647 n, 688 n, 796–7
Lewis, Peter 774 n
Lewontin, Richard 826, 828, 836
Ross, Steven, and Kamin, Leon 838
(p. 893) liberal democracies 161–2
liberal principles 156, 161, 172–4, 176
of freedom of association 163, 165–6, 169; see also associations
of freedom of religion 160
of liberty 161, 163, 166
of neutrality 157–8, 161, 162, 165, 167
liberal states 171, 173, 175
liberal values 160–1, 176–7
liberalism 155–7, 159, 161–5, 167, 169, 171, 173, 175–7
communitarian critiques of 156
feminist critiques of 156
multiculturalist critiques of 156
libertarianism 162
Linsky, Leonard 556
Lipton, Peter 774, 776 n
Little, Margaret 6 n, 71
Lloyd, Elisabeth 822, 825, 838
Lloyd, Elizabeth A. 232, 238–41
Lloyd, Genevieve 235 n
Loar, B. 302, 319 n
Locke, Don 703 n
Locke, John 275, 660, 663
Lockhart, Ted 33 n
Loeb, D. 130, 132, 137
Longino, Helen 241
Lorde, Audre 254
Louden,R. B. 116 n
Lowe,E. J. 354
Lucas, J. R. 564
Luce, R. Duncan, and Raiffa, Howard 185
Luper-Foy, S. 684 n
Lycan, W. G. 313, 325, 326 n, 332
Lyons, David 39 n
Lyons, John 540 n
MacCormick, Neil 192
Macedo, Stephen 163
Machamer, P., Darden, L., and Craver, C. 811, 814
MacIntyre, A. 122
Mackenzie, Catriona and Stoljar, Natalie 247 n, 248
Mackie, Gerry 217 n
Mackie, J. L. 4 n, 5, 22 n, 65, 70, 72, 78, 130, 505–6, 509, 525, 529, 569 n, 630–1, 798
McAllister, J. W. 772
McCann, H. 339, 346
McClelland, J. L., and the PDP Research Group 382
McCloskey, H. J. 36 n
McConnell, Michael W. 160
McDermott, Michael 514, 529–30
McDowell, John 4 n, 5 n, 17, 64 n, 66 n, 70 n, 71 n, 92–3, 117, 118 n, 193, 286 n, 291 n, 297 n, 693 n, 720 n, 726
McFetridge, Ian 565 n, 586 n, 592 n
McGinn, Colin 54 n, 346, 588, 591–2
McGowan, Mary Kate 242 n
McGrath, Sarah 508, 527–8
McIntyre, Alison 48, 103–4
McKenna, M. 141 n
MacKinnon, Catherine 242–3, 244 n, 247, 251, 253
and Dworkin, Andrea 244 n, 246, 248
McKeown-Green, Jonathan 419–20
McLaughlin, B. P., and Warfield, T. A. 384
McMullin, Ernan 773, 774 n, 776 n, 777 n, 785
McNaughton, D. 70 n
McTaggart, J. M. E. 615, 618, 620–4, 633
Madison, J., and Hamilton, A., et al 274
Maguire, A. M. 390
Maher, P. 684 n
Makin, G. 286 n
Makinson, David 543, 556, 568, 587
male experience 58
Malm, Heidi 49 n
Mandeville, B. 272, 274
Manning, John 197
Margalit, Avishai, and Halbertal, Moshe 166–7
and Raz, Joseph 166
Margolis, E., and Laurence, S. 125
market deregulation 261–2
Markus, H. R., and Kitayama, S. 132
Marr, D. 375–6
Marr's three levels of explanation 375–6
Marshall, J. C., and Halligan, P. W. 389
Martin, M. G. F. 720 n, 726 n, 728 n, 732 n
Marx, Karl 66, 243 n
Marxism 155, 241
Masters, W. H., and Johnson, V. 240
materialism, see physicalism
Matheson, Carl 770
Mathews, K. E., and Cannon, L. K. 118
Matsui, Tomoko 483 n
Matsumoto, Yo 472 n
Maudlin, Tim 871 n, 873 n
Maxwell, Grover 772
Maynard Smith, John 823, 827, 834, 839
Mayr, Ernst 827, 830
meaning 427–433, 446, 449, 451, 457–458
and communication 427–8, 433, 435–6, 438, 451–2
change 302–3
evidential theory of 749–50, 752
and phemes 434–6, 440; see also Austin, J. L. and relational phatic acts 434, 436
sentence meaning 429–33, 452, 469, 473, 475, 477, 494–5; see also Grice, H. P.
and speakers’ intentions 429–30, 435, 437
(p. 894)
and speech 427–8
and speech acts, see speech acts theory of 428–9, 431
utterer's meaning 429–32; see also Grice, H. P.; pragmatics, and speaker’ smeaning word meaning 429–30, 475; see also Grice, H. P.
Meinhardt, Hans 827, 835
Meinong, A 284 n
Melden, A. I. 351
Mele, Alfred R. 104, 106–7
Mele, Alfred, R. 336–9, 340 n 341–2, 345, 351–5
and Moser, P. 339, 355
and Sverdlik, S. 353–5
Mellor, D. H. 506, 621, 625–8, 631–2
mental dossiers 295–6, 304
mental states 283, 311, 315, 323, 329, 364
beliefs about one's current mental states 691–2
conscious 313, 325; see also consciousness
indiscriminable 692, 729, 732
phenomenal 312–14; see also phenomenology
non-phenomenal 312
realism about 311–12
sensory 325
mental syntax 292–3
mentalese 292–3
Menzies, Peter 521–3
and Pettit, Philip 593
Merleau-Ponty, M. 726
Merritt, M. 116 n
meta-ethical questions 6, 8
meta-ethics 3–26, 63, 68, 839
meta-legal questions 7–8
meta-level questions 8–10
about how evaluative and deontic concepts are to be defined 11–12
about reasons and rationality 7–10, 14
metaphysics 63–4
Milgram, Elijah 92
Milgram, S. 118, 120
Mill, John Stuart 35, 165, 259, 289, 335 n, 798, 808, 812
Miller, G. A. 358
Miller, R. 66
Miller, Richard W. 771, 786 n
Millikan, R. 289 n, 303, 829–30, 841
Mills, Susan, and Beatty, John 822
Milner, A. D., and Goodale, M. A. 389
minimax concession principle 50
minorities 158, 172–3, 176
ethnic 156–7
linguistic 170
national 169, 172–6
religious 158, 160, 168, 171
Mintoff, Joe 51
Mischel, W. 118–19
Mitchell, S. 807–8, 841
Mitchell, Sandra 829–30
modality 534–606
alethic modal logics 536, 540, 543, 550–1, 555, 560–1, 563, 567, 581, 588–90; Blanché's hexagon 548, 551, 553
and deontic logics 540, 543, 555, 558, 560, 567–8, 584 n, 586, 601
and epistemic logics 536, 538–40, 543, 557, 559–60, 567, 578, 592, 601 n
hexagon of opposition 542–3
Kripke semantics 558, 569, 570–80, 587 n, 595; see also Kripke, Saul
modal squares of opposition 535–37, 542–4, 548–9, 551, 552, 555, 556 n, 558, 560–1, 569, 598, 601
possible world semantics 535, 541, 548, 557, 570, 591–2, 594–5
modularity of mind 376, 385
and belief fixation 378
and central systems 377–9
and cognitive neuropsychology 379–81
and domain specificity 376–9
and information encapsulation 376–7
massive modularity 379
nine marks of 376–7
see also Fodor, J.
Molnar, G. 794–5
Moltmann, Frederika 639
monists about the good 3
Montague, Richard 469, 535, 584, 595 n
Montgomery, H., and Routley, R. 542 n, 562
Moody-Adams, M. 78 n
Moore, G. E. 4 n, 5 n, 13–19, 21, 34, 115, 321, 457 n, 689, 703, 708, 726
Moore, Michael 182 n
Moorean definition:
of deontic concepts 13–17, 20
moral autism 55
(p. 895) moral beliefs 5, 43, 63, 67, 74, 77–8, 142, 264–5
justification of 68–70, 79–80, 83
non-inferential justification for 69, 70–1
social factors in production of 76
social factors in justification of 81–2; see also epistemology; justification of beliefs;
moral epistemology moral development in children 57
moral dilemmas 32
moral disagreement 129–31, 135–7, 140, 146, 129–37, 189, 204
moral discourse 64–5, 67, 87, 204, 269
moral emotions 107–9
moral epistemology 64, 67, 69, 74, 76, 79
moral evaluation 31, 44
moral facts 4–5, 63, 65–6, 77–8
moral intuitions 33–5, 37–9, 41, 42, 44–7, 49, 52, 58–9, 72–3
moral irrealism 63, 80
moral judgements 4–5, 8, 25, 66, 72, 74–6, 78, 124–6, 129, 131–2, 138 n, 181, 187–8, 191, 204
moral knowledge 63–7, 70 n
ideological function of claims to 66, 76, 82
non-inferential 69, 71
presupposition of 76
sociality of 68, 78
moral luck 44, 56
moral motivation 87, 95–9, 123–8
problems presented by psychopathy andsociopathy for internalist theories of 124–8; see also internalism in ethics see also motivation
moral principles 31, 51, 53, 66, 68, 70, 86, 182, 203
moral properties 63, 64 n, 66–7
moral psychology 9, 49, 55, 86–8, 96, 98–9, 107, 117, 119, 122, 124
cognitivist and non-cognitivist approaches to 100
moral realism 63, 74, 80, 131–2, 135–7, 182
moral reasons 36 n, 87–8
moral sensibilities 66, 71, 77–8
moral status of animals 44, 53, 130
see also Kantian ethics; utilitarianism moral versus conventional distinction 127–8
Moran, Richard 100
Morgan, M., and Morrison, M. 799, 804
Morris, Charles 468
Morris, Christopher 54 n,
Morris, Desmond 238–40
Morris, Herbert 109
Mortensen, Chris 567
motivation and desire 87–90
Humean theory of 88, 104–5; see also moral motivation
Mulgan, Tim 37 n
multicultural accommodation 156, 159–60, 169, 176
multiculturalism 156–7, 161, 163, 167, 176–7
multiculturalists 157–60
Mumford, S. 811
Murphy, Liam 37
Murray, John, D. 835
Musgrave, Alan 774 n, 775 n, 777 n
Nagel, Ernest 829, 833–4
Nagel, Thomas 4 n, 5 n, 22 n, 32, 44, 89, 142 n, 313, 351–2
name-concepts 288, 295–7, 301, 303–4
narrow content 297–8, 300–1
narrow properties 298–9
natural kind concepts 297–9, 302
and dubbing ceremonies 302–4
natural kinds 302–4, 831
natural law theory (in ethics) 41, 45 n
natural law theory (in philosophy of law) 8, 9, 181–2, 186, 191
naturalized epistemology 685, 739, 775, 776 n, 787
see also Quine, W. V.
Neale, S. 287, 471 n, 475, 478 n
Neander, Karen 829
negative existentials, see empty names; Russell's problem of negative existentials
Nelkin, Dorothy, and Tancredi, Laurence 840
neo-Russellianism (about propositional attitude reports) 289–96
Nerlich, G. 618–19
Neta, Ram 710 n
neuroscience 311
Newcomb's problem 22
Newtonian mechanics 616, 802–3, 861–68, 870–1
Nichols, S. 124–8
Nietzsche, Friedrich 5 n, 97
(p. 896) Nisbett, R. E. 132
and Cohen, D. 132–7
and Ross, L. 140 n
Noddings, Nel 57
non-cognitivism (in ethics) 4, 6 n, 21, 63, 64, 771 n, 839
non-descriptivist (or anti-descriptivist) theories 406–8, 421–4
about the semantics of names 405, 424; see also Kripke, Saul
about the semantics of natural kind terms 405, 424; see also Kripke, Saul; Putnam, Hilary
non-existent objects 284 n
non-ideal normative theory (in political philosophy) 258–9, 260 n, 273, 278
non-tuism (in economics) 265–6
Noonan, H. 300, 593
normative democratic theory 209–10, 213, 228
normative ethics 3–5, 31–2, 35, 50, 58–9
normative social and political theory 259–60, 263
normative social choice theory 210, 216–19, 221–5, 227–8
normative:
concepts 12, 54, 87
judgements 4, 7, 21, 25, 103
reasons 86, 88–90, 92–5, 97, 100–1
norms of equality 161
Noveck, Ira 472 n
and Bianco, Maryse, and Castry, Alain 487
Nowell-Smith, P. H. 72
Nozick, Robert 22 n, 33, 560, 566 n, 567 n, 684 n, 686 n
Nozick's experience machine 33
Nucci, L. 127
Nussbaum, Martha 107, 117, 160–1, 166, 232, 243–8, 250–1, 254, 262–3
O'Connor, T. 335 n
O'Leary-Hawthorne, John, and Cortens, Andrew 655
O'Neill, Onora 43 n, 248 n
O'Shaughnessy, B. 355
Oaklander, L. N., and Smith, Q. 623, 626
objects of thought 284
Okin, Susan Moller 54, 163–7, 172
Olson, E. T. 632
ontology 636–7, 639, 667, 670
Open Question Argument 14
see also Moore, G. E.
Oppy, Graham 563
Oster, George, and Wilson, E. O. 827
Oyama, Susan 828, 837
Palmer, F. R. 541 n
Pap, Arthur 567
Papafragou, Anna, and Musolino, Julien 472 n
Papineau, D. 456 n, 770
Parekh, Bhikhu 159
Paretian assumption of welfare economics 266–7
Parfit, Derek 35, 36 n, 40 n, 92–4, 235, 254
Pargetter, Robert 583–6
Parry, William T., and Hacker, Edward A. 598
particularism in ethics 31, 64
Pateman, Carole 52 n
Peacocke,C. A. B. 287 n, 305, 325, 373, 387, 389, 592, 724 n, 742, 744, 752, 753, 755, 757, 761–2
Pearl, J. 810
Pearl, Judea 506, 531
Pearle, P., and Bell, J. 854
Pelletier, F. J. 537, 542 n
Penfield, W. 343
Pennock, Robert 839
perception 701–36
and awareness 702
and the common kind assumption 717, 719–22, 725–8, 730–1, 733, 735
contextualism about talk of 710, 712–715, 722 n
direct perception or direct objects of 702, 708–10, 716, 736
direct realism about 701, 714, 723
and disjunctivism 702, 726–8, 730–1, 733–6
and experiential naturalism 717, 722, 726, 735
and illusions or hallucinations 708, 710, 714, 717–18, 722, 725, 727–8, 731, 734; see also arguments from illusion or hallucination
immediate perception or immediate objects of 701, 703–8, 710, 713–14, 716, 722
indirect perception or indirect objects of 702, 708–10, 712, 722, 736
(p. 897)
indirect realism 701, 714, 736
and knowledge 701–2, 709, 726
mediated perception or mediated objects of 701, 703, 705–8, 710, 714, 716, 722; and naive realism 715–18, 720, 722, 724–7, 731, 733, 735
of non-physical entities 708–9, 714–15, 718, 726
phenomenalists about 701
representational or intentionalist approach to 702, 715, 720, 723–5, 731, 735–6; and sense-experience 714–17, 719–20, 722–3, 725, 727, 730, 732, 734
and sense-data 322, 702–3, 715, 718–19, 722–4, 726, 730 n, 731, 735
perceptual:
experiences 323–4
representations 323
states 313
Perry, John 287 n, 317 n, 403, 416, 557, 628
Perry, Ruth 233 n
Perry, Stephen 192
personal versus sub-personal levels of description and explanation (in cognitive science, philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology and psychology) 359–60, 364
and intentionality 360, 363
and the intentional stance 360; see also Dennett, D. C.
personal level notions 363
personal level intentionality 363–4
metaphorical use of personal level notions in sub-personal level descriptions 361
sub-personal level representation 363–4
sub-personal level systems 360, 363, 369
Peterson,D.R. 118
Pettit, Philip 35 n, 37, 54 n, 220 n, 264, 268 n, 272–3
and Smith, Michael 37 n, 38 n, 90, 101 n
phenomenal experiences 314, 320–1
phenomenology 313–14, 322, 324–5, 332
philosophy of action 334, 338, 355
philosophy of biology 819–42
and altruism 823, 826, 839
and Darwinian evolutionary theory 819–24, 826, 831, 833, 838
Darwinianism and religion 839–40
and developmental systems theory 828, 833
evolution and ethics 839
and evolutionary systematics 830–2
and functions 828–9
and the Human Genome Project 820, 835, 840–1
and IQ tests 836;
and molecular biology 819–20, 832–5
and the notion of biological information 834–5
and the notion of a species 830–2
and pluralist conventionalism 825–6
and the pluralist hierarchical view of selection 825
and reduction 833–4
and the relation between molecular and classical genetics 833–4
and sociobiology 827, 837–9
and units of selection 823–7, 833
philosophy of causation 506, 508, 511, 514
and research on statistical data and causal structures 530–1
see also causation
philosophy of cognitive science 359
prospects for 387–90
philosophy of language 306, 371, 428, 478, 485, 487, 494–5, 633
philosophy of linguistics 478
philosophy of mind 284, 311, 359–60, 364, 494, 841
philosophy of perception 388
see also perception
philosophy of physics 805, 820
philosophy of psychology 298
philosophy of the social sciences 807
philosophy of time 615, 632
see also time
physical sciences, the 310–11
physicalism 310–11, 313, 315–16, 318, 330, 517
Pidgen, Charles 74 n
Pierce, C. S. 456 n
Pinker, S. 304
Pitcher, George 703 n
Plato 66, 209, 418
Platts, Mark 265
Plaut, D. C. 385–6
pleasure 32, 33
Pocock, J. 264
political philosophy 50, 156, 211, 216, 258–9
political:
decisions 209–11, 223–4, 227–8; see also democratic decisions
procedures 209, 212–13, 215–16, 219, 224; see also democratic procedures; proceduralism; procedural values
Popper,K.R. 795, 813
Pörn, Ingmar 556 n
(p. 898) Port, R. F., and van Gelder, T. 387
Porte, Jean 580 n
Posner, Richard 203 n
possibility:
epistemic 407
metaphysical 407–8
see also modality
Postema, Gerald J. 9 n, 192
Pouget, A., and Sejnowski, T. J. 383
pragmatics 468–95
and explicatures 479–84, 489, 491–2
formal 469, 472
and Grice's cooperative principle 470–1, 484, 486
and Grice's maxims of manner 470–1
and Grice's maxims of quality 470–1, 486–7
and Grice's maxims of quantity 470–1
and Grice's maxims of relation 470–1
Gricean approaches to 469, 473, 475–6, 484–5; see also Grice, H. P.
and the literal versus figurative meaning distinction 485–7
and metaphor 485–7, 489–90
Neo-Gricean approaches to 471–3, 475–6, 484
relevance theory approach to 473–5, 479, 481–5, 488–9, 491, 493, 495
and speech act theory 491–4; see also speech acts
and tropes 485–7
and vagueness 487–8
preference utilitarianism 15
preferences 218–23
and action 264–5
egocentric 265
other-regarding 266–7
self-regarding 266–7
Price, H. 535, 633
Price, H. H. 703 n, 726
Prigogine, Ilya 866
principle of permissible harm 48
see also Kamm, F. M.
principle of utility 35
Prior, A. N. 537, 563, 568, 570, 574, 581–3, 619, 626
prisoner's dilemma, the 266
probability 683–6, 690
conditional 683
subjective probabilities 684
problem of apocalyptic retaliation strategies 51
problem of incentive-compatibility (in economics) 264
procedural values (in democratic theory) 209, 211, 215–16, 222, 224–5
instrumental 212, 217–19, 221–2, 225–6
intrinsic 209, 212–13, 223, 225–6
non-instrumental 212, 223; prospective 212–13, 215–16, 222, 224
retrospective 212–13, 215–16, 221, 224
proceduralism (in democratic theory) 211, 213, 217–18, 222, 227
propositional attitude reports (or ‘PARs’) 289, 293–4, 296, 301
propositional attitudes 286, 289, 292, 294, 404, 480 n, 693 n
propositional fragments 294
prosopagnosia 388–9
prudence, accounts of 32
Pryor, J. 79 n, 688 n, 698 n, 729 n
Psillos, Stathis 770, 771 n, 774 n, 775, 778, 782 n, 785
psychological explanation 289–91, 293, 297, 300, 304–5
psychological states 291, 298
internalism about the content of 300–1; see also narrow content
externalism about the content of 300–2; see also wide content
see also mental states
psychology 293–5, 316, 358
cognitive 375, 485
cognitive revolution in 358; see also cognitive science
computational 374–5; see also computational theory of mind
and ethics 6, 41, 49, 55, 58, 87, 114–15, 117–20, 122–4, 132; see also moral psychology
information-processing 363, 370
Purkinje, Johannes 718 n
Putnam, Hillary 297–300, 302, 305, 402, 456 n, 684 n, 693 n, 767, 771–2, 778 n, 784
qualia 330
quantum-mechanics 631, 768 n, 769 n, 803, 805, 813
quasi-Fregeanism 291, 293, 295, 302
about name-concepts 295–6; see also name-concepts
(p. 899) Quine, W. V. 115, 294, 367–9, 459 n, 465, 617, 622, 685, 739, 742, 749, 751–2, 759, 771, 778 n, 780, 781 n
Quinn, Warren 47, 49 n, 89
Quinton, Anthony 236
Rabinowicz, W., and Segerberg, K. 578 n
Rabinowicz, Woldek, and Rønow-Rasmussen, Toni 17
Rachels, James 47
Radin, Margaret Jane 195
Raff, R. 827 Railton, Peter 4 n, 5 n, 6 n, 33, 38, 40–1, 99, 115 n, 116 n, 120, 129, 131
Ramsey, F. 458 n, 461
Ramsey, W., and Stich, S., and Garon, J. 385
rational nature 42
rationalism in ethics 8
rationality 692
Rawls, John 3–4, 10, 32 n, 36 n, 52–4, 70, 75, 98, 108 n, 138, 165, 175 n, 176, 211, 213–16, 225–7, 259–60, 262–3
Raz, Joseph 8, 93, 97, 100, 166–7, 172, 190, 193, 197 n
reason and rationality:
accounts of 32
desirability characteristic of reasons 14
domain of 10–12, 25–6
reasons: agent-neutral reason 35 n
agent–relative reasons 35
all-things considered reason 15
all-things considered reason to act 17–18
explanatory 88–90
motivating 90; see also action, reasons for
Recanati, François 468, 471 n, 475, 478 n, 481 n, 491 n, 493
Redhead, M. L. G. 618
Redstockings Collective 66
reference 285–8, 292–7, 397, 400, 433, 436–8, 461, 470, 682, 697, 786
and baptism or dubbing ceremonies 289, 299, 401–2
causal theory of 771, 785
direct 403–5
and causal–historical chains of reference determination 401–2, 406, 419–20; see also Kripke, Saul; McKeown-Green, Jonathan
reflective equilibrium 3–5, 52, 73–4, 76, 138 n, 259
wide reflective equilibrium 66–8, 74–5, 77; see also Rawls, John
see also Rawls, John
regress problem in epistemology 70, 73, 79, 683
see also belief; scepticism
Reichenbach, H. 616, 630, 632, 824 n
relativism in ethics 58, 78 n, 129–31
reliabilism (in epistemology) 748, 754
representationalism about experience 322, 326
and externalism 331–2
and narrow content 332; see also narrow content
strong 323–6; weak 323
and wide content 332; see also wide content
responsibility 10–11, 13–14, 37–8
Rey, Georges 775 n, 776 n
Richard, M. 289 n, 290, 424
Richards, David 52 n
Richardson, Henry 221 n, 222 n
Ridge, Michael 54 n
right action 39, 51, 53, 55–6, 121
right, the 32, 36, 41
rights: positive versus negative 47
feminist accounts of 58
see also Quinn, Warren
rigid designation 400, 404–5
Riker, William 217, 220–1
Risse, Mathias 210 n
Rivière, Claude 538 n
Robb, A. A. 630, 632
Roberts, Robert C. 106 n
Robinson, H. 726
Robinson, Richard 537–40
Rolls, E. T. 383
Rorty, Amèlie Okensberg 103
Rosati, C. S. 129 n
Rosen, Gideon 592–3, 596
Rosenberg, A. 807–8, 821, 834–5
Rosenberg, J. 288 n
Rosenblum, Nancy 164–7
Roskies, A. 126–7
Ross, L., and Nisbett, R. E. 120 n
Ross, W. D. 10, 45, 70–1
Rousseau 98
Routley, Richard, and Meyer, Robert K. 573 n
and Plumwood, V. Meyer, R. K., and Brady, R. T. 567
and Routley, Valerie 566
Ruetsche, Laura 855 n
Rumelhart, D. E. 382
and McClelland, J. L. 383–4
Rumfitt, Ian 450
Ruse, Michael 819, 838–9
and Wilson, E. O. 839
(p. 900) Russell, Bertrand 13, 287–9, 397, 401, 404, 468, 535, 556
Russell's problem of negative existentials 406, 417, 421–22, 424
see also empty expressions; empty names
Russellian propositions 289–91, 293
Ryle, Gilbert 336, 448
Sadock, Jerry 491 n
Sainsbury, R. M. 286 n, 288 n
Saito, Setsuo 583 n
Salmon, N. 284 n, 289 n, 290, 292, 294, 405, 424, 469, 567, 619
Salmon, Wesley 506
Sandel, Michael 52–3
Sanford, D. H. 550
Sankey, Howard 771 n
Sarkar, Sahorta 834–5
Sartre, Jean-Paul 250
Saul, Jennifer 237 n, 238 n, 239
Saunders, S. 857, 869 n
Sauriol, Pierre 542
Saver, J. L., and Damasio, A. R. 126
Sayre-McCord, G. 64 n, 73 n, 74 n
Scalia, Antonin 188 n, 189
Scanlon, T. M. 6 n, 17, 53–4, 88, 92–4, 96–7, 100, 141, 337
scepticism (in ethics):
about moral knowledge 63, 64 n, 65–7, 70, 76–7, 81, 182
about normative ethics 3–5
scepticism 65, 80, 681, 683, 688–9, 704–5
and intuitions 694–5, 697
about justified true belief 686; see also belief, justified true; justification (of beliefs)
about knowledge 686–7;see also knowledge
nd sceptical scenarios 684–8, 690–3, 697
Schaffer, Jonathan 519
Schaffner, Kenneth 833–4, 837
Schauer, Frederich 196 n
Scheffler, Samuel 46 n, 98
Scheibe, E. 802–3
Schick, F. 265
Schiffer, Stephen 471, 688 n, 690 n, 697 n
Schotch, P. K. 558, 560, 568
Schueler,G.F. 88
Schumm, George F. 576
Schurz, Gerhard 580 n
scientific concepts 304
scientific realism 517, 767–88
and abduction 774–7, 782, 784, 787
and ampliative inferences 768, 775, 779–80, 783
epistemic definitions of 770–1
etaphysical definitions of 770–1, 787
pessimistic meta-induction argument against 767, 774, 784–7; see also Putnam, Hilary
and scepticism 768, 770–1, 775, 778–80, 783–5
semantic definitions of 770–1
strong version of 769–74, 778, 784
success arguments for 767, 772–4, 776–7, 784
underdetermination argument against 767, 777–84, 787
and unobservable entities 768–70, 773, 775, 780, 785–8
Searle, J. 335 n, 364, 409, 432, 434–5, 437–8, 470–1, 473, 475, 491, 724 n
Segal, Gabriel 287 n, 291, 294–5, 297 n, 300–3
Segerberg, Krister 556
Sehon, S. 337, 341–2
Seidenberg, M.S. 386
self-government rights or powers 156, 161, 167, 169–75
self-regard (in economics and political philosophy) 266–71
Sellars, Wilfrid 724 n
semantics 63–64, 468, 479, 488
contextualist approach to 470, 477–8, 491
linguistic versus conceptual 478
literalist approach to 470, 475–9
semantics versus pragmatics distinction 475–8, 494; see also pragmatics
see also meaning
Sen, Amartya 216 n, 262, 265–6
Sen's ‘liberal paradox’ 262
sensory experience 321, 330
sensory states 316, 325
see also mental states
separability thesis 186, 188
Seuren, Pieter 540
Shafer-Landau, Russ 4 n, 5 n
Shallice, T. 380
Sher, G. 117 n
Sherman, N. 117 n
Shoemaker, Sydney 327 n, 510, 586
Shope, R. 696 n
Shweder, R. A., and Bourne, E. J. 132
Sider, Ted 676
Sidgwick, Henry 16, 18, 35 n, 259
Sidgwick's rational egoist 35 n
Sidgwickian definition 16–21
of the evaluative 16
(p. 901)
of the good 16–21, 25–6
of the bad 16, 20, 26
Simmons, A. John 202, 214 n
Simon, Herbert 271
Simons, Peter 544 n, 548 n, 552, 569, 576, 621, 646 n
Singer, Peter 3 n, 36, 138 n, 145
Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter 32 n–33 n, 67, 70, 140
Skinner, B. F. 312 n, 358
Skinner, Q. 264
Sklar, L. 630, 865 n, 866, 871 n
Skorupski, John 35 n, 41 n, 448
Skyrms, B. 563, 631, 839
Slote, Michael 37 n, 55–7
Smart, J. J. C. 39 n, 142, 616, 628, 630, 772
and Williams, Bernard 35, 39 n
Smiley, T. J. 578 n, 580, 586
Smith, Adam 129 n, 275
Smith, Michael 4 n, 5 n, 6 n, 9 n, 17–18, 20, 41 n, 63 n, 65 n, 88, 92, 94, 124–5, 131
Smith, P. 684 n
Smith, P., and Jones, O. R. 633
Smith, Q. 619, 622, 624, 627
Smolensky, P. 383–4
Snowdon, P. F. 726 n
Soames, Scott 289 n, 401–2, 405, 408, 413, 421, 423–4
Sober, E. 807, 822, 824–5, 827, 829, 832
and Lewontin, Richard 824–5
and Wilson, David Sloan 826, 839
social choice theory 210, 216–23, 225
social epistemology 64, 81
social sciences, the 807–8, 812–15
societal cultures 17–23
Socrates 117, 273
Sorensen, Roy 565 n, 578
Sosa, Ernest 80
source thesis 186–7, 191
special theory of relativity 616, 848, 855, 871–3, 876
see also Einstein, A.
speech acts 476, 480 n
communicative 433–4, 437
locutionary 433–4
illocutionary 433–4, 439
perlocutionary 433–5, 440
relational 432–3, 435
see also Austin, J. L.; Grice, H. P.; meaning;
Searle, J.; understanding utterances
Spelman, Elizabeth 57
Sperber, Dan 379
Sperber, Dan, and Noveck, Ira 472 n, 483 n
and Wilson, Deirdre 471 n, 472 n, 473, 478 n, 479–80, 483 n, 486 n, 489, 492, 493 n
Spinner-Halev, Jeff 164–5, 173
Spirtes, P. 810
and Glymour, C., and Scheines, R. 810
Splitter, Laurence 832
Stalnaker, Robert 330, 408, 412 n, 469, 475, 493 n, 557
Stampe, Dennis 92
Stanley, Jason 478 n, 481 n
and Szabó, Zoltan 478 n
stare decisis 199–200, 202
Sterelny, Kim, and Griffiths, Paul 828
and Kitcher, Philip 825
Stevenson, Charles 4 n, 115
Stich, Stephen P. 115, 116 n, 363, 785 n
and Warfield, T. A. 364
Stocker, Michael 39 n, 40, 43, 99, 107, 109
Stoerig, P., and Cowey, A. 388
Stoljar, Daniel, and Nagasawa, Yujin 317 n
Stone, T., and Davies, M. 389
and Young, A. W. 390
Stratton-Lake, P. 71 n, 72 n
Strawson, G. 138 n, 142–3
Strawson, P. F. 107, 138 n, 142 n, 145, 249, 427–8, 468, 470 n, 491 n, 725
strength of will 102, 106
Sturgeon, Nicholas 4 n, 5 n, 70, 77, 78 n, 130–2, 135–6
Suárez, M. 804, 813
Suarez, Susan 239
sub-doxastic states 363, 370
see also aboutness: subdoxastic; Stich, Stephen P.
Sumner, W. G. 130 Sunstein, C. R. 223 n
Sunstein, Cass R. 166
Suppes, Patrick 506, 804, 809–10
Suzumura, Kotaro 216 n, 217 n
Svavarsdòttir, S. 124 n
Svensson, Frances 176
Swaine, Lucas A. 160
Swanton, Christine 106 n
Sweetser, Eve 475, 538 n
Swinburne, R. G. 619
Symons, Donald 241
Szabó, Zoltan 475 n, 478 n
tacit knowledge 756
and explicitness 384
Evan's dispositional response to Quine's challenge to 368
(p. 902)
of grammar 359, 365–9; see also Chomsky, Noam
and I-languages 365–6
and linguistic competence 365–6, 369
and linguistic performance 365–6, 369
and innateness 367
Quine's challenge to 367–8
of rules 372–4, 378, 382
of rules of inference 373
of semantics 368–9
of syntactically structured representations 372–3, 387
Wittgensteinian concerns with 367, 369
Tamir, Yael 172
Tarski, A. 457–8, 460–1, 468
Taylor, Charles 166
Taylor, Gabriele 108 n
Tehovnik et al 718 n
teleological ethical theories 31–2, 34, 50
Tetlock, P.E. 137 n
Thalberg, I. 335 n, 339, 340 n
theory acceptance in ethics 67–70
Thomason, S. K. 572, 582 n, 587 n
Thompson, J. 335 n
Thompson, Janna 175
Thompson, Judith Jarvis 46–7, 655, 673
Thompson, R. P. 822
Thornhill, Randy, and Palmer, Craig 838
thought experiments 138–41, 145 time 615–33
and A-beliefs 625–6, 628–30, 633
and A-concepts 625–6
and A-facts 621, 624
A-series of 615, 618, 620–3, 625, 627, 630; see also McTaggart, J. M. E.
and B-beliefs 625–7, 629
and B-facts 624, 628, 630, 633
C-series 622; see also McTaggart, J. M. E.
and causation 630–3; see also causation
and change 620–1, 630, 632
and cosmology 618–19
the flow of 621, 630, 633
as the form of inner sense 631–2; see also Kant, Immanuel
the new theory of 626–8
and reference frames 618–19
and seeing events as present 626
and the special theory of relativity 615–19, 631; see also Einstein, A., special theory of relativity
and space 615, 618, 621–2, 630, 633
and space–time 616–20, 622, 632
and simultaneity 618–20, 624
and successful action 628–30
and theories that contain reality to the present 619–20; see also Prior, A. N.
and theories that contain reality to the past and present 619–20; see also Broad, C. D.
Timmons, Mark 4 n, 63 n, 67–69, 74 n, 79–83
Tinbergen, Niko 829–30
Tooley, Michael 506, 510, 512–19, 522, 525, 592 n, 619, 630–1, 795
tort law, philosophy of 203–5
toxin puzzle 51
Travis, Charles 475, 710 n, 713 n
Travis, Cheryl 838
treating someone as an object 232, 243–54
trolley problem in ethics, the 46–7
truth 454–66
anaphoric theory of 464; see also Brandom, Robert
correspondence theory of 456–7, 771, 772 n
Davidson's theory of 456–7; see also Davidson, Donald
deflationary theories of 454–9, 466, 771
disquotation theory of 459, 465–6
explicit definitions of 460, 462–3
minimalist theory of 454, 456 n, 458–60, 463, 465–6
non-deflationary theories of 455 n, 456–7
pragmatic theory of 456–7
proof theory of 456–7
prosentential theory of 458, 463–5
redundancy theory of 458–60
sentence-variable analysis of 458, 461–3
as a substantive property 454–5, 458
Tarski's theory of 458, 460–2; see also Tarski, A.
the truth predicate 454–5, 459–60, 462–5
Tsohatzidis, Savas 491 n
Turiel, E., Killen, M. and Helwig, C. 127
Turner, Kenneth 475 n
Tversky, A., and Kahneman, D. 139
Twin Earth 297–9, 301, 305–6, 421 n
two-dimensionalism 408–9, 412–13, 422–3, 743
criticisms of 413–17; see also Soames, Scott
and primary intensions 412, 414–16
and secondary intensions 412, 415–16
strong version of 410–11, 413–16, 423
weak version of 410, 416–17, 420–1
see also descriptivism
Tye, Michael 322 n, 323 n, 324, 326 n, 330, 724 n
Tyler, T. R. 272 (p. 903)
understanding utterances 427, 432, 436, 439, 441, 446, 448
and communicative intentions 438
of declarative sentences 440
gaining knowledge on the basis of 443–4
of non-declarative sentences 433, 440
and reasons for belief 441–4, 447
and reasons for disbelief 442
and reasons for taking them to be false 442
and reasons for taking them to be true 441–2
rhetic understanding: of utterances 436, 438–40, 444–8, 450–1; as similar to an inferential capacity 444–5, 449; as practical knowledge 444; as propositional knowledge 444; and truth 440
of WH-questions 440–1, 449
see also meaning
Unger, P. 687 n, 688 n
unilateral visual neglect 389–90
utilitarianism 16, 31, 34–7, 43–5, 96, 98, 116, 117 n, 122, 138, 145, 228, 259
act utilitarianism 35, 38–9
all-pervasive problem for 36
overriding problem for 36
demandingness problem for 36
rule utilitarianism 39
utility 33, 50
average utility versus total utility 35
function 265
maximizing utility 39, 265; see also good, the
Valberg, J. J. 721 n
Vallar, G. 390
values 31, 43, 97, 103, 105
of actions 93–4
buck-passing theory of 17–18
desire satisfaction theories of 34
dispositional theories of 17, 129
evaluative hedonism theory of 32
fitting attitude theory of 17
ideal observer theory of 17
incommensurability of 32
objective list theory of 34
perfectionism about 34
pluralism of 32, 97
response dependent theories of
subjective or quasi-subjective accounts of 33, 623
unconditional value 42
unified theory of 32
theory of 31–2
values are like secondary qualities theory of 17
van Benthem, Johan 541, 544–5, 572–4, 576, 595 n, 601 n
van der Auwera, Johan 475
van Dyke, Vernon 176
van Fraassen, Bas 595, 770 n, 771 n, 774–5, 776 n, 778 n, 779, 781 n, 796–7, 805–6, 853 n
van Roojen, Mark 49 n
van Rooy, Robert 475
van, Inwagen, P. 336, 559, 592, 640, 656, 658
Vanderveken, Daniel 475
Velleman, J. David 92, 95, 99, 101, 109, 143 n, 336, 351–2
Veltman, Frank 541
Vernon, P. E. 118
vice 31, 117, 122, 274
Viroli, M. 264
virtue 31, 55–8, 97
in political philosophy 258, 273–4
virtue ethics 31, 43, 49, 54–7, 116
and character 116–18, 119 n, 121–4, 146
Humean approach to 55
and moral education 120–2
neo-Aristotelian approach to 55
sentimentalist form of 55
situationist critique of 118–23
volitional necessities 102, 109
von, Wright, G. H. 535, 543, 560 n, 568
Waldron, Jeremy 176–7, 182 n, 185, 190, 192, 195, 197, 201 n, 263
Walker, M. 75, 77 n, 82, 104
Walker, R. C. S 456 n
Wallace, R. Jay 5 n, 6, 89, 92–3, 95, 101, 107, 109, 138 n, 337
Wansing, Heinrich 556
Waters, C. Kenneth 825, 834
Watkins, E. 811
Watson, Gary 34 n, 99–102, 106, 116 n, 143 n
Watson, J. B. 358
Waulchow, W. J. 187
weakness of will (or akrasia) 102–6, 122 n, 124
Weinberg, J., Nichols, S., and Stich, S. 141 n
Weinrib, Ernest J. 203 n
Weiskrantz, L 388
Wertheimer, Roger 538, 539 n
Westermarck, E. 130
Wharton, Time 493 n
White, Alan R. 538
Whyte, J. T. 629
wide content 298, 300–1, 304–5
Widerker, David 559 n
Wiggins, David 4 n, 5 n, 17, 105, 449 n, 632, 660, 663, 671, 721 n
Wigner, E. P. 849
Williams, Bernard 20, 37, 44, 70, 71 n, 92–3, 96, 97 n, 98, 102, 108–9, 116–17, 120, 122, 132, 136, 138, 145, 558 n, 729 n
Williams, C. E. 622
Williams, George, C. 823–4
Williams, John, N. 540, 578 n
(p. 904) Williams, M. 688 n
Williams, Mary 821
Williams, S. G. 578 n
Williamson, T. 305, 546 n, 564 n, 567 n, 684 n, 687 n, 688 n, 689 n, 692 n, 693 n, 694, 698 n, 729 n, 781 n
Wilson, Deirdre 489, 493 n
and Matsui, Tomoko 483 n
and Sperber, Dan 473, 475 n, 478 n, 483 n, 486 n, 487, 489, 492, 493 n
Wilson, E. O. 837–9
Wilson, G. 335 n, 337, 341
Wilson, M. 303
Wimsatt, William 819, 825, 827
Wiseman, C. 544
Wittgenstein, Ludwig 195, 231, 336, 346–7, 367, 369, 440–1, 445–6, 456 n, 468, 510
Wolf, Susan 36 n, 109
Wolheim, Richard 97, 107–8
Woods, M. 117 n, 337
Woodward, J. F. 810
Woolfolk, R. L., and Doris, J. M. 116 n
and Darley, J. M. 143–5
Worrall, J. 785
Wright, C. 686 n
Wright, Larry 829–30
Wundt, Wilhelm 358
Yablo, Stephen 526–7
Young, A. W. 388
Zapf, Christian, and Moglen, Eben 195
Zimmerman, Dean 676
zombies 314