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date: 17 August 2019

(p. 635) Subject Index

(p. 635) Subject Index

abilities, and definition of145
Ability Requirement Scales (ARS), and job analysis144–5
absenteeism:
and bullying486, 487
and unionization509
Academy of Management198
achievement motivation, and entrepreneurship126
action plans, and entrepreneurship127, 128
active learning380
active processing379
adaptability:
and definition of367
and environments367
and need for367
and selection377–9
cognitive ability377
motivation378–9
personality378
and training379–81
active learning380
active processing379
error training379
problem‐based learning380
technological aids381
transfer of training379
variety of experiences380 see also Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
adaptive performance70, 371
and cognitive ability377
and motivation378–9
and personality378–9
and technology372
and Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)372
affective commitment66
and cross‐cultural differences351
affectivity, and organizational politics394
affirmative action, and applicant perceptions517
age, and organizational politics394
aggression, see bullying and harassment
agreeableness:
and Big Five personality model61
and counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)78
and HEXACO personality model61
and job performance75, 76
and job satisfaction67
and validity of measures of177
alternative forms, and reliability271
altruism:
and definition of43
and emotional intelligence42–3
and organizational citizenship201
American Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)17
American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines163, 164
American Society of Personnel Administration198
American Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures140
antisocial behavior:
and bullying47
and emotional intelligence45–8
bullying47
emotional management46–7
and organizational culture48
and types of45–6
applicant perceptions518–19
and discrimination517–18
and enhancing fairness perceptions533–4
appraisal, see performance appraisal
armed services, and intelligence tests17
assessment centers215
and candidate behavior230
and definition of216
and popularity of217
and purposes of216
and trait activation theory215–16, 220–1
assessor training223
(p. 636)
construct validity231
convergent validity224–6, 231
correlations with other assessment methods227–9
criterion‐related validity229–30
development of exercises222
dimensions222–3
discriminant validity226–7, 231
external validation227–9, 231
feedback reports223–4
implications for practice221–4, 230
predictor validity229–30, 231
role‐player instructions223
scoring methods223
trait activation potential230
and validity182
Association of Graduate Recruiters (AGR)239
attitudes, see work attitudes
attraction‐selection‐attrition, and relational demography528
autonomy76
and changing nature of work293
and job design592–3, 605
and perceived behavioral control83–4
and remote working593
and self‐managed teams595, 596
behavioral consistency, and predictor validity229
Behavioral Event Interview (BEI), and competency modeling155
beliefs, and national culture345
Big Five model of personality61
and entrepreneurial behavior123–5
and job satisfaction67
and organizational commitment67
and trait activation theory219
and validity of measures of172–8
biodata, and validity182
boundaryless careers:
and advantages of559
and argument for546
and career success551, 552
and career theory550–1
as cause of organizational phenomena555
and criticism of555–6
marginalization of low status workforce555–6
over‐blown rhetoric555
and flexibility546
and implications for individuals556–7
competency‐based framework556–7
and international careers553–4
and meaning of545–6
and non‐organizational boundaries552–3
within one organization551–2
and organizational boundaries552–3
and organizational management558–9
and origins of concept548–9
career destabilization548
changing nature of work547–8
reaction against organizational careers546–7
related concepts549
suitability of term549
and owners' control of549
as perspective559
and psychological mobility552
and self‐generating/inhibiting nature of553
and social networks555
and social structure554–5
and subjective nature of551–2
bounded emotionality41
brain size, and intelligence28
break‐even analysis, and training evaluation299
British Psychological Society (BPS)237
bullying and harassment:
and antisocial behavior47
and complex nature of466, 487–8
and consequences of:
individuals464–5, 485–6
organizational effects486–7
and definition of467, 469
escalation469
frequency and repetition467–8
intent469–70
power imbalance468–9
stages of469
subjective vs objective bullying470–1
and dispute‐related bullying471–2
conflict472
and diversity of terms466
and duration of477–8
and financial costs of487
and forms of467
and individual antecedents of:
perpetrators’ characteristics480–1
targets’ personality479–80
and mobbing466
and organizational factors:
enabling structures483
frustration‐aggression hypothesis482
motivating structures483
organizational culture482
psychosocial work environment481–2
social interactionist explanation482–3
triggering circumstances483
and origins of research on464–5
(p. 637)
and perpetrators of478, 480–1
and predatory bullying473
destructive humour474
‘petty tyrants’473
retaliation for whistle‐blowing475–6
rite de passage475
scapegoating473–4
sexual harassment474
stalking474–5
and prevalence of476–7
and prevention of488–9
and social undermining466
and societal factors484–5
changing nature of work484
and types of467
bureaucracy, and organizational careers546, 558
butterfly careers549
career capitalism557
career development:
and remote working580
and social capital557
career progression, and traditional view of419
career theory:
and approaches to550
and boundaryless careers550–1
and career decision‐making550
and career mobility553
and occupational focus of550–1 see also boundaryless careers
categorization, and discrimination439, 455
centralization, and organizational politics390, 393
chameleon careers549
change:
and bullying484–5
and training evaluation305–6 see also Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
character, and leadership99
charisma, and leadership107–8
Chartered Institute for Personnel and Development (CIPD)239
cheating, and on‐line testing250
and cheat resistant tests251–2
and data forensics252
and psychological contracts254
and remote supervision252–3
and verification testing253
and Web patrols252
civic virtue, and organizational citizenship201
classical test theory (CTT)286
and reliability264–6, 268, 275
comparison with generalizability theory269–70
meaning of true scores266
coercion, and leadership98
cognitive ability:
and adaptive performance377
and assessment center exercises228
and job performance8–11, 336, 372
and on‐line testing249–50
and validity of measures of167, 168–72
need for new studies172
cognitive flexibility, and adaptive performance377
collaborative interactive action research (CIAR)429–30
collective bargaining:
and compensation policies503
and content of502
and first agreement500–1
and interest‐based bargaining501–2
and wages502–3
and working conditions503–4
collectivist cultures:
and job design597–8
and national culture344
and nature of employment346
organizational citizenship347
psychological contracts346
work‐family balance347
and organizational commitment351
and paternalism354
and teamwork354–5
and work motivation350
Combined Job Analysis (C‐JAM)148
commitment, organizational:
and boundaryless careers546
and bullying487
and cross‐cultural differences351
and job performance335
and organizational politics391, 394
performance appraisal399
and work attitudes66, 67–8
affective commitment66
continuance commitment66
normative commitment66
communication, and remote working566, 572, 574, 575
compensation policies, and collective bargaining503
competency modeling139, 148
and benefits of154
and boundaryless careers556–7
and definitional diversity149–50, 151
and drawbacks of152–3
(p. 638)
and future research159
and job analysis:
compared and contrasted with155–7
integration with157, 158
similarities with155
and job design591
and methods of154–5
Behavioral Event Interview (BEI)155
and practice of154–5
and sources of information155
and typologies of150
competence domains151
core competencies151–2
job‐based approach150–1
organization‐based approach151, 152
person‐based approach150, 151
and weak theoretical base149
Competing Values Framework(CVF), and leadership104
Complexity Leadership Theory (CLT)109
Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Program (CODAP)146
computer‐based assessment (CBA)235
and impact of235–6
and internet236 see also on‐line testing
concurrent validity279
and range restriction280
conditional reasoning tests, and personality measurement65
conflict, and bullying472
conflict management, and cross‐cultural differences356
conscientiousness:
and adaptive performance378
and Big Five personality model61
and counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)78
and employment interviews200–1
and entrepreneurship125
and HEXACO personality model61
and job performance75, 76, 123–5
and job satisfaction67
and organizational citizenship201
and organizational politics393
and validity of measures of172
consequential validity167–8
consideration, and leadership103–4
construct validity164, 166–7, 283–4, 286
and assessment centers231
and multi‐trait, multi‐method approach (MTMM)283–4
content validity164, 165–6, 277–9
contextual behavior323 see also organizational citizenship behavior
contextual performance371
continuance commitment66
and cross‐cultural differences351
and organizational politics399
control:
and job satisfaction69
and organizational politics392
convergent validity166
and assessment centers224–6, 231
coordinated market economies, and gender equity421
core self‐evaluations:
and job satisfaction68–9
and personality model62
cost‐benefit analysis, and training evaluation299
cost‐effectiveness analysis, and training evaluation299
counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)70–1
and employment interviews200
and models of77–8
and organizational politics391
and performance appraisal325–6
and technology372
and types of77
courtesy, and organizational citizenship201
criterion‐related validity164–5, 279
and assessment centers229–30
and multivariate model for281
and range restriction280
and validity generalizations282
critical incident technique (CIT)144, 404
crystallized intelligence14–15
cultural metacognition349–50
culture:
and beliefs345
and cross‐national differences344–5
and future research360
and individualism‐collectivism344
and job design597–8
and leadership353–4
paternalism354
and levels of analysis344
and multinational enterprises
global organizational culture357
knowledge transfer358–9
mergers and acquisitions359
role relationships358
and nature of employment345–6
organizational citizenship346–7
psychological contracts346
work‐family balance347–8
and negotiation356
(p. 639)
and organizational behavior359–60
and organizational justice352
perceived justice352–3
preferred criteria352
and organizational processes344
and power distance344
and selection procedures348, 350
cross‐cultural skills349–50
expatriates349
and teamwork354–5
multicultural teams355
self‐managed teams355
and work motivation350–1
organizational commitment351
and workspace characteristics602
data forensics252
demographic similarity, and applicant perceptions529
dependability, and employment interviews200–1
dependent care initiatives414, 415
and work‐life policies422
Dictionary of Occupational Titles143–4
discriminant validity, and assessment centers226–7, 231
discrimination455–6
and applicant perceptions517–18
and applicant perceptions of520–1
and categorization439, 455
and comparison of explanations for451–2
and complex nature of454
and continued existence of438
and employment interviews196–7
and fairness of performance appraisal331–2
and group composition theories449–50
and intelligence tests12, 27
and legal action against533
and organizational factors452–4
decision‐making processes453
demographic composition452–3
organizational culture453
and performance appraisal396
and personnel decisions438–9
and prejudice:
racism442–3
sexism441–2
and prevention of454–5
and prototype matching445–6
and similarity‐attraction paradigm446–7
and social identity theory448
and social role theory444–5
and status characteristics theory443–4
and stereotyping439–41
envious440–1
out‐groups440–1
paternalistic440
and validity of selection procedures167–8 see also stigmatized groups, and applicant perceptions of fairness
dispute‐related bullying471–2
distal traits102
distributive justice352, 393
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)426
divergent validity166
diversity:
and job design:
career diversity599
employment diversity599–600
gender diversity598–9
work‐family balance598–9
and work‐life policies414
education:
and educational objectives295–6
and validity of measures of182
Emotional Competency Index (ECI)40
emotional intelligence:
and ability model of39
emotional awareness39
emotional facilitation40
emotional knowledge40
emotional management40, 46–7
and antisocial behavior45–8
bullying47
emotional management46–7
and applications of construct38
and conflicting views of construct37–8
and employee behavior51
and future research52
and leadership48–51, 110
and multiple intelligence14
and organizational behavior52
and organizational culture51, 52
and organizational effectiveness41–2
organizational characteristics42
and prosocial behavior42–5
organizational citizenship behavior44–5, 51
and research perspectives39–41
ability model39–40
research streams40–1
and workplace behavior38
Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (EIQ)40
Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQi)40
emotional labor41
emotional stability:
and Big Five personality model61
(p. 640)
and job performance75, 76
and job satisfaction67, 69
and validity of measures of172
emotionality, and HEXACO personality model61
emotions:
and antisocial behavior46
and organizational culture47
and prosocial behavior43, 44
empathy:
and definition of43
and emotional intelligence42–3
employment:
and cross‐cultural differences346
and job descriptions345–6
employment interview:
and constructs relevant in200–2
organizational citizenship201
personality200–2
and discrimination196–7
and effective interviews209
formats209–10
interview process210–11
post‐interview211
pre‐interview preparation210
and employee turnover199, 200
and face‐to‐face interview203
and group interviews203–4
and impression management205
and increased demands of194
and multi‐trait, multi‐method approach (MTMM)194, 204–5, 209
and new formats198
and non‐verbal behavior203
and personality assessment:
accuracy of204–5
face‐to‐face interviews203
group interviews203–4
Realistic Accuracy Model (RAM)207–8
Reid Report205–6
structured interviews206, 207–8
unstructured interviews207, 208
and predictive questions198–9
and research, theory and practice:
in 1960s‐1980s196–7
in 1990s197–9
in twenty‐first century199
as series of events209
and structured interviews197, 198, 199, 202, 206, 207–8
and telephone conference calls203
and traditional approach195
and transformation of195, 208–9
and unstructured interviews202, 207, 208
employment relationship, and remote working567
empowerment:
and job performance597
and job satisfaction598
entitlement, and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)426–7
entrepreneurship, personality approach to121
and Big Five trait taxonomy123–5
and cognitive approach132–3
and criticisms of121–2
and ecological approach to121–2
and framework for131–2
and future research132
and motivation127–8, 129
and multi‐level model of entrepreneurial behavior131
and personality traits123
processes affecting role of129–30
processes mediating role of128–9
situational conditions129–30
and popular literature121
and process view of130–1, 132
and propositions of122–3
and specific traits125–6
need for achievement126
risk‐taking126
equal opportunity policies, and work‐life policies413
equity, and psychological testing257
error training379
evaluation, see training evaluation
expectations:
and leadership101
and stigmatized groups524–5
experience:
and crystallized intelligence14, 15
and job performance11, 80
and validity of measures of178–82
expertise, and leadership99–100
external locus of control, and organizational politics390, 393
external validation, and assessment centers227–9, 231
extroversion:
and Big Five personality model61
and HEXACO personality model61
and job performance76
and job satisfaction67, 69
and organizational commitment67
faking, and personality measurement63–4
(p. 641) family friendly policies, and work‐life policies413–14 see also flexible working arrangements (FWAs); work‐life policies
family related leave422–3
fear, and emotional intelligence40
feedback:
and assessment centers223–4
and goal setting404
and job design593
and leadership development297
and on‐line testing241
and remote working577–8
and self‐managed teams596
and stigmatized groups522, 523
and training evaluation291
feedforward404
fit:
and measurement of369
and person‐job fit200
and Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)368–9, 375
and validity of measures of178
flexibility, and boundaryless careers546
flexible working arrangements (FWAs):
and barriers to430–1
and changing nature of work423
and collective bargaining503
and effectiveness of423–4
and gender equity416–20
life‐course418–19
nature of contemporary work419–20
role expansion hypothesis418
work‐family interface417–18
and impact of424–5
negative organizational outcomes426
perceived organizational justice425–7
sense of entitlement426–7
and implementation of415
managerial discretion426
and managerial attitudes428–9
and organizational culture428
and organizational learning429–30
and organizational support428
and types of423
and work‐life policies414
fluid intelligence14, 15
Flynn effect31–2
forced choice, and personality measurement65
formalization, and organizational politics390, 393
frustration‐aggression hypothesis, and bullying482
Full Range Leadership109
Functional Job Analysis (FJA)143–4
future‐oriented job analysis148
gender:
and fairness of performance appraisal332
and intelligence tests12, 27–8
and leadership106
and myth of separate spheres415
and performance appraisal396
and remote working571
gender equity431
and business case for421–2, 431–2
and regulatory environment420–2, 432
and social case for415–16
and work‐life policies414, 431 see also flexible working arrangements (FWAs)
General Aptitude Test Battery (US Department of Labor)169
general intelligence (g)13–14
and job performance17, 22
general mental ability (GMA), and job performance19–22, 23
generalizability theory, and reliability267–9, 275
and comparison with classical test theory269–70
generational effects, and intelligence tests31–2
globalization:
and changing nature of work292
and impact of343
and impact on selection procedures349
and on‐line testing241
GLOBE project345, 353
goal setting82
and antecedents of84
and entrepreneurship127
and job performance82–4
and job satisfaction375
and performance appraisal403–4
graduate recruitment, and e‐recruitment239
grievance systems, and labor relations505–6
group composition theories, and discrimination449–50
group differences:
and fairness of performance appraisal331–2
and intelligence tests25, 27
gender27–8
generational effects31–2
(p. 642) group identity, and stigmatized groups524, 528
growth need strength (GNS), and job design588, 589
‘halo effect’, and job performance appraisal321
harassment, see bullying and harassment
health:
and bullying464, 485–6
and intelligence12
and labor relations507
and Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)374–6
health and safety, and collective bargaining503–4
HEXACO model of personality61–2
high reliability organizations (HROs)594–5, 605
homosocial reproduction447
honesty‐humility, and HEXACO personality model61–2
hoteling, and remote working601
human capital1
human resources, and costs of1
humour, and predatory bullying474
IBM343–4
identity:
and self‐concept111–12
and stigmatized groups524, 528
identity management, and stigmatized groups525
image management:
and leadership97–8
and organizational politics389
impression management:
and employment interview205
and stigmatized groups534
individualist cultures:
and job design597–8
and national culture344
and nature of employment345–6
organizational citizenship347
psychological contracts346
work‐family balance347–8
and organizational commitment351
and paternalism354
and teamwork354–5
and work motivation350
influence, and leadership94, 96–7, 111
information and communications technology (ICT), and remote working566 see also technology
ingratiation, and organizational politics389
initiating structure, and leadership103–4
initiative, and entrepreneurship127–8
intelligence:
and approaches to13–14
and crystallized intelligence14–15
and daily life12, 22–3
and fluid intelligence14, 15
and general intelligence (g)13–14, 17
and health12
and job performance8–11, 17–23, 32
and knowledge15–16
and meaning of16
and multiple intelligence14
and occupational status16–17, 19
and personality16
and PPIK theory15–16
intelligence quotient (IQ)7–8
intelligence tests:
and armed services17
and controversial nature of7, 12–13, 18, 26–7, 32–3
and discrimination12–13, 27
and gender27–8
and generational effects31–2
and group differences25, 27
gender27–8
generational effects31–2
race28–31
and job performance17–23, 32
and predictive value16, 22–3, 24–5
and race12, 28–31
and role of9
and workplace use of23–4
criteria used25
group differences25
new testing methods26
predictive value24–5
status of other predictors26
theoretical adequacy25–6
utility evidence25
intent, and bullying469–70
interactional justice352
interactional psychology217
interest‐based bargaining, and labor relations501–2
internal consistency, and reliability272–3
International Task Force on Assessment Center Guidelines216
International Test Commission (ITC), and on‐line testing237, 256
internet:
and employment testing235, 236
and e‐recruitment239 see also on‐line testing
interpersonal conflict, and dispute‐related bullying471–2
introversion, and crystallized intelligence14–15
investment theory, and knowledge16
item response theory (IRT):
and forced choice measures65
and on‐line testing243–4, 251–2
and reliability270
job analysis139
and adaptation of158
and appropriateness of157–8
and automated systems158
and business goals/strategy156, 158
and competency modeling:
compared and contrasted with155–7
integration with157, 158
similarities with155
and cross‐job comparisons143
and definition of140
and future research159
and job data140–1
and job descriptions140
and job specifications140
and methods of141
Ability Requirement Scales (ARS)144–5
application of146–7
Combined Job Analysis (C‐JAM)148
Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Program (CODAP)146
Critical Incidents Technique (CIT)144
Functional Job Analysis (FJA)143–4
Job Element Method (JEM)145, 155
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)144
Personality‐Related Position Requirement Form (PPRF)146
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)143
purpose of146–7
task inventory analysis145–6
Threshold Trait Analysis (TTA)146
and military job performance appraisal320
and objective of140
and recent developments in147–8
future‐oriented job analysis148
strategic job modeling147–8
Task Sort Questionnaire (TSQ)148
and sources of job information141
incumbents141
and taxonomy of methods142–3
and validity/reliability of data142
Job Analysis and Competency Modeling Task Force (JACMTF)155
Job Characteristics Model (JCM), and job design588–9
and autonomy592–3
and job feedback593
and skill variety590–1
and supervisor/co‐worker feedback593
and task identity591–2
and task significance592
job descriptions345–6
job design586
and balancing team/individual job design595–7
and changing nature of work587, 589–90
and effects of586–7
and historical perspective on:
growth need strength (GNS)588, 589
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)588–9
Job Diagnostic Survey (JNS)589
Motivator Hygiene Theory (MHT)587–8
and implementation of603–4
and interdisciplinary job design approach604–5
and job characteristics:
autonomy592–3
changed by employees603–4
interaction outside organization594
job feedback593
problem solving594
relationships among594–5
skill acquisition594
skill variety590–1
social interaction594
supervisor/co‐worker feedback593
task identity591–2
task significance592
and ‘meso theory’ of605
and moderators of597
career diversity599
culture597–8
employment diversity599–600
gender diversity598–9
work‐family balance598–9
workplace diversity598–600
and physical work environment600
cross‐cultural differences602
noise602–3
workspace characteristics601–2
and scientific management587
Job Diagnostic Survey (JNS)589
Job Element Method (JEM)145, 155
job knowledge, and validity of measures of182
job performance22
and 360‐degree feedback297
and cognitive ability8–11, 336, 372
and conscientiousness123–5
and construct‐oriented approach373
(p. 644)
and counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)70–1
models of77–8
and definition of296
and determinants of296–7
and dimensions of297
and empowerment597
and environmental factors382
person‐environment interaction373
strong and weak373–4
and experience11, 80
and intelligence8–11, 17–23, 32
and job satisfaction333–5
and organizational commitment335
and organizational politics391
and personality60, 70–1, 336, 372–3
adaptive performance70
citizenship performance70
correlations between71–3
future research85–7
goal setting and intentions82–4
indirect performance determinants80
integrated model78–9
knowledge84
motivation80–1
performance dimensions70
process models73–7
self‐regulation85
skill84
stress82
task performance70
work attitudes81–2
work habits85
and physical work environment600
workspace characteristics601
and technology367, 381
and Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)371–4
and training evaluation296–7 see also performance appraisal
job satisfaction:
and bullying468, 487
and counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)78
and cross‐cultural differences350–1
and empowerment598
and environmental factors375
and goal setting375
and job characteristics68–9
and job performance333–5
and mood69
and organizational politics391
and remote working570
and stress69
and Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)374–6
and union membership508–9
and work attitudes66, 67
kaleidoscopic careers549
knowledge:
and educational objectives295–6
and intelligence15–16
and investment theory16
and job performance73, 75, 84
and learning outcomes295
knowledge sharing, and remote working574–5, 576
knowledge transfer, and multinational enterprises358–9
labor market participation, and women416
labor relations496–7, 509–10
and absenteeism509
and collective bargaining:
compensation policies503
content of502
first agreement500–1
interest‐based bargaining501–2
wages502–3
working conditions503–4
and grievances505–6
and individual consequences of:
picket line violence507–8
stress506–7
and job dissatisfaction508–9
and strikes504
consequences of504–5
duration of505
and union joining498–500
complementary motives499–500
frustration498–9
identification with movement499
rational choice499
recruitment strategies499
and unionization, extent and nature of497–8
Leader Member Exchange (LMX) theory107
and organizational politics390–1
leadership:
as abstract concept93–4
and behavioral approach to103–4
Competing Values Framework(CVF)104
consideration103–4
initiating structure103–4
and character99
and charismatic aspects of107–8
and coercion98
and Complexity Leadership Theory (CLT)109
(p. 645)
and contingency aspects of104–5
follower attributes105
and cross‐cultural differences353–4
paternalism354
and development of112
and emotional intelligence48–51, 110
and expectations101
and expertise99–100
and feedback systems297
and followers:
energizing of99
ignored in research96
knowledge schemas100
relationship with98
and image management97–8
and influence94, 96–7, 111–12
and information processing approach105–6
and lack of definition94
and Leader Member Exchange (LMX) theory107
organizational politics390–1
and leader‐follower exchanges107
and multiplying effect of99
and new approaches to109
and organizational culture48
and ‘petty tyrants’473
and popular literature on95
and pre‐existing knowledge structures100
and relationship‐based behaviors111
and remote working576
and research on:
challenges for113
current state of94–5, 113
general approach to109–10
inadequacies of114
measure issues110
requirements of114
and romanticizing of96
and self‐insight110–11
and self‐managed teams596
and Social Identity Theory of111
and subjective nature of94
and trait approach to101–3
and transactional leadership108, 109
and transformational aspects of108–9
lean organizations292
learning, and motivation15
learning outcomes:
and educational objectives295–6
and training evaluation294–6
attitudes304
and types of295
leisure, and lack of time for420
liberal market economies, and gender equity421
life‐course, and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)418–19
locus of control:
and cross‐cultural differences350–1
and organizational commitment68
Management Charter Initiative (UK)150
Mayer‐Salovey‐Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)40
mergers and acquisitions, and cross‐cultural differences359
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)235
minority groups, and validity of selection procedures167–8 see also stigmatized groups, and applicant perceptions of fairness
mobbing466 see also bullying and harassment
mood:
and job satisfaction69
and prosocial behavior43–4
motivation:
and adaptive performance378–9
and bullying487
and cross‐cultural differences350–1
and entrepreneurship127–8, 129
and job design587
growth need strength (GNS)588, 589
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)588–9
Motivator Hygiene Theory (MHT)587–8
and job performance73, 74, 75, 80–1
and leadership102
and learning15
and organizational politics391
and personality86–7
Motivator Hygiene Theory (MHT), and job design587–8
multicultural enterprises:
and global organizational culture357
multinational enterprises:
and cross‐cultural differences:
knowledge transfer358–9
mergers and acquisitions359
role relationships358
and global organizational culture357
and on‐line testing241–2
and selection procedures348
multiple intelligence14
multi‐trait, multi‐method approach (MTMM):
and assessment centers231
and construct validity283–4
and employment interview194, 204–5, 209
(p. 646) negotiation, and cross‐cultural differences356
neuroticism, and job satisfaction69
noise, and physical work environment602–3
nomological web clustering, and personality model62
normative commitment66
and cross‐cultural differences351
observer ratings, and personality measurement64–5
Occupational Information Network (O*NET)144
Occupational Standards for Management (UK)150
occupational status, and intelligence16–17, 19
Ockham's razor94
on‐line cognitive processes74
on‐line testing235
and benefits of238–9, 247–8, 258
cost‐savings239–40
market pull238–9
multinational assessment241–2
post‐hire assessments240–1
screening239, 240
and cost of developing238
and delivery modes:
controlled mode237
managed mode238
open mode237
supervised mode238
and end‐users of256
and equity257
and equivalence244–5
unsupervised modes245–7
and expansion of237
and feedback256
and item response theory (IRT)243–4, 251–2
and publisher/test user relationship254–5
and research on244–5
and risks of257
and score reporting256
and test production254–5, 257–8
and test security243, 249–51
cheat resistant tests251–2
cheating250
data forensics252
psychological contracts254
remote supervision250–1, 252–3
test generation250
verification testing253
Web patrols252
and test‐taking environment247, 248
and transition to242
problems with242–3
second generation243–4
technical requirements243
and validity of248–9
openness to experience:
and adaptive performance378
and Big Five personality model61
and HEXACO personality model61
and job satisfaction67
organizational behavior, and emotional intelligence52
organizational careers558
and reaction against546–7
organizational change:
and bullying484–5
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)429–30
organizational citizenship behavior:
and contextual behavior323
and cross‐cultural differences346–7
and definition of322–3
and dimensions of323–4
and emotional intelligence44–5, 51
and employment interviews201
and performance appraisal322
and task performance324–5
organizational culture42
and antisocial behavior48
and bullying482
and cross‐cultural differences343–4
and discrimination453
and emotional intelligence47, 51, 52
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)428
and leadership48
and multinational enterprises357
and organizational politics393, 394–5
and performance appraisal396
organizational effectiveness:
and emotional intelligence41–2
and relationships41
organizational impact, and training evaluation298–300
organizational justice:
and applicant perceptions517
and cross‐cultural differences352
perceived justice352–3
preferred criteria352
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)425–7
and grievance systems505–6
and organizational politics393
performance appraisal400, 401–2
organizational learning, and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)429–30
organizational politics: (p. 647)
and conditions for395–6
and measurement of390
and mediators of392
and moderators of:
environmental factors392–3
individual differences393–5
and nature of389–90, 397
and negative impact of395
and outcomes of391–2
and performance appraisal388, 389–90, 396–7
causal variables399
contextual factors400
experiments on impact on400
future research on influence on404–5
goal setting403–4
measurement of impact on398–9
minimizing influence on401–4
organizational justice401–2
outcomes397
pay plans400–1
social cognitive theory402–3
supervisors' role399–400
and predictors of political behaviors390–1
and reasons for395
and research limitations395
organizational structure, and organizational politics393
outsourcing590
parallel tests, and reliability270–1
paternalism:
and cross‐cultural differences354
and out‐group stereotypes440
pay plans:
and collective bargaining502–3
and organizational politics395, 400–1
perceived behavioral control:
and autonomy83–4
and self‐efficacy83
Perceptions of Organizational Politics (POPs)390
performance, see job performance
performance appraisal:
and 360‐degree feedback329
and behavior319
and cognitive ability336
and counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)325–6
and criteria for328–9
and definition of318
and difficulties with317–18
and discrimination396
and eight‐dimensional model of320
and fairness331–2
and general performance factor321–2, 325
and ‘halo effect’321
and hierarchical model of performance322
and importance of335–6
and job satisfaction333–5
and military performance319–20
and multidimensional models of319
and multi‐source ratings329–31
measurement equivalence329–30
rater source330–1
rater‐ratee relationship330
self‐ratings330
structural equation modeling (SEM)329
and organizational citizenship behavior322–3
dimensions of323–4
relationship with task performance324–5
and organizational culture396
and organizational politics388, 389–90, 396–7
causal variables399
contextual factors400
experiments on impact of400
future research on influence of404–5
goal setting403–4
measurement of impact of398–9
minimizing influence of401–4
organizational justice401–2
outcomes397
pay plans400–1
social cognitive theory402–3
supervisors' role399–400
and personality336
and relationship between objective/subjective criteria318–19
and reliability of326–8
and social context of396
and task performance322
relationship with organizational citizenship behavior324–5
and team performance332–3
and ten‐dimensional model of320–1
and work attitudes335, 336 see also job performance
personality:
and adaptive performance378–9
and bullying targets479–80
and constructs of60–1
Big Five model61
core self‐evaluations62
HEXACO model61–2
lexical models61–2
nomological web clustering approach62
proactive personality62
(p. 648)
and counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)70–1
models of77–8
and definition of59
and employment interviews200–2
assessment of203–8
and intelligence16
and job performance60, 70–1, 336, 372–3
adaptive performance70
citizenship performance70
correlations between71–3
future research85–7
goal setting and intentions82–4
indirect performance determinants80
integrated model78–9
knowledge84
motivation80–1
performance dimensions70
process models73–7
self‐regulation85
skill84
stress82
task performance70
work attitudes81–2
work habits85
and job satisfaction66, 67
job characteristics68–9
mood69
stress69
and leadership102
and measurement of63
conditional reasoning tests65
faking self‐reports63–4
forced choice measures65
observer ratings64–5
and organizational commitment66, 67–8
and remote working578–9
and traits59–60
and validity of measures of172–8
and work attitudes60, 65–7
explanatory models68–9
and work outcomes60 see also entrepreneurship, personality approach to
Personality‐Related Position Requirement Form (PPRF)146
person‐job fit, and employment interviews200
personnel psychology, and concerns of1
physical ability, and validity of measures of182
picket lines504
and violence507–8
planned behavior theory82
planning, and entrepreneurship128, 129
portfolio careers549
Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ), and job analysis143
post‐corporate careers549
post‐hire assessments, and on‐line testing240–1
post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and bullying485–6
power distance, and national culture344
power relations, and bullying468–9
PPIK (process, personality, interests, and knowledge) theory15–16
predatory bullying473
and destructive humour474
and ‘petty tyrants’473
and retaliation for whistle‐blowing475–6
and rite de passage475
and scapegoating473–4
and sexual harassment474
and stalking474–5
predictive validity279
and behavioral consistency model of229
prejudice:
and discrimination:
racism442–3
sexism441–2
and suppression of533
printing press234
proactive cognitive processes74
proactive personality62
problem solving:
and crystallized intelligence14
and job design594
problem‐based learning380
procedural justice352, 393
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)425–6
productivity:
and bullying486, 487
and environmental factors382
and technology382
‘Project A’, and military job performance appraisal319–20
prosocial behavior:
and emotional intelligence42–5, 51
and mood‐regulation43–4
and organizational research43
protean careers547, 549
prototype matching, and discrimination445–6
proximal traits102
psychological contracts:
and nature of employment346
and on‐line testing254
psychological testing, and impact of257
(p. 649) psychosocial work environment, and bullying481–2
and theoretical explanations for482–3
Pygmalion effect101
Questionnaire of Political Considerations in Performance Appraisal (QPCPA)398–9
race:
and fairness of performance appraisal331–2
and intelligence tests12, 28–31
and performance appraisal396
and validity of selection procedures167–8 see also stigmatized groups, and applicant perceptions of fairness
race discrimination455–6
and categorization455
and comparison of explanations for451–2
and complex nature of454
and group composition theories449–50
and organizational factors452–4
decision‐making processes453
demographic composition452–3
organizational culture453
and prevention of454–5
and prototype matching445–6
and racism442–3
and similarity‐attraction paradigm447
and social identity theory448
and status characteristics theory443–4
and stereotyping439–41
envious440–1
paternalistic440
personnel decision‐making441
range restriction, and criterion‐related validity280
rational choice, and union joining499
Realistic Accuracy Model (RAM), and personality judgment207–8
reasoned action theory77, 82
Reid Report, and employment interviews205–6
relational demography, and stigmatized groups528–9
relationships:
and organizational effectiveness41
and remote working572–3
reliability of tests and assessments263–4
and classical test theory (CTT)264–6, 268, 275, 286
comparison with generalizability theory269–70
and estimation of270–1
alternative forms271
internal consistency272–3
interrater agreement274
interrater reliability274
parallel test model270–1
reliability generalization275–6
structural equation modeling (SEM)274–5
test‐retest methods273–4
and generalizability theory267–9, 275
comparison with classical test theory269–70
and item response theory (IRT)270
and meaning of true scores266–7
and performance appraisal326–8
and validity285–7
remote working564
and autonomy593
and benefits of565
and career development580
and communication566, 572, 574, 575
and employment relationship567
and gender571
and hoteling601
and incidence of565
and information and communications technology (ICT) use566
and job/task design577–8
feedback577–8
interdependence with remote colleagues578
and knowledge intensity566
and location of566
and major aspects of566
and management of575–7
leadership styles576
monitoring/control576–7
phases of575–6
trust577
and nature of565–6
and optimal levels of570
and personality578–9
and physical work environment601
and research on:
future of581
limitations of580–1
and selection processes578–9
and social processes570, 571
full‐time/part‐time differences572
knowledge sharing574–5, 576
relationship development572–3
trust573
and socialization579
and task significance592
and training579–80
and well‐being569–70
and work conditions570
(p. 650)
and work‐life balance567–9
conflict569
work‐life boundary567–8
return on investment (ROI) analysis, and training evaluation298
risk‐taking, and entrepreneurship126
rite de passage, and predatory bullying475
role expansion hypothesis, and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)418
role relationships, and multinational enterprises358
scapegoating, and predatory bullying473–4
scientific management587
selection of personnel:
and adaptability377–9
cognitive ability377
motivation378–9
personality378
and applicant perceptions517, 518–19
and cross‐cultural differences348, 350
cross‐cultural skills349–50
expatriates349
and e‐recruitment239
and intelligence tests21
self‐categorization theory, and discrimination448
self‐concept111–12
self‐efficacy:
and adaptive performance378
and entrepreneurship127
and organizational commitment68
and organizational politics394, 399
and perceived behavioral control83
and role breadth self‐efficacy378–9
and stereotype vulnerability527
self‐esteem, and stigmatized groups521, 522
self‐interest effect, and applicant perceptions522
self‐managed teams355
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)430
and job design595–7
self‐perception:
and applicant perceptions523
and stigmatized groups522–3
concealed stigmas525
self‐promotion, and organizational politics389
self‐regulation74
and identity112
and job performance85
sex discrimination455–6
and categorization455
and comparison of explanations for451–2
and complex nature of454
and group composition theories449–50
and organizational factors452–4
decision‐making processes453
demographic composition452–3
organizational culture453
and prevention of454–5
and prototype matching445–6
and sexism441–2
and similarity‐attraction paradigm447
and social identity theory448
and social role theory444–5
(p. 651)
and status characteristics theory443–4
and stereotyping439–41
envious440–1
paternalistic440
personnel decision‐making441
sexual harassment474
similarity‐attraction paradigm, and discrimination446–7
skill, and job performance73, 75, 84
skill acquisition, and job design594
skill variety, and job design590–1
social capital, and career development557
social cognitive theory, and performance appraisal402–3
social identity:
and discrimination448
and relational demography528
and stigmatized groups524, 528
and union joining499
Social Identity Theory of Leadership111
social interaction:
and bullying482–3
and job design594
social networks, and boundaryless careers555
social role theory, and discrimination444–5
social structure, and boundaryless careers554–5
social undermining, and bullying466
socialization, and remote working579
Society for Human Resource Management198
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Principles163
sociotechnical systems theory595
sportsmanship, and organizational citizenship201
stalking, and predatory bullying474–5
Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing283
status characteristics theory, and discrimination443–4
stereotyping:
and consciousness of526–7
and discrimination439–41
envious440–1
out‐groups440–1
paternalistic440
and occupational stereotypes527–8
and stereotype threat528
stigmatized groups, and applicant perceptions of fairness518, 519–20, 530
and applicant characteristics:
concealed stigmas525–6
controllability of stigma526
expectations524–5
identification524
prior stigmas526
status‐legitimizing ideologies527
stereotype vulnerability526–7
stickiness of stigma526
stigma consciousness526–7
and coping strategies530–3
acknowledgement of stigma530
confrontation533
individuating information533
and definition of stigmatization518
and enhancing fairness perceptions533–4
and hiring process:
differential treatment520–1
outcomes522–3
procedures521–2
and selection context:
demographic similarity529
occupational stereotypes527–8
relational demography528–9
stereotype threat528
strategic job modeling147–8
stress:
and job satisfaction69
and labor relations506–7
and physical work environment600
noise602–3
and remote working568
and work attitudes82
strikes504
and consequences of504–5
and duration of505
structural equation modeling (SEM):
and performance appraisal329
and reliability274–5
structuration theory, and boundaryless careers555
subjective norms, and job performance and personality83
supervision, and changing nature of work293
Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT)40
synthetic validity165, 281
task identity, and job design591–2
task inventory analysis, and job analysis145–6
task performance371
and organizational citizenship behavior324–5
and performance appraisal322
task proficiency70
task significance, and job design592
Task Sort Questionnaire (TSQ)148
teamwork:
and cross‐cultural differences354–5
multicultural teams355
self‐managed teams355
and job design595–7
and performance appraisal332–3 see also self‐managed teams
technological change, and impact of235
technology:
and adaptive performance372
and impact of367, 383
and job performance367, 381
and productivity382
and training381
telecommuting, see remote working
teleworking, see remote working
tenure, and Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)369–71
Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)367, 368–9
and adaptability:
selection377–9
training379–81
and dynamic component of376–7
adjustment state377
adjustment style variables376
personality style variables376
steady state376–7
and fit368–9, 375
and job performance, environmental factors373–4
and job satisfaction374–6
environmental factors375
goal setting375
and satisfactory performance371–4
adaptive performance372
cognitive ability372
counter‐productive work behavior (CBW)372
personality372–3
and tenure369–71
and turnover371
(p. 652)
and well‐being and health374–6
360‐degree feedback228–9
and job performance297
and on‐line testing241
and organizational politics401
and performance appraisal329
Threshold Trait Analysis (TTA), and job analysis146
tokenism529
trade unions, see labor relations
training:
and adaptability379–81
active learning380
active processing379
error training379
problem‐based learning380
technological aids381
transfer of training379
variety of experiences380
and remote working579–80
training evaluation:
and changing nature of work292–3
and conceptual frameworks303–4
attitudes304
change models305–6
multilevel effects304–5
and criteria for293–4
four level framework293–4
interrelationships among300–1
learning outcomes294–6
nomological network connecting300–1
organizational impact298–300
performance constructs296–7
trainee perceptions294
and definition of291
and experimental design and methodology301–3
computer programs307
expanding methodologies306–8
formative evaluation309
mixed methods307
qualitative methods307–8
rapid evaluation and assessment method (REAM)309–10
summative evaluation309
and feedback291
and formative evaluation309
and influence on decision‐makers308–10
and return on investment (ROI) analysis298
and utility analysis298–300
trait activation theory76–7, 83
and assessment center research231
construct validity231
convergent validity224–6, 231
correlations with other assessment methods227–9
criterion‐related validity229–30
discriminant validity226–7, 231
external validation227–9, 231
predictor validity229–30, 231
and assessment centers215–16, 220–1
assessor training223
development of exercises222
dimensions222–3
feedback reports223–4
implications for practice221–4, 230
role‐player instructions223
scoring methods223
trait activation potential230
and Big Five personality model219
and main ideas of:
situation strength218–20
situation trait relevance217–18
trait‐related work behavior220
and person‐situation interactions217
trait complexes15
traits:
and definition of123
and entrepreneurship123
Big Five trait taxonomy123–5
need for achievement126
process view of130–1, 132
processes affecting role of129–30
processes mediating role of128–9
risk‐taking126
situational conditions129–30
specific traits125–6
and leadership101–3
and personality59–60 see also personality
transactional leadership108, 109
transformational leadership108–9
true scores, and reliability264–7
trust:
and remote working573, 577
and self‐managed teams596
turnover371
and bullying486, 487
and organizational politics391
and remote working567
United States Army, and job performance appraisal319–20
utility analysis, and training evaluation298–300
validity of tests and assessments163–4, 187–8, 263–4
and assessment centers: (p. 653)
construct validity231
convergent validity224–6, 231
criterion‐related validity229–30
discriminant validity226–7, 231
external validation227–9, 231
and cognitive ability167, 168–72
need for new studies172
and combining measures of different constructs187–8
and conceptualization of164–8
changed meaning168, 188
evolution of276
sources of evidence164
unitary nature of276
and concurrent validity279
range restriction280
and confidence in use of measures187
and consequential validity167–8
and construct validity164, 166–7, 283–4, 286
multi‐trait, multi‐method approach (MTMM)283–4
and content validity164, 165–6, 277–9
and convergent validity166
and criterion‐related validity164–5, 279
multivariate model for281
range restriction280
validity generalizations282
and divergent validity166
and education182
and experience178–82
and fit178
and inferences from test scores276–7
and integrated framework for validation284–5
and job knowledge182
and meta‐analysis of methods of measurement182–7
and need for new studies187
personality and motivation187
and on‐line testing248–9
and personality measures172–8
and physical ability182
and predictive validity229, 279
and reliability285–7
and strategies for investigating276
and synthetic validity165, 281
and test validity167
and training evaluation302
and validity generalizations282
and validity streaming165
virtual working, see remote working
vocabulary tests15
wages, and collective bargaining502–3
well‐being:
and bullying468, 485
and remote working569–70
and Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)374–6
whistle‐blowing, and predatory bullying475–6
women:
and fairness of performance appraisal332
and labor market participation416
and performance appraisal396
and validity of selection procedures167–8
work, and changing nature of:
and autonomy293
and boundaryless careers547–8
and bullying484
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)423
and globalization292
and job design587, 589–90
and supervision293
and training292–3
work adjustment, see Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
work attitudes:
and job performance81–2
and performance appraisal335, 336
and personality60, 65–7
explanatory models68–9
job satisfaction66, 67
organizational commitment66, 67–8
and stress82
and training evaluation304
work environment:
and bullying481–2
theoretical explanations for482–3
and changed by employees604
and job design600
noise602–3
workspace characteristics601–2
work habits, and job performance74, 75, 85
work‐family balance:
and cross‐cultural differences347–8
and flexible working arrangements (FWAs)417–18
and job design598–9
work‐life balance, and remote working567–9
and conflict569
and work‐life boundary567–8
(p. 654) work‐life policies:
and business case for421–2
and dependent care initiatives414, 415, 422
and diversity414
and equal opportunity policies413
and family friendly policies413–14
and family related leave422–3
and gender equity414, 431
and regulatory environment420–2
working conditions, and collective bargaining503–4
World Wide Web:
and audience growth236
and employment testing235, 236
and e‐recruitment239
and information revolution234 see also on‐line testing