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date: 19 August 2019

Introduction

Abstract and Keywords

For most organizations, human resource costs continue to be the single largest operating cost, accounting for between 50 and 80 percent of annual expenditure. Whilst the debate as to the most effective way to measure human capital continues to capture the interest of both academics and practitioners, there is a shared belief that individual employee performance contributes to organizational outcomes. Consequently, achieving optional performance from individual employees is of paramount importance to the development and performance of any organization. The field of Personnel Psychology is broadly concerned with the study of individual differences and their consequences for the organization. It is about providing a comprehensive understanding of a range of factors that influence and enhance individual performance. The purpose of this volume is to bring together the contributions of leading international scholars within the field to present state-of-the-art reviews on topical and emergent issues, constructs, and research in personnel psychology.

Keywords: human resource, operating cost, human capital, personnel psychology, emergent issues

For most organizations, human resource costs continue to be the single largest operating cost, accounting for between 50 and 80 percent of annual expenditure (Saratoga Institute 1994; Becker and Gerhart 1996). The term “human capital” is used to describe people within an organization and the value they create (Rodgers 2003). Whilst the debate as to the most effective way to measure human capital continues to capture the interest of both academics and practitioners (Sparrow and West 2002), there is a shared belief that individual employee performance contributes to organizational outcomes (Huselid 1995). Consequently, achieving optional performance from individual employees is of paramount importance to the sustained growth development and financial performance of any organization.

The field of Personnel Psychology is broadly concerned with the study of individual differences and their consequences for the organization. It is about providing a comprehensive understanding of a range of factors which influence and enhance individual performance.

The purpose of this volume is to bring together the contributions of leading international scholars within the field to present state‐of‐the‐art reviews on topical and emergent issues, constructs, and research in personnel psychology.

The book is divided into six parts. We begin the volume by exploring (Part I) individual differences and work performance. The sources of individual differences covered in this part include traditional topics such as IQ, cognitive abilities, personality and leadership, as well as the emergent and more controversial topic of emotional intelligence.

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The following part (Part II) is concerned with the extent to which organizations can improve their effectiveness through the process of personnel selection. The chapters within this part consider a range of topics from job analysis and competency modeling, the validity of selection procedures, the effective interview, and the practice of assessment centers. In addition, the part includes a chapter debating the advantages and disadvantages of on‐line testing.

The effectiveness of any personnel selection system is dependent upon the reliability and validity of any tests and structured assessments used to inform selection decisions. Therefore, the focus of the following part (Part III) is on methodological issues. The first three chapters in this part consider models for evaluating the reliability and validity of measures, recent advances in the evaluation of training, and the relationship between job attitudes and job performance. The fourth and final chapter in this part challenges and debates the extent to which personnel practices honed in monocultural setting can be applied to a more diverse workforce.

The chapters in the next part (Part IV) consider topics relating to training and development. Policies and practices then form the focus of the following part (Part V). This part includes traditional topics such as discrimination and fairness as well as emergent issues like workplace bullying.

Finally, we close with a part devoted to examining changes in the work environment and the future challenges in the new world of work.

In total, the book is composed of twenty‐four chapters compiled by forty‐three contributors from ten different countries. We are most grateful for their contribution. In addition, we would like to thank Cath Hearne and Gerry Wood for their help and efforts in putting the volume together, as well as the production team at Oxford University Press.

Susan Cartwright

Cary L. Cooper

References

Becker, B., and Gerhart, B. 1996. The impact of Human Resource Management on organizational performance: progress and prospects. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (4): 779–801.Find this resource:

Huselid, M. A. 1995. The impact of Human Resource Management practices on turnover, productivity and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal, 38 (3): 635–72.Find this resource:

Rodgers, W. 2003. Measurement and reporting of knowledge‐based assets. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 4 (2): 181–90.Find this resource:

(p. 3) Saratoga Institute. 1994. 1993 Human Resource Effectiveness Reports. Saratoga, CA: Saratoga Institute.Find this resource:

Sparrow, P., and West, M. 2002. Psychology and organizational effectiveness. In Organizational Effectiveness: The Role of Psychology, ed. D. Bartram, I. T. Robertson, and M. Callinan. Chichester: John Wiley. (p. 4) Find this resource: