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date: 13 June 2021

(p. 839) Subject Index

(p. 839) Subject Index

abnormal return 806
absorptive capacity 418, 419, 425
academic research 711–33
accounting practices 558, 800
Acer 673
adaptation:
goals and objectives of 316–18
industry and competitor analysis 322–3
MNE strategy 310
resources and capabilities 327
strategic options 333–4
adjustment costs 95, 103
Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) 610
advantages 136, 140
dispersion 239, 242
global integration 315–16
location 150–7, 161, 166, 326
ownership 141 n15
adverse selection 427
advertising 468–9
affiliates 154, 157, 188
agents 140 n1
complexity 93, 94, 95
transaction cost/internalization theory 128, 130, 131, 132, 133, 140
agglomeration economies 149, 157, 158, 159, 166
aggregation 110–12
agriculture 282–3, 284–5
AIDS 272, 273
AIG 743, 747
Airbus Industrie 210
Alima 211–12
alliance studies 389
alliances 195–6, 326, 597, 677–8
risk exposure 756
allocation 596
Amazon.com 312
American Consumer Behavior Models 454
American Economic Review 149
American multinational corporations 714–15, 730
analogy 92
analytical research 295–6, 483–5
anti‐competitive factors 215, 271, 429
anti‐dumping 283
antitrust policy 188, 189, 215–16
apartheid 208
appliance firms 626
arbitrage opportunities 570–1
Argentina 259, 357
arm's length standard (ALS) 600–2, 604–15 passim
Asea Brown Boveri 331
ASEAN states 692, 694
Asia 626, 635
Asia financial crisis 627, 688, 742, 753
Asia Pacific, see Pacific Asia
Asian Pacific Economic Community (APEC) 228
Asian values 688
asset acquisition 428
asset specificity 129, 135
AstraZeneca 170
attachment 406
Australia 273, 285, 571
Austria 209
authority 185, 187, 199, 200, 231
private political 196–7
auto transplants 636, 637
automobile industry 284, 322, 333
autonomy 184, 186, 192, 195, 199
balance of payments 188
bananas 137, 218, 283, 284–5
bandwagon effect 156
banks 216
China 660–1
bargaining 130, 136, 231, 240–1, 514–15, 517, 597
strategic alliances 402–3
behavior constraints 130–40 passim
Belgium 76, 161, 379
benchmarks 803–4
best practice 379
BHP (Broken Hill Proprietary) 331
bilateral free trade agreements 275
bilateral investment treaties (BITs) 274, 275
bilateral tax treaties (BTTs) 598, 600, 610, 614
bilateral trade agreements 447
binding arbitration 610
biofuels 272
Black & Decker 523
Black Monday 560
blat 261
BMW 314
body‐shopping 197
Boeing 529
bondholders 569
bonus systems 526
Boolean methodology 727–32
borders 194, 201 n5, 234, 448
trade flows 80–2
borrowers 137, 138
Boston Consulting Group 328
bottom‐of‐the‐pyramid (BOP) thinking 166
bounded rationality 130, 131, 137
BP 565
brand names 19, 76, 79, 237, 331
Brazil 166, 273, 283, 284, 519
Bretton Woods system 142 n18, 559
British Petroleum, see BP
Bubble economy 627, 628, 629
Business Environmental Risk Index (BERI) 748
Business Environmental Risk Intelligence (BERI) 753
business historians 3–4, 7, 9, 11, 13–15 passim, 18–22 passim
Business International Corporation 744, 747
business relationships 405, 513
business strategy, literature 288–9 see also strategy, and MNEs
business systems 663
global network 109–10
Pacific Asia 688–9
business units 164
buying behavior 451–7
Canada 285, 600
culture 519
environmental regulation 552
free trade 149
NAFTA 161
national policies 208, 209, 220
trade 81–2
Canon 171
capability:
innovation and IT 421, 426, 433
MNE strategy 324, 355
geographic spread 312, 324–5
global integration 325–6
local adaptation 327
resource development 379
capital 137–8, 580 n6, 688, 691
accumulation 424
controls 212–13, 221
costs 572–3
flows 184
Japan 625
markets 142 n19, 222 n26, 558
capitalism:
alliance 157, 195, 231, 248
China 703–4
culture 520, 529, 530
network 665, 704
capitalist enterprises, Chinese 704–5
Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) 543
Caribbean 259
cartels 128, 216
cash flow 558, 562, 565–6, 581 n10
Caterpillar 331
CD‐ROMs 525
centralized hub model 351
Chad 728, 729
chaebol 692, 696, 697, 698
channel relationships 404, 471–2
chaotic behavior 93
cheating 130, 131, 141 n12
Chile 208, 261
China 273, 648–80, 688, 689, 690
business environment 659
business forms 665–6
counterfeiting 260
culture 518, 529–30
growth in competition 661–2
institutional environment 662–5
complexity 668–70
handling complexity of 670–2
role of national institutions 666–8
internationalization of firms 672–80
engagement with international firms 677–80
entrepreneurs 676
institutional analysis 674–5
latecomer perspective 672–4
liability of foreignness 676–7
role of government 674–5
inward FDI 650–2
motives and entry mode 652–5, 656
market access 659–61
outward FDI 240, 655–8
political risk 742
research and development (R&D) 651, 652, 654, 658
trade 649–50, 651
World Trade Organization 283
China Circle 699, 707
China National Metals and Minerals 657
(p. 841) Chinese capitalist enterprises 704–5
Chinese Communist Party 663, 664, 667
Chinese family businesses 701–5
Chiquita 217–18, 283, 285
Chrysler 211, 284, 322
Cigna Property & Casualty 578
CITIC 657
Citicorp 747
civil society organizations (CSOs) 197
clean technologies 546
climate change 272, 273, 538–9, 540, 543
clustering 159, 165, 166, 427
MNE activity 165–6
Coca‐Cola 171, 640
CoCom 207–8
co‐evolutionary perspective 668, 676
Coface 756
cognitive resonance 810
collusion 128
colonization 240
combinatorial complexity 93, 109
commensurate with income pricing (CWI) 605
Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) 542, 543
Committee of Fiscal Affairs 592, 598, 600, 607
Committee on Foreign Investment 212
commodity price variability 560–1
communication 121
Communist Manifesto 200 n2
company culture 131
Compaq Computer 661
comparability 601–10 passim
comparable profits method (CPM) 606–7, 609
comparable uncontrolled prices (CUP) 604, 605, 615 n4
comparable uncontrolled transactions (CUT) 615 n4
comparative advantage 113, 147–51
access to sources of 325
comparative business systems 357–8
comparative international research (CIR) 766–7, 790–1
case for 767–8
characteristics of 769–71
comparative cultures tradition 772–3
learning from experience 784–90
INNFORM program 784–6
multinational research teams 786–90
levels of analysis 769–70
literature on 766
methodological problems 773–4
analytical 780–1
conceptual 774–7
empirical 779–80
interpretative 781–2
operational 778–9
pitfalls 766
qualitative approaches 769
quantitative approaches 769
standard comparisons 770–1
trade‐offs in 782–3
comparative method 765–6
compensation 526–8
competencies:
geographic spread 312, 324–5
global integration 325–6
local adaptation 327
competent authority (bilateral tax treaties) 610
competition 120, 127–8, 140 n2, 378, 529
MNE/government relations 758
price 319
competition policy 215–16, 271
competitive advantage 715, 716
environmental regulation 550–2
financial risk management 558, 567, 568, 570–2
geographic spread 320
interdependence 530
internationalization 313, 673
Japan 637
local adaptation 327
MNE strategy 308, 472–3
performance 313
competitive advantage diamond 160–1, 239, 245, 329, 350
competitive impact 429
competitive strategy 472–3
competitiveness 151, 155, 160–4
China 659
cultural values 520
geographic spread 313
MNE‐public policy linkages 245
national policies 209, 216
sovereignty 194
complexity 93–5, 109
absorption 671
China 649, 667, 668–70
international business 90–122
reduction in 670–1
research literature 295
strategic 90–122
compliance behavior 258, 540, 541–2
components 135–6
COMPUSTAT database 606
computer industry 321
concentration 157
conduits 188
configuration/coordination framework 350, 359
(p. 842) conflict 210, 237, 241, 741
Confucianism 689, 698, 699, 704
constellations 407
consumer behavior 453–7
consumer electronics 626
contextualism 768
contingency analysis 672
contracts 132, 134–5, 136, 140
employment 131, 133, 140 n1
contractual exposure 562, 575
control 184, 186, 192, 195, 231, 597, 653, 654
national 190–1
strategic alliances 399–402
controlling interest 801
control‐performance relationship 400–2
convergence 349, 351
Japanese MNEs 631–8
cooperation, and MNE/government relations 759
coopetition, and MNE/government relations 757–60
coordinated federation 351
corporate culture 530
corporate governance 663
corporate income tax 599, 600, 610
Corporate Income Tax Law (China) 662
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 271, 272
corruption 507–10, 532
Corruption Perception Index 507–10
cost 113
cost plus pricing 605
counterfeiting 260
country manager 368
country of origin (COO) 455–7, 477
country of origins effects 333
country risk 558, 561–2, 742, 743, 752–6
assessment of 753–5
definition of 752
firm sensitivity to 756–7
literature on 752–3
measurement of 755–6
MNE/government relations 757–60
sovereign risk 755–6 see also political risk
country‐specific advantages (CSAs) 155–7, 160–4
CP Pokphand 702
creative destruction 702
creativity 691
critical legal studies 217
cross‐cultural studies 772–3
cross‐cultural training 525
cross‐holdings 801–2
cross‐national integration
goals and objectives of 314–16
industry and competitor analysis 321–2
resources and capabilities 325–6
strategic options 330–3
CSA‐FSA framework 155–7
cultural differences 355, 503–4, 516–19
synthesis 511–12
cultural values 505–7, 532
culture 158, 261, 399, 454, 484, 502–33, 810
comparative culture studies 772–3
definitional difficulties 778–9
innovation strategies 530–2
policy‐making 532
cumulative causation 158
currency trading 722
customs authorities 593
cyberspace 197–8
Czech Republic 87 n1, 261
Daewoo 692
Daimler‐Benz 322
databases 449, 563
DeBeers 216
debt 571–2, 580 n3
decentralization 351, 665, 667
decision trees 101–2, 104
decision‐making 99, 120, 521
institutional environment 259–60
informal institutions 261–2
Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises 276, 278
deep integration 193–4, 243
deferment strategies 103–7
democracy 693, 706
democratic states 216, 258
dependency 402–3
developing countries 230, 243–4, 382 n1, 434, 631, 657
institutional factors 675
latecomer perspective 672–3
development theory 357
differentiated networks 326, 357
differentiation 148, 315
diffusion 167, 729, 730, 731
disaggregation 195
discrimination 230, 271, 281, 651
Disney 218
dispersion 157, 239, 242
dispute settlement 610–11
World Trade Organization (WTO) 282–5
distribution 119, 136–7, 326, 470–2
divergence, Japanese MNEs 631–8
diversification 127, 314, 437, 651, 803
diversity 766
(p. 843) Doha Development Agenda (DDA) 272
Doha Round 270, 272
Dole 324
domestic appliance industry 321–2
domestic economies 190, 213–14
domestic institutions 141 n8
domestic policy 206
domestic politics 205, 216–19
domestic regulation 194
double taxation 596, 599, 610
Dow Chemicals 184
dual price system 758
duality principles 726
Dunning's eclectic paradigm 150, 152–3, 155
Dunning's OLI theory 141 n15
dynamic capabilities 234
dynamic optimization 96
earnings fluctuations 562
earnings management 800
Eastern Europe 526
eclectic paradigm (Dunning) 150, 152–3, 155
eco‐labels 544
e‐commerce 197, 200
subsidiaries 377–8
taxation 614
Economic and Social Research Council (ESCRC) 785, 787
economic boom 529
economic development 272
economic exposure 562, 563, 564, 575
economic growth 688
China 649, 652, 659, 680 n2
economic imperative 347
economic reform, China 649, 650, 660, 663, 664
economic risk 752
economic theory 141 n8, 215
economics 91, 187
literature 287–9
new international 148–50
economies of scale 313, 315, 652
location 148, 158
strategic alliances 392
theories 113
economies of scope 313, 435
The Economist 187
Economist Intelligence Unit 561, 653, 744, 753
economists 125, 229
Ecuador 284–5
efficiency‐seeking FDI 154
El Salvador 208
elasticity 581 n10
electronic supply networks 197
electronics 148, 626, 634, 636–7
embargoes 208
embedded options 571–2
emerging economies 487
entry mode 459–60
institutional frameworks 263
internationalization 358
latecomer firms 673
emerging markets 212–13, 562, 580 n4, 759
marketing strategy 482–3
emissions trading scheme 540, 543
employees 131, 132, 525, 528–9
employment contracts 131, 133, 140 n1
energy 272
entrepreneurship 120, 121, 666, 676
Pacific Asia 691, 693
entry mode 458–65
China 652–5, 656
geographic spread 329–30
environment 346, 347
environmental agreements 540–4
environmental issues 272
environmental policy 537–53
environmental practices 545–8
environmental protection 271
environmental regulation 538–40, 550–2
environmental services 282
environmentalism 220
equity holders 570, 576, 577
equity joint ventures 390, 397, 398, 400, 401, 404, 653, 654
equity markets 560
ergodicity 810
Ericsson 331, 381, 651
escape investments 155, 241
ethics, and marketing 480–2
ethnic networks 677
ethnocentric‐polycentric‐geocentric model 234, 235, 345, 346
ethnocentrism 766, 780
Euromoney 561, 744, 748
European Commission 273, 543
European Monetary System (ERM) 559–60
European Parliament 273
European Social Survey 786
European Union (EU) 149, 216, 220, 228, 272, 447
banana regime 284–5
environmental regulation 538, 539, 543–4
regional agreements 275
WTO disputes 283
event studies 798, 805–6
statistical concerns 806
evolutionary theories 342–6, 350, 421, 425
ex post reasoning 810–11
exchange rates 142 n18, 559, 576, 626
exporting 119, 460–3, 655
export‐oriented firms 634
export‐oriented manufacturing 688
(p. 844) exports 625, 626, 630
barriers 462–3
China 649–50, 651
controls 188, 207–8
credits 209
expropriation 240, 743
external comparables 602
external selection mechanisms 342, 346–53
external sovereignty 186, 191, 200
externalities 214
extraterritoriality 188, 189–90, 192, 240, 597
Exxon Mobil 171
factor intensities theory 113, 148
factor markets 142 n19
Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation 212
financial crises, Asia 627, 688, 742, 753
financial flows 270
financial management 557–80
financial markets 558, 560
financial risk 558–62, 565, 566–7, 741, 752
management 558, 567, 568, 570–2, 576, 577, 578–9
financial services 282, 354
China 661–2
firm‐based theories 120, 184
firms 4–5, 6, 11, 138
nature of 262
resource‐based view of 374
strategy 116, 117
theory of 127, 128, 418, 419, 426
firm‐specific advantages (FSAs) 152, 154, 155–7, 160, 162, 229, 233, 234, 244
dispersion 239, 242
green 548–50, 553
firm‐specific competence 422
First Pacific 702
Fitch IBCA 753
Five Forces Framework 257, 320, 323, 350
flagship firm 326
Flextronics International 171
focused factory 380
food industry 321
Ford Motor Company 284, 314, 325, 334, 379, 639
Fordism 184, 195
Foreign Credit Insurance Agency 747
foreign currency reserves 658
foreign direct investment (FDI) 210–12
academic research 715–18
benefits of 239
changed attitude towards 238–9
China:
inward FDI 650–2
outward FDI 655–8
definition 5
encouragement of 242
inward 429
Japan 627–30, 640
literature on 183–4, 287–9
mode choice 394–5
public policy regime 274–85
spatial aspects 157–60
types of 153–5
foreign exchange 213
exposure 741
risk 741
risk management 558, 562, 581 n7
foreign source income 599, 600
Foreign Trade Commission (China) 657
formulary apportionment 611–12, 614, 615
Fortune 500 161, 343
founders 721
fragmentation 614
framing 810
France 76, 189–90, 323, 519, 571, 600, 731
France Telecom 532
franchising 132, 134, 142 n16, 394, 464–5
free trade 149
free‐riding 134, 136, 142 n17, 273
friendship 504, 505
fringe benefits 527
Fruehauf 189–90
Fujitsu 212
Fuji‐Xerox 640
functional analysis 606
functional comparability 604–5, 615 n5
funding cost reduction 570–1
Galanz 657, 658, 678
game theory 96, 108
GE Capital 642
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 275, 538
shallow integration 243
Uruguay Round 219, 276, 290
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) 280, 281–2
location decisions 282
General Electric 208, 530, 531
general equilibrium model 94, 120
General Motors 284, 391, 639
general systems theory 92
geocentric MNEs 234
geographic distance 437
geographic diversification 141 n5, 343
geographic jurisdiction 184, 185, 198
geographic spread 309
goals and objectives of increasing 312–14
industry and competitor analysis 320
resources and capabilities 324–5
(p. 845)
strategic options 328–30
choice of country to enter 328–9
choice of entry mode 329–30
Gerber Products Company 211–12
Germany 76, 209, 333, 726, 729, 731
culture 518, 529
GFT 331
GlaxoSmithKline 592
global accounts 377
global civil society 196–7
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 786
global formulary pricing 611, 612
global integration 348
goals and objectives of 314–16
industry and competitor analysis 321–2
MNE strategy 310, 311
resources and capabilities 325–6
strategic options 330–3
global internet security 751–2
global signalling effect 166
global sourcing 475–7
global standardization 465–6
global strategy 309, 354, 472–5, 634
global system 119–20
global trading 614–15
globalization 613–14, 732
industry drivers 321
MNE strategy 314–16
reality of 168–71
sovereignty 185, 190, 192–8
trends 171–2
Globe Project 510, 512, 779, 786
goals, and MNE strategy 310–12
goods 207, 280
strategic 207, 317
governance 168, 614, 654, 663
sovereignty 187, 188, 192, 200
government 187, 200, 270
MNE/government relations 757–60
improving 760–2
Pacific Asia 691–5
role of 675 see also public policy
government policy 167–8 see also public policy
government relations 294–5
gravity equation and international trade 72–4
complete specialization 75
empirical applications:
alternative trade theories 79–80
complete vs incomplete specialization 80
national borders and multilateral resistance 80–2
North and South trade 82–7
incomplete specialization 77–9
monopolistic competition and intra‐industry trade 76–7
green firm‐specific advantages (FSAs) 548–50, 553
green strategies 545
greenfield investment 631, 652, 658, 678
Greenpeace 220
gross margin pricing 604–5, 607
growth 688, 809
China 649, 652, 659, 680 n2
growth‐share matrix 328
Grubel‐Lloyd index 76, 80
Guangdong Enterprises 657
guanxi 214, 530, 665, 667, 670
Guatemala 284–5
Haier 657, 658, 661, 673, 674, 677, 678
Harvard Business Review 504
Harvard Business School 351
Harvard Multinational Enterprise Database 714–15
Harvard Multinational Enterprise Project 343, 631, 633
Harvard University 532
Havana Charter 276
hazard rates 723
headquarters‐subsidiary relationships 353, 369, 372
Hecksher‐Ohlin‐Stopler‐Samuelson theory, see factor intensities theory
hedging 567, 568, 575, 576, 577
hegemonic stability theory 231
Helms‐Burton legislation 190, 240
heterarchy 349, 636
Hewlett Packard 164, 523, 578, 640, 652
hierarchical structures 184, 189–90, 195, 233, 636
high‐context cultures 505, 511
higher education 282
historical cost principle 801–2
holdup 135, 136
home bases 162–4
home country effects 631–8 passim
home‐country‐centric model 635, 636
Honduras 284–5
Honeywell 578
Hong Kong 650, 653, 687, 688, 689, 690, 691, 692, 700–1
horizontal activities 141 n5
host countries:
Japan 638–42
political risk 741–2
Huawei 657, 658, 673, 678
hub‐and‐spoke models 351, 636
(p. 846) human resources management (HRM) 349, 353, 356, 502–33
human rights 272
human rights groups 217, 220
Hungary 261
Hutchison Whampoa 702
hybrids 132
Hyundai 578
IBM 171, 211, 527, 639, 640, 651, 772, 773
ICI‐Dupont case 189
imperialism 184
imports 208
China 649–50, 651
quotas 285, 317
incentives 271, 759
China 658
cultural factors 525–6
location advantages 150, 156
national policies 210, 211, 241–2
theories of the MNE 131, 141 n12
income shifting 801 see also transfer pricing
incorporation 192
incremental internationalization 346
India 166, 197–8, 216, 261, 273, 282, 283, 323, 333, 675
intellectual property rights 285
individualism/collectivism index 505, 511
Indonesia 284, 687, 688, 689, 690, 691
national policies 209, 213, 217
SE Asian economies 694, 705, 706
Industrial and Commercial Bank 658
industrial organization theories 127–8
industry and competitor analysis:
cross‐national integration 321–2
geographic spread 320
local adaptation 322–3
industry structure 292–3
industry studies 13–14
information 132
asymmetry 133, 138
cost reduction 572
costs 96, 103, 121
distribution 119–20, 121
gathering 99–101, 102, 108, 121
management 308
information and communication technology 359
information processing theory 346
information technology 417–37
conceptualization 420–3
corporate accumulation 423–30
intra‐/inter‐firm networks 421, 430–5
role in the modern MNE 435–7
transfer 417–20
Information Technology Agreement (ITA) 280
information‐oriented cultures 511–12
infrastructure 156–7, 167, 242
INNFORM program 784–6, 790
innovation 635
China 658, 662
culture 530–2
information technology 417–37
location and competitiveness 150, 155, 156, 166
open 531
organizations 349, 351, 353, 354
instability 397, 398
institutional economics 263
Institutional Investor 561, 753
institutional theory 263, 355–7, 374, 394, 663, 675
institution‐based view, and international business strategy 256–8, 262–3, 265
as defining structures in 258–60
informal institutions 261–2
rational decision‐making 259–60
use of term 263–4
institutions 691, 725
China:
complexity 668–70
handling complexity of 670–2
institutional environment 662–5
role of national 666–8
definition 257
domestic 141 n8
informal institutions 259
multilateral 269–96
intangibles 605
integrated network 326
integrated network model 195, 351, 635
integration‐responsiveness framework 162, 346–7, 351, 355
MNE strategy 310, 311–12, 330
Intel 171, 578, 651
intellectual property 218, 272
counterfeiting 260
intellectual property rights 273, 274, 282
China 659, 660, 669
WTO disputes 285
interdependence 133, 347
common resources 596
competitive advantage 530
MNE/government relations 759
the Netherlands 530
sovereignty 190, 191, 194, 199
transaction costs theory 129, 133–5, 138–9, 140
interest rates 126, 127, 559–60
(p. 847) interface management 360–1
intermediate institutions 663–4
internal comparables 601
internal markets 141 n10, 374, 381
Internal Revenue Code 610
Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 592, 598, 602, 603, 607, 612, 615
internal selection mechanisms 342, 343–6
internal sovereignty 185–6, 189, 191, 200
internalization theories 128–39, 155, 230, 237–8, 393, 425, 713, 803
entry mode 329
strategic complexity 112, 113, 116, 117
technology 142 n19
international affairs 201 n8
international business:
complexity 90–122
methodology and research 711–33
international business risk 740–3 see also country risk; political risk
international business strategy 95–6, 112
institution‐based view 256–8, 262–3, 265
informal institutions 261–2
institutions as defining structures 258–60
rational decision‐making 259–60
use of term 263–4
political risk 258–9
political systems 258–9 see also strategy, and MNEs
international business theory 90–2, 151–3
International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) 286
International Country Risk Guide 561, 753
international economics 146, 147–50
International Fiscal Association (IFA) 598
international law 189
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 86, 213, 275, 276
international organizations 192, 219–20
international policy networks 246–7
international political economy 231
international relations theory 185
International Sociological Society 774–6
international tax regime 597–600
international teams 524
international trade agreements 210
International Trade Organization (ITO) 276
international trade theory 126–7, 148, 149, 153 see also Gravity equation and international trade; Trade
internationalization 312–13, 798
benefits of 314
China 657, 658, 672–80
engagement with international firms 677–80
entrepreneurs 676
institutional analysis 674–5
latecomer perspective 672–4
liability of foreignness 676–7
role of 674–5
competitive advantage 313, 673
emerging economies 358
Japan 624–30, 632, 637
knowledge base 354
MNEs 342, 343
motives for 313
ownership 673
strategy 309 see also geographic spread
Internet 167, 200, 312, 359
finance 614
global internet security 751–2
global marketing 478–9
performance 479–80
training 525
interpersonal behaviors 512–21
interstate system 196, 197, 200
intra‐business trade 149, 154, 602, 603, 606, 607, 610, 611, 614, 615
intra‐cultural variations 504
intra‐/inter‐firm networks 424, 430–5
investments 194, 206
appraisal 558, 561, 580 n6
asset‐seeking 325
behavior 426
escape 155, 241
horizontal 141 n5
incentives 150
as incentive 150
knowledge‐seeking 427
objectives 310
political risk 259
portfolio 127
protection 274
reversible 103
trade supporting 155
WTO agreements 280–2
zones 211
investors' rights 802
inward FDI 243
Iran 208, 742–3
Iraq 217
Ireland 87 n1, 166
isomorphism 355–6, 675
Israel 518
Italy 76, 209, 333
Japan 240, 283, 623–42, 727, 728, 729
culture 511, 516, 529
firm organization 359
Japanese Development Model 632
Japanese film case 283
jargon 93
(p. 848) joint stock companies 665, 678
joint ventures 116, 314, 360, 394, 395, 433, 463–4, 574, 631, 635, 639, 652, 653, 654, 655, 678, 680
journals 149, 353, 354
business 489
business history 25
environmental policy 537
law and political science 286–7
marketing 489
judicial independence 659
jurisdiction 183, 187–90, 192
geographic 184, 185, 198
taxation 595, 596, 610
keiretsu 240, 530, 641
Kelon 657, 661
Kentucky Fried Chicken 640
Kia Motor Corporation 284
know‐how 133–4, 151, 165, 238, 392
knowledge 156–7, 158, 165, 392
acquisition 157, 392, 403
base 165, 354, 628
based networks 195
creation 150
diffusion 167
exchange 428, 434
flows 117, 154, 435
interdependencies 134, 381
loss 396
management 355
reverse flows 165
sharing 395–6
spillovers 158, 159, 427
transfer 353, 355
transfer costs 165
Kodak 171, 283, 291
Korea (South) 209, 261, 357, 654, 675, 727, 728, 729
culture 516–18
Kyoto conference 543
Kyoto Protocol 273
labor 142 n19, 148
division of 121, 122, 425
unions 522, 688, 776
labor force:
composition 131, 158, 166, 325, 651
recruitment 522–3
selection 523–4
language(s) 504–5, 516–19, 778, 810
latecomer firms 673–4
Latin America 259
League of Nations 187
learning 349, 350, 430–7 passim, 464, 473
organizational 326
strategic alliances 395–6
Legend Computer 661
legitimacy 166, 259, 356, 392, 668
lenders 137, 138
Lenovo 658, 661, 673, 677
Lenzing AG 209
LG 673
liability of foreignness 152, 327, 333, 354, 356, 676–7, 722
liability of newness 721, 722, 723, 724
Libby‐Owens‐Ford 216
liberalization 149, 228, 238, 247, 248, 271, 279, 282
Liberalization of Capital Movements Code 278
Liberalization of Current Invisible Operations Code 278
Libya 217, 742–3
licensing 117, 134, 211, 215, 312, 313, 317
life cycle effects 631, 633, 635
linearity 4
linguistic distance 510, 511, 512
linkages 113, 116–17, 118–19
network model 357
local adaptation 309, 479, 668
goals and objectives of 316–18
industry and competitor analysis 322–3
resources and capabilities 327
strategic options 333–4
local government, and China 661, 665, 667, 669
local knowledge 120, 165
local market expansion 465–6
local partners, and risk exposure 756
location 293, 343, 359
advantages 150–7, 161, 165, 548
costs 114, 115–16, 117, 119
research agenda 165–8
strategies 108, 112–19 passim see also geographic spread
Lockheed‐Martin 525
lock‐in 95
long‐term orientation (LTO) 505
long‐term planning 91
losses 103
low‐context cultures 505, 511
Luxembourg 76
LVMH 171
M&M's propositions 568
majority ownership 401, 654
Malaysia 211, 687, 688, 689, 690, 691, 694–5, 706
management 91, 155
academic research 725–32
China 662
government's role 663
control 399, 401
functions 294
(p. 849)
subsidiaries 375–81
teams 522, 533
international 524
management‐service contracts 394
managerial culture 346, 354
managerial diversity 347
managerial interdependence 347
managers 345, 348–9, 368, 459, 634–5
hedging financial risk 569
subsidiaries 378, 380
Manpower 171
manufactured goods case 284
manufacturers 127, 136, 137
manufacturing 136–7, 658
manufacturing companies, Japanese 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 630
mapping studies 768
market:
access 293, 313
China 659–61
demand 732
entry 140, 522
academic research 718–21
China 652–5, 656
cultural values 532
financial risk exposure 574
research literature 457–65
strategic complexity 97–9, 103–7, 117, 121
forces 215
imperfections 312
integration 558
operations 316
positioning 376–8
risk 557, 562–7, 576
‐seeking FDI 153–4
segmentation 557, 558, 572–5
share 209, 332
value 798
market value 798, 799
marketing 136–7, 331
journals 489
research literature 447–88
marketing mix 460, 466–8
markets 141 n10, 194, 199
transaction cost theories 126–34 passim, 139
masculinity/femininity index 505
materialism 505
Matsushita 314, 628, 651
McDonalds 142 n16, 170, 218, 523, 640
measure equivalence 778
measurement issues 484–5 see also performance measures
mechanization paradigm 437
Mercedes 314
Merck & Company 578
Mercosur 228, 447
mergers and acquisitions:
alliances 391
China 652, 653, 655, 657–8, 662, 678, 680
Japan 631, 642
strategy 309
metaphor 92
methodology 711–33
comparative international business research 765–91 see also performance measures
Mexico 213, 220, 283, 284–5
culture 519
NAFTA 241
Microsoft 218–19, 313, 314, 328, 651
military technologies 208
mind‐sets 345, 346, 348–9, 354
Mitsubishi 628
Mitsui 624, 625
modal neutrality 271, 274
mode choice, and strategic alliances 394–5
mode of operations 343, 344
Model Income Tax Convention 599, 600
modelling strategy 108
modern state system 191–2, 192–3
modernism 768
modular organization 360
monopolies 127–8, 655
Moody 753
Morgan Stanley Index 213
most favored nation treatment (MFN) 271, 274, 281
mother‐daughter organization 343
motor vehicle industry 627
Motorola 314, 652
multicultural workforces 131
multi‐focus firm 349, 350
Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAl) 192, 248, 278
multilateral agreements, core principles 274
Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) 542, 544
multilateral institutions 269–96
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency 747
multilateral investment regime 279
research literature 287–9
WTO agreements 280–2
multilateral policies 269–96
multilateral trading system:
evolution of 276–80
multilateral rules 274
characteristics 275–6
multinational enterprises (MNEs)
case studies 11–13, 91
definition 23 n3, 341
(p. 850)
external conditions 48–60
1960s to mid 1970s 48–53
1970s to late 1980s 53–5
late 1980s to 2006 55–60
history of 3–23
business history journals 25
case studies 11–13
diplomatic history 14–16
early history 16–17
emerging ideas 18–22
general literature 5–11
industry studies 13–14
literature on 39–60
local knowledge clusters 165–6
main ideas 18–22, 39–48
1960s to mid 1970s 40–2
1970s to late 1980s 42–5
late 1980s to 2006 45–8
MNE/government relations 757–60
improving 760–2
regional dimension of 168–71, 172–5
strategy
cross‐national integration:
goals and objectives of 314–16
industry and competitor analysis 321–2
strategic options 330–3
further research 335
geographic spread:
goals and objectives of increasing 312–14
industry and competitor analysis 320
resources and capabilities 324–5
strategic options 328–30
goals of 310–12
integration‐responsiveness framework 310–12
international business environment 319–20
local adaptation:
goals and objectives of 316–18
industry and competitor analysis 322–3
resources and capabilities 327
strategic options 333–4
resources and capabilities 324
cross‐national integration 325–6
risk reduction 318–19
theories of 125–40
multinationality 545–6
multi‐technology corporation 429
N V Philips 716
nation states 184, 186, 198–9, 200 n3, 220–1, 231, 237
National borders 80–1
national champions 239
national control 187, 190–1, 662
national economies 199
national policies 205–21
National Science Foundation (NSF) 787
national security 208, 212
national systems 725–32
National Trade Estimate 280
national treatment 271, 274, 281, 296, 659, 660
nationality 189, 233
natural resource seeking FDI 153
China 240
NEC 626
negative externalities 158
negotiation 246
research 451–3
styles 512–21
Neptune Orient Lines 702
Nestl é 171
net income 610
Netherlands 530, 716
network approach 116, 120
network capitalism 665, 704
network model 117, 354, 357
subsidiaries 373–4
network organizations 154, 353, 354
electronic supply 197
integrated 351, 352–3, 635
international policy networks 246–7
intra‐/inter‐firm 430–5
Japan 634, 635, 636
knowledge‐based 195
research agenda 112–16
social 92, 120–1
strategic alliances 406–7
networking 704, 706
new institutionalism 263, 355
New trade theory 79
New Zealand 285, 323, 571
News Corp 170
Nike 195
Nikkei index 560
Nissan 322, 628, 642
Nokia 171, 651
non‐discrimination 271, 279, 281
regional agreements 275
non‐equity alliances 597
non‐governmental organizations (NGOs) 197, 220, 231, 247
non‐verbal behaviors 516–19
norms 598
(p. 851) North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 220, 241, 275, 447
environmental policy 538, 539, 543
nuclear waste disposal 540
obsolescing bargain 222 n18, 240–1
officialdom 662–3
offshoring 167
oil 142 n18, 190, 259, 560, 743
oligopolies 128, 195, 714, 715, 717, 733 n3
opaqueness 695
open innovation 531
openness 323, 327
operational risk 743
opportunism 130, 131, 137, 141 n14, 407, 425
option values 724
organic complexity 93
organization design 393, 522
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 275, 278, 602, 612
code of behavior for MNEs 239
Committee of Fiscal Affairs 592, 598, 600, 607
environmental recommendations 543
organization theory 126, 347, 353, 354, 355, 357, 766
organizational behavior 91, 121, 453–7, 766
organizational credibility 761
organizational demography 724
organizational ecology 713, 721, 722, 725
organizational learning 395–6
organizational practices 356
organizational structures 110, 245, 351–2, 357
strategic alliances 393–4
organizations 120–1, 192, 219–20, 341
research challenges 358–61
outputs 130, 131, 132, 139, 140, 141 n12
outsourcing:
environmental factors 553
risk exposure 757
outward FDI 243–4
China 655–8
Overseas Private Insurance Corporation 747
owner‐managers 703
owners 138
ownership 154, 401, 597, 688
advantages 141 n15
China 653, 654, 656, 659, 663, 665
internationalization 673
patterns 113, 116–19, 635
political risk 743
ozone layer 540
pace of life 506
Pacific Asia 563, 564, 650, 687–707
partner ties 406
partnerships 399
patent laws 214
patent statistics 433
patents 134, 157, 214, 259
academic research 717–18
citations 800
corporate 433
India 285
Japan 211
paternalism 704
path‐dependency 94–5
penalty regulations (transfer pricing) 610
People's Bank of China 660
PepsiCo 523
performance 121, 141 n5, 156
competitive advantage 473
control‐performance relationship 400–2
exporting 461
geographic spread 330
global integration 332
internationalization 313
Internet 479–80
joint ventures 463–4
MNE strategy 308
multinationals 477–8
strategic alliances 397–9, 400, 402, 404–5, 474–5
subsidiaries 356
trust 404–5
performance measures 528, 798, 811–12
data integrity/content 800
benchmarks 803–4
capital market data 802
check list for 804–5
cross‐holdings 801–2
data error 800
data scanning 803
historical cost principle 801–2
managerial manipulation 800–1
statistical issues 804
event studies 798, 805–6
abnormal return 806
statistical concerns 806
ex post reasoning 810–11
growth 809
market value 798, 799
return on assets (RoA) 798–9
return on investment (ROI) 799
survey data 809–10
survival 809
Tobin's q 799
total factor productivity
estimation difficulties 807–9
meaning of 807
period effects 631, 634, 636, 638
personal relations 761
(p. 852) personnel:
recruitment 522–3
selection 523–4
pharmaceuticals 214–15, 273, 285, 354
Philippines 211, 687, 688, 689, 691, 694, 705, 706
Philips 316, 334, 530–2
Phoenix Initiative 532
physical property 218
Pilkington pIc 215–16
piracy 218, 260, 669
planning 120
Plaza Accords 627
Poland 211–12, 261
policy 199, 213
cultural influences 532 see also public policy
policy networks 246–7
political accommodation 760
political bargaining 241
political boundaries 188
political imperative 347
political risk 240, 246, 595, 741–2
assessment of 744
qualitative approaches 744–5
quantitative approaches 745–8
country‐specific 742
firm sensitivity to 756–7
firm‐specific 742
global internet security 751–2
home country environment 742
host country environment 741–2
international business strategy 258–9
international environment 742
MNE/government relations 757–60
project‐specific 742–3
rating of 748–9
terrorism 750–1
types of 743
Political Risk Services (PRS) 748–9, 753
political science 286–7
Political System Stability Index (PSSI) 747, 748
political systems:
international business strategy 258–9
uncertainty 258
political theory 215
politics 187, 205–6, 663
pollution 540, 546
haven 241
polycentric MNEs 234
portfolio investment, and FDI 127, 183
positivism 766
post‐Westphalian system 185–6, 191, 193, 196–7, 200
poverty reduction 272, 688
power 217, 221, 231
power distance index 505, 511
practices 356
pragmatism 664
pressure groups 217, 540
price system 108, 130, 132
pricing 469–70
principles 598
private enterprises 120, 666
private sector 190, 191, 197
China 651–2
privatization 15, 19, 59, 282
China 652, 666
Proctor and Gamble 331, 334
product:
adaptation 467–8
comparables 604
development 466–7
differentiation 148, 315
diversification 141 n5, 343
flows 117, 119, 154
life cycles 152, 154, 162, 237, 319
policy 466
product cycle model 417
production 199
location 148, 158, 293
systems 432
transaction costs 117, 119
productivity spillovers 429
profit centers 593
profit comparables 606
profitability 191, 332, 653, 654, 798
profit‐based pricing 605–9, 611
profits 425–6
property rights 130, 139, 258, 659, 802
ProQuest periodical database 449
protectionism 208–9, 231
PT Timor Putra Nasional 284
public knowledge 421, 422, 423, 432, 433
public policy 155, 228, 247–8, 271
analytical framework:
consistency of MNE and government goals 232–3
institutional determinants of MNE‐government interactions 233
MNEs strategic approach to government policy 235–7
resource‐based determinants of MNE‐government interactions 233–5
behavioral approach to 228–9, 230
efficiency aspects of MNEs 229–31
foreign direct investment (FDI) 274–85
future research 248–9
(p. 853)
literature on MNE‐government interaction 237–47
normative approach to 228
resource‐based approach to 229
welfare economics 229–30
push factors 628
Quebec 81
quotas 209, 285, 317, 659
race to the bottom 242, 596
rational action approach 91–2, 93, 95–6, 99, 121, 122
rationality, and decision‐making 259–60
raw materials 135–6
RCA 312, 639
Reagan administration 190
real option theory 96, 103, 108
strategic alliances 408
recession 628, 642
recruitment 522–3
selection 523–4
regional integration arrangements (RIAs) 275
regional policy 540
Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) 83–4
regional trade associations 83, 84, 86
regionalization 614
multinational enterprises 168–71, 172–5, 322
cross‐national integration strategy 330–3
regulation 156, 213–15
domestic 194, 662
environmental 538–40, 550–2
financial markets 558
government 355, 659
securities 188
supranational 47, 60, 188, 235, 244, 248
relationship‐oriented cultures 511–12
reliability 485
religion 689
Renault 322, 642
renewable energy 272
rents 140, 158, 216, 760
reputation 134–5
resale pricing (RPM) 604–5
research and development (R & D) 194, 195, 353, 716–17
China 651, 652, 654, 658
co‐practice 165
foreign distribution 117, 118, 119
internationalization 353–4, 418, 427, 430–5
Japan 628, 635, 636
location advantage 149–50, 155, 157
subsidiaries 377
research funding 209
residence principle 599
resource:
complementarity 760–1
‐dependence model 402
development 378–80
‐seeking 45, 153, 240, 550
resources 221, 596
MNE strategy 324
geographic spread 313, 324–5
global integration 325–6
local adaptation 318, 327
MNE/government competition 758
responsiveness 156, 245, 309, 465–6
MNE strategy 310, 311
restrictions 209, 211
restrictive licensing agreements 215
retail 136
return on assets (RoA) 798–9
return on investment (ROI) 799
reversible investments 103
Rio Summit 543
risk 403
assessment of 740
country risk 753–5
qualitative approaches 744–5
quantitative approaches 745–8
exposure to 558, 562–7
firm sensitivity to 756–7
governance modes 654
management of 558, 562, 567–79, 581 n7, 762
reduction of 318–19, 392
returns 799 see also country risk; political risk
routines 356
Royal Phillips Electronics 171
RTZ 324
rule‐driven behavior 122
rules 122, 211, 218, 598
Russia 217, 218, 675
blat 261
culture 518, 525
S J Rundt & Associates 753
S&P 753
SAIC 677
sales force 522, 523
Samsung 651, 673
sanctions 208, 217, 273
SAP 651
scale economies, see economies of scale
(p. 854) scarcity rents 158
Schlumberger Ltd 212
science‐based technologies 436
scope economies 435
Sears 626
second tier firms 313–14
Section 482 (IRS) 602, 605, 610
securities regulation 188
selection bias 722
selection criteria 523–4
self‐interest 230
semiconductor industry 210
separate accounting approach 599, 611, 615
Service and Apple Computer 610
services sector 281–2
shallow integration 243
Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation 141 n15
Shangri‐La 702
Shell 171, 220
Shenzhen 668
shirking 131, 132, 134, 135
Shougang Steel 657
silent languages 504–5
Silicon Valley 248
Singapore 687, 688, 689, 691, 692, 693–4, 700
Singer 137
single EU market 149
single‐country studies 770
size 723, 724
small and medium enterprises (SMEs) 359
small businesses 462, 666, 707
small numbers conditions 135, 136
social capital 408, 424, 668
social exchange theory 761
social networks 92, 120–1, 122, 407
social psychology 374
social science 91
social stability 664
societal goals 214
software 197–8
sole ownership 653, 654
source principle 599
South Africa 208
South Korea 687, 688, 689, 690, 691, 692–3, 696–8, see Korea (South)
sovereign risk 755–6
sovereignty 184, 185–92, 193, 198–200, 237, 597
Soviet bloc 208
space 504, 505
Spain 76, 357
culture 518–19
special and differential treatment (S&DT) 272
Special Economic Zone 668
special interest groups 216–17, 220
spillovers:
FDI impacts 165–6
knowledge 158, 159, 165, 427
productivity 429
technological 418, 419, 428
spirituality 505
stability 392, 397, 403
standardization 479
state control 195, 199
state intervention 662–3, 667
state‐owned enterprises (SOEs) 651, 655, 657, 662, 664, 665, 666, 667, 678, 680
states 185, 194, 220–1
Statistics Canada. World Trade Analyzer, see WTA
stereotypes 504
sterling 559–60
sticky places 158, 159, 167
stock markets 688
Stockholm School of Economics 349
strategic alliances 389–408, 430, 463, 473–5, 634
bargaining power 402–3
control issues 399–402
costs of 392
definition 389–90
evolution 405–6
forms of 389–91
motives for formation 391–6
knowledge sharing 395–6
mode choice issues 394–5
organizational learning 395–6
organizational structures 393–4
strategic objectives 391–2
networks 406–7
performance 397–9, 400, 402, 404–5
research issues 407–8
trust 403–5
strategic asset seeking FDI 154–5, 157, 161, 166, 239, 673
strategic complexity 90–122
strategic goods 207, 317
strategic management 91, 155
strategic mode 293–4
strategic thinking 529–30
strategy development 544–5
Structural Impediments Initiative 641
subsidiaries 139, 360, 367–82
Japan 626, 628, 631, 635, 637
knowledge exchange 428
legal status 375
literature on 368–75
earlier 369–70
recent empirical 370–2
recent theoretical 373–5
local knowledge spillovers 418
location 151, 154, 163, 165
performance 356
(p. 855)
reverse knowledge flows 165
sovereignty 188, 189
subsidiary strategy 375–81
market positioning 376–8
resource development 378–80
strategy vs role 375–6
subsidies 317, 327
Sun Microsystems 525
supply chains 377
supranational regulation/structures 47, 60, 188, 235, 244, 248
survey data 809–10
survival 809
survivors 721
sustainable development 272
Swiss Re 578
switching strategies 103, 106–7
syndicates 138
systems theory 120, 122
tacit capability 422, 425, 426, 433
tacit capacity 423, 424
Taiwan 357, 687, 688, 689, 690, 691, 692, 693, 699–700
culture 518
tariffs 209, 317
Tate & Lyle 290
tax:
authorities 597
avoidance 596, 599, 602, 611, 613
barriers 596
court cases 610
credits 600
deferral 600
evasion 596, 599
shifting 581 n14
transfer pricing regime 600–11
tax havens 596
taxation 188–9, 591–615, 662
operational risk 743
teamwork 527, 528
techno‐economic paradigm 435, 436
technology 148, 194–5
accumulation 423–30
creation 418, 419, 421, 424, 437
definition 420, 421, 422
fusion 433, 437
internalization theory 142 n19
sharing 419
sourcing 427
transfer 230, 417–20, 420–1, 425, 426, 431, 652
telecommunications 216, 660
Templeton College 125 n
territoriality 189, 192, 200
terrorism, and political risk 750–1
Texas Instruments 639
textile industry 625–6, 634
Thailand 687, 688, 691, 694, 705, 706
thinking processes 521
Thomson SA 331
3M 171
time 504, 505, 506, 521–2
TLC 673
Tobin's q 798, 799
total factor productivity:
estimation difficulties 807–9
meaning of 807
total quality management 379
Toyota 314, 391–2
trade 205–6
barriers to 209, 317, 596, 659
China 649–50, 651
flows of 270
policy 207
in democratic states 216–17
and special interest groups 223 n46
strategic 209–10, 239, 246
‐supporting investments 155 see also gravity equation and international trade
Trade‐Related Aspects of lntellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 273, 282
Trade‐Related Investment Measures (TRIMS) 150, 271, 280, 284
trading companies, Japanese 624, 625, 632, 643 n4
Trading with the Enemy Act 189, 190
training 525
transaction cost theories 125, 126, 128–39, 140, 141–6, 373
strategic alliances 393–4
transaction costs 138
academic research 712–13
strategic complexity 91, 116–19
Transactional Net Margin Method (TNMM) 607
transactional risk 741
transaction‐based pricing 603–5, 609, 611
transactions 193
transfer pricing 241, 591–3, 596, 614, 801
dispute settlement 610–11
literature review 612–13
manipulation 593
motivations for 593–5
transfer pricing regime 600–11
transfer risk 743
transferability 716
(p. 856) transition economics 732
transitional economies:
informal institutions 261
institutional factors 675
translation 778
translation exposure 562, 563, 575
transnational relations 196
transnationals 196, 349–53, 357
Japan 634–5
transparency 274, 281, 507–10
political systems 259
Transparency International 507–10, 512
transport 113, 190
Travelers Insurance 642
Triad 315, 322, 351, 610
core (EU, Japan, US); broad (Europe, North America, Asia Pacific)
Triad Power concept 151
triangular bargaining 597
trust 400, 403–5, 406, 407, 473, 704
TSMC 673
tunneling 801
uncertainty 142 n18, 247
avoidance index 505
China 649, 664, 667, 669, 670
institutions 258
multilateral institutions 295
Pacific Asia 691, 695–6
political risk 741
strategic complexity 97–100, 103, 108, 113
underinvestment 569, 574, 576
Unilever 170
unilinear models 344, 346, 349, 353
Union Carbide 578
United Fruit Company (UFC) 217–18
United Kingdom 211
culture 518
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 276, 543, 651
United Nations Programme on Transnationals 194
United Nations (UN) 192, 275, 598, 742
United States Barriers to Trade and Investment (Report) 279
United States (USA) 273, 284–5
Congress 231, 273, 276
culture 511, 519, 529
Justice Department 215–16
regional agreements 275
Tariff Commission 626
trade 81–2
Trade Representative 659–60, 661, 662
Treasury 592, 598, 600
WTO disputes 283
Uruguay Round 219, 276, 290
US‐China Business Council 660, 662
validity 485
valuation 596
value creation 391, 395, 426
value‐adding activities 316, 344
location 159, 161
strategy 307–8, 614
subsidiaries 367, 368, 376
value‐at‐risk (VaR) 558, 564–5
values 520–1, 532
Asian 688
Venezuela 742
verbal behaviors 516–19
vertical activity 119, 137, 154
Vicks 331
Vietnam 687, 689, 690, 691, 692, 695, 706–7
virtual corporations 195, 199
volatility 567, 577, 691
Volkswagen 331, 377, 652
Voluntary Export Restraints 627
VRIO framework 257
wages 528
Warwick Business School 784
water's edge 599, 611
wealth 199, 217
websites 11, 22
American Society of International Law 296 n2
CIBER (University of Indiana) 82
General Electric 530–1
Internet security 751
NAFTA 275
Philips 530–1
regional/international organizations 275
sales office location 522
Transparency International 507
World Trade Organization 283, 296 n2
welfare 190
welfare economics 229–30
Western Electric 639
Whirlpool 322, 331, 661
wholly foreign‐owned enterprises 653, 654, 659
wholly‐owned subsidiaries 631, 635, 655
withholding tax 599, 600, 601, 614
working conditions 526
World Bank 238, 246, 275, 276, 532, 691, 707
World Competitiveness reports 155
World Development Indicators (WDI) 86
(p. 857) World Economic Forum 155, 659
World factbook 86
World Political Risk Forecasts (WPRF) 747, 748
World Product Mandates (WPM) 163
World Trade Organization (WTO) 86, 219, 243, 248, 275, 538, 707, 742, 743
agreements:
goods 280
intellectual property 282
services 281–2
business strategy, implications 269, 289, 291
challenges facing 271–3
China 649, 653, 655, 659–60
controversies involving 270
disputes 282–5
evolution of multilateral system 276–80
membership 276
non‐discrimination 271, 281
regional agreements 275
world wide web 196
WTA 79, 81, 86
yen 627, 628, 634, 640, 641
yen company 639