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date: 25 January 2020

(p. 417) Index

(p. 417) Index

A-weighted sound pressure level 405
absolute pitch 73
acoustic environment 375–413
noise assessment 405–9
exposure and targets 407–8
low-frequency noise 408–9
single-figure metrics 405–7
room acoustics 393–402
modelling 400–2
perception 397–400
reverberation 393–5
room impulse response 397
room modes 395–7
sound reproduction 402–5
loudspeakers 402–3
spatial 404–5
speech intelligibility 403–4
sound sources 375–83
amplitude domain 382–3
directivity 379–82
spectra 375–8
temporal characteristics 378–9
soundscapes 409–13
transmission indoors 389–93
multiple-leaf partitions 391–3
transmission outdoors 383–9
air absorption 385
ground effects 383–5
multiple reflections 385–6
noise barriers 386–9
acoustic shadow 126
across channel processing 32–4
listening across channels 32–3
adaptation 62, 109
adaptive tracking 149–50
air absorption of sound 385
allophones 352
Alport’s syndrome 326
amplitude domain 382–3
amplitude modulation 136–7
analytic listening 79
analytic signal 110
analytical listening 411
animal models 145
training 146–7
see also individual animal species
articulation index 132
attention
auditory see auditory attention
covert 200
divided 287
extrinsic measures 300
intrinsic measures 300
neuroimaging evaluation 200
selective 34, 197–9, 252–6
spatial see spatial attention
to music 238–40
attention effects 183–5
attentional resources, modality-specific vs supramodal 285–9
audiograms 327
auditory attention 3, 249–67
spatial cueing 260–1, 263–5
speech shadowing task 249–52
vision interactions 271–91
working memory and selective attention 252–6
auditory brainstem response 49, 328, 366
auditory change deafness 256–9
auditory coding of speech 213–14
auditory nerve 214–15
formants 76, 160, 213–14
frequency analysis 5, 213–14
auditory cortex 90
auditory development 297–319
methods 299–300
auditory events 188–9
auditory features 188–9
and conjunctions 189–95
auditory filters 19
filter ‘ringing’ 13
shapes 155
auditory fusion 309
auditory illusory conjunctions 193–5
auditory induction 10
auditory learning 300–1, 311–17
applications 317–18
rules of 314–16
time course 311–14
transfer of 316–17
auditory nerve 214–15
auditory neuropathy 335
auditory organization 2–3, 177–202
auditory processing disorder 368–70
central 369
definition 368–9
diagnosis 369–70
intervention 370
auditory repetition test 364
auditory scene analysis 78, 221–4
harmonicity 222
onset time 222–3
schemata 224
spatial differences 223–4
auditory spatial attention 259–63
autism 339
autocorrelation 81, 85, 86, 87, 88, 91, 92
azimuth 223
babbling 353
background listening 411–12
(p. 418) background noise 307–8
performance compromise in children 310
backward masking 10, 107–8
bandwidth 20, 53, 54
basilar membrane 6
excitation 55–6
filtering properties of 13
pitch perception 87
responses of 8
complex tones 88
pure tones 88–9
tuning curves 7
velocity 48–9
bats 152
critical ratio in 153
beating 12
behavioural observation audiometry 303–4
Bell’s palsy 337–8
Bessel functions 381
better-ear listening 130, 132, 137
bias 9
bilateral listening 130
binary mask 220–1
binaural beat 139
binaural cues 223
binaural hearing 163–6
binaural masking level difference 130–1, 133, 164–5
binaural pitch 82–4
binaural sluggishness 138–9
binaural summation 53–4
binaural temporal window 140
binaural unmasking 130
free-field 165
birds
critical ratio 153
intensity discrimination thresholds 157
signal-to-noise ratio 152
speech discrimination 160
blindness 137
boundary element method 387
Broadbent, Donald 249, 250
build-up effect 140
bumped spectrum 57
cancelling 133
carboplatin, ototoxicity 333
catch trials 147
categorical perception 215–16
in infants 306
category scaling 46
cats 152
BMLD 164–5
critical ratio 153
dynamic range 158
sound localization 166
speech discrimination 160
central hearing loss 338–9
cepstral coefficient 214
change blindness 256
characteristic frequency 7
checkerboard noise 219
Cherry, Colin 249
children
hearing 308–11
frequency and temporal perception 308–9
perception in noise 310
spectral pattern discrimination 309–10
speech perception 310–11
see also infants
chinchillas 152
categorical perception 215
co-modulation masking release 156
critical ratio 153
equivalent rectangular bandwidth 155
intensity discrimination thresholds 157
pitch discrimination 168
training 146–8
constant stimuli method 148–9
cholesteatoma 326
chroma 73, 235
cilia 7
clarity of sound 399–400
Clifton effect 140
co-articulation 208, 209–10
perception of 217–18
co-modulation masking release 156
cochlea 87–8
frequency bandwidth 87
frequency selection 5–7
gain, compression and suppression 7–9
pitch perception 87–92
tonotopic organization 5–7
cochlear filtering 80–2
phase characteristics 88
cochlear gain 27
cochlear hearing loss 331–4
cochlear implants 135, 342–3
cochlear nuclei 90
cocktail-party effect 132, 133–5, 164, 207, 250
cognitive load 266
coincidence detection 124
Colavita effect 272, 278–9
combination tones 89
common fate 156
community noise levels 408
comodulation detection interference 114
comodulation masking release 32–4, 114
perceptual organization 34
within- and across-channel mechanisms 33–4
comparative hearing research 145
comparative psychoacoustics 145–69
adaptive tracking 149–50
conditioned avoidance 151
constant stimuli method 148–9
training 146–7
transformed tracking 150–1
complex sounds
models of 60–2
complex loudness model 61–2
sound pressure level weighting 60–1
pitch perception 166–8
complex tones 71, 77
basilar membrane response 88
Huggins 82
resolvability 80–2
(p. 419) compression 7–9
estimation of 23–9
additivity of non-simultaneous masking 28
different frequencies 28–9
growth of masking 23–5
temporal masking curves 25–7
and temporal integration 116
conditioned avoidance 151
conditioned head turn procedure 303
conductive hearing loss 330–1
and language development 355–9
learning difficulties and behaviour 358–9
methodological challenges 356–8
oral/written language 358
otitis media with effusion 356
speech 358
conjunction benefit 191
conjunction cost 191
conjunctions 189–95
alternative accounts 191–3
auditory illusory 193–5
feature/conjunction relationship 190–1
consonance 243–4
consonants, perception of 306
constant stimuli method 148–9
context effects 62–3
adaptation 62–3
enhancement/decrement 63
fatigue/temporary threshold shift 62–3
induced loudness reduction 63
masking see masking
continuity illusion 10
control stimuli 180
correlogram 125
covert attention 200
critical bands 19, 29
critical band theory 151
critical bandwidth 53, 151
measurement 152
critical ratios 151–2, 153
cross-modality matching 47–8
crossmodal dynamic capture 280–1
crossmodal perceptual grouping 281–3
crossmodal perceptual load 289–90
cubic difference tones 94
deafness see hearing impairment
decrement 63
descriptive listening 412
deviant sounds 185
dialect 208, 212
dichotic
condition 83
listening 133
pitch 126, 133
presentation 251
dictionary recognition units 251
difference limens 54, 74, 81
difference tones 94
dimension 71
diotic condition 83
Dirac delta function 397
directivity 379–82
discrimination threshold 73
dissonance 243–4
distance perception 128–30
distracted listening 411–12
divided attention 287
dolphins 152
critical ratio in 153
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 289
dual-route hypothesis of audition 196–7
duration of sound 52–3
dynamic range 8, 45, 56–7, 158
dyslexia 364–8
auditory processing theories 364–7
behavioural 364–5
intervention 366–7
neural 366
comorbidity 363–4
definition 363
echo location 137–8
echo threshold 136
edge effect 21
EE units 125
electroencephalography (EEG) 1, 93
elementary waveforms 77
energetic masking 35, 78
enhancement 63
envelope-power-spectrum model 112
envelopment 138
equal-loudness countours 50–2
equalization-cancellation model 132–3
equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) 20, 155
European Noise Directive 407
event-related potentials (ERP) 179, 185, 252, 312
excitation 55–6
excitation patterns 16–18
Fast ForWord 366–7
fatigue 62–3
feature integration theory 189
feedback damage 337–8, 340
fetus
hearing 302–8
response to sound 302
see also infants
filter ‘ringing’ 13
filtering
auditory filters 19
basilar membrane 13
cochlear 80, 88
time-domain 31–2
filtering cost 198
fine structure 87
fission 182
flankers 33
fluctuation strength 111
formants 76, 160, 213–14, 305
formant frequency discrimination 160
forward masking 10, 62, 106–7
Fourier series 377
Fourier transforms 378
(p. 420) Fourier’s theorem 77, 78
Franssen effect 166
free-field binaural unmasking 165
frequency 2, 50–2
analysis 5, 213–14
discrimination 75, 300
children 308–9
infants 304
fundamental 21, 71, 167
ratios 73
resolution 5
in infants 304
frequency selectivity 5, 16–23, 35, 151–6
behavioural/physiological estimates 22–3
in cochlea 5–7
excitation patterns 16–18
hearing out partials 21–2
masking patterns 16–18
models of 29–32
power spectrum model 29–31
time-domain filters 31–2
notched noise method 19–20
psychophysical tuning curves 18
frequency-discrimination training 315
Fresnel diffraction 387
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 1, 93
auditory spatial attention 259
fundamental frequency 21, 71, 167
fusion 182
gain 7–9
estimation of 23–9
additivity of non-simultaneous masking 28
growth of masking 23–5
temporal masking curves 25–7
galvanic skin response 250
gammachirp 32
gammatone function 31–2
gap detection 309
gating paradigm 310
Gaussian curve 30
Gaussian noise 110
gerbils 152
speech discrimination 160
globular bushy cells 90
goldfish 168
grammar 349
graphemes 310
Green’s function 388
ground effects 383–5
grouping 134
growth of masking 23–5
Haas effect 398
hair cells 7
damage to
inner hair cells 333–4, 339
outer hair cells 331–3, 339
Hankel function 388
harmonic relations 178
harmonic templates 85
harmonicity 222, 377
harmonics 78
head-related impulse responses 128
head-related transfer functions 128, 163
hearing
binaural 163–6
children 308–11
frequency and temporal perception 308–9
perception in noise 310
spectral pattern discrimination 309–10
speech perception 310–11
conservation 61
development of 298–9
dynamic range 8, 45
fetus 302–8
infants 302–8
non-speech sounds 303–5
level 46
threshold 51
hearing aids 342
hearing impairment 3, 63–5, 325–43
acquired 326
auditory change 256–9
and autism 339
causes 325–7
central loss 338–9
classification 328–30
cochlear loss 331–4
conductive loss 330–1
congenital 325–6
diagnosis 327–8
feedback damage 337–8, 340
in infants 307
and language development 3, 355–63
conductive hearing loss 355–9
sensorineural hearing loss 359–63
neural loss 334–7
perceptual consequences 339–40
simulations of 340–2
sudden hearing loss 326–7
treatment 342–3
hearing out partials 21–2, 79
hearing out pitch 78–80
Heschl’s gyrus 93
hierarchical decomposition model 183–4
higher order modulation 113
Hilbert envelope 110, 113
holistic listening 412
horse precept 182
Huggins pitch 82, 84, 91, 126
Hunt, Melvyn 219
hyperacusis 64–5
impaired loudness models 63–4
comparison 64
recruitment 64
softness imperception 64
induced loudness reduction 63
infants
deafness in 307
frequency discrimination 304
frequency resolution 304
hearing 302–8
non-speech sounds 303–5
hearing development 298–9
language acquisition 297–8
loudness perception 304
(p. 421)
pitch perception 305
sound localization 304–5
sound segregation 304
speech discrimination 351–2
speech perception 305–8
temporal processing 305
testing 302–3
see also children
inferior colliculus 90, 91
inflected exponential function (INEX) 59–60
informational masking 34–5, 78
infrapitch echo 124
inhibition of return 262, 263
insertion loss 387
intensity acuity 158
intensity difference limen 156
intensity discrimination 54–5, 156–9
intensity discrimination thresholds 157
intensity of sound 2, 50
interaural level difference 123, 126–7, 313
interaural phase difference 130
interaural time difference 123–6, 180, 223, 313
in infants 305
intervals 73
introspection 92
IQ, non-verbal 363
iteration 76, 106, 167
Jones, Mari 231
just-noticeable difference 54, 123, 127, 156, 284
Krumhansl, Carol 232
lag suppression 136
language
acquisition 297–8
oral 349, 354
signed 351
spoken 351
written 349, 354
language development
auditory basis 349–55
oral language 354
speech 351–3
written language 354
and hearing impairment 3, 355–63
conductive hearing loss 355–9123
sensorineural hearing loss 359–63
language-based learning impairment 317
language-learning impairment 364, 365
specific 363–8
latency-intensity functions 158–9
lateral lemniscus 91
ventral nucleus 91
lateralization 124
Lavie, Nilli 251
law of first wavefront 135, 166
leaky integration 114–15
learning
auditory 300–1, 311–17
language 297–8
transfer of 316–17
learning curves 311, 312, 313
learning difficulties, and behaviour 358–9
learning disorders, auditory basis 349–71
learning index 314
lens model of perception 240
level of sound 399
Liberman, Alvin 218
listening 299
across channels 32–3
analytic 79
background 411–12
better-ear 130, 132, 137
bilateral 130
descriptive 412
dichotic 133
holistic 412
off-frequency 17–18, 23, 154
in readiness 411
in search 411
synthetic 79
localization dominance 135
logarithmic loudness model 58
long integration 116–18
loudness 2
context effects 62–3
adaptation 62
enhancement/decrement 63
fatigue/temporary threshold shift 62–3
induced loudness reduction 63
masking see masking
definition of 45
hearing impairment 63–5
hyperacusis 64–5
impaired loudness models 63–4
infant response to 304
intensity coding 54–7
excitation 55–6
neural intensity coding 56–7
profile analysis 57
Weber’s law 54–5
matching 48
measurement of 46–50
auditory brainstem response 49
basilar-membrane velocity 48–9
category scaling 46
cross-modality matching 47–8
magnitude estimation and production 46–7
otoacoustic emissions 49–50
reaction time 48
models of 57–62
complex sounds 60–2
pure-tone 57–60
overall 61–2
parametric effects 50–4
bandwidth 53
binaural summation 53–4
duration 52–3
frequency/equal-loudness contours 50–2
level 50
perception 156–9
specific 61–2
units of 46
loudness function/ loudness-intensity function 50, 51, 159
(p. 422) loudspeakers 402–3
distributed mode 402
in rooms 403
workings of 402–3
low-frequency noise 408–9
McGurk effect 272, 278
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 93
magnetoencephalography (MEG) 1, 93
magnitude estimation 46–7
masking 2, 5, 9–16, 36, 62
backward 10, 107–8
energetic 35, 78
experimental designs 9–10
forward 10, 62, 106–7
growth of 23–5
informational 34–5, 78
modulation 112–13
non-simultaneous 10, 12–14, 62
additivity of 28
off-frequency 24–5
on-frequency 24–5
partial 62
period patterns 14–15
phase effects 15–16
simultaneous 10–12
temporal effects 14–16
temporal masking curves 25–7
theoretical frameworks 9–10
masking patterns 16–18
Mass Law 389–91
maximum likelihood estimation 275
medial geniculate body 90
melody 231
dynamic shape 231
memory
and music perception 233
perceptual/memory representation 241–2
working 252–6
Ménière’s disease 326
mice 152
critical ratio 153
mismatch negativity 185–6, 191, 312
missing fundamental paradox 78
mistuned stimuli 178
modal scale 236
modality-specific attention resources 285–9
modelling
animal models 145
training 146–7
frequency selectivity 29–32
power spectrum model 29–31
time-domain filters 31–2
loudness 57–62
complex sounds 60–2
impaired loudness models 63–4
pure-tone 57–60
room acoustics 400–2
modulation 106
depth 111
frequency 111
higher order 113
pitch 236
processing across frequency 114
modulation detection interference 114
modulation masking 112–13
modulation perception 110–14
higher order modulation 113
modulation masking 112–13
modulation processing across frequency 114
sensations associated with 111
temporal modulation transfer function 111–12
modulation transfer function 403
temporal 111–12
monkeys, intensity discrimination thresholds 157
Moray, Neville 250
morse percept 182
Mössbauer technique 6
motion after-effect 252, 253
multiple looks 116–18
multiple mechanism hypothesis 87
multiple reflections 385–6
multiple-leaf partitions 391–3
music 3
consonance 243–4
dissonance 243–4
equal temperament 235
modal scale 236
rhythm 237–8
semitones 235
timbre 244–5
tonal 232
music perception 231–45
attention 238–40
frameworks 233–8
and memory 233
pitch 232, 233, 234–7
time perception 232–3, 237–8
musical spectra 379
neural adaptation 13
neural hearing loss 334–7
neural intensity coding 56–7
neural persistence 13
neuroimaging 185–6, 195–7
evaluation of attention 200
noise 77
background 307–8, 310
checkerboard 219
community levels 408
day-night level 406
Gaussian 110
rippled 76, 106, 155, 167
noise assessment 405–9
exposure and targets 407–8
low-frequency noise 408–9
single-figure metrics 405–7
noise barriers 386–9
noise maskers 19
non-simultaneous masking 10, 12–14, 62
additivity of 28
non-speech perception 218
in infants 303–5
notch width 155
notched noise method 19–20, 31
(p. 423) object-related negativity 179–80
observing response 146
occlusion effect 341
octave illusion 84
octopus cells 91
off-frequency listening 17–18, 23, 154
off-frequency masking 24–5
off-frequency tones 8
Ohm’s acoustic law 75
olivocochlear efferents 338
on-frequency masking 24–5
on-frequency tones 8
onset time 222–3
oral communication 3
oral language 349–54
effect of otitis media 358
effect of sensorineural hearing loss 361
orthography 355
otitis media 326, 330
acute 356
with effusion, effects of 307, 356–8
learning and behaviour 358–9
oral and written language 358
prevalence 357
speech 358
otoacoustic emissions 49–50, 328, 329
otosclerosis 326, 330
ototoxic drugs 326, 333
overshoot 14
overtone singing 76
overtones 243
partial masking 62
partials 377
hearing out 21–2
pattern matching 81, 85–7, 91, 95
peak acoustic pressure 406
perception
categorical 215–16
of co-articulation 217–18
distance 128–30
lens model 240
loudness 156–9
modulation 110–14
music 231–45
non-speech 218
pitch 71–95
spatial 137–8
speech 207–24
perceptual anchor 316
perceptual cueing 155
perceptual load theory 251–2
perceptual objects 134
perceptual organization 34
alternative conceptualizations 197
between acoustic attributes 187–95
case study 195–9
as unitary phenomenon 187–8
within acoustic attributes 177–86
perceptual training 317
perceptual/memory representation 241–2
period patterns 14–15
periodicity 2, 71, 74, 78
discrimination 166–8
pitch 167
periolivary nuclei 90
persistence 109
phase effects 15–16
phase-locking 21, 56, 89
phon units 46
phonemes 310, 352, 355
phones 297
phonetic boundaries 162
phonological assessment battery 318
phonological awareness 352
phonology 354, 355
pinna 127–8
pitch 2, 95
absolute 73
auditory perception 233
binaural 82–4
chroma 73, 235
complex tones see complex tones
definition 71–3
dominant region 75
hearing out 78–80
Huggins 82, 83, 91
invariance 84
limits of 73–6
of missing fundamental 167
modulation 236
musical 232, 234–7
periodicity 167
psychophysical scale 234–5
pure tones 71, 72, 76–7
region of existence 74
relative 73
repetition 167
residue 167
resolvability 80–2
salience of 75
sensitivity 84
study of 92–5
tonal material 235
variation in 72–3
pitch discrimination interference 79
pitch height 235
pitch perception 71–95
complex sounds 166–8
hypotheses 85–7
autocorrelation 81, 85, 86, 87, 92
pattern matching 81, 85–7, 95
place 84–5, 88
time 85
in infants 305
inter-individual variability 73
missing fundamental 78
physiological basis 87–92
place hypothesis 84–5, 88
pitch similarity 79
pitch stimuli 180
place hypothesis of pitch perception 84–5, 88
planum temporale 277
polyarteritis nodosa 326
polyphonic music 78–9
(p. 424) positron emission tomography (PET) 93
Posnerian spatial cueing paradigm 259
post masking see forward masking
Potter’s syndrome 326
power function loudness model 59
power spectrum model 29–31
pragmatics 349, 351, 355
pre masking see backward masking
precedence effect 135
presbyacusis 326
presence 138
primary-like response 90
primates, speech discrimination 159–60
profile analysis 57
prosody 71
pseudoharmonics 377
psychoacoustics 1, 10
comparative 145–69
psychometric function 10
psychophysical scale 234–5
psychophysical tuning curves 18, 151, 154
hearing impairment 338
measurement 154
psychophysics 1
pulsation threshold 10
pure tones 71, 72, 76–7
basilar membrane response 88–9
pure-tone loudness model 57–60
logarithmic function 58
power function 59
pure-tone thresholds 161
rapid processing deficit hypothesis 318
rapid sequential auditory presentation (RSAP) 263–4
rate-processing constraint hypothesis 364
rats 152
ray-tracing 401–2
reaction time 48
reading, triangle model 355
recruitment 64, 65
relative pitch 73
repetition pitches 167
reporting response 146
residue pitch 167
resolvability 80–2
response-latency 158–9
reverberance 138, 399
reverberation 130, 135–7, 213, 393–5
reverberation time 395
reverse correlation (revcor) method 31
reverse hierarchy theory 311–12, 317
rippled noise 76, 106, 155, 167
room acoustics 393–402
modelling 400–2
perception 397–400
reverberation 393–5
room impulse response 397
room impulse response 397
room modes 395–7
roughness 111
rounded-exponential (roex) functions 30, 155
Sabine’s equation 394
salience 75
SCAN test 369
second-order modulation 113
selective attention 34, 197–9, 252–6
auditory 250
semitones 235
sensation level 46
sensitivity 9
sensorineural hearing loss 359–63
degrees of 359
effects of
oral language 362
speech 361–2
written language 362–3
methodological challenges 360–1
sensory dominance 272–3
sequential sound organization 181–6
attention effects 183–5
neuroimaging studies 185–6
signal-to-noise ratio 152
signed languages 351
simultaneous masking 10–12
as excitatory effect 10–11
and suppression 11–12
temporal effects 14–16
overshoot 14
period patterns 14–15
phase effects 15–16
simultaneous sound organization 178–81
object-related negativity 179–80
top-down effects 180–1
sine waves 213
sine-wave speech 221
single-figure metrics 405–7
sinusoids 76–7
sinusoidal amplitude-modulated noise 168
softness imperception 64, 65
sone units 46
sound
air absorption 149–50
clarity of 399–400
direction 127–8
duration 52–3
exposure level 406
intensity 45
level 45
perception 397–400
production of 5
reflection 130, 135–7, 165
sound localization 164
in infants 304–5
sound objects 231
sound pressure level weighting 60–1
A-weighted sound pressure level 406
sound propagation curve 386
sound reproduction
loudspeakers 402–3
spatial 404–5
speech intelligibility 403–4
sound sources 231, 375–83
amplitude domain 382–3
directivity 379–82
(p. 425)
spectra 375–8
temporal characteristics 378–9
sound transmission
indoors 389–93
multiple-leaf partitions 391–3
outdoors 383–9
air absorption 385
ground effects 383–5
multiple reflections 385–6
noise barriers 386–9
sound waves 105
soundscapes 409–13
spaciousness 400
spatial attention 133–5
auditory 259–63
neural networks 261
spatial cueing 260–1
automaticity of 263–5
spatial differences 223–4
spatial hearing 123–40
dynamics of 138–40
spatial location 2
spatial perception 137–8
spatial reproduction 404–5
spatial unmasking 130–3, 165
specific language impairment 363–8
auditory processing theories 364–8
behavioural 364–5
controversies 367
intervention 366–7
neural 366
comorbidity 363–4
definition 363
spectra 375–8
musical 379
spectral envelope 72, 213
spectral pattern discrimination 309–10
spectral pitch 166
spectral profile analysis 159
spectral proximity 79
spectral summation 53, 54
spectrograms 220
speech 349, 351–3
auditory coding 213–15
auditory scene analysis 221–4
babbling 353
categorical perception 215–16
co-articulation 208, 209–10
dialect 208, 212
discrimination 159–63, 351–2
effects of
otitis media 358
sensorineural hearing loss 361–2
production 353
resistance to distortion 219
sine-wave 221
waveforms 210–11
speech intelligibility 403–4
Speech Intelligibility Index 219
speech perception 207–24
auditory mechanisms 218
children 310–11
consonants 306
extrinsic influences 218–20
infants 305–8
language specificity 306–7
vowels 305
speech production 349
speech reception threshold 328
speech recognition algorithms 214
speech shadowing task 249–52
speech sounds 207–13
extrinsic influences 212–13
intrinsic influences 207–12
speech transmission index 404
spoken languages 351
standard sounds 185
steady-state response 35
stimuli
control 180
mistuned 178
pitch 180
transposed 123
tuned 178
stimulus onset asynchrony 262, 283
stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions 22–3
streams 188–9
subcollicular nuclei 91
suppression 7–9, 11–12
supramodal attentional resources 285–9
synaesthetic congruency 284–5
synchronization index 90
syntax 354, 355
synthetic listening 79
systemic lupus erythematosus 326
target tone 57
temporal
adaptation 215
characteristics 378–9
effects 14–16
envelope 2, 15–16, 72, 360
framework 232–3, 237–8
integrator 108
periodicity 166
temporal integration 52–3, 114–16
and compression 116
as result of leaky integration 114–15
temporal masking curves 25–7
temporal modulation transfer function 111–12
temporal order judgement 284
temporal resolution 105–14
children 308–9
infants 305
limits of 109–10
measures of 105–6
temporal ventriloquism 284
temporal window 13–14, 106, 108–9
temporary threshold shift 62–3
threshold 9, 11
temporary shift 62–3
threshold equalizing noise 334
timbre 75, 244–5, 377
time constant 106
time hypothesis of pitch perception 85
time perception 232–3, 237–8
(p. 426) time-domain filters 31–2
tonal material 232, 235
tone color 75, 244–5
tone-detection threshold 298
tones
combination 89
complex see complex tones
cubic difference 94
difference 94
off-frequency 8
on-frequency 8
pure 71, 72, 76–7, 88–9
target 57
tonotopic organization 5–7
top-down effects 180–1
training 146–8
adaptive tracking 149–50
conditioned avoidance 151
constant stimuli method 148–9
transformed tracking 150–1
transfer of learning 316–17
transformed tracking 150–1
transposed stimuli 123
trapezoid body 91, 163
medial nucleus 91
travelling waves 6
tuned stimuli 178
tuning curves 6, 7
psychophysical 18, 151, 154
tuning systems 236
two-tone inhibition/suppression 8, 88
tympanometry 303
tympanosclerosis 326, 330
unconscious inference 85
unitary model of pitch perception 86
unity effect 283–5
variable fold time 147
vector strength 90
venelope 113
ventriloquism effect 273–8
vestibular schwannoma 327
virtual acoustics 129
prototyping 376
virtual pitch theory 77
visual reinforcement audiometry 303–4
visual-auditory interactions 271–91
Colavita effect 272, 278–9
crossmodal dynamic capture 280–1
crossmodal perceptual grouping 281–3
crossmodal perceptual load 289–90
McGurk effect 272, 278
modality-specific vs supramodal attentional resources 285–9
sensory dominance 272–3
unity effect 283–5
ventriloquism effect 273–8
vocal tract length 208
voice-onset time 161–2
von Békésy, Georg 5
von Helmholtz, Hermann 5
vowels
discrimination 160
perception 305–6
wave V latency 49
waveforms 210–11
Weber’s law 54–5, 130, 158
Wegener’s granulomatosis 326
whispering 208
word meaning 354
working memory 252–6
written language 349, 354
effect of otitis media 358
effect of sensorineural hearing loss 361–2