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date: 24 February 2020

(p. 573) Index

(p. 573) Index

acetylcholine
auditory cortex 78–9
cochlear nucleus 70
inferior colliculus 77
lateral olivocochlear projections 80
medial geniculate body 77–8
medial olivocochlear projections 79
plasticity 401, 407, 465
tinnitus 553
acoustic fovea 184
acoustic startle reflex 15
adaptive tracking 510
age-related changes 415–36
auditory efferent feedback system 428–30
augmented acoustic environment 424–6
brainstem pathways 418
central auditory processing 421–30
cochlear hair cells degeneration 311
intracellular calcium regulation 418–20
neurotransmitters 420–1
plasticity 415–16
spatial processing 311, 424
temporal processing 422–4
Alzheimer’s disease 531
amino acid transmitters 63–4, 65, 67, 76, 77, 78
AMPA receptors 63–4
tinnitus 553
amusia 524–5, 526
amygdala
emotional prosody processing 494
emotional vocalization processing 491–3
fear conditioning 478–84, 489–90
music processing 496
anterior stream 207
apperceptive agnosia 511, 517, 524
articulation 194, 196, 201, 204–5
ascending auditory pathway
neurotransmitters 63–79
structural organization 9–40
associative agnosia 511, 524
associative learning 259, 260, 440, 441, 454, 459
attention
auditory attention model 262–3
auditory cortex 455–7
auditory scene analysis 235–6
auditory stream segregation 216, 236
speech processing 203–4
audiological assessment 508–9
auditory agnosia 511, 516–25
auditory brain disorders 507–40
auditory nerve 513–14
brainstem 514
cortex 514–25
emotional sound analysis 525, 527
midbrain 514
auditory brainstem implants (ABI) 560–3
auditory chimeras 567–8
auditory continuity illusion 225–6
auditory cortex
ascending pathway 31–5
auditory space representation 294–5
auditory stream segregation 216–25
belt region 32, 34–5, 159, 160, 165, 185, 396
cochlear nuclei, projections to 53–4
cognition 439–75
collateral projections 55
core region 31, 32–4, 53, 139, 159, 160, 185
corticocollicular projections 51–3, 257–61
corticothalamic projections 48–51, 52, 246–7, 253–5
descending pathway 48–54
ethological stimuli 183–6
fear conditioning 484–7, 490
interaural level disparities 286, 288
interaural time disparities 279
microstimulation 400
neurotransmitters 78–9
nuclei of lateral lemniscus, projections to 53
parabelt region 32, 34–5, 159, 160, 396
pitch processing 158–65
precedence effect 337
range-sensitive neurons 179
reorganization 407–8
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 139
sound representation 113–15
speech processing 113, 198–208
structural organization 31–5, 158–9
superior olivary complex, projections to 53
tonotopic maps 32, 34, 49, 51–2, 159–61, 259
auditory evoked potential
auditory stream segregation 217–18
clinical assessment 509, 512
tinnitus 544–5
auditory filters 91–7, 161, 362, 568
auditory grouping 226–34
auditory imagery 455
auditory induction 225–6
auditory midbrain implant 563–4
auditory nerve
afferent fibers 9–10
discharge rates 99
efferent fibers 10
HRTF shape coding 310–11
interaural time disparities 271–2
neuropathy 513–14
pitch processing 151–3
(p. 574)
precedence effect 336
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 128–31
tinnitus 541–2
tuning curves 92
voice onset time 196
vowel spectra 192–3
auditory neuropathy 513–14
auditory pattern recognition 96, 559, 564, 567
auditory processing disorder 527–9
auditory prostheses 559–71
auditory scene analysis 213–14, 235–6
auditory spatial illusions 307–10
auditory streaming 213–43
attention 216, 236
auditory cortex 216–25
harmonicity 227–31
neurophysiology 219–25
psychophysics 215–19
stream segregation 214–26
synchrony 231–4
auditory system development 359–84
connectivity 364–7
spatial response properties 364, 370–3
vocalizations 373–7
auditory training 409
auditory verbal hallucinations 532–3
augmented acoustic environment 424–6
autism 532
average binaural intensity 284
average localized synchronized rate 193
bandpass filter 91–4, 96, 100, 107, 128, 131, 133, 135, 136, 137, 139, 143, 156
bandwidths, cochlear filter 94, 96–7
basilar membrane 1, 91–4, 97–9, 100, 131, 149, 152–3
belt region 32, 34–5, 77, 159, 160, 165, 185, 396
best frequency 91, 92
binaural masking level difference 331–2, 342–52
correlation-based models 342, 349–51
development 364
equalization-cancellation (E-C) hypothesis 342
in humans 351–2
inferior colliculus 343–5
lateral and medial superior olive 343
models 342, 349–51
signal detection theory 346–8
signal-to-noise ratio 349
bipolar affective disorder 532–3
birdsong, learning 373–5, 376–7
‘bird’s own song’ neurons 180
brainstem
age-related changes 417, 418, 419
binaural unmasking 351–2
cochlear nuclear complex, projections to 11
crossed and uncrossed projections 42
electrical stimulation 560–4
lesions 514
maturation 361, 367, 368, 370
precedence effect 340
reflexes 509
species variations in anatomy 324
see also specific structures
brainstem auditory evoked potentials 509, 530
brain tumours 514
Broca’s area 199, 205
bushy cells 13, 22, 153–4, 155, 271–2
calcium ion channels
age-related regulation 418–20
tinnitus 551–2
calyx of Held 20, 276, 283, 365, 418
carbamazepine 533
cartwheel cells 17, 66, 68–9, 420
category learning 396, 457–9
central auditory processing disorder 528
central nucleus of inferior colliculus
neurotransmitters 76–7
sound localization 316–23
structural organization 23–6
characteristic delay 274
characteristic phase 274
chopper units 14–15, 17, 22, 102–3, 131–3, 154–5, 193
classical conditioning 389–91, 440, 441, 442–3, 448–50, 467
cochlea
age-related degeneration 311
basilar membrane 1, 91–4, 97–9, 100, 149, 152–3
development 360, 362
electrical stimulation 397–9
filter bandwidths 96–7
lesions and plasticity 387–9
place coding 292–3
spectral coding 311
spectrograms 94–6
cochlear implants 559
cochlear nuclei
age-related changes 417
bushy cells 13, 153–4, 155, 271–2
cap area 15
cartwheel cells 17, 66, 68, 69, 420
collicular projections to 48
cortical projections to 53–4, 262
giant cells 16, 54, 64, 68, 69, 76, 312
globular bushy cells 13, 14, 46, 57, 64, 66, 67, 68, 72, 131, 271–2, 276
granule cells 13, 15, 16, 17, 48, 54, 68, 69, 70, 262
multipolar cells 13, 14–15, 20, 21, 46, 54, 55, 66, 67, 74, 131, 313
neuron development 365
neurotransmitters 65–71, 80
octopus cells 12, 13, 64, 66, 67, 74, 75, 131, 154–5, 417
olivary projections to 55
pitch processing 153–5
precedence effect 336
primary afferents 12–13
pyramidal cells 16, 17, 312, 313
shell region 69–71
(p. 575)
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 131–3
small cell cap 13, 54, 58, 566–7
small cells 13, 15, 17
spherical bushy cells 13, 66, 271–2, 276
stellate cells 14–15, 17, 22, 102, 103, 131–3, 154–5, 193
structural organization 11–18
superior olivary complex, projections from 45–6, 55
tonotopic maps 12, 16, 17, 18, 48
tuberculoventral system 16–17
vertical cells 17
vowel spectra 193
cochlear root neurons 15, 80
cognition 436–75
coincidence detection 342, 343
collateral projections 55–6
combination-sensitive neurons 180
commissural fibers 28
communication disorders 527
compression 97–100
consonants 113, 194–7, 233
constant stimuli, method of 510
context 446–7
cortical agnosias 511, 516–25
cortical deafness 514–16
cortical microstimulation 400
corticocollicular projections 51–3, 257–61
corticofugal system 54–5, 79, 245–66
anaesthetic effects 547
cochlear nucleus, connections to 262
inferior colliculus, modulation of 257–61
medial geniculate body, modulation of 247–50
plasticity 260–1, 406
projections 54–5, 79
superior olivary complex, connections to 262
thalamic reticular nucleus, modulation of 255–7
tinnitus 546–7
corticothalamic projections 48–51, 52, 246–7, 253–5
critical period 359
cross-modality effects 459
deafness
brainstem lesions 514
cortical 514–16
midbrain lesions 514
sound localization in unilateral deafness 306–7
dementia 531–2
demyelination 513
descending auditory pathway
modulatory role 245–66
neurotransmitters 79–80
structural organization 41–62
developmental disorders 532
developmental studies 359–84
connectivity 364–7
hearing 359–64
neuronal response maturation 367–70
spatial response properties 364, 370–3
vocalizations 373–7
directional transfer function 305–6
discrimination suppression 334
dorsal cochlear nucleus
age-related changes 417, 419, 420
collicular connections 48, 79
cortical connections 54
neurotransmitters 67–9, 70, 80
plasticity 387
sound localization 311–16, 318, 324
structural organization 12, 15, 16–17
superior olivary connections 80
type IV response maps 107–8
dorsal cortex of inferior colliculus 27
dorsal nucleus of lateral lemniscus
collicular projections to 46, 47
ILD-sensitive inputs 286
ITD-sensitive inputs 278–9
neurotransmitters 75
sound localization 182–3
structural organization 22
dorsal nucleus of medial geniculate body 31, 51, 246, 249–50
duration-sensitive neurons 178
dyslexia 532
echolocation 9, 171, 173–80, 183–5, 186, 288, 377
echo suppression, 336, 338, 339, 340
echo threshold 333, 334, 335, 336–7
egocentric selection 259
electrocochleography 509
electroencephalography
clinical assessment 512
tinnitus 543–5
emotional responses 477–503
emotional sound prosody 494–5
vocalizations 490–4
endbulbs of Held 13, 271, 365
endocannabinoids 70–1
enkephalin 70, 75, 80
environmental enrichment 400, 424–6
epilepsy 533–4
EEG 512
tinnitus 550–1
equalization-cancellation hypothesis 342
ethological stimuli 171–90
auditory system tuning 186
hierarchical coding 180–3
event related potential
attention 235–6
auditory induction 225
auditory stream segregation 217, 218
clinical assessment 511
harmonicity 227–8
evoked potentials
auditory stream segregation 217–18
clinical assessment 509, 512
tinnitus 544–5
(p. 576) excitatory amino acids 63–4
existence region of residue 48
fear conditioning 477–90
amygdala 478–84, 489–90
auditory cortex 484–7, 490
computational models 487–9
feedback
corticothalamic projections 50–1
descending projections 56
gain control system 44
feedforward circuits 51, 56–7, 487
fetal development 360
fibrodendritic laminae 23–4
‘fine structure’ 123
flat neurons 25
formants 191
frequency difference limens, plasticity 408
frequency modulation 176, 250
frequency representation on basilar membrane 91–7
frequency response areas/maps 26, 28, 107–10, 115, 316, 406, 416, 445, 462
frequency selectivity, development of 362
functional magnetic resonance imaging
auditory stream segregation 218
pitch processing 161
tinnitus 543
fundamental frequency 147, 193–4
GABA receptors 65
age-related changes 420–1
auditory cortex 78
cochlear nucleus 67, 69
inferior colliculus 76, 77
lateral olivocochlear projections 80
medial geniculate body 77, 255–6
medial olivocochlear projections 79
superior olivary complex and lemniscal nulcei 71
tinnitus 553
giant cells 16, 54, 64, 68, 69, 76, 312
globular bushy cells 13–14, 46, 57, 64, 66–8, 72, 131, 271–2, 276
glutamate receptors
age-related changes 421
auditory cortex 78
cochlear nucleus 66–9
GLUR1–4 63–4
inferior colliculus 76, 77, 79
medial olivocochlear projections 79–80
superior olivary complex and lemniscal nulcei 71
glycine receptors 65
age-related changes 420
cochlear nucleus 67, 69, 80
inferior colliculus 76
superior olivary complex and lemniscal nulcei 71
granule cells 13, 15–17, 48, 54, 68, 69, 70, 262
grouping 226–34
habituation 442, 447–8
hallucinations
musical 512, 529–30
psychosis 532–3
seizures 533
harmonicity 147–8, 227–31
harmonics, resolved/unresolved 149
head-related transfer functions 269, 282–3, 302–5
auditory nerve 310–11
hearing development 359–64
Hebbian plasticity 483–4
hemispheric asymmetries, speech processing 206–7
Heschl’s gyrus
pitch processing 161–2
speech processing 198
Huggin’s pitch 162
illusion
continuity 225–6
spatial 301, 307–8, 331, 335
inferior colliculus
age-related changes 417–18
binaural unmasking 343–5
central nucleus 23–6, 76–7, 316–23
cochlear nuclei, projections to 48
collateral projections 55
commissural fibers 28
cortical projections to 51–3
corticofugal modulation of 257–61
descending pathway 46–8
dorsal cortex 23, 27
frequency reponse areas 26, 28
ILD-sensitive inputs 286–7, 288
implants 563
ITD-sensitive inputs 278, 279
lateral (external) cortex 23, 27–8, 46, 77, 423
local intrinsic fibers 28
neurotransmitters 25–6, 76–7, 79
nuclei of lateral lemniscus, projections to 46–7
pitch processing 155–7
precedence effect 336–7, 340
rostral cortex 28
shell region 77
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 136–9
sound coding in 258–60
sound localization 316–23
structural organization 22–8
superior olivary complex, projections to 47–8
tonotopic maps 25, 27, 156
inharmonicity 227–31
inhibitory amino acids 65, 67, 76
inner hair cells 9–10, 44, 513–14, 551
instrumental conditioning 440, 442–3, 448, 453, 454, 459
insula 205
intensity
corticofugal modulation 253
discrimination 100
interaural level disparities/differences 57, 269–70, 282–8, 303, 307
auditory neuropathy 513
development 366, 370
inferior colliculus 107, 156
interaural time disparities and 288–92
place and rate models 292–4
(p. 577)
superior olivary complex 18, 21, 72, 366
ventral nucleus of medial genicluate complex 30
interaural time disparities/differences 57, 91, 242, 269–70, 271–82, 334
auditory neuropathy 513
development 365, 367, 370
inferior colliculus 107, 156
interaural level disparities and 288–92
place and rate models 292–4
plasticity and prism distortion 397
superior olivary complex 18, 74, 365
ventral nucleus of medial geniculate complex 30
intraparietal sulcus 204
ion channels
age-related changes 418–20
tinnitus 551–2
iterated rippled noise 154, 161
kainate receptors 63
Landau-Kleffner syndrome 534
lateral cortex of inferior colliculus 23, 27–8, 46, 77, 423
lateral lemniscus, see nuclei of lateral lemniscus
lateral magnocellular nucleus of anterior neostriatum 377
lateral nucleus of trapezoid body, neurotransmitters 74
lateral olivocochlear system
neurotransmitters 44–5, 80
structural organization 10, 42, 44–5
lateral superior olive
binaural unmasking 343
interaural level disparities 283–5, 289–92, 370
interaural time disparities 276–8, 343
lateral olivocochlear system 44, 80
neurotransmitters 72
sound localization 182
structural organization 18, 19–21
learning 440–55
associative 259, 260, 440, 441, 454, 459
auditory scene analysis 235
category learning 396, 457–9
perceptual 386, 394–6, 441–2
plasticity 386, 440–1, 442–50, 461
spectral 309
Lewy body disease 531–2
localization dominance 334
long-term depression 404–5
long-term potentiation 404–5, 484
loudness 100
magnetoencephalography
auditory stream segregation 218
pitch processing 161, 162
tinnitus 543–5
magnocellular nucleus of medial geniculate complex, see medial nucleus of medial geniculate complex
medial geniculate body
corticofugal modulation 247–50
dorsal nucleus 31, 51, 246, 249–50
fear conditioning 478, 487
neurotransmitters 77–8, 255–6
pitch processing 157–8
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 139
structural organization 28–31, 48, 245–7
tonotopic maps 29, 31, 157, 246
see also medial nucleus of medial geniculate body; ventral nucleus of medial geniculate complex
medial nucleus of medial geniculate complex
amygdala, projections to 478, 480
associative plasticity 463, 465, 487
conditioning-related receptive field changes 489
corticofugal modulation 249–50
structural organization and connections 31, 34, 48, 52, 246
medial nucleus of trapezoid body
age-related changes 418
lateral superior olive connections 276, 366
neurotransmitters 64, 71–4, 75–6, 80
structural organization 18, 20–1, 57
medial olivocochlear system
age-related changes 428–9
neurotransmitters 79–80
structural organization 10, 42, 44
medial superior olive
binaural unmasking 343
interaural time disparities 272–6
neurotransmitters 74
place coding 292
structural organization 18–19
memory 440–55
reference memory 455
specific memory trace 450–4
working memory 455
metabotropic glutamate receptors 64; see also glutamate receptors
midbrain lesions 514
mismatch negativity
auditory induction 225
auditory stream segregation 217, 236
clinical assessment 512
missing fundamental 148–9, 150
models
auditory attention 262–3
binaural masking level difference 342, 349–51
fear conditioning 487–9
pitch processing 150–1
precedence effect 341
modulation frequency 125
modulation transfer frequency 128
Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia 511
motivation 459
motor cortex 205
multidimensional scaling 510–11
multiple sclerosis 514
multipolar cells 13–15, 20–1, 46, 54–5, 66–7, 74, 131, 313
music
amusia 524–5, 526
emotional processing 495–6
hallucinations 512, 529–30
imagery 455
(p. 578)
learning 235
perception assessment 511
pitch perception 148
myelination 360
neural plasticity, see plasticity
neural synchrony and tinnitus 548, 550
neurofibromatosis type 2 560–1, 564–7
neuromodulators 70–1, 75–6
plasticity 401, 465–6
tinnitus 552–3
neuropathic pain 550–1
neuropathy, auditory 513–14
neuropeptides 70, 75–6
neuropeptide Y 70
neurotensin 70
neurotransmitters 25–6, 44–5, 58, 63–87, 255–6
age-related changes 420–1
tinnitus 552–3
nitric oxide 70–1
NMDA receptors 64
tinnitus 553
noise-vocoded speech 201
noradrenergic inputs 70, 75, 77, 79
nuclei of lateral lemniscus
collicular projections to 46–7
cortical projections to 53
neurotransmitters 71–6
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 133–5
structural organization 21–2
octopus cells 12–13, 64, 66–7, 74–5, 131, 154–5, 417
olivocochlear bundle 42
olivocochlear system 10, 41–5
onset units 13
orbitofrontal cortex, emotional vocalization processing 494
otic placode 360
otoacoustic emissions 508–9, 545
otocyst 360
outer hair cells 9–10
pain, tinnitus 550–1
parabelt region 32, 34–5, 159–60, 396
parallel processing 185–6
pattern recognition 564
perceptual auditory filters 92
perceptual learning 386, 394–6, 441–2
periodicity 147–8
periolivary nuclei 18, 21
persistent inhibition 338–9
phantom limb 408, 544, 553
phase-locking 105–6
phonagnosia 524
physiological range 270
pitch 147–70
animal perception 150
auditory cortex 158–65
auditory nerve 151–3
cochlear nucleus 153–5
of complex sounds 147
existence region 148
fundamental frequency 147
harmonicity 147–8
Heschl’s gyrus 161–2
inferior colliculus 155–7
medial geniculate body 157–8
missing fundamental (residue) 148–9, 150
neural coding 151
perception 147–50
periodicity 147–8
planum temporale 162
processing models 150–1
resolved harmonics 149
subcortical processing 151–8
upper and lower limits 148
place code 106, 292–3
planum temporale
pitch processing 162
speech processing 198, 204, 205
plasticity 385–413
acetylcholine 401, 407, 465
auditory development 370, 373
auditory perceptual learning 386, 394–6, 441–2
auditory scene analysis 235
basal forebrain 401, 407
cochlear electrical stimulation 397–9
cochlear lesions 387–9
conditioning 386, 389–93, 448–50, 467, 481–7
cortical microstimulation 400
cortical reorganization 407–8
corticofugal system 260–1, 406
environmental enrichment 400
learning 386, 440–1, 442–50, 461
long-term potentiation/depression 404–5
mechanisms 401–8, 463–6
neuromodulators 401, 465–6
pathological consequences 408
receptive fields 403–4, 445–6, 451–4
sound localization 396–7
tinnitus 408
unmasking 404–6
positron emission tomography and tinnitus 543
posterior intralaminar nucleus 463, 465, 478, 480, 487, 489
posterior stream 207
precedence effect 331, 332–42
auditory cortex 337
auditory nerve 336
cochlear nucleus 336
discrimination suppression 334
echo threshold 334
in elevation 339–40
inferior colliculus 336–7, 340
localization dominance 334
persistent inhibition 338–9
spatial cue sensitivity 337–40
temporal confusion 334
prefrontal cortex, emotional vocalization processing 494
(p. 579) presbycusis
spectral coding 311
primary auditory cortex
auditory stream segregation 219–24
cognition 439–75
speech processing 198, 199–200
prosody, emotional 494–5
prostheses 559–71
psychoacoustics 509–11
pure tone audiogram 508
pure tone pitch 147
putamen 262
pyramidal cells 16–17, 32–4, 49–51, 53, 312, 313
range-sensitive neurons 178–9
rate-level function 97–9, 125, 128–9, 253, 313–14, 350, 395, 420, 445
rate-place code 106, 152, 154, 156, 193, 197–8
rate saturation 99
receptive fields 106–11, 115
development 371–2
plasticity 403–4, 445–6, 451–4
reference memory 455
residue pitch 148
resolved harmonics 149
rhythmic masking release 231–4
rostral cortex of inferior colliculus 28
sagulum 27, 46, 47
schizophrenia
auditory verbal hallucinations 532–3
emotional prosody processing 494–5
secondary auditory cortex, speech processing 200–2
seizures 533–4
sensitive period 359, 376
serotonergic inputs 70, 75, 77, 79, 533
shell region, neurotransmitters 69–71, 77
signal-to-noise ratio
binaural unmasking 349
speech processing 204
sinusoidal amplitude modulation stimulus 124–5
auditory cortex 139
auditory nerve 128–31
cochlear nuclei 131–3
coding 140
ethological stimuli 174–8
frequency spectrum 125
inferior colliculus 136–9
medial geniculate body 139
modulation transfer frequency 128
nuclei of lateral lemniscus 133–5
superior olivary complex 133–5
vector strength 125–8
sinusoidal frequency modulations 174–8
small cell cap 13, 54, 58, 566–7
small cells 13, 15, 17
songbirds 373–5, 376–7
song system 376
sound intensity
corticofugal modulation of 253
discrimination 100
sound level 97–100
sound localization
age-related changes 311, 424
binaural cues 182, 296–300
development 364, 370–3
dorsal cochlear nucleus 311–16
dorsal nucleus of lateral lemniscus 182–3
inferior colliculus 316–23
lateral superior olive 182
monoaural cues 302–6
plasticity 396–7
spectral cues 306–23
specific language impairment 532
spectral illusions 307–10
spectral processing 106–11, 306–23
spectrograms, cochlear 94–6
spectrotemporal representation 103–6
spectrotemporal response functions 109
ethological stimuli 187
rate and scale 111–13
speech audiometry 508
speech processing 191–212
animal models 191–8
cortical 113, 198–208
development 376, 564
disorders 511
emotional prosody 494–5
fundamental frequency 193–4
hemispheric asymmetries 206–7
intraparietal sulcus 204
planum temporale 198, 204, 205
primary auditory cortex 198, 199–200
rate and scale representation 113
secondary auditory cortex 200–2
spectral information 194
spectral shape 192–3
spectrotemporal representation 103–5
speech perception–production links 204–6
steady-state vowels 191–2
streaming 203–4, 207–8
superior temporal gyrus 200–2, 204, 206
superior temporal sulcus 202–3, 206
temporal fine structure 567–8
temporal information 194–6
time-varying sounds 194
voice onset time 196–7
spherical bushy cells 13, 66, 271–2, 276
stapedial reflex 509
steady-state vowels 191–2
stellate cells 14–15, 17, 22, 102–3, 131–3, 154–5, 193
stop consonants 194–7, 233
substance P 70, 76
superior colliculus
interaural-level difference-sensitive inputs 287–8
place coding 293
superior olivary complex
binaural unmasking 343
cochlear nuclei, projections to 45–6, 55
collicular projections to 23, 47–8
cortical projections to 53, 262
(p. 580)
interaural level disparities 280, 283–5, 288
interaural time disparities 272–9
neurotransmitters 65, 67, 69, 71–6, 79–80
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 133–5
structural organization 18–21
superior paraolivary nucleus
neurotransmitters 74
structural organization 21
superior temporal gyrus
speech processing in 200–2, 204, 206
superior temporal sulcus
speech processing in 202–3, 206
synchrony 126–8, 231–4
temporal firing patterns, corticofugal modulation of 250–1
temporal resolution
age-related changes 422–4
development 363–4
thalamic interneurons 255
thalamic reticular nucleus, corticofugal modulation 255–7
thalamus, auditory 48–51, 52, 245–7
collateral projections 55
cortical projections to 48–51, 52
cross-modality effects 459
functional anatomy and connections 245–7
interaural-time difference-sensitive inputs 279, 282
plasticity 387, 406
tinnitus 550, 551, 554
timbre perception 511
tinnitus 529, 541–58
acute 541
animals 546–8
auditory nerve 541–2
chronic 541
drug-induced 541, 542
electrophysiology 543–5
homeostatic plasticity 553–4
hypersynchrony 550–1
imaging 543
ion channels 551–2
multimodal effects 545
neural correlates 545–6
neural synchrony 548, 550
neuromodulators and neurotransmitters 552–3
otoacoustic emissions 545
perception 542–3
plasticity-related 408
tonotopic maps 542, 544–5, 549, 551
tonotopic maps (tonotopicity)
age-related plasticity 415–16
auditory cortex 32, 34, 49, 51–2, 159–61, 259
cochlear nucleus 12, 16, 17, 18, 48
development 366–7, 368–9
inferior colliculus 25, 27, 156
lateral superior olive 19
medial geniculate body 29, 31, 157, 246
medial superior olive 18
nuclei of lateral lemniscus 22
olivocochlear system 42, 44
superior olivary complex 45
tinnitus 542, 544–5, 549, 551
tuberculoventral system 16–17
tuning curve 92–3, 96–7, 100, 106–10, 129, 180, 195, 247, 254, 362, 398, 402–3, 406, 439, 446, 450, 551, 564
unilateral deafness, sound localization 306–7
unmasking, plasticity 404–6
unresolved harmonics 149
ventral cochlear nucleus
age-related changes 417, 419
augmented acoustic environments 426
neurotransmitters 64, 65–7, 70, 80
pitch processing 153–4
structural organization 13–15, 46, 54, 57
tone response maps 110
ventral nucleus of lateral lemniscus
collicular projections to 46
neurotransmitters 75, 76
sinusoidal amplitude modulation coding 135
structural organization 22
ventral nucleus of medial geniculate body
corticofugal modulation 247–9, 252, 255
plasticity 387, 463, 464
structural organization and connections 29–31, 34, 246
ventral nucleus of trapezoid body
age-related changes 428–9
collateral projections 55
collicular projections to 47
cortical projections to 53
neurotransmitters 65, 67, 70, 71, 74–5
structural organization 21
vertical cells 17
vision 1, 267
auditory response, influence on, in development 373
vocalizations 41, 59, 96–7, 100, 171, 174, 180, 187, 461
amygdala response 481
anterior stream 207
auditory filter bandwidths 96
cortical response specificity 114, 159
cross-species similarities 172–3
development 361, 373–7
emotional 205–6, 477–8, 481, 490–4
pitch and 147, 149, 159
premotor and motor responses 205
representation of 114
voice agnosia 524
voice onset time 196–7
Wernicke’s area 198–9
‘what’ pathway 185–6, 294–5, 567
‘where’ pathway 185–6, 294–5, 567
wide-band inhibitor 109
working memory 455