Abstract and Keywords
Cochlear implants (CIs) have been successful beyond wildest speculation. Efforts are now underway to improve the delivery of temporal and spectral fine structure to CIs, to provide localization of sounds in space via bilateral CIs, to combine electrical hearing and acoustic residual hearing. The chapter considers the tonotopic organization and the specialization of neural circuitry while designing electrodes and stimulation strategies. This article outlines the electrical stimulation of brain discussing the auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) that were developed to provide auditory sensations to patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2): a genetic disorder. The results show important implications for understanding the relative roles of the auditory periphery and the brain in hearing. Two approaches are discussed that are used to deliver auditory stimulation to the inferior colliculus in the midbrain: surface and penetrating electrodes. The interplay between clinical outcomes and neuroscience will help to refine our knowledge of auditory processing pathways and to design improved prostheses in the future.
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