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date: 17 July 2019

(p. xi) List of Figures

(p. xi) List of Figures

  1. Figure 1.1 Pentre Ifan, a megalithic monument in south‐west Wales. (Photo: Chris Scarre) 12

  2. Figure 1.2 Stonehenge in southern Britain. (Photo: Chris Scarre) 14

  3. Figure 1.3 Carn Meini, Preseli Hills, south‐west Wales. (Photo: Chris Scarre) 15

  4. Figure 1.4 The Le Ménec alignments at Carnac in southern Brittany. (Photo: Chris Scarre) 16

  5. Figure 2.1 The mountain associated Potala palace in Lhasa. (Photo: Gunnar Haaland) 29

  6. Figure 2.2 Sacred hilltops on a range as seen from Argal village, western Nepal. (Photo by kind permission of Man Badur Khattri) 30

  7. Figure 2.3 The iron smelter with his furnace outside the village of Oska Dencha, south‐west Ethiopia. (Photo: Randi Haaland) 31

  8. Figure 3.1 ‘Baptism of the Pharaoh’ where ablutions of ankh signs were poured, Karnak, Egypt. (Photo: Terje Oestigaard) 40

  9. Figure 3.2 Nilometer at Elephantine, Aswan, Egypt. (Photo: Terje Oestigaard) 43

  10. Figure 3.3 The sun above the King's Valley unites with the water in the Nile, Luxor, Egypt. (Photo: Terje Oestigaard) 47

  11. Figure 4.1 The rectangular platform used for Hindu cremations. From the cremation and temple site at Pashupatinath, Nepal. (Photo: Anders Kaliff) 54

  12. Figure 4.2 Interpretation of how a cremation may have been performed during the Bronze Age in southern Scandinavia. (Illustration: Richard Holmgren, ARCDOC) 55

  13. Figure 6.1 Manikarnika Ghat in Varanasi by the River Ganges, India. (Photo: Terje Oestigaard) 79

  14. Figure 6.2 The Aztec city Teotihuacán seen from the Moon Pyramid, Mexico. (Photo: Rune Oestigaard) 82

  15. Figure 6.3 Khufu's pyramid at Giza, Egypt. (Photo: Terje Oestigaard) 84

  16. Figure 9.1 A Shoort participating in the Hain initiation ritual of the Selk'nam of Patagonia. (Redrawn photo taken by Gusinde 1931, re‐published by Prieto and Cárdenas 1997, fig. 144) 119

  17. Figure 9.2 View of the front part of one of the large T‐shaped stone pillars in a ritual building at Early Neolithic Göbekli Tepe. (Redrawn from Schmidt, 2006, Abb. 92) 125

  18. (p. xii) Figure 11.1 Ancestral shrine, Goldaan House, Bonchiog, Tongo Hills, Ghana, November 2008. (Photo: T. Insoll) 157

  19. Figure 11.2 Cow sacrifice, Yelwom shrine, Tamboog, Tongo Hills, Ghana, March 2008. (Photo: T. Insoll) 158

  20. Figure 11.3 Blood, the residue of a cow sacrifice, Tonna'ab Yaane shrine, Tongo Hills, Ghana, August 2006. (Photo: T. Insoll) 159

  21. Figure 14.1 Clay face with inset jade eyes from the Goddess Temple, Niuheliang, China. (Photo: Guo Dashun) 199

  22. Figure 14.2 The outline of the Goddess Temple, Niuheliang, China. (Photo: Guo Dashan) 200

  23. Figure 14.3 Example of Silla crown with shaman symbols, Kyongju, South Korea. (Encyclopaedia of Korean Art, used with permission) 202

  24. Figure 15.1 Plan of the main Room A and of the adjacent rooms at the ‘Mycenaean’ sanctuary of Agios Konstantinos, Methana, Greece. (Photo: Y. Hamilakis) 215

  25. Figure 15.2 Room A at the sanctuary of Agios Konstantinos, Methana, Greece. (Photo: Y. Hamilakis) 216

  26. Figure 15.3 Animal bones from Room A at the sanctuary of Agios Konstantinos, Methana, Greece. (Photo: Kerry Harris) 217

  27. Figure 15.4 A postal stamp issued by the Greek Postal Service in 1992, depicting Manolis Andronikos amongst some of his finds from Vergina, Greek Macedonia. (Courtesy of ELTA, the Greek Postal Service) 219

  28. Figure 16.1 Triangle of signification through which syncretistic meanings are generated. 236

  29. Figure 17.1 Initially soft, plastic, and moist, clay is durably transformed into a hard and resonant material through the action of fire. (© O. Gosselain) 248

  30. Figure 17.2 The ‘mystic mill’ chapter, Cathedral of Vezelay (France). (Free of copyright) 250

  31. Figure 18.1 A summary of van Gennep's tripartite Rites de Passage model (1960). 262

  32. Figure 18.2 The ritual process and rites of passage in the context of Turner's model of ‘social dramas’. (After Turner 1986: 293; cf. Schechner 1994, fig. 6; with additional details from Figure 18.1) 263

  33. Figure 18.3 Thresholds, transitions, and ‘journeys’ (real and metaphorical) in the rites of passage process. 272

  34. Figure 18.4 The Late Neolithic ceremonial complex at Avebury, Wiltshire, UK. (Photo: P. Garwood) 274

  35. Figure 20.1 Barrier Canyon style rock paintings (in red), Head of Sinbad site, Utah, USA. (Photo: D. S. Whitley) 310

  36. Figure 20.2 The Trail of Dreams, Colorado Desert region, California, USA. (Photo: D. S. Whitley) 313

  37. (p. xiii) Figure 20.3 Rock engravings, Willow Springs, Arizona, USA. (Photo: D. S. Whitley) 317

  38. Figure 21.1 Hominin cranial capacities by taxa and major increases in levels of intentionality according to Dunbar (2003). 333

  39. Figure 21.2 The Berekhat Ram figurine. (Collection Paul Bahn, with permission) 334

  40. Figure 22.1 The ‘Prince’ burial of Arene Candide. (Photo: P. Bahn) 345

  41. Figure 22.2 A cast of the Cap Blanc skeleton in front of the sculpted frieze. (Photo: P. Bahn) 347

  42. Figure 22.3 A bear tooth and flints in a niche in the ‘Lioness Chapel’, Cave of Les Trois Frères. (Photo: R. Bégouën) 353

  43. Figure 24.1 The façade of the West Kennet long barrow, north Wiltshire. (Photo: Julian Thomas) 372

  44. Figure 24.2 Megalithic art at Newgrange, Ireland. (Photo: Julian Thomas) 377

  45. Figure 24.3 Durrington Walls, Wiltshire: location of excavations 2004–7. (Illustration: Mark Dover for Stonehenge Riverside Project) 378

  46. Figure 24.4 Reconstruction of the Southern Circle at Durrington Walls, constructed for a Time Team TV programme. (Photo: Julian Thomas) 382

  47. Figure 24.5 The Western Circles at Durrington Walls. (Reconstruction image by Aaron Watson) 383

  48. Figure 25.1 The Trundholm chariot. (©Juraj Lipták) 388

  49. Figure 25.2 Rock art images of ships at Kasen Lövåsen, Bohuslän, southern Sweden. (After Coles 2006, figs. 12 and 13) 392

  50. Figure 25.3 Plan of the longhouse at Velserbroek P‐63, Noord‐Holland, Netherlands. (After Therkorn 2007, fig. 12.9) 397

  51. Figure 26.1 The Battersea Shield discovered in the River Thames near Battersea. (© Trustees of the British Museum) 412

  52. Figure 26.2 Nest of torques, known as Hoard L, discovered at Snettisham, Norfolk in 1990. (© Trustees of the British Museum) 413

  53. Figure 26.3 Bucket escutcheon, figure with headdress, from a burial at Aylesford, Kent. (© Trustees of the British Museum) 414

  54. Figure 27.1 Dogon masked dancers, Bandiagara Escarpment, Mali, January 2001. (Photo: T. Insoll) 430

  55. Figure 27.2 Iron Age burial, Ngono, Uganda. (Photo: R. MacLean) 433

  56. Figure 27.3 Boarbii, Goldaana House, Bonchiog, Tongo Hills, Ghana, November 2008. (Photo: T. Insoll) 435

  57. Figure 28.1 Schematic drawing on a ceramic bowl from Banpo, Shaanxi province. Fifth millennium bc. (After Goepper 1992: 168, fig. 1:1) 443

  58. (p. xiv) Figure 28.2 Plan of tomb 45 from Xishuipo, Puyang, Henan province, mid‐fifth millenium bc. (After Goepper 1992: 19, fig. 2a) 444

  59. Figure 28.3 Jade cong, height 49.5 cm, from southern China, Liangzhu culture, around 2500 bc. (The British Museum, Asia OA 1937.4‐16.188) 446

  60. Figure 28.4 Zun, late Shang period, twelfth–eleventh century bc, height 32.2 cm. (Museum Rietberg Zürich) 452

  61. Figure 30.1 A mortuary vessel from a Bronze Age infant's grave from Ban Non Wat, Northeast Thailand, c.1000 bc. 472

  62. Figure 30.2 Angkor Wat was the temple‐mausoleum of King Suryavarman II (r. ad 1113–1150). 479

  63. Figure 30.3 Banteay Chmar, the spectacular ritual complex of King Jayavarman VII (r. ce 1181–1219). 480

  64. Figure 31.1 The sacred Djungan mountain of Ngarrabullgan, northern Australia. (Photo: Bruno David) 489

  65. Figure 31.2 Dugong bone mound KN17, Koey Ngurtai, Torres Strait. (Photo: Bruno David) 494

  66. Figure 31.3 The Himaiyu clan (Rumu) ossuary of Rupo, Papua New Guinea. (Photo: Bruno David) 497

  67. Figure 32.1 Standing stones and conch shell trumpets marking the burial site of Chief Roy Mata on the taboo island of Retoka (Hat Island), Vanuatu. (Photo: Paul Rainbird) 509

  68. Figure 32.2 The restored Hale O Lono Heiau at Waimea Falls Park, Oahu, Hawai‘i. (Photo: Paul Rainbird) 511

  69. Figure 32.3 Sculpted hillside of monumental terraces topped by a ‘crown’ feature, Imelik State, Palau. (Photo: Paul Rainbird) 513

  70. Figure 33.1 The art of the earliest Antilleans: Casimiroid and Ortoiroid. ((a) Drawing: Carlos Ayes, in Ayes 1991: Illustación 2; (b) Rouse 1992: fig. 17f, drawing: Peter Roe; (c) Rouse 1992: figs. 17b, 17g, drawing: Peter Roe; (d) Drawing: Carlos Ayes, in Ayes 1990: Illustación 2) 521

  71. Figure 33.2 Androcentric gestation and portable wombs in Antillean art and religion. ((a)–(h) Drawing: Peter Roe; (i) Versteeg and Schinkel 1992: fig. 56; (j) Photo: Dr George P. Mentore; (k)–(l) Drawing: Peter Roe) 522

  72. Figure 33.3 The evolution of the three‐pointer from Saladoid miniature art of personal presentation to Chican Ostionoid art of publicpower. (Drawings: Peter Roe) 529

  73. Figure 35.1 Pyramid‐temple with human sacrifice, from Fray Bernardino de Sahagún. (Drawing by Rodolfo Avila, reproduced with permission from Olivier 2003: 285) 558

  74. Figure 35.2 Row of small platforms at Teopanzolco. (Photo: Michael E. Smith) 559

  75. (p. xv) Figure 35.3 Large cult objects. A: Smith 2008: 114; B: Seler 1990–8: III, 100; C: Seler 1990–8: II, 169; D: Noguera 1958: pl. 26. E: Seler 1990–8: II, 157. 560

  76. Figure 35.4 Small cult objects. A: Seler 1990–8: II, 160; B: Kollmann 1895: 52; C: Seler 1990–8: III, 66; D: Seler 1990–8: IV, 166; E: Seler 1990–8: II, 9.165; F: Smith in preparation. 560

  77. Figure 37.1 Roll out drawing from a Moche vessel of the Presentation Theme or Sacrifice Ceremony. (Illustration: Donna McClelland, by permission of her estate) 586

  78. Figure 37.2 A stirrup spout vessel depicting a fanged anthropomorphic deity showing the general features of a Moche high god. (© Dumbarton Oaks, Pre‐Columbian Collection, Washington, DC, used with permission) 590

  79. Figure 37.3 Artistic rendering of how the Huaca de La Luna may have appeared at the height of its development, c. ad500–700. (Courtesy of the Huaca de la Luna Archaeological Project) 594

  80. Figure 37.4 The complex theme frieze as found at Huaca Cao Viejo. (Courtesy of the El Brujo Archaeological Project, Fundación Wiese, Lima) 596

  81. Figure 38.1 Katsina images on pottery and rock art, fourteenth century. (Drawing: Kelley Hays‐Gilpin) 603

  82. Figure 38.2 White Mound Black‐on‐white bowl fragment from NA8939, a pithouse village site near Houck, Arizona. (Photo: Kelley Hays‐Gilpin) 605

  83. Figure 38.3 Kiva floor plan and profile. (Drawing: Kelley Hays‐Gilpin) 607

  84. Figure 39.1 Sheet copper ‘Tukabatchee plate’, a ceremonial artefact in the form of an exaggerated axe blade. (Photo: V. J. Knight) 626

  85. Figure 39.2 Moundville, a large Mississippian ceremonial centre featuring platform mounds arranged around a central plaza. (Photo: V. J. Knight) 629

  86. Figure 39.3 Paired male and female ancestor shrine figures, Etowah site, northern Georgia. (Photo: David H. Dye) 631

  87. Figure 40.1 Fragmentary antler spoon‐handle from the Pender Canal site, Coast Salish region, dating to 2000 bc. (Photo: Roy Carlson) 642

  88. Figure 40.2 Bone point from a leister incised with the image of a great blue heron, c.ad 1, Whalen Farm site, Coast Salish region. (Photo Roy Carlson) 643

  89. Figure 40.3 Spoon made of antler, dating to 2000 bc from the Pender Canal site. (Photo: Roy Carlson) 644

  90. Figure 40.4 Image of a masked dancer with a bird rattle from the Marpole site dating c.ad 1. (Photo: Roy Carlson) 646

  91. (p. xvi) Figure 40.5 Small antler plaque with incised images of two bird masks back to back from southern Vancouver island dating to ad 1442. (Photo: Roy Carlson) 651

  92. Figure 41.1 Regional map of the Far Northeast with places referred to in the text. 657

  93. Figure 41.2 Distribution of Early and Middle period sites of the Moorehead Burial tradition. 662

  94. Figure 41.3 Artefacts of the Early, Middle, and Late Moorehead burial tradition. (Courtesy of University or Maine [a and d]; Godfrey Collection [b and c]; Robert S. Peabody Museum, Andover [e–i]; Maine State Museum [j]) 664

  95. Figure 41.4 Petroglyph showing bird‐like shaman figure and spirit helpers attributed to the Shaking Tent ceremony. (From Hedden 1983, Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin) 669

  96. Figure 44.1 Drawing of upper surface of bronze liver from Piacenza, third–second century bc. (After van der Meer 1987) 713

  97. Figure 44.2 View of present remains of Belvedere temple, Orvieto, fifth century bc. (Photo: T. Rasmussen) 716

  98. Figure 44.3 Plan of Portonaccio sanctuary, Veii, end of sixth century bc. (After Colonna 1985) 717

  99. Figure 45.1 (i) Temple of Hathor at Dendera. (Photo: Anna Stevens); (ii) Hypothetical reconstruction of the Early Dynastic landscape at the site of Coptos. (Reproduced courtesy of Barry Kemp) 724

  100. Figure 45.2 A small sample of ritual objects, sourced from New Kingdom sites. (Reproduced courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society, the National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden, Barry Kemp, and Andy Boyce) 726

  101. Figure 45.3 Plan of the Great Aten Temple at Amarna, a scene from the Amarna tomb of the official Meryra, a stela donated at the tomb of the official Any, and small faience plaques in the shape of bovine heads. (Reproduced courtesy of the Egypt Exploration Society, Barry Kemp, and Andy Boyce) 729

  102. Figure 45.4 The shrine for Meryka at Askut. (Reproduced courtesy of Stuart Tyson Smith) 733

  103. Figure 46.1 The Western Roman empire, showing major sites mentioned in the text. (Drawing: Christina Unwin) 746

  104. Figure 46.2 The centre of emperor-worship at Tarraco, Tarragona, Spain. (Drawing: Christina Unwin) 751

  105. Figure 46.3 The Maison Carée in Nimes, France, a classical temple. (Photo: Richard Hingley) 754

  106. (p. xvii) Figure 47.1 Map of Malta showing main temple and burial sites, with plans of typical ‘temples’ (Ġgantija and Mnajdra) and reconstruction of the Brochtorff‐Xagħra Circle funerary site. (Reconstruction: Steven Ashley, Libby Mulqueeney, and Caroline Malone) 759

  107. Figure 47.2 Examples of liturgical furniture from temples and funerary sites. (Drawings: Jason Gibbon, Katherine Cooper, and Steven Ashley) 765

  108. Figure 47.3 The cosmology of prehistoric Malta. 769

  109. Figure 48.1 Cylinder seal, probably from Sippar, c.2300 bc. (© Trustees of the British Museum) 777

  110. Figure 48.2 Sixty‐cm‐high statue of a bull, from Tell al‐‘Ubaid, c.2500 bc. (© Trustees of the British Museum) 782

  111. Figure 48.3 Votive statue from Tello (ancient Girsu), c.2500 bc. (© Trustees of the British Museum) 783

  112. Figure 49.1 Map of the Near East with prehistoric sites mentioned in Chapter 49. 796

  113. Figure 49.2 Depiction of an animal (boar, aurochs, or lion?) in profile made from human and gazelle bones found at the PPNB burial site Kfar HaHoresh in Israel. (Photo: Nigel Goring Morris) 800

  114. Figure 49.3 Cache of plastered skulls which founded the ‘late burial ground’ at PPNB Tell Aswad in Syria. (After Stordeur and Khawam 2007; photo: L. Dugué) 803

  115. Figure 50.1 The ziggurat of Choga Zanbil. (Photo: D. T. Potts) 816

  116. Figure 50.2 The investiture of Ardashir I (c.ad 240), left, by Ahura Mazda, right, at Naqsh‐e Rustam. (Photo: D.T. Potts) 820

  117. Figure 51.1 Map of Ancient Anatolia. 827

  118. Figure 51.2 Plan of the Skull Building, Çayönü Tepesi. (After Schirmer 1990) 831

  119. Figure 52.1 The picture stone from Ardre on Gotland, dated to about ad 800. (After Andrén 1993, fig. 5) 850

  120. Figure 52.2 Plan of the ring‐fort at Ismantorp on Öland, which was used temporarily between ad 200–650. (After Andrén 2006, fig. 1) 852

  121. Figure 54.1 Map of the Baltic countries showing linguistic areas, Lithuanian Grand Duchy, Territory of Teutonic Order, Bishoprics and contemporary borders. 878

  122. Figure 54.2 Holy hill of Tõrma in north Estonia. (Photo: Tõnno Jonuks) 886

  123. Figure 55.1 Migdôl‐style temples during the Middle and Late Bronze Ages. (Drawing: Aaron G. Burke) 899

  124. Figure 55.2 Arad temple, Late Iron Age. (Photo by Aaron G. Burke) 901

  125. Figure 55.3 Plan of the Royal tomb of Qatna. (After Pfälzner 2007: fig. 33, p. 57) 902

  126. (p. xviii) Figure 57.1 Sealing from Indus stamp‐seal showing the so‐called ‘Proto Śiva’ figure with horned headdress. (Photo: K. Morrison) 924

  127. Figure 57.2 Seventh‐century Durga temple at Aihole, Karnataka. (Photo: K. Morrison) 927

  128. Figure 57.3 Sixteenth‐century Vijayanagara temple complex dedicated to Tiruvengalanatha, a form of Vishnu. (Photo: K. Morrison) 928

  129. Figure 57.4 Chola king as devotee, Tiruchirapalli. Just rule was closely linked to patronage of religious institutions such as Hindu temples. (Photo: K. Morrison) 929

  130. Figure 57.5 Fifteenth- or sixteenth‐century Naga carved on boulder outcrops in rural area near the abandoned imperial city of Vijayanagara, in southern India. (Photo: K. Morrison) 930

  131. Figure 58.1 The great stupa of the Jetavana monastery in the ancient Sri Lankan city of Anuradhapura. (Photo: R. Coningham) 938

  132. Figure 58.2 The monastic residence, or vihara, at Mohra Moradu in the Taxila Valley of Pakistan was built between the fourth and fifth centuries ad. (Photo: R. Coningham) 939

  133. Figure 59.1 The early medieval church of St Vincenç d'Obiols, Catalonia, Spain. (Photo: Sam Turner) 951

  134. Figure 59.2 The church at Çanli Kilise, Turkey (Photo: Gertrude Bell, 1907. © Newcastle University) 953

  135. Figure 59.3 Ruined post‐medieval house in the village of Rachi, Naxos, Greece. (Photo: Sam Turner) 956

  136. Figure 60.1 Sixteenth‐century ceramic tile in Rustem Pasha Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey depicting the Ka’ba in Mecca—the holiest shrine in Islam. (Photo: A. Petersen) 971

  137. Figure 60.2 Pilgrims progress around the fourteenth‐century tomb of Najm al‐Din Kubra at the ancient city of Kunya Urgench south of the Aral Sea in northern Turkmenistan. (Photo: A. Petersen) 976

  138. Figure 61.1 Prehistoric rock carvings from Siberia: (1) Oglakhty, Middle Yenisei River, (2) Middle Yenisei River, (3) Mokhsogolokh‐Khaja, Middle Lena River. (After Devlet 2001: 47) 984

  139. Figure 61.2 Photograph of an Altai shaman, early 1920s. (After Nioradze 1925: 88) 985

  140. Figure 61.3 Birka chamber grave Bj.660, mid‐tenth century ad. (Reconstruction: Þórhallur Þráinsson, after Price 2002: 128–31) 996

  141. Figure 62.1 Crocodile figurine from excavations at Yikpabongo, Koma Land, January 2007. (Courtesy of B. W. Kankpeyeng) 1013

  142. Figure 63.1 Stonehenge summer solstice 2001. Partying at (and on) the stones. (Photo: J. Blain) 1023

  143. (p. xix) Figure 64.1 Seahenge. (Image provided by Chris Collyer. Reproduced with permission) 1034

  144. Figure 64.2 The St Michael ley line (cutting through Avebury and Glastonbury). 1036

  145. Figure 64.3 Fantoft stave church, Norway. (Photo: Svein‐Magne Tunli. Reproduced with permission) 1039

  146. Figure 65.1 Tallensi ancestor shrine, Tongo Hills, Northern Ghana. (Photo: T. Insoll) 1045

  147. Figure 65.2 Venerated Shi'a Saint's shrine, Shaikh Nasser shrine, Al‐Helah, Bahrain. (Photo: T. Insoll) 1048

  148. Figure 65.3 Ancestor‐related ritual acts in the Congo. (After Hochegger 1981: 93) 1050

  149. Figure 66.1 Leader with an anvil and ceremonial axe from a tenth‐century‐ad early Kisalian burial, Kamilamba, DR Congo. (Photo: P. de Maret) 1064