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date: 23 October 2019

(p. 1068) (p. 1069) Index

(p. 1068) (p. 1069) Index

Abeles, M.1060
Abercrombie, N.169
Abiodun, R.1006
Aboriginal Australia484–92, 1008
ancestral connections in490–1
art, spirits and ancestors in487–8
cosmology483, 486, 487–8, 490, 491
Dreamtime/Dreaming12, 27, 321, 485–8, 490, 1010
funerary rites91
sacred places488–9
study of484–5
the ocean and491
totemic landscapes489–90 see also rock art
Abraham, biblical figure916, 970
Acheulian338
Middle334
Adam, biblical figure108, 136
Adam of Bremen44, 160, 846
Adams, Robert974
Aegean
Bronze Age695, 699
Early Bronze Age685, 686–7, 691
Late Bronze Age683, 684, 688–91, 704
Middle Bronze Age691, 704
recognising ritual in prehistoric684–5
Aegean prehistoric religions681, 691–2
Indo-European replacement theories and682–3
matriarchy, Great Earth Mother Goddess and682
scholarship682–4 see also Cyclades, the; Minoan
Æsc (Anglo-Saxon deity)863
Æsir
gods848
religion851
‘affordances’25, 26, 28, 252
Africa
iron-smelting/blacksmithing in246–7, 253–4, 255, 265, 431–2, 1063
agency
individual175–6
supernatural330–1 see also religion
Agni (Vedic deity)51, 53–4, 57, 59
agnicayana53, 56, 57
Ahura Mazda (Indo-Iranian deity)812–13, 814, 816, 817, 820
Aiello, L. C.333
Aita (Etruscan deity)718
Aitteon, Gov. John667
Akerman, Kim490–1, 498
Akhenaten, Egyptian king728
al-Baghdadi, ’Abd al-Latif970
Alcock, Susan700, 703
Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury864, 865
Aldhouse-Green, M.995
Aldhouse-Green, S.995
Alexander Jannaeus, King914
Alexander the Great814, 909
Algonquian (North America)
traditions/languages/tribes656, 658, 666, 668, 670, 671, 1007
al-’Idrissi, Abu Jafar970
alloforms53, 58
Alt, K. W.365
altered states of consciousness (ASC)313, 320, 630–1, 835, 990
shamans/shamanism and308, 310–11, 312, 321, 350, 523, 984, 989–91
three-stage model427 see also shamanic state of consciousness
Althusser, Louis168–9, 172–3
(p. 1070) Alva, Walter587
al-Walid, Caliph972
Amazonian–Guianan mythology519, 524
Ambibulus, Marcus914
ambiguity233
America
Native309, 310–13, 314–16, 317, 318 see also individual regions and peoples
American Folklore Society63
Ammonites, the896, 900
Amorite
burial practices900–2
deities899
dynasties898
ritual and religion896, 897, 900
royal cult900–1
Amorites, the895
Anahita (Old Persian deity)814, 817, 818
An/Anu (Mesopotamian deity)778
Anatolia798, 800, 802
Çatalhöyük826, 828–9, 993, 1040
Çayönü828, 836
cranial modification and body use in836–7
EPPNB826, 834
Halaf period826
Hassuna period826
human–animal relationships in833, 835
Kurban Höyük836
LPPNB826
MPPNB826, 834
Neolithic826, 828, 829
Nevali Çori826, 828
Pınarbaşı826
PPNA826, 830, 834
PPNC826, 830
Pottery Neolithic826, 833
Pre-Pottery Neolithic826
Samarra period826
studying ritual and religion in827–30, 837 see also Çayönü Tepesi; Domuztepe; Göbekli Tepe
ancestor
veneration1043–4, 1047–8, 1055
worship450, 451, 473, 719, 1043, 1047 see also South-east Asia
ancestor cults433, 1043–4, 1047
archaeology of ancestors and1048–54, 1055
ancestors
animals and1049
archaeology and1046–7
materiality/immateriality and place of1048–52, 1053–4
Anderson, Benedict286
Andersson, M.1011
Andronikos, Manolis218–20
Anglo-Saxon
gods863, 865–6
Anglo-Saxon England153, 160, 269, 867
images and iconography in868–9
priests and witches in871–2
sanctuaries/shrines and furnished burials in870–1
votive offerings in870
Angola428, 429
aniconism904, 908
animal sacrifice154–61
cremations and153, 268–9
animals
divine/sacred731
animism11, 365–6, 466, 647, 1043
animistic concepts, archaeology and1006–7
defining1005–6
new1020
NWC639
shamanism and994, 995
totemism and1004, 1006, 1008, 1009, 1014 see also Inca/Andean religion
Annapolis project173
Anquandah, J.1012–13
(p. 1071) anthropomorphism11 see also Inca/Andean religion
Antigonus, Mattathias913
Antilles520, 521, 522, 531, 532, 533
Greater519, 524, 531, 534
Lesser523, 526, 534
Antiochus III the Great, King909
antiquarianism64–5, 67, 72
Any, Egyptian official729, 730
Apalachee, the (North America)624, 625
Aphrodite (Greek deity)814
Aplu (Etruscan deity)715–716
Apollo (Greek deity)393, 814
Apter, Andrew234
Aramaeans, the896, 900
Aranyakas925
archaeologies of the senses208–11
case studies212–20
archaeology1–2, 90, 115, 483
feminist174–5, 196–7, 205
funerary93–6
nature of80–1, 209
post-processual174, 175, 515, 788
processual195, 197, 375–6, 699, 788, 975
public71–2
Western/modernist209–10 see also individual entries
archaeology of contemporary conflict
development/study/purpose of285–7 see also forensic archaeology; humanitarianism
archaeo-mythology882
Ardashir I, Sasanian king820
Ardashir II, Sasanian king820
Argentina291, 295
Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team (EAAF)285, 290, 295
Arikara, the (North America)67
Aritimi (Etruscan deity)715
Arnold, B.198
Arrom, J. J.528
Artaxerxes II, Persian king814, 818
Artemis (Greek deity)814, 817
Artumes (Etruscan deity)717
Arunta, the (Australia)1009
Asad, Talal288, 373
Asatru/Asatruarfelagid1037–8
ascetics143
Ash, Jeremy492
Asherah (Canaanite deity)903, 904
Ashur (Assyrian deity)778
Asklepios (Greek deity)717
Askut732
Meryka shrine at732, 733, 737
Asoka, Mauryan ruler474, 936–7, 938
Asombang, R. N.436
Assurbanipal, Assyrian king819
Assyria778
Assyriology786–7
Astarte, love-goddess715, 716
Astarte/Anat (Amorite/Canaanite deity)899, 903, 904
Atahualpa, Inca575
atassas625
Athena (Greek deity)814, 817, 908
Atran, S.331
Aubrey, John1033
Augustus, Roman emperor63, 270, 710, 745, 748
worship of750–1
Australia993
archaeology in483, 490, 491, 496, 498
Kimberley region490
Lake Mungo345, 484
Ngarrabullgan483, 488–9
Ngilipitji490–1
Tasmania491
Australopithecine cobble426
Australopithecus330, 332, 333, 338, 340
afarensis336
Avebury18, 33, 273–4, 1022, 1025, 1034, 1035, 1040
Henge33, 271, 274
St Michael ley line1036
Avery, D. H.254
Avesta, the812, 814, 821
Ay, Egyptian pharaoh84
Aztecs, the544, 546, 549–50
ceramics561–2, 564
ceremonies564–7
definition557
deities563–4
(p. 1072) domestic ritual566–7
music and562
religion and ritual556–7, 567
stone sculpture561, 563
temples, shrines and offerings557–61
use of fire/New Fire ceremony561, 566 see also human sacrifice; sacrifice
Ba‘al (Canaanite deity)899, 900, 903–4
Ba‘al-Hadad (Amorite deity)899
Babel–Bibel crisis787
Babylon780, 818, 908
Marduk temple in779
New Year Festival780, 781, 785 see also pan-Babylonianism
Babylonian
Creation Epic776, 778, 785
Epic of Gilgamesh776, 785–6
Map of World785
Bachelard, Gaston39, 252
Bachofen, Johann Jakob682, 683
Baghat, ’Ali969
Baik, Chanlatte524
Bailey, D. W.685
Baird, R.234
Baktaman, the (PNG)33, 1049, 1051, 1055
Baldur (Norse deity)1038
Balfet, Hélène245
Balibar, E.169
Balkans, the295
Neolithic252
ball parks (bateys)519, 530, 531, 533
Ballard, Chris495, 498
Baltic region
folklore880, 882, 883–4
Late Bronze Age881
religious sites/holy places in884–6
Stone Age880, 881, 887
studying religions of877–84, 887–8
Viking Age884, 886
Bandaranayake, S. D.941
Banzarov, D.987
Barham, L.426
Bari, the (Sudan)44
Barley, N.247
Barnes, Gina463, 465
Barrett, John371
Barringer, Judith701
Barth, F.25, 28, 33, 34, 1049, 1051, 1055
Basseri, the (Iran/Iraq)28
Batammaliba, the (western Africa)138
Bateson, G.25
Batswapong, the (Botswana)69
Battersea Shield411–12
Battuta, Ibn973
Beard, M.701
Beattie, J. H. M.155
Bede, the Venerable863, 864–5, 866, 870
Bednarik, R. G.426
Bedouin
Negev975
Beek, W. van432
Belgium338, 363, 846, 1047
Belize548
Bell, C.3, 116, 117, 123, 128
Bell, Gertrude952, 953, 969
Beltane festival59
Benavides, G.234
Bendall, L. M.691
Bender, B.68
Bendix, R.65
Benson, Elizabeth591
Beowulf847
Bérard, C.
A City of Images700
Berchem, Max Van969
Berdan, F. F.561
Berezkin, Yuri591
Bergson, H.211
Bernice I (wife of Ptolemy I)909–10
Bernice II (wife of Ptolemy III Euergetes)910
Berossus, Babylonian astronomer818
Bes (Egyptian deity)726, 735
Betanzos, Juan de572
Bhadravarman, King476
Bible, the786–7
New Testament108
Old Testament107–8, 109 see also Hebrew Bible
Bickler, Simon507
Binford, L. R.171, 375, 482
Bird-David, B.466, 573
(p. 1073) Bird-David, N.1005, 1006, 1020
Bishop Museum505
Blain, J.1018, 1019, 1021, 1024, 1025
Blair, J.871
Bliujienė, Audrone884
Bloch, M.147, 262, 267, 278, 291, 377
Boas, F.641
bodily
boundaries143–4, 145
contact between mortal and divine145
practice traditions142–3
purity143–4
body
and soul134–6
personhood and the living140 see also death; fire; landscape; religion
bodylore994–5
bogs27, 46, 389–90, 410
Boisselier, J.475
Boivin, N.2
Bolger, Diane201
Bonnet, C.152, 432
Bonogofsky, M.804
Borden, C. E.648
Borić, D.364, 366
Bossio, Antonio952
Bottéro, Jean789, 790
Boulay, Juliet du955
Bourdieu, P.122, 127, 179, 181, 251
Bourdillon, M. F. C.151
Bourget, Steve595
Bowie, F.116
Bowler, J. M.484
Boyer, P.95, 97, 121, 127
Bradley, John491, 498
Bradley, R.123, 153, 379, 995
Brady, Liam493
Brahma (Hindu deity)923
Brahmanas925
bread250–1
Breuil, Henri349
Brinker, Helmut444
Brochtorff-Xagħra Circle759, 760, 765, 769, 770
nature of761–2, 766–7
Brocktorff, C. F. de760
Brokpa, the (Tibet)29
Brontoscopic Calendar711, 717
Bronze Age19, 56, 321, 389, 408, 411, 864
Britain1025
China448
cosmology/religious beliefs in European387, 391–3
Early52, 55, 145, 231
elites394–5, 398
Europe95, 153, 276
Iran821
Late56, 58, 216, 391–2, 393, 396, 398, 415, 679
Mediterranean758, 770–1
metalwork/metalworking388, 389, 392, 394, 398
ritual activities in European395–6, 398
ritual and religion387–8, 398–9
ritual practitioners in European393–4
role of water in rituals/religion41
Scandinavia54–5, 231, 271, 853, 855, 856, 993
South-east Asia470, 471–2
Brookes, S. O.625
Brown, Wendy297
Brück, J.125, 266, 379–80, 415
Brumfiel, E. M.152
Buckland, William1025
Buddha142, 478, 926
Gautama934
Kanakamuni937
lifetime of the935–7
Buddhism135, 136, 140, 142, 372, 815, 927
Hinduism and922, 925–6
in China141, 442
in Japan457, 465–6
in South-east Asia474, 475–6, 478–9, 480
origins and development of934–5
Buddhist
First Council936
Fourth Council937
landscapes/monasteries940–4
monuments937–40
Pali canon936, 937
scholarship934–5
Temporalities Ordinance942
Third Council936
(p. 1074) Buden, Stephanie204
Bulsa, the (Ghana)1011, 1012–13
burial359, 1047
Aegean686–7
Anatolian830, 832–3
Aztec559
British409–10
Caribbean526
Christian951
Etruscan717–18
gender, religion and197–8
history/development of94–5, 338–9
Iranian815
Iron Age409–10, 433
Japanese460
Jewish912–13
Levantine795, 797, 798, 799, 802–3, 900–3
Lower/Middle/Upper Palaeolithic337–9, 344–8
Mesoamerican198, 544, 545, 547–8
mirror410, 415
NWC640, 647, 648, 650
Pacific Islands507, 508–9, 512
Pueblo609, 611
Scandinavian855
secondary433, 547, 832–3
South-east Asian470–3 see also individual entries
Burke, H.174
Burkert, Walter702, 703–4
Burkina Faso428, 431, 434, 1061
Burl, A.1009, 1047
Busby, C.136
Butrimas, A.881
Byzantine churches212–13, 949
Byzantium949, 950
Caesar, Julius406, 720, 750
camac concept574–5, 576
Cambodia473
Angkor Kingdom476–80
Angkor Thom479, 939
Angkor Wat478–9
Bakong temple477
Chenla states in475–6
Prasat Thom temple477–8
Preah Ko temple476
Cambridge, University of968
Cameroon247, 253, 254, 433, 436
Campbell, Matthew511, 514
Canaanite
burial practices901, 903
deities899–900, 903–4
ritual and religion895–6, 897
Capella, Martianus712
Capitoline Hill/Triad748, 750, 755
Caribbean, the519
Golden Rock site523, 527
horticulturalists in524–5
iconography and symbolism in527–30
pottery in530, 531
Carlson, R. L.648
Carr, G.409
Carrasco, D.82, 567, 589
Carrithers, M.940
Carter, J.152, 156
Carthage953
Caruana, A. A.760
Casimiroids, the (Caribbean)520–1, 523, 524
Caskey, J. L.689
castes110–11
Ethiopian30, 32
Hindu/Indian30, 106, 135, 141, 925, 935 see also Rajput caste
Castrén, M. A.986
Catholic
Church96, 551, 953, 968
fasting187
priests144
saints141, 145
Cauvin, J.801, 805, 828
Cauwe, N.1047
cave art
Upper Palaeolithic349–51, 364 see also hunter-gatherers
caves27, 29, 276, 363
Bronze Age use/views of389–90
Upper Palaeolithic use of352–4 see also France; Pyrenean caves; sanctuaries; Spain
Cavtha (Etruscan deity)715–16
Çayönü Tepesi
Skull Building826, 830–3
(p. 1075) Celts, the405
Central African Republic436
Cerberus (Greek monster)718
Ceschi, C.761, 763
Chaco Canyon607, 608–9
Chadwick, J.683
chaîne opératoires245–6, 256, 266
Chakrabarti, D.921–2
Chalcolithic98, 805 see also India
Chamoux, Marie-Noël245
Chang, K. C.448
Chapman, J.685, 687
Charon, Greek ferryman of dead718
Charun (Etruscan demon)718
Chatterton, R.367
Chichen Itza545, 548, 550, 551
Childe, V. Gordon170–1, 374
Childeric, king of Franks869
Childs, S. T.432
Chile11
Purén-Lumaco monuments13, 17
China34, 471, 997
Anyang442, 449, 450–1
Banpo443
Dawenkou culture445
Dian culture473–4
Dong Son culture474
Dongshanzui198, 444–5
evidence for religion in443–7
Han dynasty442, 447–8, 449, 453
Hongshan culture444–5
interpreting archaeological finds in447–8
Liangzhu culture445–6, 449
Lijiashan473
Longshan culture445, 449
Majiayao culture444
Neolithic197, 198, 201, 443–4, 445, 447, 448–9, 451
Niuheliang196, 197, 198–9, 200, 444–5, 448
Qujialing culture447
Sanxingdui451
Shang dynasty203, 205, 442, 448, 450–3
Shijiahe culture447
Shizhaishan473
tombs in443–4, 445, 447–8, 449, 451, 453
Xishuipo197, 443–4, 447–8
Yaoshan445
Yuanjunmiao197
Zhou dynasty448, 451 see also Buddhism; South-east Asia
Chippindale, C.318, 491, 1035, 1039
Chola dynasty928–9
Chouin, G.434
Christensen, L. B.830
Christian
architecture138
art, sculpture and portable objects950–1
churches/monasteries949–50
landscapes955–6
Christianity134, 136, 372, 745, 747, 811
archaeology of948–53, 958–9
archaeology of communities and954–8
Baltic881
centrality of belief in373
Eastern Orthodox212
Greek Orthodox218–19, 249
in Judea916–17
Jesus Christ in141–2
Late Antique950, 952, 957
neo-paganism and1038, 1040–1
Nestorian815
personhood in137
power, conflict, colonialism and957–8
Resurrection and138–9
water and46, 143 see also Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania
Chuci, the449
Cicero, Roman philosopher710, 712
Cieza de León, P. de572
Claassen, Cheryl196
Clark, C. M.186
Clark, J. G. D.69, 358
classical archaeology701, 703
ancient history and697–700, 702
Claudius, Roman emperor745
Clendinnen, Inga589
Cleopatra722
Clifton, C.1019
Clottes, J.354, 364
Clovis, the (North America)647
CNRS245
Coast Salish641, 646, 648
Cobo, B.572
codices556–7, 561, 562, 565, 566, 567
Coifi, pagan priest864, 865
Collins, Andrew1035–7
Collins, J. M.641
Collins, S.135, 142
Collis, John1040
colonialism227, 229, 230–1, 235, 237, 286see also Christianity
Colonna, G.715
Colt Hoare, R.760
Columbia River644
Columbia-Fraser Plateau639, 645
Columbus, Christopher519, 520, 528, 532
commensal hospitality182, 183
Committee for the Conservation of Arab Art969
commodity fetishism167
Communion137, 144
comparative ethnography34
Coningham, R.110–11, 935, 941
Conkey, Margaret175, 318
Connah, G.162
Conneller, C.1008, 1014
Connelly, Joan201
Constantine I, Roman emperor949
contextualization126–7
Cook, Capt. James105, 506
Cook Islands511
Coponius, Roman procurator914
Cordy-Collins, Alan595
Cortés, Hernando556
cosmogony
consuming humans as81–3
cremation and79–80, 140
definition76, 77
nature of77, 85 see also myths; religions
cosmology482–3, 484
Inca/Andean575, 576–8, 579 see also individual entries
cosmovision560
Cowan, Douglas1034
Cox, Margaret290, 293–4
Craig, B.1043, 1049, 1054
Crawford, O. G. S.375, 1033
Cree, the (North America)671
Creek Indians625, 628
cremation57, 58, 59, 396, 870
English409–10
Etruscan718
creolization227, 235–6
Creswell, Bob245
Creswell, K. A. C.969
Crete396
Aghia Triadha688
Atsipadhes Korakias sanctuary390
Bronze Age394, 683
Early Minoan691
Knossos681, 683, 687, 688, 690–1
Later Bronze Age685
Middle Bronze Age684
Middle Minoan687–8
Minoan214, 681, 683, 684, 686
Neopalatial687
Post-Palatial688, 689
Shrine of the Double Axes688
crimes against humanity289
critical theory172, 175
Croatia
Krapina338, 339
Crosby, Andrew514
Crouch, Joe492
Crown, P. L.611
Cuba520
cultural
change171–2, 175
ecologists171–2
mixing/pluralism228
Cunningham, Alexander934
Cunnington, Maud97
Curatola Petrocchi, M.575
Cusa (Old English name/person)866
Cushing, Frank Hamilton602
Cyclades, the681, 684, 685, 686–7, 691
Ayia Irini689, 690, 691
Late Bronze Age688–91
Cycladic
Late689
Cyprus201, 204, 288–9, 826
Cyrus Cylinder908
Cyrus the Great813, 818, 908
Czaplicka, M. A.994
Czech Republic
Dolní Vestoniče94, 346, 348
Mšecké Žehrovice408
Pavlov348
Dagara, the (Ghana)1011
Dagon (Canaanite deity)899
Daguan, Zhou478
Dahlberg, A.137, 145
Daim, Falco95
Dall, W. H.649
Danby, William1033
Daoism464
Dappula V, King943
Darius I, Persian king812, 813, 819
Daston, Lorraine294
Daugudis, V.881
David, B.483, 487, 488, 489, 491, 492, 493, 495, 1010
David, N.247, 433, 436
Davidson, I.320
Davies, Druid Paul1025
Deacon, H. J.426
Deacon, J.70, 426
Dead Sea Scrolls897
death58, 96, 576
anthropology and sociology of90–3
archaeology and89–90, 92
body and138–40
humans, knowledge and97–8
pollution292–4
decomposition/recomposition139
Deetz, James171
Dehouve, D.1061
Delitzsch, Friedrich787
Delle, J. A.71
Demeter (Greek deity)719
Deminán (Taíno mythic figure)519, 522–3, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532
Denmark866–7
Ejsbøl867
Fårdal394
Fulemile365, 366
Gongehusvej7, 359
Grevensvænge394
Gudme867
Holmegård V site360
Hvidegård393
Illerup853, 867
Lundby363
Møllegabet II site363
Nydam867
Prejlerup363
Rørby392
Vedbæk Bøgebakken cemetery359, 360, 361–2, 363, 365 see also Old Norse and Germanic religion; Trundholm chariot
Dennell, R.335
Derks, Ton753
D’Errico, F.333
Derrida, Jacques92
Derveni papyrus698
Descola, P.365, 1006
destiny1053–4
Deyts, S.408
Di (Shang deity)450
Diamond, M. C.121
Dias, Malini942, 943
diasporic identity228
Dieterlen, G.429–30
Dievas/Dievs (Baltic deity)848, 882
Diez Canseco, Maria Rostworowski desee Rostworowski, M.
diffusion228
Ding, Wu451
Dinka, the (Sudan)156
Dionysus (Greek deity)719
direct ethnographic approach484
Direct-Historical Approach318, 319
disciplined invariance117
Divakarapandita, Angkor priest478
divination203–4
(p. 1078) oracular574–5, 580 see also Etruscan
divine kingship1059, 1061
archaeology and1062–5 see also power; sacred rulers
Djoser, Egyptian pharaoh43, 83
Djungan, the (Australia)488–9
dlugal-NIM (Iranian deity)812
dnin-šušinak (Iranian deity)812
Dobres, M.-A.255
Dockall, H. D.71–2
Dogon, the (Mali)429–30, 1060
Domalde, Uppsala king44
Dominican Republic520, 522, 529
Domitian, Roman emperor914
Domuztepe836
Death Pit826, 833–4
Donald, M.121
Donnan, Christopher586, 587–8, 591, 592, 593
double hermeneutic90
Douglas, M.109, 126, 143, 262, 429
Dowson, T. A.364
Dronfield, Jeremy376
Droogers, A.236
Drucker, Philip640
Druids66, 406, 409, 415, 752, 755 see also Great Britain; Stonehenge
dual historical method484, 487, 498
Dumuzi (Mesopotamian deity)779
Dunbar, R. I. M.332, 333, 339, 340
Dundes, Alan77
Duodoward, Gerry649
Durand-Forest, J. de561, 567
Durga (Hindu deity)923
temple (Aihole)927
Durkheim, Emile91, 118, 122, 155, 372, 684, 1004, 1007
Duviols, Pierre572, 579
Dworkin, Ronald297
Dyas (Sanskrit name of deity)848
Ea (Mesopotamian deity)777 see also Enki/Ea
Eadbald, Kentish king865
Ealdwulf, East Angles ruler864
‘earth as sacred’ concept32
earth figures/rock alignments315–16
Easter Island11, 510, 515
Eastern Woodlands (North America)
ancestor shrines630, 631
Archaic623, 625, 627, 628, 629, 630
ceremonial centres629–30
earthen mound-building625, 627–630
Historic624, 625, 628, 630, 631–2
history623–4
iconography632–3
Mississippian stage623, 624, 625, 627, 628–9, 630, 631–4
Palaeoindian stage623, 624, 625
researching the633–4
ritual use of weapons in624–5, 626
tobacco use in630–2
Woodland stage623, 627–8, 629, 630, 632–3
Echo-Hawk, R. C.67
Eckstorm, F. H.668
Eddius Stephanus
Life of St Wilfrid by864, 865
Edomites, the896, 900
Edwin, Deiran ruler864
Eggan, Fred602, 606
Egypt107, 139, 266, 909–10, 1043, 1062
Akhetaten728, 730
Amarna728–30, 734, 736
Asyut731
Avaris902
conception of universe in722–3
Coptos724
death, burial and afterlife in736–7
domestic altars in731–32, 735
Dynastic42
dynasties/periods723
Early Dynastic724, 730
Eighteenth Dynasty730
Elephantine730
Fifth Dynasty725
Fourth Dynasty83
Fustat969, 973, 974
Graeco-Roman42
Great Aten Temple728–30
human-divine communication in722–3
Late731
life-giving water in42–3
Middle Kingdom734, 735
Mirgissa734
mortuary cult in83–5, 1062
New Kingdom107, 725, 726, 727, 731–2, 735, 736
Nile river41, 42–3
offerings in728–31, 734, 736
Old Kingdom83, 85, 730, 736
Pharaonic42
pre-dynastic1062
Ptolemaic43, 724, 735
pyramids in83–5, 90
religion and ritual of723–7, 737–8
rites in728–37
Saqqara731
temple cult728, 734, 738
Thebes732
Third Dynasty83
Third Intermediate731
Thirteenth Dynasty732 see also purification rituals
Ehecatl (Aztec deity)558, 561, 563
Eisinger, M.561
Ekroth, G.158
El (Canaanite deity)899
Elamites, the (Iran)812, 815, 817, 819–20
Eliade, Mircea77–8, 243, 427, 990, 995, 1019
thought/criticism of80–1, 85
Engels, Friedrich167, 168, 682, 973
England846
Aylesford414
Bath752
Bidford-on-Avon872
Blacklow Hill871
Bryher415
Coventina cult751
Deal414, 416
Durrington Walls377–9, 380–3
Goodmanham864
Harlow408
Hayling Island408
Itford Hill395
King’s Barrow Ridge16
Lindow Man remains1026–7
Loose Howe392
medieval956
river Avon380–1
river Witham411
Roos Carr408
Seahenge1034, 1035, 1037, 1040
Slonk Hill871
Snettisham412–13
South Cadbury hill fort396
Staffordshire hoard873
Star Carr358, 363, 366, 992, 1008
Sutton Hoo869, 1022
Thames river411–12, 870
Thornborough circles18
Trethellen Farm396
West Kennet long barrow33, 371–2, 435, 1035
Westhampnett410
Winterslow41
Enheduanna, daughter of Sargon of Akkad780
Enki/Ea (Mesopotamian deity)785
Enlil (Mesopotamian deity)776, 778, 780, 785
environment
cosmology and27–8, 29
verticality of29–30
Eos, goddess of dawn714
Epipalaeolithic795
Erdosy, G.944
Eric the Red, Saga of1024
Eriksen, Thomas228
Essenes, the909
Estonia877–8, 883–4, 887
Christianization of879
cup-marked stones in884–5
Paluküla886
studying880–1
Tõrma hill886 see also Baltic region
Ethiopia295
Bodo338
Hadar336
Omotic-speaking people of30–2
ethnocentrism124, 127
Etrusca disciplina711, 718
Etruscan
death ritual/afterlife concepts717–19
deities713–17
(p. 1080) divination711–13
nation719–20
ritual and religion710–11, 718
sanctuaries711, 715–17
underworld718–19
votive offerings716
Europe
early medieval95, 951
Late Neolithic273
medieval139, 949, 951
Mesolithic269, 1047
Middle Ages950
Neolithic10, 18, 123, 200, 275, 373, 375, 376, 989, 1047, 1052
Palaeolithic427, 990
Upper Palaeolithic989, 1047 see also Bronze Age; Iron Age
Evans, E. E.70
Evans, Sir Arthur681, 683
Evans-Pritchard, E. E.229, 425, 1007, 1008, 1060
Eve, biblical figure108
Evenki, the (Siberia)366, 983, 985–6, 988
Ewe, the (Togo)255
exhumation
as distinct from excavation292
functions/nature of290–1
responses to288–9
Extirpacíon de Idolatrías572
Eyadéma, G.255
Ezra, Hebrew biblical figure908, 911
Fadlan, Ibn846
Fafnisbani, Sigurd850
false consciousness168, 170–1, 173, 175
Far Northeast (North America)656–7
Archaic656, 658–9, 663, 666–7, 669, 670, 672
burial practices, feasts and gathering places in666–8
Ceramic (Woodland)658, 666–7, 668
Early Archaic658, 659, 660, 661, 663, 670, 671
Early Ceramic (Early Woodland)666
Early Maritime Archaic659
history658–9
hunting rituals and animal bone treatment in670–1
Late Archaic658, 659, 660, 663, 667, 670
Late Ceramic (Late Woodland)668
Maritime Archaic658, 660, 661
Middle Archaic659
Middle Ceramic (Middle Woodland)667
Moorehead phase/burial tradition658, 659, 660, 661–6, 667, 668
Palaeoindian658
petroglyphs668–70, 671
Rattlers Bight phase660
Susquehanna tradition666 see also Gulf of Maine
fasting111, 187–8
feasting and179, 187
feasting185
as commensal politics183–4
Bronze Age394
burial and361
gender and186–7
Greek703–4
political economy and182–3
Feeney, Denis748
Feldman, Ricky493
Felix, Antonius914
feng shui34
Festus, Porcius914
figurines199–201, 408
Aegean682, 685–8, 689, 690, 691
African428–9
Anatolian835
Aztec562, 563, 564, 566–7
Caribbean525
Chinese445, 447
Egyptian732, 734
female349, 375, 445, 680, 730, 797–8, 801, 903, 923
Ghanaian1012–13
Greek697, 705
Indian923, 925
Iranian818
Japanese459–60, 462
Levantine797, 798–9, 801
(p. 1081) Maltese766, 767
Mesoamerican546, 547, 548
Middle Eastern903
Moche589, 593
Pueblo606
Scandinavian851
Fiji508, 510
Finland878, 880
Finno-Ugric people (Russia)878, 880, 881
fire51
bodies and58
cosmos and53–4
-cracked stone56–7
in Iran815–16, 817–19
rock, wood and59–60see also Aztecs, the
fire ritual
Old Iranian52, 53
Scandinavian52–5, 59
Vedic52–4, 57, 58, 59 see also agnicayana
fire sacrifice52–4
archaeology of55–8
cremation as54–5
Firth, R.116
Fischer, A.360
Fitzpatrick, A. P.407, 409–10, 412, 413, 415
Flaherty, G.1018
Fleming, A.376
Fleure, Henry66
Flood, J.484, 487, 1010
Flood tablet786
Fock, N.523
Fogelin, Lars556, 557, 935, 940, 943
folklore63
archaeology, myth and64–8, 69–70, 71–2
history and65, 67, 68
links between archaeology and68–9, 70
tradition and64
Fondebrider, L.289
food
archaeology and110–12
symbolism and33
Forbes, Hamish954
Ford, Richard602–3
forensic archaeology285–7, 289, 297, 359
as sense-making practice291–6
inclusive295–6
nature of288
objectivity/independence in294–6
Forest, J. D.828
formalism117
Fortes, M.97, 133, 151–2, 425, 1011, 1044, 1054
Foucault, Michel169–70, 173, 234
Foundation for Shamanic Studies1019, 1028
fractal relations/thinking137–9, 140
framing124, 126
France
Abri Pataud345–6
Cap Blanc346, 347
Carnac monuments15–16, 17, 18
Cathedral of Vezelay250
Chauvet cave352, 353
Coligny408
Combe-Grenal shelter338
Cougnac cave351
Crévic396
Cussac cave346
Duruthy shelter348
Gargas cave350, 351
Gournay-sur-Aronde408
Grotte de Perrats363
‘Grotte des Enfants’94
Hoëdic cemetery358
La Ferrassie338, 339
la Quina339
La Roche Cotard334–5
Le Mas d’Azil346
Les Trois Frères cave353, 354, 992
L’Hortus339
Lourdes145
Moula Guercy cave338
Pergouset cave351
‘Princess of Vix’ burial198
Sources de la Seine408
Téviec cemetery358, 361
Villards d’Héra408 see also Roman religion; Romans, the
Francfort, H.-P.990
(p. 1082) Frank, B.431
Frankel, David485
Frankfurt School167, 174
Fraser River647–8, 649, 652
Frazer, Sir James91, 105, 127, 152, 249, 1007, 1059, 1060
Frend, W. H. C.948, 952
Freud, S.106, 152
Freya/Freyja (Norse deity)848, 851, 1024
Freyr (Norse deity)848, 851, 854, 864
Friedman, Jonathan172
Frigg (Germanic deity)863, 865
Fritz, John602
Fry, G.70
Fufluns (Etruscan deity)719
functionality of form702
Gaja Bahu I, King942
Galilee910, 911, 913
Nabratein915–16
Sepphoris910, 911, 916
Galison, Peter294
Gamble, C.332, 336, 337
Garanger, José508
Gardell, Mattias1038
Garfinkel, Y.805
Gautama Siddharthasee Siddhatta Gautama/Gautama Siddhartha
Gavampti, Buddhist missionary475
Gazin-Schwartz, A.70
Geertz, C.373, 684, 1004
Gell, A.213, 254, 574
Gellner, David230
Gellner, Ernest92
gender
in Iron Age studies415–16
religious activities and203–4 see also feasting; rites of passage
gender and religion in archaeology204–5
study of195–7
types of evidence197–202
Gennep, A. van26, 91, 106, 127, 263–4, 288
on rites of passage118, 261–2, 265, 266
genocide289, 295
Geoffrey of Monmouth66
George, A. R.786
Germany
Acholshausen392
Bad Dürrenberg365
Bedburg Königshoven366
Berlin Biesdorf366
Bilzingsleben335, 336–7
Ezelsdorf-Buch394
Feldhoffer cave339
Gevelinghausen394
Gönnersdorf348
Gross Perschnitz cemetery391
Grosse Ofnet358, 363
Grünhof-Tesperhude396
Hermannshagen392
Hirshlenden408
Hohen Viecheln366
idols, cult sites, sacrifices and offerings in866–8
Kallmünz398
Migration period867
Mittelberg hill392
neo-paganism in1040
Osternienburg394
Roman religion in752, 753
Totenstein outcrop390
Unterglauheim392 see also Old Norse and Germanic religion
Gernet, A. von631
Gero, Joan175, 196
Gesell, G. C.688
Ġgantija759, 760, 763, 764–5, 766–7
period761–2
Ghana
Koma Land429, 1012, 1013
totemism in1011–13 see also Kusasi, the; Tallensi, the
Gibson, J.25, 252
Gilchrist, R.138
Gimbutas, Marija197, 200, 375, 882, 1041
Glassie, H.64
Glob, P. V.410
Glory, André350
Glosecki, S. O.995
Gnostics136
Göbekli Tepe11, 124–5, 798, 826, 828, 993
art forms at834–5
Layer II/III834
religion and ritual at835–6
(p. 1083) Goddess (Devi)930
Goddess theory374–6
Goldhahn, J.45
Golding, William261
Golte, Jürgen592
Goodison, L.687
Goodman, Felicitas1019
Goody, J.127, 425, 1011
Gosaliputra of the Ajivikas936
Gosden, C.333
Gose, Peter572
Gosselain, Olivier P.252, 431
gouges659, 663, 664, 665
Grammaticus, Saxo846
Gramsci, Antonio168, 169
Grand Menhir Brisé17
Gratus, Valerius914
grave
boundaries/delineation292–4
contamination293–4 see also mass graves; monuments; Scandinavia
‘grave of flowers’94
Graves, Robert374
Gravettian period344, 349
Great Britain
druids in modern1025, 1034
Later Neolithic1051
Neolithic15, 33, 145, 270, 374–5, 380–3, 833, 1009, 1047
neo-shamanism in1021–2, 1025
pagans in modern1025–7, 1040
Greece201, 204, 214, 396, 910
Agios Konstantinos sanctuary214–17
Akrotiri689
archaeology of697–8, 700
Athens269
Bronze Age683
cities of702–3
Classical269, 691
debates concerning religion in701–5
Delos island910
gods of713–15
Late Bronze Age689–91
religion in696–8
sacred space in702–3
Vergina218–20
Green, A.776
Green, M. A.27
Green, M. J.415
Green, Roger510
Greene, S.1018
Gregory I, Pope870
grihas938–9, 940
Grimes, Ronald265
Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation295
Guenther, M.1008
Gulf of Maine657, 658–9
Moorehead burial tradition661–6
ritual themes666–71
Gunaratna, Herman943
Gunawardhana, P.941
Gundestrup cauldron46
Guo Yu, the449
Gurina, N.365
Guru Granth Sahib142
Guss, D. M.523
Guthrie, Stewart573–4, 577
Haaland, R.247, 252
Habermas, Jürgen167–8, 173
Habu, Junko461
HAD (Honouring the Ancient Dead)1025–6
Hadad (Aramaean/Middle Eastern deity)812, 899, 900
Haddon, Alfred492, 494
Hades (Greek deity)718
Ħaġar Qim760, 761, 763, 764–5, 769
Hägg, Robin702
(p. 1084) Haglund, W. D.294, 296
Haida, the (North America)13, 1011
Haiti534
hajj145, 976
Hal Saflieni760, 764, 765, 767, 769
nature of761, 766
Haldi (Urartian deity)812
Hall, Jonathan703
Hall, Robert625, 627
Halle, U.1040
Hamayon, R. N.990, 1021
Hamdi, Osman970
Hammarstrand, L.935
Hannerz, U.235
Hao, Lady451
Hardacre, H.1044
Harner, Michael1019, 1020, 1024
Harrison, Jane Ellen374
Harvey, G.1017, 1020, 1021
Hathor (Egyptian deity)730–1, 735, 904
Temple of724
Haudricourt, A.-G.243, 245
Hauptmann, H.828
Hawaii17, 511–12
Hawkes, Jacquetta374–5
Hawley, Col.1033
Hayden, B.184, 804
Hays-Gilpin, Kelley198
Hebrew Bible895, 897, 900, 905
Hebrews, the109
Hedden, Mark668
Hegel, Georg W. F.167, 801 see also Marxism
Heidegger, Martin92
Hekate (Graeco-Roman deity)1036
Helios (Greek deity)814, 916
Helladic
Early686
Late688, 690
Hendrix, E. A.685
Hengest (Anglo-Saxon deity)863
Henninger, J.151, 154, 160, 162
henotheism778, 900
Henry of Livonia883
Hera (Greek deity)715
Heracles (Greek hero)814
Herbert, E.431
Herder, J. G.879
hermeneutics232–3, 234 see also double hermeneutic
Herod Agrippa II914
Herod Antipas914
Herod Archelaus914
Herod the Great910–11, 911, 912
Temple of914
Herodian lamps913
Herodium910, 911
Herodotus90, 107, 813, 816–17, 818
Herskovits, Melville229
Hertz, R.91, 97, 118, 288, 433
Herzfeld, E.969
Hesiod, Greek poet692
Heusch, L. de1059, 1061
Hill, J. D.414
Hill, Sam1034
Himiko, Queen464, 465
Hindu
cremations79, 140
deities923
practices144, 922–7
sacred space922–3, 930
temples927–31
thought80
Hinduism29–30, 135, 136, 815
Brahmanic923, 925, 926
defining archaeology of921–2
in South-east Asia474, 475–7
Mother Goddess in39
Preclassical926
Puranic921, 922–3
Vedic921, 926 see also castes; India; Shiva/Siva; Vishnu/Visnu
Hitoshi, Watanabe461
Hocart, A. M.92, 941
Hocquenghem, Ann Marie591
Hodder, I.32–3, 80, 829
Hoffman, G. L.685
Hoffmann, Herbert700
holism124
Holocene506, 623, 660
Early656
Late488, 490
Holtorf, C.68
Homer214, 216, 692, 714, 718
(p. 1085) Homininae330
Homo336, 338
antecessor338
erectus332, 333, 336, 340
ergaster333
heidelbergensis329, 332, 336, 338, 340
neanderthalensis332, 333, 338–9, 340
sapiens329, 330, 333, 338–9, 340
sapiens sapiens425
Honduras541, 542, 548
Hopewell
ceremonial centres629–30
culture632, 666
Hopi, the (North America)67, 316, 317, 601, 606, 609, 612, 613
Horemheb, Egyptian official726
hörgr56–7
Hornborg, A.573
Horsa (Anglo-Saxon deity)863
Horus (Egyptian deity)84, 107
Temple of734
Høst, Annette1024
Houel, Jean758, 760
Hoyle, Larco591
Huascar, Inca575, 580
Huayna Capac, Inca575
Hubert, H.120, 161
Hudson, Mark462
Huffman, T.435
Hughes, D. D.159–60, 161
Huitzilopochtli (Aztec deity)558, 564
Huli, the (PNG)495
Hultkrantz, Å.987, 991, 992
human sacrifice
Aztec82, 152–3, 556, 558, 561, 564–5, 566
Chinese473–4
Egyptian734
evidence for152–3
Inca575
Mesoamerican44, 550
Moche588–9
Swedish44 see also pre-Christian Britain
humanitarianism287
human rights, mortuary ritual and288–91
Humphrey, C.28, 34, 264, 997
Hungarian Revolution288
Hungary393
Rinyaszentkirály394
Hunter, John290, 292, 293–4, 296
hunter-gatherers154, 359, 471, 989
Jomon460
monuments10
rock/cave art and308, 322, 354
world views/cosmology of364–5, 366
Huntington, R.433
Hutton, R.374, 986, 1018, 1032, 1037
hybridity228
hydrological cycle42, 47
Ice Age346, 349–51, 623
ideological state apparatuses (ISA)168–9
ideology
archaeology and166, 170–6
concept of166–70
discourse, hegemony and169–70
hegemony and168
Marxist archaeology and172–4
social relations and173–4
Ijzereef, F. G.110
Imhotep, Egyptian official43
Inanna (Mesopotamian deity)779, 819
Inca Sun cult578, 581
Inca/Andean religion571–2, 578–80
animism, anthropomorphism and572–5, 577
gods, ancestors and575–8, 579
huacas, oracles and574–5, 576–7, 578–80, 582
India
Bharhut934, 939
Bodhgaya936
Chalcolithic925
Early Middle927
Ganges river39, 79
Kusinagara936
literary traditions in925
Mathura922, 926
Middle926, 927–31
milk churning in249
‘Painted Grey Ware’ period925, 926
Rajagriha935, 936, 937
Rajgir936, 939
(p. 1086) religious communities in136
Sanchi926, 934, 936, 937, 938, 940
Sarnath936, 937, 938
Taj Mahal83
Tirupati922
Upper Palaeolithic923
Vaisali936, 937
Indian Island667–8
Indigenous Hellenism218
Indo-European studies52
Indo-Iranian/Old Iranian religious tradition812 see also Ahura Mazda
Indravarman, King Jaya476
Indravarman I, Angkor king476–7
Indus civilization923–5
Ingold, T.25, 155, 210, 365, 466, 573, 1008
on animal art1010–11
on animism1004, 1005
Ingui (Anglo-Saxon deity)863
Innu, the (Montagnais-Naskapi) (North America)658, 671
Insoll, T.110, 371, 482, 573, 576, 977, 1053
Inšušinak (Susian deity)813, 815, 820
intentionality332, 333
International Commission on Missing Persons288
Inti (Inca deity)572, 575, 576, 596 see also Viracocha
Inuit, the
(Eastern Eskimo) (Labrador, North America)658
Greenland987
Iran826
Achaemenid812, 814, 816, 819–20, 821
Bisotun813, 814
Choga Zanbil815, 816
Dahan-e Ghulaiman temple817
Hamadan814
Kuh-e Khwaja temple817
Nush-i Jan Central Temple815–16
offerings/sacrifice in813–14, 816–817, 820
Parthian820, 821
Pasargadae813, 818, 819
Persepolis813, 814, 817, 818
Rayy967
representations in819–20
rituals and religion in811–15
Sasanian813, 814, 817, 819–20, 821
sites and temples in815–18
Susa812, 814, 815, 818, 819, 974 see also Basseri, the; fire; fire ritual
Iraq777, 786, 789, 800, 802
Abbasid palaces969, 972
Abu Dulaf mosque972
Great Mosque972
Samarra969, 972
Shanidar90, 94, 338, 339 see also Basseri, the; Kurdistan; Mesopotamia
Ireland70, 376
medieval literature of406–7
Newgrange19, 68, 377
Ralaghan394
Irian Jaya249
Iron Age691, 718, 755, 897
archaeological evidence for religion/ritual407–15, 416
Britain409–10, 869, 871, 1036
calendars408–9
depositions in water410–12
Early27, 56, 58
Europe153, 276, 995
France198
Greece683
hoards412–13
iconography408
India926
Iran812, 815, 821
Israel899–900, 903, 904–5
Late56, 408
Levantine 900,903
literary evidence for religion405–7, 415, 416
Middle409
Scandinavia855, 856, 867
shrines/sacred spaces407–8
South-east Asia470, 473–4 see also burial; Middle East
Iroquois, the (North America)63, 623
Iršenas, M.881
Isaac, biblical figure916
(p. 1087) Ishmael, biblical figure970
Ishtar (Mesopotamian deity)777
Isis (Egyptian deity)42
Islam136, 372, 747
Christianity and955
food categories in110
Islamic
art/antiquities968–9
cities/urban life973–4
Indian Ocean trade972–3
palaces/centres of power971–2
practices142, 143
Islamic archaeology976–7
European secular tradition in968–9
historiographies of967–70
indigenous/Muslim tradition in969–70
rural and environmental studies in974–5
sites/themes in971–6
Išnikarab (Susian deity)815
Israel28, 826, 903
Amud cave338, 339
Berekhat Ram333–4
Ein Gev I797
history of895
Kebara cave795
Kfar HaHoresh798, 799, 800, 802, 804–5
Mallaha797
Masada28
Nahal Hemar798, 802
Negev, the975
Neve David797
Tabun cave339 see also Iron Age; Levant, the; Palestine
Israelite ritual and religion895–7, 900, 904–5
Italy
Barme Grande94
Belvedere temple715–16
Castel di Guido338
Christian Rome949, 952, 955–6
Neolithic198
‘Prince’ burial344–5
Pyrgi714–16
Romito94, 346
Tarquinia711, 715, 716, 720
Toirano cave352
Iteanu, A.139
Iwao, Oba458
Jaanits, L.880
Jacobsen, Thorkild788–9
Jacobson-Widding, A.432
Jainism922, 926, 927, 938 see also Mahavira of the Jains
Jakobsen, M. D.1020
James, E. O.1010
James, Liz213
James, Wendy1004
James, William97
Janik, L. D.360
Janzen, J. M.1044, 1046, 1051
Japan997
agriculture in461–2, 464
cosmology in459, 461, 465, 466
Jomon199, 457, 458–61, 462, 464
Kofun204, 457, 464–6
Miwa Court465
Mukaisamada460
Oshoro stone circles459
Oyu stone circles458
Takamatsuzuka466
tombs in464–6
‘woman man stone’ site459–60
Yayoi457, 458, 461–4
Jastrow, M.787
Jayavarman I, Chenla ruler475
Jayavarman II, Angkor king476
Jayavarman IV, Angkor king477–8
Jayavarman VII, Angkor king478–9, 480
Jeanjean, A.255
Jensen, J. S.228, 233
Jericho
Herodian910, 911
skulls98 see also Palestinian Territories
Jerusalem898, 903, 905, 949, 975
First Temple896, 909, 914
pilgrimage to904, 913
(p. 1088) Second Temple/Second Temple period895, 904, 911, 913, 915, 916
Temple in908, 909, 910, 913
Temple Mount911, 915
Theodotus inscription in910, 915
Jesup North Pacific Expedition986, 997
Jesus Christ137, 138, 144
mills, metaphors and250–1 see also Christianity
Jewish
art914, 916
coins913–14
ritual/ritual baths910–12
suicides at Masada28
Jochelson, W.997
Jogaila, Grand Duke879
Johanson, Donald336
John Hyrcanus I, King909, 913, 914
Johnson, M.26
Jonaitis, A.640
Jones, R. F. J.95
Jones, Rhys490–1
Jordan110, 826, 971
’Ain Ghazal798–9, 802
Khirbat Faris Project974 see also Levant, the
Jordan, P.366, 995
Josephus, Jewish historian909
Joyce, R.139, 141
Joyner, C.65
Jubayr, Ibn970
Judah890, 903
Arad temple890, 901
Judaism134, 747, 811, 815
early Roman period910–15
Hellenistic period909–10
late Roman period915–17
Persian period908–9
use of term895
Judea909, 913, 916
Gamla910, 911
Modi’in910, 911
Qumran909
Shuafat910, 911 see also Christianity; Yehud
Juno (Roman deity)748
Jupiter (Roman deity)748, 848
Kalevelis (Baltic deity)882
Kamstra, J. H.232
Kanishka, Kushan king937
Kankpeyeng, B.1012
Kantner, J.608
Kanuri, the (Niger)254–5
Karlström, A.2
katsinas602, 603, 610–12, 613
Keane, W.2, 211, 252–3, 373
Kearney, Amanda491
Keightley, David448, 449
Kelly, E. P.410
Kemosh (Middle Eastern deity)900
Kemp, B. J.724
Kennedy, Mary196
Kenya
Manda972 see also Kikuyu, the
Kenyon, K.802
Kertzer, D. I.180, 560
Khafre, Egyptian pharaoh83
Khanty, the (Siberia)983, 995
Khasi, the (India)32
Khufu, Egyptian pharaoh83–4
Kidder, Edward463, 465
Kikuyu, the (Kenya)186
King, Capt. James105
Kirch, Patrick507, 510, 512
Kirdir, magus815
kivas602, 603, 604, 610, 611–12
Basketmaker great605, 608
Chaco608
nature/development/use of606–8
Knight, V. J.634
knowledge25, 33, 171, 254, 601, 604 see also death
Knüsel, C.409
Kojiki, the465
Korea997
Silla kingdom201–2
Koryak, the (Siberia)983, 997
Kouremenos, T.698
Kramer, Samuel Noah789
Krishna (Hindu deity)926
Kroeber, Alfred L.307
Kuba, R.434
Kubra, Najm al-Din976
Küchler, S.251
Kuijt, I.803, 829
Kumeyaay, the (North America)312
Kurdistan (Iraqi)295
Kusasi, the (Ghana)434, 1050
Kutscher, Gerdt591
Kwakiutl, the (North America)151
Kwakwakawkw, the (North America)641, 645, 646, 650
Kyriakidis, E.116, 685, 687
Kyrieleis, Helmut702
Laclau, E.169–70
Ladefoged, Thegn511
Lagamar (Susian deity)815
Laidlaw, J.122, 127, 264
Laima (fertility deity)882, 884
Lakoff, G.26
Lakshmi (Hindu deity)923, 930
Lambert, W. G.776
Laming-Emperaire, Annette349–50
landscape24
body and29
painting/theory25–6
phenomenology210, 211
ritual/ritual perspectives on25–6, 27–30, 33, 34–5
Lane, Paul954, 959
Laos478
Lapita (Melanesia)
culture/pottery496, 505, 506–7, 508
Laqueur, Thomas287
Larco Herrera, Rafael586, 587, 595
Larsson, L.358, 360–1, 365, 366
Larsson, T. B.231
Las Casas, Bartolomé de520, 533
Latour, Bruno573
latte stones512
Latvia360, 877, 883, 887
Christianization of879
holy places in885, 886
Semigallia885
studying880–1
Zebrene Idol hill886 see also Baltic region
Lau, G. F.1048, 1049
Laurence, Ray270
Laurentian tradition658, 665
Lavigerie, C.-M. A.952–3, 954, 957
Laws of Manu111
Lawson, E. T.121
Layton, R.319, 490, 1008, 1009–10
Leach, E.77
Lebanon896
Lebeuf, J.-P.428
Lechtman, Heather244–5, 246, 247
Lee, Georgia515
Lemonnier, Pierre245, 246, 249, 252, 256
Lentz, C.434
Lenus Mars (Celtic/Roman deity)752, 753
Leone, M.70, 172–3
Leopold, A. M.228, 233
Leroi-Gourhan, André245, 333, 349–50
Letcher, A.1021
Levant, the826, 896
boundaries, domestication and supernatural in805–6
Bronze Age/Middle Bronze Age/Late Bronze Age897, 900
Ebla898–9
feasting/dancing in804–5
Hazor898–9
Kebaran period795
Late (Pottery) Neolithic795, 799–800, 802, 805, 806
Natufian/Late Natufian period795, 797, 802, 804
Neolithic795, 797, 803, 805
Neolithic religion in801–2
Palaeolithic/Middle Palaeolithic/Upper Palaeolithic795, 801
Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) period795, 797–8, 801, 802
Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) period795, 798–9, 800, 802–3, 804, 806
Pre-Pottery Neolithic C (PPNC) period798, 804
skull cult802–4
studying ritual and religion in800–1, 806
temples in898 see also burial; Iron Age
Lévi-Strauss, C.98, 429, 507, 1007, 1011
Lewis, I. M.427, 994
Lewis-Williams, J. D.829, 832, 835, 993
on rock art/shamanism27, 319–20, 364, 376
Lienhardt, G.156
life crises312
‘life lines’45
liminality
in archaeology of ritual263–4
sacred domains and275–6
social/spatial26, 27, 28
Lindquist, G.1024
Linear A687
Linear B681, 684, 690, 691
linguistics235
Lissner, I.1006
lithophones352, 430
Lithuania877, 887, 1041
Christianization of879
holy places in885
studying880, 881 see also Baltic region
Livingstone Smith, A.431
Livy, Roman historian710
Logan, Melissa200
López, Rodríguez526
Lorzing, Han24, 35
Lõugas, V.880
Louis XVI, King760
Louisiana
Crooks site627
Poverty Point627, 628, 629
Watson Brake627, 629
Lourandos, Harry483, 485
Luba, the (Congo)432
Luiseño, the (North America)312
Lukács, Georg167, 168
Lycett, M. T.928
maat723
McBryde, Isabel485
McCarthy, Michael1034
McCauley, R. N.121
MacCormack, S.575, 576
MacDonald, P.415
Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of218
McFadyen, Alistair137
MacGaffey, W.1048
Machias Bay657, 668–70
MacKenzie, M.1049
MacLellan, Gordon1020, 1027
McNiven, Ian482, 491, 492–4
Magar, the (Nepal)29
Magdalenian period344, 348
Magi813–14, 817
magic
fertility349, 352
hunting308, 312, 319, 320, 349, 352
sympathetic349 see also Mesopotamia; techniques
Maglemosian period360
Magri, Father Emmanuel (Manuel)760
Mahabharata epic925, 926
Mahavira of the Jains936
Mahias, Marie-Claude245, 246, 249
Maimonides, Moses108
Maize God (Mesoamerican deity)1063
Makowski, Krzystof591–2
Mali
Gao region1052–3
Jenne-jeno428
Tondidarou436 see also Dogon, the; Mande, the
Maliseet, the (North America)658, 667
Mallory, J. P.161
mallquis576, 577, 579
Malta
animal/human representations in764–5, 767, 768, 770
funerary megalithic structures in766–7, 768
Neolithic199
temples in762–6, 769
Maltese megaliths
historical development of761–2
landscape setting of768
Mgarr phase761
religion/cosmology of768–70
researching758–61
Mama Quilla (Andean deity)576, 577–8
Mamacocha, the (Andean deity)577
Manchester Museum1025, 1026–7
Mande, the (Mali)431
Manetho, ancient priest723
Mangut, J.434
Mania, D.337
Mania, U.337
(p. 1091) Manichaeism811, 815
Maori, the (New Zealand)514
Mapuche, the (Chile)11
Maquinna, Nuu-chah-nulth chief641
marae510–11, 514
Marcus, J.201, 1006
Marduk (Babylon deity)778, 780, 781, 785 see also Babylon
Maret, P. de425, 426, 429, 432
Marianas, the512
Marinatos, Nanno702
Maringer, J.1009, 1047
Marrett, R. R.97
Marriott, M.136
Mars (Roman deity)753, 848, 851
Marshall, John934, 940
Martyr, Peter (Pietro Martire d’Anghiera)520, 534
Marx, Karl167, 169, 170, 171, 175, 682
Marxism
archaeologists and170
French structural168–9, 172, 174, 175
Hegelian172
Western167–8see also ideology
Mary, biblical figuresee Virgin Mary
masks366
Mason, R. J.67
mass graves
excavations of295
exhumations of285, 289
in Yugoslavia288, 289, 290
Masson Detourbet, A.428
Masterman, Margaret97
Mata, Roy508–9
material culture2
food/drink as179, 181
gender and religion in197
of rites of passage270–1, 277
Mathers, C.434, 1050–1
Mauritius235
Mauss, M.120, 161, 183, 244, 245
Maya44, 141, 546–7, 550, 557, 1063
Classic139, 543, 544–5, 546, 548, 549, 551
Lacandon547
monuments17–18
Postclassic551
Mayadevi, Queen935
Mayer, G.1018
Mbiti, J. S.426–7
Mead, M.106
Medes, the (Iran)816
megalithic tombs19
as Neolithic cult temples371, 373–4
Bronze Age68
Neolithic10, 68, 123
Melanesia505–6, 507, 508 see also Lapita
Mellaart, J.682
Mellitus, Bishop of London870
memory3
of missing/disappeared291–2
Menkaure, Egyptian pharaoh83
Menrva (Etruscan deity)714, 715–17
Mercury (Roman deity)749, 752, 848, 851
Merwe, N. J. van der254
Meryra, Egyptian official729
Meskell, L.2, 139, 723, 1040
Mesoamerica269, 624
ancestor cults in548
Archaic543, 548
ball courts in546–7, 548, 559
Classic543, 544, 545, 548, 549, 550–1, 565
definition541–2
Early Formative542, 544, 548, 549, 550
Formative201, 542, 544, 545, 546, 548, 549
Late Formative542
Later Postclassic544
Palaeoindian542
Postclassic543, 545, 548, 549, 550–1
religion and the living person in546–7
ritual/ritual practices/ritualization in542–3, 544–6, 548–9
state and regional-scale religion in549–51
time/calendars in541, 543–4, 546–7
treatment of dead in547–8 see also Aztecs, the; burial; human sacrifice; Maya; sacrifice
Mesolithic154, 992
birth in359–60
Britain363, 374, 1008
death/burial in360–2, 363–4, 365
Early1045
initiation in360
Neolithic transition111
religion and ritual358–9, 367
sacred places362–4 see also animals; Europe; rites of passage; shamanism
Mesopotamia712, 758, 826, 898–9, 1043
Achaemenid Persian775
death/burial in784–5
divine kingship concept in1062
institutions of778–80
Iran and812, 819
Neo-Babylonian780
Old Babylonian782
omens, divination and magic in784, 785
personal devotion and votives in781–4
religion and ritual in775–7, 780–5
studying religion of786–9
Ur779, 781, 1062
Mesopotamian
archaeology776–7
cosmology785–6
cult statues780–1
gods777–8
iconography776, 777, 819
kings779–80, 785
temples778–9, 780
Metcalf, P.433
Mexica, thesee Aztecs, the
Mexico200, 624, 1061
Calixtlahuaca561
Cholula562
Oaxaca201, 548
Teopanzolco559
Teotihuacan544, 545, 549, 550, 551, 563, 565
Tlatelolco560
Yukatan44 see also Tenochtitlan
Michaels, A.926
Michell, G.928
Micmac, the (North America)658, 670
Micronesia505–6, 512–13
Middle East
Bronze Age898, 904
Iron Age896, 898, 903–4
Late Antique973
Late Bronze Age896, 898–900, 901–2, 903–4
Late Iron Age901
Middle Bronze Age898–904
popular cult in901–3
state cult in898–901
migdôl/tower temples898–9
Miller, D.174
mills250–1
Mimbres, the (North America)611
Mímir, Norse mythological figure868
Min (Egyptian deity)724
Minerva (Roman deity)748, 752
Minoan390
iconography394
Late159, 688
-Mycenaean religion681, 683–4
palaces395
pottery687
religion687–8 see also Crete
Mintzberg, H.253
Miocene
Late330
misrepresentation167, 170
Mitchell, J.255
Mitchell, P.426
Mithen, S.121, 1009
Mithra (Zoroastrian deity)814, 817, 820
Mitra, D.934, 938
Mizoguchi, Koji462, 463
Mizue, Mori458
Mnajdra759, 760, 761, 763, 764–5
mnemonic sensuous field211
Moabites, the896, 900
Moche
ceramics/pottery585–6, 589–91, 592–3, 595
deities586–7, 588, 591–2, 593–4, 595
huacas587, 589, 591, 593
Presentation Theme/Sacrifice Ceremony586, 588–9, 591, 592
public art and politics593–6
rituals588–90
Moche religion595–6
concepts589–95
(p. 1093) interpreting585–7
Thematic Approach to586
Moctezuma, Eduardo Matos557
Mohammed/Muhammad/Muhammed, Prophet108, 142, 967, 970, 975
Molech (Middle Eastern deity)900
Mongols, the28
monuments
future research into19–20
grave32
land and12–13, 15–16, 32–4
nature of10
people and17–18
sky/cosmology and18–19
supernatural and10–11, 12–13, 15
Moravia348
Morgan, Catherine700, 702, 703
Morgan, Jacques De974
Morgan, Lewis Henry682
Mormons, the187
Morocco
Tan-Tan334
Morphy, H.27, 34, 491
Morris, B.426
Morris, I.700, 1046
Morrison, K. D.928, 930
Moses, biblical figure107–8
mosques974, 975–6 see also Iraq
Moszynska, W.155
Motecuhzoma, Aztec emperor562
Mouffe, C.169–70
mounds
boulder659, 660
burial11, 19, 627–8, 629
burnt55, 56–8, 1025
effigy19
platform627–8, 629
Mount Meru477, 478, 479
Mountain-Ok peoples, the (PNG/Irian Jaya)1043
ancestor cult of1049, 1054
mourning288–9, 290, 297
movement3, 270–1, 273
mummies/mummification731, 736
Mumtaz Mahal, Empress83
Munda, the (India)32
Munro, Neil Gordon459
Murngin, the (Australia)486
Musée de l’Homme245
Museum of Arab Art969
Myanmar474, 937
Mycenae681, 684, 688
Temple at689–90
Mycenaean
burials/tombs396, 398
feasting703
palaces/shrines681
sanctuaries214–17
tablets690–1
tree and pillar cult683
Mylonas, G. E.689
myth63, 77 see also folklore
myths46, 71
cosmogenic76, 77–8, 81, 84, 85
creation27, 52–3, 77–8, 487, 543, 724, 785
origin66, 67, 204–5
Nabonidus of Babylon780
Nagas (Hindu serpent-beings)923, 926, 930
Nagy, Imre288
Nakamura, Oki461
Namibia321
Apollo II cave427
Nanna/Sin (Mesopotamian deity)780
Naram-Sin of Akkad779
Narmer Palette1062
Nash-Williams, V. E.953, 954
Natchez, the (North America)624
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act604
Naumov, Goce252
Navarro, J. M. de411
Nazca lines19, 35
Ndembu, the (southern Africa)380
ancestors1044–5
Neanderthal interments90, 94, 338–9
Nebra disc392–3, 398
Nebwawi, Egyptian scribe730
Needham, R.93
Nehemiah, Hebrew biblical figure909, 911
Nelson, S. M.196, 997, 1054
neo-evolutionists171–2
Neolithic56, 145, 232, 321, 435, 682, 1046
archaeology of ritual377–80
Early125–6, 272, 1011
India921
Iran818
Late273–4, 377, 382, 686, 795
Middle1011
religious experience373–7
ritual and religion371–3, 380–3
Scandinavia44, 851
South-east Asia470, 471, 472
neo-paganism
archaeology and1039–41
landscapes and1035–7
monuments and1034–5
nationalist1038
nature of1032–3 see also Asatru/Asatruarfelagid
neo-shamanism
ancestors, reburial and1025–7
archaeology and1028
artefacts, reconstruction and1023–5
nature of1017–19
sacred landscapes, monuments and1020–2
Nepal29–30
Lumbini936
Neptune, Clara669
Neptune, Lt.-Gov. John667, 669
Nerthus (fertility deity)848, 851, 864
Nerva, Roman emperor914
Netherlands, the846
Bargeroosterveld395
Rhenen-Remmerden396
Velserbroek P-63396, 397
Netting, R.1063
neuropsychological (N-P) model319–20, 321, 989–90, 992, 993
New Caledonia508, 510
New Georgia Archaeological Survey507, 515
New Guineasee Papua New Guinea
New Zealand505, 514–15
Nibelungenlied847
Nicholls, R. V.691
Nicolar, Joseph669, 671
Niger431 see also Kanuri, the
Nigeria434, 436
Igbo-Ukwu site152
Nok culture428 see also Yoruba, the
Nihon Shoki, the465
Nihongi, the465
nilometres42–3
Nilsson, Martin681, 683, 690, 692
Ninhursag (Mesopotamian deity)782
Nintoku, Japanese ruler465
nirvana135
Njord (Norse deity)848, 851
Njrðr (Norse deity)864
Nkumbaan, S. N.1012
Noah, biblical figure108
Nooter Roberts, M.2
Northern Ireland
Dunaverney394
King’s Stables398
Northwest Coast (NWC) (North America)
art649–50
early historic639
Early period647
ethnohistoric640, 647, 650
feeding ancestors along the641, 644, 645, 646–7, 648, 650, 652
historic644, 648
Late period650–1
Locarno Beach phase/site647, 649
Marpole phase/site643, 646, 647, 648–9
Middle period640, 647–9
proto-historic639
(p. 1095) religious beliefs/practices639–47, 648, 649
secret societies644, 645, 648, 649, 650, 651
Nowell, A.333
Nubian fortresses734
Nuer, the (Sudan)1007, 1008
Nukak, the (Amazon)112, 1049
Numic-speaking people (North America)311
Nunamiut, the (North America)482
Nuwa, Changing Woman205
Obalara’s Land site156
objects
as ‘living’ things270
Aztec cult562–3
in Iran818–19
jade445–6, 449, 451
sacrifice of153 see also Christian; portable ritual objects; ritual
Octavian, Roman triumvir910
Odin/Óðin (Norse deity)46, 848, 849–51, 868, 872, 1024, 1038
Ogden, Daniel988
Ohlmarks, Å.987, 991
Oho-mono-nushi-no-kami (Japanese deity)465
Ojibwa, the (North America)1007
Old Norse and Germanic religion
archaeology of849–55
‘central places’ in854
mythology/cosmology848, 849–52
offerings in853
rituals and ritual sites/buildings848–9, 853–5
sacrifice in849, 854
studying847, 856
textual background846–9
world tree in848, 851–52, 854
Oliver, Jose141
Olmec, the (Mesoamerica)542, 546, 548, 550, 1063
operational sequencesee chaîne opératoires
Oppenheim, A. Leo787–8
oracle bones
Japanese462, 464
Shang203, 205, 442, 449, 450
Orientalism967, 968
orientational metaphors26
Orme, B.360, 362
Orokaiva, the (PNG)139, 264
Orpheus (Greek mythic figure)719
Orphism698
Ortiz, Alfonso602
Ortíz, Hernán529
Ortoiroids, the (Caribbean)521, 523, 524
Osborne, R.703
O’Shea, J.365
Osiris (Egyptian deity)41, 42–3, 84, 726, 731
Ostionoid culture (Caribbean)522, 524, 529, 530, 531
Oswald of Northumbria866
otherness275–6
Oviedo y Valdéz, Gonzalo Fernandez de520, 528
Owoc, M. A.277
Oxford, University of968
Özbek, M.832
pa514
pacarina concept576, 578
Pachacamac578, 579
temple/site578, 596
-Vichma cult571, 578, 581
Pachacuti, Inca580, 591
Pachamama, the (Andean deity)577–8
Pacific Islands505see also Melanesia; Micronesia; Polynesia; rock art
Paekche, King of465
Pakistan
Mohra Moradu939
Taxila934, 936, 937, 940
Palaeolithic232, 321, 329, 334, 375, 991, 992
Greece685
Late458
Late Middle339
Lower330, 334–6, 340
Middle330, 334, 335, 340, 353, 1007
Middle Upper98, 335
Palau512–13
Palestine975
Ramla972–3
Palestinian Territories826
Jericho798, 802, 832, 908, 910
Mt Gerizim909, 910 see also Levant, the
pan-Babylonianism787
Pané, Friar Ramón519, 520, 524, 527, 528
Papua New Guinea (PNG)495, 507
archaeology in483, 495, 496, 498, 507
cosmology495–6, 507
Paranavitana, S.941
Paranthropus330, 336
Paris School700
Parker Pearson, M.271, 1051
Parry, J.291
Parsons, Elsie Clews602
Parvati, wife of Shiva930
Pascal, Blaise169
passages to other worlds270–1
Passamaquoddy, the (North America)658, 667, 668, 670, 671
Passássoglou, G. M.698
Pasupati (Hindu deity)923
Patil, C. S.930
Patočka, Jan92
Paulinus, Bishop865
Pawnee, the (North America)67
Paxson, Diana1024
Pearce, D.829, 832, 835, 993
Peirce, Charles Sanders253
Penda, Mercian king866, 873
Pender Canal site642, 644, 647, 648
Penobscot, the (North America)657, 667–8, 670
Pentikäinen, J.994
Pequart, M.361
performance117–18
Perkūnas (Baltic deity)882, 884
Persephone (Greek deity)718
personhood994
ancestors and1046, 1053–4
conceptualizing133–42
cosmology and141, 146
relational137–40
religious beliefs about133–7
ritual, bodily action and142–5
states of being and268–70
persons
religious/divine141–2, 144
transformation of144–5
Peru
Chavín de Huantar20
Cuzco575, 578, 596
Huaca Cao Viejo587, 588, 594, 595–6
Huaca de la Luna586, 587, 588–9, 593–4, 595
Huancaco587
Huaricoto site196
San José de Moro587 see also Moche religion
Petersen, Henry849
Peterson, Nicholas486
Pétrequin, Anne-Marie497, 498
Pétrequin, P.249, 497, 498
Petroski, H.246
Pettigrew, Judith1022
Pettitt, Paul338
Phear, Sarah513
Phersipnei (Etruscan deity)718
Philip II of Macedonia218, 220
Phillips, Caroline514
Phoenicians, the896, 900
Phylakopi681, 684, 691, 699
West Shrine at689, 690
Piacenza bronze liver712–13
pierres figures333–5
pig prohibition
explanations for108–9
religion and107–8 see also food
Piggott, Stuart371, 374
pilgrims/pilgrimages143, 144–5, 264
Buddhist936, 941
Christian957
Mesoamerican550–1
rock art and316
(p. 1097) shamanic1022 see also hajj; Jerusalem
Plato138
Pleistocene335, 340, 506, 623
Late484
Middle329
post-520
Upper329, 623
Pliny, Roman historian42, 712
Pliocene340
Early330
Plot, Robert64
plummets660, 664, 665
Pococke, Prof. Edward968
Poetic Edda846, 848
poetry
Eddic52, 56
Skaldic56, 849, 851, 856
Poland
Jędrychowice396
Polignac, François de700, 702–3
Politis, G. G.112, 1049
Pollock, S.196, 927
pollution143 see also death
Polynesia105–6, 514–15
archaeology in505–6, 510
central and eastern510–12
ritual/temples in510–12
settlement505, 508
Pope, R.415
Porr, M.365
Port au Choix661, 665, 670
portable art
Palaeolithic990
sub-Saharan427
Upper Palaeolithic348–9, 989
portable ritual objects428–31
Portonaccio sanctuary715–16, 717
Poseidon (Greek deity)691
Postgate, J. N.776
post-modernism175–6
potlatches151
NWC180, 645, 647, 648
Potnia (‘mistress’)691
pottery-making247–9, 253 see also Africa
Powell, L. C.71–2
power
‘places of’10
sacrality and/of1059–60, 1064–5 see also spirit; syncretism
PPNB32 see also Anatolia; Levant, the
pre-Christian Britain863
human and animal sacrifice in869–70
names and865–6
pagans in864–5
shrines/fana in864–5, 870
Prematilleke, P. L.934
Price, N. S.123, 995, 1024
projectile points658–9, 665, 670
Protestantism144
psychic questing1035–7
Ptah (Egyptian deity)1036
Ptolemy, Roman general910
Ptolemy I, ruler of Egypt909–10
Ptolemy III Euergetes, ruler of Egypt910
Puabi/Pu-abi, Queen90, 780
Pueblo
Acoma606
Bonito602, 608–10
Grasshopper611
Jemez601
Revolt (1680)600, 612–13
San Juan602
Santa Clara613
Pueblo/Pueblos, the (North America)66, 624
Basketmaker beginnings of605–6
Basketmaker III period605, 606
cosmos608
dual divisions among610
history602–3
iconographies610–11, 613
languages of601
maize and601, 603, 606
migration and reorganization of609–10
pottery of605–6, 608, 610–12
Pueblo I period606
Pueblo II period606, 607, 608
Pueblo III period609, 610, 611
Pueblo IV period610, 611
religion and ritual600–2, 613
researching602–4
(p. 1098) Spanish and612–13
violence and610, 613
Puerto Rico520–1, 523, 524
Caguana519, 527, 533
Jacaná533
Maisabel526, 529, 530, 531
Mora Cavern532
Puranas925, 934
purification rituals
Egypt40–1, 735
Ethiopia32
with water39–41, 143–4
Purusa, giant52, 53
Pye, Michael233
Pyrenean caves
Enlène348
Erberua348
Fontanet352
Labastide348
Le Tuc d’Audoubert352, 353
Montespan353
Qaus (Middle Eastern deity)900
Quetzalcoatl (Aztec deity)560, 563
Quilter, Jeffrey588
Qur’an, the969–70, 975
Ra (Egyptian deity)43
Radcliffe-Brown, A. R.106
Radovanovic, Ivana364
Rædwald of the East Angles864
Ragana (fertility deity)882
Rainbow Serpent488
Rajendravarman, Angkor king478
Rajput caste (Punjab)134
Ramadan187
Ramah chert660, 664, 665
Ramayana epic925, 926
Rameses II, Egyptian pharaoh107
Ramilisonina1051
Rangi, the (Tanzania)111
Rapa Nuisee Easter Island
Raphael, Max349
Rapoport, Amos560
Rappaport, R.25, 116, 172, 320
Rawlinson, George786
Rawlinson, Henry786
Rawson, Jessica451
Ray, H. P.927
Read, K. A.81
Reformation, the958
regeneration644, 648
rehuekuel13
Reichel-Dolmatoff, G.314
Reid, George Watson Macgregor1033
Reinach, S.1009
religion
bodies in141–2
definitions of329–30, 442, 684
ecological information and331–2
individual agency and origins of331–5
psychological origins of330–1
understanding373 see also individual entries
religions211
African indigenous426–7, 429, 434
cosmogenic76, 77–8, 81, 82
syncretism and227–8, 230, 232, 237
traditional371–2, 426
transcendental76, 77–8, 81
religious fusion226, 233, 235 see also syncretism
Renfrew, C.116, 121, 699–700
Renshaw, Layla290, 295
repressive state apparatus169
Reshef (Amorite/Canaanite deity)899
Restall Orr, Emma1026
Rév, István288, 291
Rhodes, Cyril952
Richards, C.271, 377
Richards, Francis