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date: 11 July 2020

(p. 661) Index

(p. 661) Index

Abdul Hamid II, Sultan50
Abkhazia516
Adomnán of Iona276
Adorno, Theodor W.199, 202–3, 204, 224 n. 37, 226 n. 46, 233–4
Negative Dialectics (ND) by230–1 see also Dialectic of Enlightenment
Aeðilfrith, Northumbrian king261–4, 272
Æthelred II, King292
Afewerki, Isseyas540
Afghanistan513, 655 see also Taliban
Africa644–5
colonial rule in347–8
colonial warfare in354–60
German East28, 349, 356–7, 410
German South West28, 29, 91–2, 106, 345, 354–6, 358–9, 362, 409, 410
Scramble for349, 361, 531
violence in southern350–4 see also forced migration; Great Lakes region; Horn of Africa; and individual countries
African Union608, 613
Agamben, Giorgio222, 224
Agamemnon239, 240–1, 247
Ahtisaari, Martti525
Aidit, D. N.451
Akayesu, Jean‐Paul623
Akhavan, Payam522
al Dahab, Gen. Abdel Rahman Suwar543
Albania see Hoxha, Enver
al‐Bashir, Omar96, 99, 630
Albright, Madeleine13, 168
Alexander the Great244, 257, 287
Alexander II, Czar388
Alfonso XIII, King357
Algeria356
Allen, Beverly70
Allende, Salvador496
All‐Ethiopia Socialist Movement (MEISON)536
al‐Qadir, Abd356
Aly, Götz89
Amaru, José Gabriel Túpac318, 319
American Military Tribunal620
Amin Dada, Idi552, 554, 557, 564–5, 593, 611
Amnesty International475, 587, 649 n. 30
ancient genocide249–50
evidence for240–3
motivations for251–6
nature of243–7, 256–7
Anderson, Benedict184
Anderson, David359 n. 40
Andreopoulos, George J.7, 174
Angola568
Annan, Kofi595 n. 27, 603
anthropology142–3
activist189–90
and ethnography183–4
and genocide186–8
and refugees185–6
cultural critique190–2
forensic188–9
scholarship182–3
anti‐Semitism407–9, 411 see also Hitler, Adolf; Nazism
Antonescu, Marshal Ion52
Arab Gathering, the546
Arbenz Guzmán, Jacobo492, 493, 584
Arbour, Louise606, 628–9
Arendt, Hannah207–8, 215, 346
banality of evil concept of203–4, 209, 221
thought and work of173, 201 n., 210, 222, 231 n. 59
Argentina492 n., 497, 498, 504–5, 626
the question of genocide in500–3 see also Conintes Plan
Armenia55 see also Nagorno‐Karabakh
Armenian genocide50–1, 52–3, 372–3 (p. 662)
death toll382
debate concerning the365–6
implementation of the376–7, 381
Armenians374–5, 515
pre‐1915 massacres of368–9
Arnold, Bettina186–7
Arusha Accords94, 107, 572
Asch, Solomon200, 205, 210
ASEAN475
Asser, medieval historian267
Audacht Moraind268
Aufranc, Gen. Alcides Lopez504
Augé, Marc102
Auschwitz65, 103–4, 233–4, 417, 424
Australia40, 83, 115–17, 479, 481
Austria111
Avars, the271, 273, 275, 284
Awami League468, 469–70
Azerbaijan55 see also Nagorno‐Karabakh
Babylon246, 255
Bach‐Zelewski, Erich von dem420 n. 24
Badoglio, Italian marshal358
Baker, James627
Balaguer, Joaquin494
Balandier, Georges346
Balkan wars (1912–13)49, 369
Bangladesh74, 653 see also Chittagong Hill Tracts; East Pakistan
Banzer, Gen. Hugo495
Barbie, Klaus495
Bariatinskii, Prince388
Barre, Siad533, 540–1, 547
Barta, Tony117, 148
Bartelson, Jens117
Bartrop, Paul92
Baskar, Bojan526
Bassiouni, Prof. M. Cherif137
Bauer, Yehuda4 n. 7
Bauman, Zygmunt11–12, 89, 144, 152–3, 162, 224
Beachler, Donald471
Beaufre, André492 n.
Bede, the Venerable259–68, 271–3, 274, 275, 276, 285
Belgian Congo362, 409, 410
Belgium448–9
Bellamy, Alex J.597 n. 5, 598 n. 8
Bemba, Jean‐Pierre556, 569
Ben‐Ari, Eyal326
Benes, Eduard58
Benjamin, Walter228 n. 54
Benjamites, the261–2, 277
Bessone, Gen. Diaz504–5
Bey, Manastirli Bahaeddin371
Bey, Shukru379
Bible, the240–2, 244, 261–2, 282, 285, 301
Biha, Léopold555, 570
Bilu, Yoram326
Binding, Karl410
biopower151, 222
Bismarck, Otto von92, 362
Black Death, the300
Blair, Tony602
Blaškić, Tihomir522
Bloxham, Donald8 n. 19, 36, 71, 90, 175, 180 n. 44, 198, 485 n. 55, 608
Bobrinski, Count390 n. 10
Boers, the350–2, 353–4
Bogdanović, Dimitrije518 n. 23
Bohemia291–2, 294
Bolivia495
Borah, Woodrow307
Bordaberry, Juan Maria495–6
Bormann, Martin417
Bos, Pascale Rachel64
Bosch, Juan494
Bosnia114, 153, 507, 510, 521–3, 599
Bosnian Serb Army (VRS)522–3
Boutros‐Ghali, Boutros629
Brazil494–5, 505
Brezhnev Doctrine513
Brooks, Francis307
Browning, Christopher R.200 n. 8, 206 n. 23, 210
Brownmiller, Susan71
Brubaker, Rogers22, 440
Buckley‐Zistel, Susanne114
Budak, Mile519
Bundism24
bureaucracy
and genocide89–90, 152–3
Burger, Thomas158
Burnett, Californian governor338
Burundi554, 557, 560–1
genocide562, 570–1
violence in553, 555, 556, 569–70, 571–2
Busch, Mario495
Bush, George H. W.618
Buyoya, Pierre571–2
Caedualla, King259, 261, 263, 264, 272, 274
Caedwalla, King268, 271–2
Caesar, Julius244, 257
California335–9
Callahan, Mary P.473 n. 21
Canada40
Capron, Elisha Smith336
Carpenter, R. Charli61, 68
Casey, Conerly194
Catari, Dámaso317
Catari, Nicolás317
Catari, Tomás317, 318, 319
Catari, Túpac318
Catholic Church281, 296, 482
in colonial Latin America311–13, 315, 316, 317, 318
Catiti, Alonso317
Cavell, Stanley233 n. 69
Césaire, Aimé346
Chad546, 548, 568
Chalk, Frank7, 85, 149–50, 160, 170, 493 n.
Charlemagne, king of the Franks271, 273, 274, 276, 289
Charles II of Naples298
Charles IV of Luxembourg292
Charny, Israel7
Chávez, Federico493
Chavez, Hugo617
Chea, Nuon98
Chechnya510 see also population displacement
Chesterman, Simon610, 611
Chile496–7
China545, 611, 647
Mongols in426, 432, 434–7, 439
rectification of names in441–3
the Han in428, 436, 438, 443
the Manchu in428, 429–30, 432–5
Tibetans in426–8, 438
Uyghurs in426, 438, 440 n. 29 see also political genocide; sinicization
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)436–8, 440, 443, 454–6
Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT)642, 649–52
choice problem, the202, 205–6, 208, 215
Christopher, Warren526
Churchill, Ward330
Churchill, Winston32, 58, 357, 359, 361
Cicero250–1, 253, 254
Cigar, Norman95, 518
classicide156, 157
climate change642, 648–9, 652, 656, 658
and genocide653–4, 655 see also global warming; resource capacity
Cohen, William13, 168
Cohn, Norman85
Cole, Tim66
Colombia498, 618
colonialism305, 410
and genocide346–7, 349, 363
medieval288–9
Čolović, Ivan517
Columbus, Christopher305
Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)50, 99, 365–6, 375, 377, 383, 384–5
and Jews371
and Ottoman Greeks and Bulgarians369–70
and ‘Turkification’375, 381
Communist Party of Kampuchea see Khmer Rouge
concentration camps
in Africa359
in Latin America495, 496, 497, 503, 505 see also Auschwitz
Confino, Alon118
conformity effect205–6, 212–13, 215
Congress of Berlin367–8
Conintes Plan491
Cook, N. D.308
Cook, Sherburne307
Copelon, Rhonda71
crimes against humanity
and war crimes620–1 see also genocide
Croatia108–9, 519–21 see also Ustasha
Crosby, Alfred325, 328
(p. 664) Crossley, Pamela430
Crusades, the285, 287, 296–8
cultural genocide39–40, 134–5, 157, 193–4, 332
and forced labour in Africa360–2
in China426–8
in Latin America312
in North America336 see also Lemkin, Raphael
cultural identity448
Cultural Revolution, the456–9
Čuruvija, Slavko525
Cyprus54
Czechoslovakia607
Dalai Lama, the427–8, 436, 438, 441
Daniels, Roger324
Daniel‐Wrabetz, Joana70
Danilov, V. P.394 n.
Darfur2, 67, 74, 96–7, 138, 533, 595, 597, 613–14
genocide in530, 534, 548
violence in545–6
Darwin, Charles84 see also social Darwinism
Davidson, Donald233 n. 68
Dayton Peace Accords/Treaty59, 523, 526, 599
de‐Cossackization392–3
de‐kulakization393–4, 397
Del Ponte, Carla629
Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)74–5, 115, 556, 558, 559
resources in the645–7
Deng, Francis604, 613, 614
Denikin, Gen.392
Denitch, Bogdan109
Dergue, the536
Desmond, first earl of290
Dialectic of Enlightenment (DE)228–30, 231–2
Dietrich of Niem289
diffusion27–8
Diner, Dan111
‘dirty war’ concept492
Dominican Republic494
Douglas, Mary191
Downes, Alexander179
Drechsler, Horst363
Drinnon, Richard324, 332 n. 43
Dubnow, Simon24
Duch, Comrade see Eav, Kaing Guek
Dudayev, Dzhokhar514
Dulić, Tomislav109, 519
Durkheim, Emile103
Dutch East India Company351
Duval, Kathleen327
Duvalier, François492, 494
Duvalier, Jean Claude494
Duviols, Pierre311
Dwyer, Leslie196
East Pakistan593, 625 see also state‐sponsored violence
East Timor68, 611 see also state‐sponsored violence
Eav, Kaing Guek113
Eck, Kristine171, 172
Edward I, king of England288, 291, 292, 301
Eichmann, Adolf203–4, 421, 423
trial112, 129, 133
Einhard, medieval biographer271, 273
Einsatzgruppen153, 420, 422, 423, 624
Eisele, Manfred591 n. 18
Ekkehard, German chronicler287
Ekmečić, Milorad517
Eliot, John324
elitocide521
Elkins, Caroline359 n. 40, 359 n. 41
Elliot, Mark430
Elliott, Jane213
Eltringham, Nigel145
Endecott, John332
England47, 288, 290, 292–3, 294 see also Northumbria; Saxons
Enlightenment, the
and genocide227–8 see also Dialectic of Enlightenment
enslavement
in Latin America309–11, 491
in medieval Europe276–7
in the ancient world240, 244–5, 249–50, 251–2
in the General Government419 see also cultural genocide
Ensler, Eve74
Eritrea529, 532, 539, 540
violence in535–6, 537
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF)537, 539, 547
Ermath, Elizabeth Deeds12 n. 24
Ershad, Gen.650, 652
Etchecolatz, Miguel Osvaldo500 n., 501
Ethiopia348, 359, 529, 547
Red Terror in533, 534, 536, 548
(p. 665)
violence in530–2, 538–9 see also Selassie, Emperor Haile
ethnic cleansing135, 286, 419
and ethnic conflict57–9
and genocide45–6, 405
and international law46
defining43–4, 130
history of47–9
modern49–55
nature and development of42–3
ethnicity446–9
in colonial Latin America318–19
in medieval Europe269–70, 286–7, 288, 290–1, 293, 301–2 see also Great Lakes region; violence
ethnocide39, 157, 187, 194, 220, 311, 313, 315, 360 see also cultural genocide; Latin America
eugenics409–10
Evans, Gareth613
Ezhov, Nikolai91
Fackenheim, Emil218 n. 3
Falkenberg, Johann298
Fanon, Frantz346
Fein, Helen7, 62, 84–5, 148–50, 155, 159, 160, 170, 533
Ferdinand, Archduke Franz108
Finzsch, Norbert333
First Arab‐Israeli War57
First Punic War250
Fisher, Siobhan71–2
Fitzmaurice, Andrew26
forced migration44–5, 47, 58, 249
in Africa358, 537–8, 539, 545
in Latin America313–14
in medieval Europe291–2, 301
in Nazi Europe51–2 see also Ottoman Empire; Russia; Soviet Union
Ford, Gerald481
Forges, Alison des99
Foucault, Michel12, 151–2, 212 n. 46, 213–14, 222
Fouracre, Paul265
Fowler, Jerry605 n. 33
France47, 283, 293, 609, 612
Frazer, Sir James24–5
Frederick II of Hohenstaufen291
Fredrickson, George324
Freeman, Michael332–3
Freeport478
Frei, Norbert627
Fritzsche, Peter118
Gaita, Raimond4 n. 7
Gamzatov, Razul513
Gandhi, Mahatma658
Garang, John544–5
Garzón, Judge Baltazar500, 502
Gellately, Robert6
Gellner, Ernst24
gender
and genocide66, 67–9, 78–9
and the Holocaust63–5
definition of62 see also genocide; rape
gendercide68, 157
General Government418–19
General Plan East (Generalplan Ost)51, 420
genocidal intent75, 78, 87, 136
and sociology148–50, 155
in colonial Latin America309–10, 320
in North America323
philosophical perspective on220–1
genocide
and crimes against humanity125–8, 135
and masculinity76–7
and perpetrator behaviour201–4, 208–9
and regime types173–4
and social theory278
and truth, memory and representation194–5
and war25–6, 84–5, 92, 157, 170, 176–8
as a legal concept123–4, 141
as an intentional crime138–9
attempted136
auto‐463
biological305, 314, 332
collateral320
definitions of32–5, 89, 128, 131, 148–9, 160, 534 n. 12
delayed416
origin of the term22
physical305, 310, 313, 426
prosecuting631–5
scholarship and studies2–5, 6–9, 14, 20, 61, 67, 445–6, 471, 639
terms157–8 see also individual entries
Geoffrey of Monmouth284
Geoffrey of Paris292
Georgia598 see also South Ossetia
(p. 666) Geraci, Bob388 n. 2
Gerald of Wales285, 289, 295
Geras, Norman219 n. 9
Gerlach, Christian8 n. 19, 86–7, 485 n. 55
Germany283, 300, 589 n. 12, 624–5
and the ‘stab in the back’ concept412
beliefs and practices of pre—Nazi410–11
homosexuals and ‘Gypsies’ under Nazi415, 416–18, 424
sterilization in Nazi414, 417
the handicapped under Nazi415–16, 417, 424 see also Africa; Historikerstreit; Hitler, Adolf; Lebensraum; Nazism
Gervase of Tilbury288, 289
Geyer, Michael110
Gildas, sixth century British scholar265, 266–7, 274–5
Glatzer, Wolfgang143
global warming641, 651, 653, 655
Goebbels, Joseph110
Goffman, Erving213–14
Goldenberg, Myrna65
Goldhagen, Daniel Jonah202 n. 14, 206 n. 23
Goldstone, Richard628
Gorbachev, Mikhail512
Gordon, Gen. Charles356
Goremykin, Prime Minister390
Gotovina, Gen. Ante520
Goulart, João494
Grand Mufti of Jerusalem423
Gray, Thomas287
Graziosi, Andrea396
Great Britain284, 287, 580, 582, 644–5 see also England; medieval genocide; Scotland; Wales
Great Famines, the395–8
Great Lakes region
authoritarian regimes in the557–8
balance‐of‐power in the560–1
disease in the562, 564, 566, 568, 646
ethnicity in the562–3
insurgencies in the559
natural resources in the558
refugees in the561–2
Great Leap Forward, the454–5
Greco‐Turkish war51, 383
Greenawalt, Alexander105
Gregory of Tours259
Gregory VII, Pope281
Grotius, Hugo26
groups and groupism22–3, 40, 160–1
Grunfeld, Tom428
Guatemala194, 195, 493, 500, 505, 584–5, 612 see also Arbenz Guzmán, Jacobo
Guatemalan Forensic Anthropology Foundation189
Guevara, Ernesto ‘Che’495
Guibert of Nogent299
Gurianov, A.401
Gurr, Ted171, 446, 533
Gutman, Roy69
Habyarimana, Juvénal99, 554, 556, 558, 574
Hacking, Ian211, 214
looping effect of212–13
Hague Convention (1907)124
Hague, Euan77
Haiti494 see also Duvalier, François
Halbwachs, Maurice103
Hale, Charles R.189
Halsall, Guy263
Hammarskjold, Dag566
Hannibal, Carthaginian general250, 254
Hardman, Anna64
Harff, Barbara85–6, 88, 170–1, 172, 173, 176, 177, 431 n., 446, 493 n., 533
Harris, Richard Cole324, 341
Hayden, Robert M.109
Hazan, Pierre627
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich226 n. 44
Heidegger, Martin218, 225
Heidenrich, John84
Heim, Susanne89
Helmold of Bosau289, 298
Henry of Huntingdon290, 292
Henry of Livonia297
Henry the Lion of Saxony290
Henry II, king of England288
Herder, Johann Gottfried von23–4
Herero, the91, 345, 354–5, 358, 410
Herman, John432
Hersh, Seymour471 n. 11
Heydrich, Reinhard422, 423
(p. 667) Hilal, Musa96–7
Hilberg, Raul64, 66, 89, 152
Himmler, Heinrich51, 66, 415, 417, 418–19, 420, 421–2
Hinton, Alexander143, 185, 190–2, 194
Hirsch, Herbert144, 146
Historikerstreit116–17
Hitler, Adolf51, 52, 89, 98, 99, 110, 143, 415–16, 418–19, 421–3, 424, 607
aims of109
anti‐Semitism of412–13
Ho, Ping‐ti429
Hobsbawm, Eric447
Hobson, J. A.27
Hoche, Alfred410
Hollenbach, David340
Holocaust, the407
and ethnic cleansing52
concepts of152–3
scholarship on3–5, 7, 63–5
uniqueness of219 see also Jews
Homer239 see also Iliad
Honduras497
Horkheimer, Max231 see also Dialectic of Enlightenment
Horn of Africa
colonialism and decolonization in the531–2
ethnic cleansing in the541
question of genocide in the533–4, 548
violence in the532–3, 535 see also Eritrea; Ethiopia; Somalia; Sudan
Horowitz, Irving Louis85, 89, 144, 173
Howard, John115–16
Hoxha, Enver517
Huguenots47
Hull, Isabel91–2, 410
Hultman, Lisa171, 172
human rights586–8 see also United Nations
Human Rights Watch475, 588, 628
Hurtado, Albert335
Hussein, Saddam56, 633
Hutu
refugees185–6, 562, 567, 575
‐Tutsi relations/divisions348, 556, 557–8, 561, 563
‐Tutsi violence553, 555, 569–72, 573–5
Huyssen, Andreas76
Iliad, the239, 241, 244, 245, 247, 255 see also Trojan War
imperialism409
American settler333–4, 336
and genocide25–9
India56–7, 470, 652
indigenous Americans
and disease328–30, 335
ethnic cleansing of48 see also Pequot War
Indochina War
First460
Second459, 460
Indonesian Communist Party (PKI)450–4, 477
Indonesianization476, 478, 481
Innocent IV, Pope300
International Court of Justice (ICJ)69, 131, 604, 623, 629
Nicaragua rulings592
Yugoslavia rulings94, 129–30, 132, 140, 606
International Criminal Court (ICC)2, 72, 111, 610, 618, 623, 634
Rome Statute of the129, 130–1, 140, 589, 636
weakness of the620, 629–31
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)72, 129, 133–4, 623–4, 628–9, 633, 634
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)72, 130, 138, 140, 634
establishment of the522, 627–8
on national and ethnic groups133–4
Srebrenica rulings46, 68–9, 136–7, 518
weakness of the628–9, 633
International Crisis Group612
International Military Tribunal (IMT)36, 92, 125–8, 620–21, 624
international security and intervention590–95, 627 see also military intervention
Iraq88, 591 n. 16, 603
Anfal campaign in56
war594, 598, 614
Ireland270, 271, 273, 276, 277, 288, 290, 295, 302
Islam531
fundamentalist/militant513, 515, 527–8
in Sudan544, 545, 546 see also Mujahideen
(p. 668) Isle of Wight267–8, 269, 271
Israel117, 584, 656
Italy
as colonial power357–8
Izetbegović, Alija521, 522, 527
Jäckel, Eberhard412
Jackson, Justice Robert125–6, 623
Jacob, biblical figure261–2
Jacobs, Steven L.20 n. 4
Jaimes, M. Annette330 n. 31
Janhunen, Juha440
Janjaweed/janjawiid96–7, 546
Japanese Army
Second World War behaviour of75
Jashari, Adem524
Jennings, Francis323, 332 n. 43
Jerusalem248, 296–7 see also Grand Mufti of Jerusalem
Jesus Christ299, 300
Jews
medieval persecution of299–301
Nazi genocide of the420–4
persecution of by imperial Russia389–90
Soviet persecution of401, 402 see also anti‐Semitism; Committee of Union and Progress
Jèze, Gaston26
Jonassohn, Kurt7, 85, 149–50, 160, 170
Jones, Adam61, 67–8, 73, 75, 533
Jordan, Winthrop324
Jünger, Ernst76
Just War tradition602, 604
Kabila, Joseph568, 569
Kabila, Laurent553, 567–8, 645
Kaganovitch, Lazar397
Kaishek, Chiang454
Kalyvas, Stathis179
Kansteiner, Wulf104, 115
Kant, Immanuel203, 226 n. 44, 234, 602, 632
Karadžić, Radovan72, 521
Kardelj, Edvard517, 524
Karen, the472–6
Karim, Abdel357
Kasa‐Vubu, Joseph566
Katz, Steven329, 332
Kayibanda, Gregoire558, 573
Kazakhstan395–7, 399, 400, 402, 404
Kennan, George583
Kenya74, 359, 534, 539, 542
Khan, Gen. Yahya469
Khmer Rouge77, 93, 95, 98, 106, 459–63, 471, 506
Khoikhoi, the351
Khomeini, Ayatollah510
Kiernan, Ben6–7, 83, 106, 341, 533
Kikuyu, the359
Kimmerling, Baruch431 n.
Ki‐moon, Ban604
King, Henry127
Kiribati654
Kissinger, Henry470, 481
Kitchener, Lord359, 361
Kobulov, Bogdan404 n. 56
Kony, Joseph565
Kosovo517–18, 523–5, 593, 628
Kosovo Liberation Army524
Kraft, Claudia20 n. 3
Krain, Matthew171, 172, 173–4, 176
Kroeber, Alfred187
Krstic, Gen. Radislav46
Kuper, Leo7, 20 n. 5, 86, 148, 169–70, 175
Kuperman, Alan598
Kupperman, Karen330
Kurds56, 367–8, 377, 381, 383, 590
labelling theory213
Lang, Berel221 n. 18
Langer, Lawrence64
language
racist and genocidal294–6, 299 see also linguicide
Las Casas, Bartolomé de26–7, 305
Latin America625
concept of war in499
disease in305–6, 308–10
ethnocide in311–13, 315
population levels306–8
question of genocide in505–6
repression in498
resistance and subaltern genocide in310–11, 315–19
violence in independent490–1 see also forced migration; genocidal intent; National Security Doctrine; School of the Americas; and individual countries
Lausanne Peace Conference/Treaty51, 383
Lazar, Knez108
League of Nations22, 25, 27, 30, 580–1
Lebensraum412–13, 418–20
Lemarchand, René174
Lemkin, Raphael2, 10, 39, 47, 83, 145, 160–1, 167, 429 n. 11, 639, 657–8
and biological genocide314
and colonialism322, 346–7, 362
and cultural genocide37–8, 305, 311–12, 324, 336, 360
and international law30–1, 41, 123–4, 192–3
and physical genocide310, 313
and sociology146–8
and the Nuremberg trials36–7, 92, 125, 127
and the United Nations37–8, 133
Axis Rule in Occupied Europe by22, 26, 31–5, 82, 124, 142, 193, 305, 322
genocide concept of45, 149–50, 157–8, 323, 445–6, 447, 534 n. 12, 621
reputation of19–20
thought of21, 22–9
Léopold II, King362, 558
Leutwein, Governor92
Levene, Mark8 n. 19, 9, 87–8, 110, 485 n. 55, 598, 649
Levi, Primo198
Levinas, Emmanuel226 n. 46
Lewin, Kurt200
Lewy, Guenther417
Liberia608
Libya568
liddism654
linguicide440 n. 29
Liulevicius, Vejas410
Livy244
London Charter620–1
London Conference125–6
Lopez Jr., Donald427
Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)552, 555, 559, 565–6
Louis XIV, King47
Lowther, Gerard369
Lumumba, Patrice552, 556, 566
Luxembourg34–5
McDougal, Governor John338
Mace, James388 n. 1
Macedonia50
MacKinnon, Catherine70, 71
Madagascar52
Plan422
Madley, Benjamin337 n. 66
Maier, Charles8
Malinowski, Bronislaw24–5, 27, 29, 35 n. 61
Malkki, Liisa185–6
Mamdani, Mahmood347 n. 7
Mann, Michael8, 43, 87–8, 93–4, 144, 159, 170, 173–4, 176, 180 n. 44
on ethnic cleansing154–8
Mariam, Col. Mengistu Haile534, 536, 537, 539
Marr, Wilhelm409
Martin, Terry396–7
Marx, Karl214
Marxism408, 413, 461
Matilda, countess of Tuscany281
Matthäus, Jürgen198
Maxwell‐Fyfe, Sir David125
Mazzini, Giuseppe23
medieval genocide
accounts of284–5
elites and271–2
evidence for260–1, 264
nature of262–4
question of266–8, 269, 274–6, 277, 286
religion and272
Medvedev, Gen.393 n. 23
Mehmed II, Sultan48
Melson, Robert169–70, 176, 177
memory
as fuel for genocide106–10
conflicts over116–18
studies103–4
traumatic112–15 see also philosophy
Méndez, Aparicio496
Menelaus252, 255
Menelik II, Emperor531
Merkulov, Vsevolod400
Merlin289
Mesha, king of Moab242
Meštrović, Stjepan518, 526
Mexico29, 307
Meyer, Aubrey657 n. 53
Micombero, Michel570
Midlarsky, Manus170, 177–8
Migration see forced migration
Milgram, Stanley200, 205–7, 208–10
military intervention
and ending genocide599–601
as a duty602–9
(p. 670)
Miller, Arthur G.206 n. 23
Milošević, Slobodan77, 94, 95–6, 419, 510, 519, 524–5, 526, 632
indictment and trial of628–9
nationalism of108, 518
Mladić, Gen. Radko68, 72, 514, 522, 523
Mobutu, Joseph‐Désiré553, 556, 558, 560, 566–8, 645
modernity154, 191
thesis152–3
Molotov, Vyacheslav397
Mommsen, Hans208
Mongolian People's Republic (MPR)435–6, 439
Monroe Doctrine584
Montenegro526
Morgan, Gen. Mohamed Said Hersi540
Moscow Declaration620
Moses, A. Dirk72, 83, 109–10, 485 n. 55
Mujahideen513, 514
Mukti Bahini468, 469
Museveni, Yoweri552, 560, 565
Mussolini, Benito357, 359
mustard gas357
Mutlu, Servet382 n. 70
Mwambutsa, Mwami570
Myanmar see Burma
Nagorno‐Karabakh
violence and population displacement in512–13
Naimark, Norman7, 43, 88, 157, 405, 526
Najibullah, Mohammad527
Nama, the358, 410
Namibia568
nasty neighbour problem207–8, 215
national identity446, 449, 508, 511
National Security Doctrine493–4, 495, 497, 584
development of the489–90
political repression under the491–2
Nazism412
and anthropology187
and archaeology186–7
anti‐Semitic nature of109–10
misogynistic nature of65–6 see also Jews; Nürnberg Laws
Ndadaye, Melchior94, 553, 555–6, 572
Ndayizeye, Pres.572
Ndizeye, Charles555, 570
Neier, Aryeh71
Nennius, Welsh monk and scholar289
Neo‐Assyrian Empire47
Netherlands, the448–9
Neurath, Konstantin von125
New England324–5, 331
New Zealand40
Newman, Leonard209–10
Ngendandumwe, Pierre555, 570
Nicaragua593
Nicholson, Michael521
Nietzsche, Friedrich12, 102, 115, 225, 226
Nigeria194–5, 625, 647
nihilism218
Nikolić, Tomislav523
Nimeiri, Jaafar543
Nithard, Carolingian historian266, 274
Nixon, Richard470
Nizkor502
Nkunda, Laurent563, 569
NKVD90–1, 399, 400–1, 403, 404
Nol, Gen. Lon460
non‐interference principle604, 610
Nora, Pierre103
North America48, 83
colonial and post‐colonial violence in330–2, 334–5, 338
colonialism in323, 324–6
historiography of colonialism in327–8, 330
race in post‐colonial334, 335–7 see also California; imperialism; indigenous Americans; New England
Northumbria259, 261, 262–3, 264
Norton, Henry Kittredge339
Norway36
Notker the Stammerer274, 276
Novick, Peter4
Nuba Mountains544, 599
Nürnberg (Nuremberg) Laws415, 421
Nyerere, Julius611
Obote, Milton552, 554, 560, 564–5
OGPU394–5
omnicide641
O'Neill, Kevin Lewis194
Operation Condor493–4, 495
Opium War, first433
Organia, Gen. Juan Carlos497
(p. 671) Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM)477, 478
Osiel, Mark635–6
Otto IV, emperor of Germany288
Ottoman Empire
deportations in the366, 368, 370, 371, 373–4, 375–6, 378–80
ethnic cleansing in the49–50
forced migration in the48
policies of the366–8, 369 see also Committee of Union and Progress
Owen, David522
Ozick, Cynthia64
Pakistan656 see also East Pakistan; West Pakistan
Palestine57
Palyi, Melchior142, 144
Pan Germans78
Panchen Lama, the438
Paraguay493–4 see also Stroessner, Gen. Alfredo
Paris, Matthew287, 299
Parson, William S.7
Pasha, Djemal99
Pasha, Enver99
Pasha, Talat99
Patterson, David226 n. 47
Pavelić, Ante109
Pearce, Roy Harvey324
Pella, Vespasian133
Pequot War331–3
Perón, Juan497
Persia
ancient249, 255
Peru308, 313–14, 317, 318
Peter the Venerable299
Philip II, king of Macedonia257
Philip IV, king of France292, 301
philosophy
and genocide225–7, 231
and trauma, memory and representation223–4
pillarization448–9
Pinochet, Gen. Augusto496
Pizarro, Francisco306
Plato247
Pogge, Thomas602 n. 18
Poland291, 511–12
Nazi‐occupied35, 418
Soviet‐occupied401–3 see also General Government
political genocide449–50, 464
in Cambodia450, 459–63
in China450, 454–9
in Indonesia450–4, 459
in the Soviet Union463
political identity446–9
political science
comparative method in168–70, 172
rationalist approach in174–5
scholarship and genocide163–4, 165–8, 171–2, 173, 179–80 see also law
politicide170–1, 446, 540 see also sinicization
Polybius243 n. 12
Popé, Pueblo Revolt leader316–17
population displacement
in Bangladesh652
in Chechnya514–15
in Darfur546
in the Great Lakes region562, 566, 567, 568, 569, 571, 573, 575, 646
in the Soviet Union510
in Yugoslavia510, 520, 523 see also Nagorno‐Karabakh; South Ossetia
Porter, Jack Nusan85
Pot, Pol93, 98, 99, 106, 593
Potsdam conference54, 58
Powell, Colin534, 605
Power, Samantha13
Přemysl Otakar II, king of Bohemia291
Princip, Gavrilo108
Prussia297
Psychology see social psychology
Pufendorf, Samuel26
Putin, Vladimir515, 516
Qiu, Jin457 n. 23
Quautlatas, Tepehuan leader316
Rae, Heather
pathological homogenization concept of88
Rahman, Sheikh Mujibur469
Ranger, Terence447
Ranković, Aleksandar524
rape
genocidal71–2, 73–4
in East Pakistan468
in Rwanda70–1
in Sudan544
in the ancient world245–6
(p. 672)
in the Great Lakes region560
in Yugoslavia69–71, 77, 527 see also Armenian genocide
Rappaport, Emil S.30
Rawski, Evelyn429
Rawson, Harry361
Ražnatović, Željko95–6, 520
Red Guards, the456–8
Reingold, Iosif392
Renan, Ernest102
Renner, Karl24
resource capacity643–4 see also Democratic Republic of Congo
Responsibility to Protect principle597–8, 604–6, 608, 611
Ribes, Champetier de105
Rice, Condoleeza527
Richter, Daniel328
Ricoeur, Paul102–3, 104
Riffian Berber rebellion357
Ringelblum, Emmanuel63
Ringelheim, Joan64
Robertson, Geoffrey624
Rockefeller Foundation187
Rodney, Walter347
Rogers, William338
Rohrbach, Paul355, 361
Romania
ethnic cleansing in52–3
Rome
ancient248, 250, 251–2, 253–4
Rommel, Erwin423
Roosevelt, Franklin D.620, 625
Roosevelt, Theodore597
Rorty, Richard231–2, 233 n. 68, 234 n. 75
Roseman, Mark207–8
Rudd, Kevin115–16, 117
Rugova, Ibrahim524
Rummel, Rudolph158, 171, 172, 173
Russia611, 626
deportations and ethnic cleansing in388–91, 392–3
forced migration in imperial48, 49, 50
violence in387 see also Chechnya
Russian Civil War391–2
Rwagasore, Louis555, 570
Rwanda558, 592, 603, 648
violence in553, 555, 556, 573–4, 575 see also Habyarimana, Juvénal; Hutu; rape; Tutsi
Rwandan genocide556, 561, 562, 598, 609, 612–13
memory and the112–13, 114
origins and nature of the107, 153, 191, 574 see also International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
Saakashvili, Mikheil516
St Bernard of Clairvaux297–8
St Brice's Day massacre292
St Columba274
St Patrick277
St Paul262
Salbi, Zainab62
Samnite War
Second254
Third250
Sanford, Victoria189
Santa Cruz massacre481, 483
Sapor II, Persian king255
Sarkozy, Nicolas516
Sartre, Jean‐Paul133, 201–3, 346
Saul, king of Israel242, 261, 263, 278
Sautman, Barry428
Saxons273, 275, 284, 289
Anglo‐260, 264, 265, 267–8, 272, 276
Scales, Len259, 263, 264, 270
Schabas, William446
Schafft, Gretchen E.142, 187
Scheper‐Hughes, Nancy153, 187
Schleunes, Karl89
School of the Americas489–90
Schrodt, Philip171, 172
Scilingo, Adolfo500, 502 n. 15
Scotland267, 268, 284, 288
Seeskin, Kenneth217 n.
Selassie, Emperor Haile357, 536, 537
Sémelin, Jacques170, 176, 177, 180 n. 44, 535
Sennacherib of Assyria47, 246, 248, 250, 253, 255
Serbia108–9, 129, 140, 593, 606 see also Milošević, Slobodan
Serbian Democratic Party (SDS)520, 521–2
Serbian Radical Party524
Šešelj, Vojislav95–6
Seven Years War49
Shaka, Zulu king353
Shapoval, Juri396
Shaw, Martin8, 175, 176–8
Shawcross, Sir Hartley36
Shea, Jamie628
Shirer, William L.142
Sierra Leone75
Sigismund, Bohemian king295
(p. 673) Sihanouk, Prince Norodom98, 106, 460
Simpson, Gerry617
sinicization443
and politicide429–36
through Nationality Regional Autonomy (NRA)436–41
Sitglmayer, Alexandra70
Slavs289, 391, 424
smile problem, the202, 205–7, 208, 210, 215
Smith, Roger W.77, 174
social Darwinism355, 360, 408–9, 650
social death222–3
sociology166
and history158–9
Nazi‐era143
scholarship and genocide144, 148–50, 160 see also ethnic cleansing; genocidal intent; Lemkin, Raphael
Solomon, biblical King531
Solomon, Charles26
Somalia529, 532, 533, 540–2
Somaliland541
Sorabji, Cornelia114
South Ossetia510, 527
population displacement and ethnic cleansing in515
Soviet Union419–20, 422, 455
and the United Nations583
composition of the511
deportations and ethnic cleansing in the53, 394–5, 398–405
minorities in the387, 400, 403
Sovietization400–1
Spain47, 115, 246
Special Organization (TM)365–6, 371, 372, 377, 383
Stalin, Josef53, 98, 99, 393–4, 396–8, 419, 455, 511 see also Soviet Union
Stanford, Californian governor337
Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE)205 n. 21, 206–7, 209
Stannard, David330
state, the
responsibility of to prevent genocide139–40
role of in genocide, ethnic cleansing and mass violence55–6, 85–8, 89–90, 91, 97, 99–100, 155, 163
state‐sponsored violence484–5
as genocide486–7
in Burma472–6
in East Pakistan467–71
in East Timor479–83
in West Papua476–9
Staub, Erwin170
Stein, Stuart68
Stephen, king of England290
Stephen of Ripon275
Stevenson, E. A.336
Stockholm Forum111
Stolypin, P. A.106
Stone, Dan6
Stone, John331–2
Straus, Scott86, 176, 178, 180 n. 45, 192, 208, 485 n. 53
Stroessner, Gen. Alfredo492, 493–4
Su, Yang458
Suazo, Hernán Siles495
Sudan356, 359, 361, 529, 547–8, 568, 630–1, 647
South532, 534, 545
violence in531–2, 534, 542–5 see also Darfur; Islam; Janjaweed
Suharto, Pres.450–1, 481
Sukarno, Pres.450–2
Talaat, Mehmed371, 373, 374, 379, 380–1, 383, 384–5
Taliban527
Tanzania561, 565, 593, 611
Taylor, Christopher C.76, 191–2
Tec, Nechama65
Tejada, Luis García Meza495
Tertullian, Christian theologian447
Thornton, Russell329
Thucydides247, 249, 253, 254
Tianhui, Huang458
Tiglath‐pileser III, king of Assyria47
Tiglat‐Pileser I, king of Assyria240
Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF)537, 547
Tito, Josip Broz517, 524
(p. 674) Tocqueville, Alexis de356
Torres, Gen. Juan Jose495
Total474
Totten, Samuel7, 533
Toynbee, Arnold657
Transcaucasus510
ethnic cleansing in the54–5
Transdniester511
Trojan War239–40, 246, 247, 255
Trotha, Gen. Lothar von91–2, 354–5
Trujillo, Rafael494
Tudjman, Franjo109, 514, 518, 519–21, 527
Tutsi554, 560 see also Hutu
Tuvalu654
Tyrell, Ian340
Ukraine, the396–8
Underhill, John331
United Kingdom40, 481, 646 see also Blair, Tony; Great Britain
United Nations (UN)47, 482
and international law586–7
Charter581–2, 590–2, 603, 605, 607, 610, 621, 630
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples39–41
origins and development of the580–1
resolution on genocide (1946)1, 37, 621
Security Council44, 581–2, 583, 585, 590–3, 594, 603, 604–8, 610, 611, 612–13, 625–6, 628, 630
Universal Declaration of Human Rights586 see also League of Nations; Lemkin, Raphael
United Nations Genocide Convention (UNGC)10–11, 78, 105, 124, 131, 585
content of the45, 72, 92, 138, 147, 604
development of the82–3, 127, 133, 134–5, 193–4, 621–3
nature of the86, 128–9
shortcomings of the112, 130–1, 319–20, 405, 445
United States of America13, 40, 470, 481–2, 614, 633–4, 654
and the United Nations580, 583, 594 see also Cold War; National Security Doctrine; North America
universal jurisdiction principle589
Unocal474
Urban II, Pope296
urbanization283, 293–4
Uruguay495–6
Ustasha/Ustaša, the53, 495, 518, 519
Uzbekistan589 n. 12
Valentino, Benjamin98, 171–2, 173–6, 177
Van Dyke, Walter337
Vance, Cyrus522
Vanuatu479
Vassiliev, Vassili396
Vattel, Emeric de26
Verwey, Wil608, 609
Videla, Gen. Jorge Rafael497, 503–4
Vietnam93, 95, 460, 471 n. 10, 593, 609, 610–11
violence
medieval296–8
medieval inter‐ethnic292–4
patterns of640
Vitalis, Oderic290
Vitoria, Francesco de26–7
Volkov, Shulamit411
Waal, Alex de613–14
Walder, Andrew G.458
Wales267, 291, 294, 302
Wallerstein, Immanuel347 n. 8, 640–41
Wangenheim, German captain357
War on Terror479, 498, 614
Warren, Mary Ann68
Warsaw Pact583
Washington, George324
Waxman, Zoë64
Weber, Max143, 145, 152, 158–9, 161, 633
Weiss, Thomas603
Weiss‐Wendt, Anton21 n. 6
Weitz, Eric D.7, 170, 176, 485
Weller, Californian governor338
Wendish Crusade298
Wenskus, Reinhard269–70
Wernich, Christian Von500 n., 501
West Pakistan468–9
Wheeler, Nicholas J.601 n. 12, 602 n. 14, 609
Whitaker, Benjamin136–7
White, Richard330
(p. 675) Wiesel, Elie224
Wilhelm II, Kaiser91–2, 355
Wilson, Sir Ronald116
Windschuttle, Keith116
Winter, Jay93
Winthrop, John329, 333
Wolfe, Patrick326–7, 330, 334, 340
Wolff, Christian26
Woolf, Alex275
Wright, Mary429
Xhosa, the352–3
Xiaowen, Chinese emperor432
Yagoda, Genrikh91
Yandarbijev, Zelimkhan515
Yanushkevich, Gen.389, 391
Yeltsin, Boris514–15
Young, James E.112, 117
Yugoslav People's Army/Yugoslavian National Army (JNA)95, 520, 521–2, 524
Yugoslavian Army (VJ)524–5
Zaire556, 563
Zedong, Mao436, 439, 454, 455–8
Zimbabwe568
Zimbardo, Philip200, 205–7, 209–10, 213
Zuckerman, Michael328
Zulu, the348, 350, 353