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date: 24 June 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Every generation born since independence in Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Rwanda, and Burundi has lived through either a war or genocide. A low-end estimate of deaths that resutled would stand at 1.4 million while 2.6 million would be at the high end. They would increase considerably if the indirect effects of war and genocide, notably disease and hunger, were also counted. These numbers have reinforced perceptions of the region as Africa's heart of darkness. This article aims to summarize the postcolonial record. It describes all the principal episodes of violence against civilians in each country since independence. It also provides a critical overview of the violence. It identifies the characteristics that define the regional context in which these numerous episodes of violence occurred.

Keywords: Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Africa's Great Lakes, mass violence, genocide

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