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date: 16 July 2019

(p. xvii) List of Abbreviations

(p. xvii) List of Abbreviations

1986 VCLT

1986 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations, done at Vienna, 21 March 1986, Doc A/CONF.129/15; 25 ILM 543

AB

Appellate Body

ACC

United Nations Administrative Committee on Cooperation

ACP States

Asian, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States

Anti-Dumping Agreement

on Implementation of Article VI of the Agreement General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

AROO

Agreement on Rules of Origin

ARSIWA

Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts

ATC

Agreement on Textiles and Clothing

Basel Convention

Basel Convention on the Control of the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes, done at Basel, 22 March 1989, 1673 UNTS 126; 28 ILM 657

Berne Convention 1971

Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, signed at Berne, 9 September 1886, completed at Paris, 4 May 1896, as revised at Paris, 24 July 1971, 1161 UNTS 30

BFA Committee

WTO Committee on Budget, Finance and Administration

BISD

Basic Instruments and Selected Documents

BOP Committee

WTO Committee on Balance-of-Payments Restrictions

BOP Understanding

Understanding on Balance-of-Payments Provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

CARICOM

Caribbean Community

Convention on Biological Diversity, done at Rio de Janeiro, 5 June 1992, UNEP/Bio.Div./N7-INC5/4; 31 ILM 818

CEACR

Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations

CESCR

United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

CFI

Court of First Instance

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, done at Washington, 3 March 1973, 993 UNTS 243; 12 ILM 1085

Codex

Codex Alimentarius Commission

COP

Conference of the Parties

covered agreements

The agreements listed in Appendix 1 to the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes

CPA

Coalition Provisional Authority

CPC

1991 UN Provisional Central Product Classification, Statistical Papers, Series M No 77, United Nations (1991), revised, version 1.1, Statistical Papers, Series M No 77, United Nations (2004)

CRTA

WTO Committee on Regional Trade Agreements

CSR

Corporate social responsibility

CTD

WTO Committee on Trade and Development

CTE

WTO Committee on Trade and Environment

CTG

Council for Trade in Goods

CTS

Council for Trade in Services

Customs Valuation Agreement

on Implementation of Article VII of the Agreement General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

DG

WTO Director-General

DSB

Dispute Settlement Body

DSU

Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (Dispute Settlement Understanding)

EC

European Communities

ECHR

European Court of Human Rights

European Court of Justice

ECOSOC

United Nations Economic and Social Council

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

ECT

Energy Charter Treaty, done at Lisbon, 17 December 1994, 34 ILM 360

EMIT Group

GATT Working Group on Environmental Measures and International Trade

Enabling Clause

Decision on Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity, and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries, L/4903 (28 November 1979), BISD 26S/203

EPAs

Economic partnership agreements

EU

European Union FDI Foreign direct investment

FTAs

Free trade agreements

GATS

General Agreement on Trade in Services

GATS

Council Council for Trade in Services

GATT

1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947

GATT

1994 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994

GC

WTO General Council

GIs

Geographical indications

GPA

Agreement on Government Procurement

GPA

Committee WTO Committee on Government Procurement

GSP

Generalized System of Preferences

HS

International Convention on the Harmonized Description and Coding System

IACtHR

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

IAMB

International Advisory and Monitoring Board ICC International Criminal Court

ICCPR

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 23 March 1976, 999 UNTS 171; 6 ILM 368

ICESCR

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, adopted 16 December 1966, entered into force 3 January 1976, 993 UNTS 3; 6 ILM 360

Interim Commission for the International Trade Organization

ICJ

International Court of Justice

ICSID

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes

IGOs

Intergovernmental organizations

ILC

International Law Commission

ILC

Articles Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts

ILO

International Labour Organization

IMF

International Monetary Fund IP Intellectual property

IPPC

International Plant Protection Convention, done at Rome, 6 December 1951, 150 UNTS 67

IPU

Inter-Parliamentary Union

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

ITLOS

International Tribunal for the Law on the Sea

ITO

International Trade Organization

ITTC

Institute for Training and Technical Cooperation

ITU

International Telecommunications Union

LDC

Least-developed country

Licensing Agreement

Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures

MAI

Multilateral Agreement on Investment

MC

WTO Ministerial Conference

MEAs

Multilateral environmental agreements

MERCOSUR

Southern Cone Common Market, Treaty of Asuncion, done at Asuncion, 26 March 1991, 30 ILM 1041

MFA

Arrangement Regarding International Trade in Textiles

MFN

Most-favoured-nation

Montreal Protocol

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, done at Montreal, 16 September 1987, entered into force 1 January 1989, 26 ILM 1550

MRAs

Mutual recognition agreements

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement, signed on 17 December 1992, 32 ILM 289, 605

Non-agricultural market access

NGOs

Non-governmental organizations

NT

National treatment

NTBs

Non-tariff barriers

OECD

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

OEEC

Organisation for European Economic Cooperation

OIE

International Office of Epizootics

OLA

UN Office of Legal Affairs

OTC

Organization for Trade Cooperation

Paris Convention 1967

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed on 20 March 1883, revised at Stockholm, 14 July 1967, as amended on 28 September 1979, 8 UNTS 303

Plurilateral Trade Agreements

The agreements and associated legal instruments included in Annex 4 to the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization

PPA

Protocol of Provisional Application

PPMs

Process and production methods

PTAs

Preferential trade agreements

RTAs

Regional trade agreements

Rules of Conduct

Rules of conduct for the understanding on rules and procedures governing the settlement of disputes, WT/DSB/RC/1 (11 December 1996)

S&DT

Special and differential treatment

SACU

South African Customs Union

SCM Agreement

Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

SCM Committee

WTO Committee on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures

Secretariat

Secretariat of the World Trade Organization

SPS Agreement

Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

SPS Committee

WTO Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures

SRSG

Special Representative of the Secretary-General

STEs

State trading enterprises

(p. xxii) TBT Agreement

Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade

TNC

Trade Negotiations Committee

TPR

Trade Policy Review

TPRB

Trade Policy Review Body

TPRD

Trade Policy Review Division of the WTO Secretariat

TPRM

Trade Policy Review Mechanism

TRIMS

Agreement Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures

TRIPS

Agreement Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

TRIPS

Council Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

TRTA

Trade-Related Technical Assistance

UDHR

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UNGA Res 217A (III), A/810, adopted 10 December 1948

UK

United Kingdom

UNCITRAL

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

UNCLOS

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, done at Montego Bay, 10 December 1982, 1833 UNTS 3; 21 ILM 1261

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNECE

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNESCO Convention on Cultural Diversity

UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, done at Paris, 20 October 2005

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization US United States

VCLT

1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, done at Vienna, 23 May 1969, Doc A/Conf 39/27, 1155 UNTS 331

VER

Voluntary export restraints

WB

World Bank

WCO

World Customs Organization

WHO

World Health Organization

WIPO

World Intellectual Property Organization Working Procedures

Working Procedures

for Appellate Review

Working Party on Domestic Regulation

WPGR

Working Party on GATS Rules

WPPS

Working Party on Professional Services

WTO

World Trade Organization

WTO

Agreement Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, done at Marrakesh, 15 April 1994, 1867 UNTS 154; 33 ILM 1144