- Table of Cases
- Table of International Treaties and Conventions
- Table of Rules and Resolutions
- Table of Legislation
- List of Contributors
- Policy Issues
- Investment, Investor, Nationality, and Shareholders
- Applicable Law
- Multilateral Investment Rules Revisited
- Interactions Between Investment and Non-investment Obligations
- Trade and Investment
- Admission and Establishment
- Standards of Treatment
- Coverage of Taxation Under Modern Investment Treaties
- Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment
- Emergency Exceptions: State of Necessity and <i>Force Majeure</i>
- Investment Insurance
- State Responsibility and Attribution
- Regulatory Transparency
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Methods of Dispute Resolution
- Procedural Transparency
- Independence, Impartiality, and Duty of Disclosure of Arbitrators.
- Consent to Arbitration
- Jurisdiction and Admissibility
- The Jurisdictional Threshold of a Prima-Facie Case
- The Relationship between International Tribunals and Domestic Courts
- Parallel Proceedings
- Compensation, Damages, and Valuation
- Review of Awards
- An Appellate System in International Investment Arbitration?
- Compliance and Enforcement
- A Doctrine of Precedent?
- Tribunal's Powers versus Party Autonomy
Abstract and Keywords
This article covers certain basic issues of definition common to all international investment agreements (IIAs). The starting point for understanding the scope of an IIA is the definition of the terms that activate the protection afforded under the agreement. This article seeks to outline how such questions have been answered in practice. It reviews the nature of the various definitions of ‘investor’ and ‘investment’ as found in IIAs and in arbitral practice. The context for such a discussion lies within the process of the development of IIAs, and, in particular, dispute settlement provisions, to which issues of definition are key in determining the enforceability of rights under the agreement for the investor. This article also considers in more detail the meanings of the key definitional terms under IIAs, commencing with the definition of ‘investment’, followed by an examination of the term ‘investor’, in relation to both natural and legal persons.
Engela C. Schlemmer is Professor of Law, Department of Constitutional, International and Indigenous Law, School of Law, University of South Africa.
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