- Table of Cases
- Table of International Treaties and Conventions
- Table of Rules and Resolutions
- Table of Legislation
- List of Contributors
- Policy Issues
- Investment, Investor, Nationality, and Shareholders
- Applicable Law
- Multilateral Investment Rules Revisited
- Interactions Between Investment and Non-investment Obligations
- Trade and Investment
- Admission and Establishment
- Standards of Treatment
- Coverage of Taxation Under Modern Investment Treaties
- Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment
- Emergency Exceptions: State of Necessity and <i>Force Majeure</i>
- Investment Insurance
- State Responsibility and Attribution
- Regulatory Transparency
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Methods of Dispute Resolution
- Procedural Transparency
- Independence, Impartiality, and Duty of Disclosure of Arbitrators.
- Consent to Arbitration
- Jurisdiction and Admissibility
- The Jurisdictional Threshold of a Prima-Facie Case
- The Relationship between International Tribunals and Domestic Courts
- Parallel Proceedings
- Compensation, Damages, and Valuation
- Review of Awards
- An Appellate System in International Investment Arbitration?
- Compliance and Enforcement
- A Doctrine of Precedent?
- Tribunal's Powers versus Party Autonomy
Abstract and Keywords
This article deals with the rules of attribution and recent arbitral awards applying them. It gives a brief overview of the basic rules of attribution laid down in the International Law Commission (ILC) Articles, which depicts a clear idea of the extent to which a state may be held responsible under international law for the conduct of state organs and others who exercise governmental authority. It emphasizes that the rules of attribution are separate and distinct from determining the standard of responsibility of a state. This article addresses conduct of organs of a state. The provision stipulates that the conduct of any state organ, whether exercising a legislative, executive, judicial, or other function shall be considered an act of that state under international law. This article also illustrates the important role played by the ILC Articles in investment arbitration.
Kaj Hobér, Partner, Mannheimer Swartling, Stockholm; Professor of East European Commercial Law, Uppsala University.
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