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date: 10 December 2019

(p. 965) Subject Index

(p. 965) Subject Index

A v Home Secretary 269–70
actor‐centered institutionalism 65
Acts of Parliament 246
adult worker model (AWM) 925
advanced liberalism 124–5
AHA (American Historical Association) 28
AJPolS (American Journal of Political Science) 49, 50
Alford Index 466, 467
Alternative Investment Market (AIM) 902–3
America
Britain and: see Anglo‐America
and EU 586–7
American Historical Association (AHA) 28
American Journal of Political Science (AJPolS) 49, 50
American Political Science Review (APSR) 49, 50
analytical Marxism 46
Anglo‐America 571–87
economic relationship 580–3
history of 573–6
ideological relationship 583–5
special relationship 572–3, 574, 576, 596–8, 600
strategic relationship 578–80
theory behind 576–8
Annual Review of Political Science 50
anti‐foundationalism 115–34, 346
definition of 116–20
governmentality theory 119, 120, 121–5
and meaning holism 116–17, 118
and philosophy 116–17
and political science 117–19
post‐Marxism 125–9
and social constructivism 117
social humanism 129–33
varieties of 119–20, 120
anti‐scientism 96
anti‐Semitism 506
APSR (American Political Science Review) 49, 50
area studies 4, 46
Association of Professional Political Consultants (APPC) 372, 373
asylum seekers 593–4, 735–6, 739–40, 740, 843
Australian Journal of Political Science 49, 50
Austria: party system 291, 292
baby boomer effect 677–8
backbench rebellions 83, 226
balance of trade 875, 875, 876
international economy and 938–40
Beattie Media 377
behaviouralism 27–8, 37, 45 n.10, 92–109
American political analysis and 36
and anti‐scientism 96
British: barriers to 95–7
British: differences in 97–100
British political science and 103–8
contribution of 106–8
definition of 93–5
evaluation of 104–6
idealism and 95–6
Marxism and 96
and mass behaviour 98
methodological concerns 96–7
and modernist empiricism 99
observable behaviour 93–4
philosophy of social science 93
and political analysis 33–4
and political participation 98
and post‐behaviouralism 100–3
scientific methods, commitment to 94–5
surveys 104–6, 109
and voting behaviour 98
Belgium: new parties in 284
Better Government for Older People (BGOP) initiative 670
bibliometrics 51
Bill of Rights (1689) 240, 243
biography 187–99
and charismatic leadership 197–9
development of 189–94
passion v. reason in 194–7
tombstone biographers 189–91
(p. 966) BISA (British International Studies Association) 46
BJPolS (British Journal of Political Science) 43, 49, 50
Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) voters 476–7
BNP (British National Party) 441
Bretton Woods Agreement 937–8, 939–40
Britain
and America: see Anglo‐America
and EU 586–7
three circles of influence 572–3, 597, 598 see also United Kingdom (UK)
British Commonwealth 59
British Election Study (2005) 792–4, 793
British Empire 590–603
legacies of 601–3
and national identity 591–6
retreat from 596–601
British International Studies Association (BISA) 46
British Journal of Political Science (BJPolS) 43, 49, 50
British National Party (BNP) 441
Cabinet government 30, 241
cabinet studies 60, 79–81
Cambridge University 9, 26–7, 28, 51, 156
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) 726, 729
CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) 842
capitalism 912–18
‘clash of capitalisms’ 913–15
European welfare systems and 915–18
governance and 913–15
cartels: self‐regulation and 329–30
central state 342–61, 351
central departments 357–8
contemporary political history 343, 344
core executive 354–5
executive agencies 358–9
governance and governance narratives 348–51
governance, disaggregation of 351–60
influence of 358–60
mainstream politics and interpretivist critics 343–50, 344, 352–3, 355, 356, 357, 358, 360–1
multi‐level governance 353–4
policy‐making networks 352–3
political history 353
Prime Ministers, presidentialization of 355–6
qualitative political science 343, 344, 347–8, 360–1
quantitative political science 343–7, 344, 360–1
centralism 406–7, 410, 417
CFSP (Common Foreign and Security Policy) 842
charismatic leadership 197–9
Chartered Institute for Public Relations–Government Affairs Group (CIPR GAG) 372
child poverty 609, 614–15, 689, 694, 892
childcare policies 657, 658, 688–9, 693–4
feminism and 146
America 691–2
free school meals (FSMs) 622
Sure Start programme 620, 621
citizenship 149, 167, 506, 764
immigration and 735–50
City of London: self‐regulation 327, 328, 330, 331–3
civil service 30, 81, 358
class 609–25
and education 614, 615–16, 616, 617, 618–19, 620–4
inequalities (1945–97) 610–14
inequalities (2005–) 614–20
novels and 208–11
CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) 726, 729
coalition government 38, 60, 251, 295–6
cold war 753, 755–6
collective responsibility 81
command regulation: limits of 336–8
Commission for Africa 712–13
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 842
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) 842
Communications Electronic Security Group 761
comparative politics 4, 46, 59
Comprehensive Performance Assessment (CPA) 412
conceptual analysis 46
Conservative Party 32, 35, 78, 441
Globalization and Global Poverty Policy Group 714–15
and newspapers 176–7, 178
statecraft (1979–1997) 941–3
consociation: in Northern Ireland 388–9
constitution 59
Constitution Unit 63–4
constitutional monarchy 244–5
Constitutional Reform Act 2005: 248, 264, 271–2, 273, 274, 278
constitutionalism 239–59
constitution: content 244–52
constitution: unwritten, consequences of 239–42
constitutional monarchy 244–5
contemporary challenges to 252–8
devolution and Union State 249–52
and EU 252–5
ministerial responsibility 249
move from political to legal 242–3, 254–5
and New Labour 255–8
parliament, sovereignty of 243, 245–6
(p. 967)
rule of law 243, 246–7
separation of powers 248–9
Conway v Wade [1909] AC 606: 262–3, 265–6
corporatism 32
counter‐terrorism legislation 255–6
CPA (Comprehensive Performance Assessment) 412
cultural studies 130–1
culture 119, 120, 129–30, 507
Daily Express 176, 177
Daily Herald 176
Daily Mirror 176
dealignment 46, 77, 466–8, 467
debt 876
delegation 303–21
constitutional history and theory 310–14
delegated governance 316
politicization of 319–21
Russian Doll Model (RDM) 314–19, 315, 318
study traditions: T1/‘Americanist’ 305–7, 306
study traditions: T2/‘Europeanist’ 306, 307–8
study traditions: T3/‘British’ 306, 308–10
Westminster Model (WM) 313
Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) 384–5, 392, 392, 393, 523, 524–5
Denmark: new parties in 284
Department for International Development (DFID) 699–700, 702–7, 709–15
depoliticization 320–1, 326
devolution 30–1, 38, 235, 385
double 413
England and 398, 512
EU membership and 847
and federalism 63–4
further reform 398–9
and multi‐level governance 353
Northern Ireland and 250, 251, 384–5, 386, 388–9, 397, 435
regional 386, 389–91, 393–4, 435
Scotland and 250, 251–2, 384, 386, 388, 391–2, 397, 435
and taxes 407
in UK: post‐devolution government 394–8
union: reconfiguration of 396–8
and Union State 249–52
DFID (Department for International Development) 699–700, 702–7, 709–15
diaries 174, 175, 178
disaffection 46
discourse theory 126–7
Doha Round 713, 714
double devolution 413
DUP (Democratic Unionist Party) 384–5, 392, 392, 393, 523, 524–5
ECB (European Central Bank) 558, 920, 921
ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights) 252, 255–6, 270
ECHR (European Court of Human Rights) 758–9
Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) 557, 559, 846
education 620–4, 885, 888
ethnic groups 743–4, 745–6
FE 615, 622
FSM eligibility and 622
HE 618, 623
social capital and 790–1
Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) 622–3
EHRC (Equalities and Human Rights Commission) 642
EiC (Excellence in Cities) initiative 622
employment
‘flexicurity’ 913, 915, 923–4
EMU (Economic and Monetary Union) 557, 559, 846
England 501–13
citizenship 506
culture 507
and devolution 512
and Europe 509
immigration 508
as modern nation 508–11
nationalism 501–13
patriotism: between the wars 506–7
patriotism: late Victorian/Edwardian 504–6
Powellism 128, 508, 741
and regional devolution 386, 389–91, 393–4, 435
regions 511
within UK before 1900: 502–4
Enron 375
Entick v Carrington (1765) 247
environmental issues: protests 727, 728, 729, 786
Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) 653–4
Equalities and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) 642
Equalities Review 661
ERM (Exchange Rate Mechanism) 470, 558, 840, 899, 900–1, 942–3
ESS (European Security Strategy) 842
Essex model of party support 469–70
Essex University 44–5, 51, 76, 97
ethnicity
Asian identity 486
black identity movement 485–6
Bradford Pakistani community 488–9
diversity in UK 740
and education 743–4, 745–6
(p. 968)
and religion 484–97
and unemployment 743, 744–5, 744, 746
Euro‐scepticism 554, 559–60, 565–6
European Central Bank (ECB) 558, 920, 921
European Commission: and gender equality 655
European Consortium for Political Research 38, 44–5
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 252, 255–6, 270
European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) 758–9
European Court of Justice 253, 559, 655, 656
European devolution 423–36
development of 424–7
devolution as concept 423–4
division of powers 431–3
intergovernmental relations 433–4
models of devolved government 428–31
European economy 912–28
and capitalism 912–13
European social model and British politics 924–6
European welfare capitalisms 915–18
governance and ‘clash of capitalisms’ 913–15
labour market institutions and unemployment 918–19
Lisbon process 921–4, 927
macroeconomic policy and unemployment 919–21
European Security Strategy (ESS) 842
European Union (EU) 553–67
America and 586–7
Blair government and 554, 560–6
Britain and 586–7
Britain as awkward partner 556–60
and co‐evolution 838, 839
and coexistence 838, 839
Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 842
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) 842
Constitutional Treaty 564, 565–6
constitutionalism and 252–5
and contestation 838, 839
continued membership of 38
economic globalization 562
enlargement 561–2
European Security Strategy (ESS) 842
and gender equality 652
and gender mainstreaming (GM) 653
institutional analyses of 64
and integration 838–9
membership, and devolution 847
New Labour and 560–6
newspapers and 178
Rapid Reaction Force 554, 563
Regional Development Fund 847
Schengen Agreement 843
Single Currency/eurozone 565
Single Market 556–7, 563–4
St Malo Declaration 843
and worlds of compliance 839 see also Europeanization
Europeanization 64, 837–51
institutions 845–8
policy 839–44
polity 844–5
study of 838–9
UK experience 839–48
UK experience: explanation of 848–50
Excellence in Cities (EiC) initiative 622
Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) 470, 558, 840, 899, 900–1, 942–3
executive sovereignty 223
Factortame 253–4
faith schools 491, 493, 494
Falklands War 592
family–work life balance 688–9
FCO (Foreign and Commonwealth Office) 702, 703–4, 845–6
FDI (foreign direct investment) 866–9, 868, 869, 875–6, 902
federalism 59, 63–4
Federation of Small Businesses (FSB) 370–1
feminism 138–51
within academy 140–2, 141
liberal 139
Marxist 139
and New Labour 140, 143, 146
post‐structural 140
and postmodernism 144–5
and racial issues 145–6
Radical 139, 146–7
socialist 139, 140
standpoint 144
and study of politics 142–50
Financial Services Act 1986: 331–2
Financial Services Authority (FSA) 332, 902 ‘flexicurity’ 913, 915, 923–4
Food Standards Agency (FSA) 826–8
Foreign Affairs (US journal) 49, 50
Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) 702, 703–4, 845–6
foreign direct investment (FDI) 866–9, 868, 869, 875–6, 902
foreign exchange markets 870, 871
France: new parties in 284
FSA (Financial Services Authority) 332, 902
FSB (Federation of Small Businesses) 370–1
(p. 969) GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 937
GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters) 753, 755, 761–2
gender 646–61
definition of 647–9
equal opportunities 650–2
and public discourse 649–50
gender equality (GE) 646
anti‐discrimination legislation 653–4
European Commission and 655
European Court of Justice and 655, 656
European Union (EU) and 652
New Labour and 656–8
1980s/1990s 654–6
post‐1997: 656–9
gender mainstreaming (GM) 646, 653, 659
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 937
general elections
results since 1945: 290
share of electorate 290, 291
turnout 107–8, 234, 290
General Medical Council (GMC) 334–5
generational politics 664–79
generational relations, prospects for 676–8
grey power myth 671–2
new politics of 664–5, 667–71
old politics of 665–7
political participation, barriers to 672–6
globalization 562, 582–3, 601–2, 767–8, 855–77
Anglo‐Saxon model of adaptation, myth of 874–7
attitudes towards 859–61, 860
and British economic interdependence 863–73, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868, 869, 870, 871, 872, 872, 873
and British political analysis 861–3
definition of 861–3
New Labour and 600, 856–7
public discourse in Britain 856–61, 858, 860
security state and 760–1
and welfare state 916, 917
Globalization and Global Poverty Policy Group 714–15
GMC (General Medical Council) 334–5
gold standard 934–6
Good Friday Agreement 524, 525, 526
governance 38, 59
and central state 348–51
and ‘clash of capitalisms’ 913–15
delegated 316
disaggregation of 351–60
and governance narratives 348–51
multi‐level 353–4
networked 46
social humanism and 132–3
Westminster Model 348, 349
Whitehall Model 348, 349
Governance of Britain Green Paper 245
government
parliamentary party and 443–4
patterns of alternation in 293
Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) 753, 755, 761–2
governmentality theory 119, 120, 121–5
Anglo‐Foucauldians 122–3
liberal governmentalities 123–4
subjectivity 124–5
Greater London Authority 394
Green Party 297, 441
grey power myth 671–2
Gulf War 599
heresthetics 83
historical institutionalism: and path dependency 67–8
history: and politics 27, 37 n., 43–4
House of Commons 29, 30, 145, 225
functions of 226
Procedure Committee 229
Public Administration Committee (PAC) 373
Public Administration Select Committee (PASC) 314, 317
reform proposals 30–1
relationship with House of Lords 240–1
standing committees 227
strategic interaction with House of Lords 84
and television 180
House of Lords
functions of 225, 227–8, 232
and legislation 227–8
reform of 30–1, 228, 232–3
relationship with House of Commons 240–1
strategic interaction with House of Commons 84
as veto point 67
house prices 876–7
Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) 240, 247, 255–6, 268, 270
humanism 129–33
idealism: and behaviouralism 95–6
identity politics 166–7
identity voting 461–79
Alford Index 466, 467
dealignment 466–8, 467
electoral participation 474–6
electorate alignment 462–6
Essex model of party support 469–70
floating voters 464
(p. 970)
national identity and 477–9, 479
partisan identification 462, 463
party identification 473
social class and voting 464–6, 464
social cleavages 463–4
valence issues 468–74, 471, 476, 477
immigration 508, 593–4, 634–5, 843
asylum seekers 593–4, 735–6, 739–40, 740, 843
and citizenship 735–50
citizenship policies 742–3, 746–7
economic 737–8, 738
ethnic diversity in UK 740
family migrants 739, 739
immigration policies 736–40, 747–50
integration outcomes 743–5
integration policies 740–2
labour markets 872–3
migrants' success/failure 745–6
multiculturalism 746–7
imports/exports 864–6, 865, 866, 867, 868
indirect racial discrimination 487
inflation 469, 693, 876–7, 880, 904–5, 921, 940
low 874
and monetarism 580
institutional isomorphism 64
institutional racism 637–8, 639–41
institutional theory
in political science 57–8
institutionalism 57–71
actor‐centered 65
further/future directions 70
historical 67–8
new 58, 61–4
old 59–61, 66
and political analysis 58–64
puzzles/paradoxes 66–70
questions arising from 64–70
rational choice 62–3, 66
institutions: veto point model 66–7
Intelligence and Security Committee (ISC) 758–9
International Accounting Standards Board 338
International Affairs (UK journal) 49, 50
international development 699–715
aid budget 705, 705–6
aid policy: aid and poverty reduction 706–10
aid policy: selectivity and conditionality 710–12
British development policy (2008) 713–15
context 701–3
economic development policy 712–13
organization 703–5
international economy 932–46
balance of payments 938–40
Bretton Woods Agreement 937–8, 939–40
and British economy 900–1
Conservative statecraft (1979–1997) 941–3
inter‐war gold standard 934–6
interdependence 932
New Labour and 901–5
New Labour ‘Third Way’ 943–5
Operation Robot 939–40
International Growth Centre 715
International Organization (US journal) 49, 50
international political economy 46
international relations 6
International Social Survey Programme Citizenship Survey 774, 775
international studies 46
International Studies Quarterly (US journal) 49, 50
International Trade Organization (ITO) 937
interpretivism 360–1
and central departments 357
central state and 343–50
and civil service 358
and core executive 355
and power 352–3
and presidentialization of prime ministerial role 356
IRA
security state and 757
IRA (Irish Republican Army) 525, 526, 527–8
Iraq war 182–3, 231–2, 244, 598, 599, 600, 786
Iraqi WMD 764–6
ISC (Intelligence and Security Committee) 758–9
ISI database 48, 49 n.19, 50, 51
Italy: new parties in 284
ITO (International Trade Organization) 937
JAC (Judicial Appointments Commission) 273, 274, 278
jihadism: responses to 531–2
Joint Committee on Human Rights 255
journalism, political 172–85
journals 48–9, 50
Judicial Appointments Commission (JAC) 273, 274, 278
judiciary 248, 262–79
judicial review: and judicial accountability 274–7
judicial review: effectiveness of 267–71
judicial review: legitimacy of 271–4
law of 242, 247
parliamentary sovereignty and rule of law 264–7
power of 255
Kosovo War 599
labour market institutions: and unemployment 918–19
labour markets 872–3
(p. 971) Labour Party 32, 35, 37, 78, 441
and connection with workers 131–2
and newspapers 176, 177, 178 see also New Labour
leadership 78–9, 470
charismatic 197–9
party 447–50
personal 69–70, 355–6
legislatures 59
Liberal Democrat Party 38, 297, 441
liberal feminism 139
Liberal Party 38, 176, 177
liberalism 123–5
Lisbon (Reform) Treaty 564, 565–6
lobbying 365–80, 823
assessment of 379–80
by business 374
cash for access 376–7
cash for questions 373, 376
content of 378–9
and corruption 374–7
definition of 368–9
insider policy‐making 365–8
lobbyists, types of 369–72, 370
political journalism and 180–1
professional, development of 373
Standing Advisory Committee (on Business Appointments) 377–8
local government 406–7
club theory 84
rational choice 84–6
resource dependency approach 60
study of 60
Tiebout model 84–5
urban regime theory 60 see also localism
localism 404–19
Blair Paradox 416–18
foundations of 405–6
New Labour and 412–18
new localism 410–18
19th‐century 409–10
power and 408–9
21st‐century: origins of 410–12
logical positivism 93
London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) 27, 51, 76, 157, 168
Maastricht Treaty 434, 558
opt‐outs 840–1
Macpherson Report 640
Magna Carta 240, 243
Malta 291 n.
marketization 879–94
internal markets 887–8
perceived remoteness from private sector 890–3
perceived unwanted services 886–9
private subcontracting 888–9
public services: perceived unresponsiveness to users 880–6
public–private partnerships (PPPs) 892–3
Marxism 46
and behaviouralism 96
post‐Marxism 119, 120, 125–9
Marxist feminism 139
masculinities 149
MCB (Muslim Council of Britain) 491–2, 747
MCS (Millennium Cohort Study) 618–19
meaning holism: anti‐foundationalism and 116–17, 118
media 106–7
Blair and 183
Brown and 183–4
ethnic press 176
journals 48–9, 50
newspapers 175–7, 178, 181–2
and political marketing 808–9
radio 178
television 175, 178–9, 180, 182–3
women's magazines 176
median voter theorem (MVT) 78
Merrison Committee 334–5
Metropolitan Police Special Branch 753, 755
MI6 753, 760
migration 593, 872–3
in‐migration 872
out‐migration 873 see also immigration
Millennium (UK journal) 49, 50
Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) 618–19
ministerial powers 244–5
ministerial responsibility 35, 80–1, 223, 229, 241–2, 249, 311, 357
move from political to legal constitutionalism and 243
and RDM 317
minority rule 38
modernist empiricism 96, 99
monetarism 580–1, 582
multi‐level governance 353–4
multiculturalism 166–7, 593–6, 746–7
municipalism 409–10
Muslim community 594, 643
Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) 491–2, 747
MVT (median voter theorem) 78
NAIRU (non‐accelerating inflation rate of unemployment) 919
nation: definition of 517
National Criminal Intelligence Service 758, 761
(p. 972) national economic policy 897–909
British and international economy 900–1
New Labour and international economy 901–5
New Labour and political success in economic policy 905–7
National Health Service (NHS) 335, 396, 686, 742, 885, 888
national identity
British Empire and 591–6
features of 517–18
and identity voting 477–9
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) 826, 888
national minimum wage (NMW) 656, 658, 694, 926
National Pensioners Convention (NPC) 669
national sovereignty 235
National Statistics Socio‐Economic Classification (NS‐SEC) 610
nationalism 166–7
definition of 518
English 501–13
Irish 525–9
NATO 579
NDC (New Deal for Communities) 414
neo‐Marxism 37
neoliberalism 123–4, 417–18, 580–1, 582, 668
Netherlands: party system 284–5
networked governance 46
New Deal for Communities (NDC) 414
new institutionalism 58, 61–4
New Labour 38, 78
and British Constitution 255–8
Comprehensive Performance Assessment (CPA) 412
and EU 560–6
and European social model 924–5
feminism and 140, 143, 146
foreign policy 598, 599–601
and gender equality 656–8
and globalization 600, 856–7
and inequality 917
and international economy 901–5
and localism 412–18
and lone parent premium 693–4
macroeconomic policy 920
political success in economic policy 905–7
social theories 132
Third Way 943–5
and valence issues 468
New Left 119, 120, 129–30
New Public Management (NPM) 46, 891–2
newspapers 106–7, 175–7, 178, 181–2
NHS (National Health Service) 335, 396, 686, 742, 885, 888
NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) 826, 888
nimbyism 822–3
NMW (national minimum wage) 656, 658, 694, 926
non‐accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU) 919
Northern Ireland 517–33
British national identity 529–33
Catholicism 521, 530–1
consociation in 388–9
and devolution 250, 251, 384–5, 386, 388–9, 397, 435
and identity voting 477–8
Irish unity 530–1
loyalism 522
nationalism 525–9
Protestantism 522, 525, 530
rival national identities in NI 523–9
rival national identities in UK 518–22
security state and 756–7
self‐determination 529–30
unionists 521–2, 523–5, 529
novels 201–16
class and 208–11
Empire 213–14
First World War 204–6
post‐1945: 214–16
power 211–13
time 208
town and country 207–8
NPC (National Pensioners Convention) 669
NPM (New Public Management) 46, 891–2
NS‐SEC (National Statistics Socio‐Economic Classification) 610
Nuffield Electoral Studies series 14
Oakeshottian teaching and tradition 154–69
Experience and Its Modes 156, 157–8
identity politics/multiculturalism 166–7
‘Political Education’ 160–1
‘The Study of “Politics” in a University’ 160, 162–3
ODA (Overseas Development Administration) 702
ODM (Overseas Development Ministry) 701, 702
OECD 668, 891, 924
OFSTED 333–4
old institutionalism 59–61, 66
OMS (Oxford Mobility Study) 611
open method of coordination (OMC) 844, 922–3, 924, 925
Operation Robot 939–40
opposition parties 226
Overseas Development Administration (ODA) 702
(p. 973) Overseas Development Ministry (ODM) 701, 702
Oxford Mobility Study (OMS) 611
Oxford University 4, 26–7, 51, 76
Parekh Report 593, 595
parliament 221–35
committee system 84, 229
and democracy 232–4
and legislation 225–8
Modernization Committee 227
and parliamentary government 222–4
Procedure Committee 226–7
rational choice 83–4
roles of 224–5
and scrutiny 228–32
select committee system 229–32, 234
sovereignty 245–6
sovereignty of 240
study of 60 see also parliamentary sovereignty
Parliamentary Labour Party: and SDP 444
parliamentary sovereignty 27, 29, 38, 222–3, 240, 252–5
and constitutionalism 243, 245–6
EU and 252–4
and rule of law 264–7
participation
barriers to 672–6
choice theories 788–9
in contemporary Britain 776–88, 777, 778, 779, 780, 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 787
macro‐participation 777–86, 779
membership of organizations 783, 783–5, 784, 785
micro‐participation 777, 778, 786–8, 787
participant profiles 779–83, 781, 782
and risk governance 828
and social capital 788–91
and social capital: relationship model 792–4, 793
structural theories 789
voters and 810–11
party activism 776
party membership 776, 778
party system 283–99
change, scope for 295–8
cleavage structure 292–3
competition, structure of 292, 295, 297–8
Labour/Conservative seat shares 296
membership/engagement 296
new parties, challenge of 284–6
parties and 442–4
understanding 286–9
weak parties in strong party system 289–95
path dependency 65–6, 67–8
historical institutionalism and 67–8
welfare state 63
pension schemes 667–8, 671, 679, 686, 687–8
Pensions Commission 687–8
personal leadership 69–70, 355–6
PFI (Private Finance Initiative) 892–3
place‐shaping 413
Plaid Cymru 384, 478, 542, 545–6
pluralism 30, 31, 47
political analysis
behaviouralism and 33–4
history and 27, 33
history of study of 25–40
institutionalism and 58–64
psychology and 27
political business cycle 46
political economy models
principal–agent 81–3
transaction costs bureau‐shaping 81
political journalism 172–85
blogging 184
gallery reports 180
Internet and 184–5
journalist/politician relationship 172–5, 179–80
lobby correspondents 180–1
television and 178–9
political marketing 798–813
as academic literature 802
background 800–1
definitions in literature 802–4
literature and practice 808–11
market segmentation 806–7
media and 808–9
models and concepts 804–8
political structures 809
as practice 801
prescription of 811–12
societal structures 810
voters and participation 810–11
political participation, see participation
political parties 441–57
campaigning methods 452–3
change/continuity 454–6
electoral environment 441, 442, 444–7
funding 450, 451–2
ideational environment 441, 442, 453, 454–6
institutional environment 441–4
membership 450–1
party leadership 447–50
and party system 442–4
rational choice 78–9
socio‐economic environment 441, 442, 453–4
political science
anti‐foundationalism and 117–19
behaviouralism and 103–8
(p. 974)
future development suggestions 20–1
history of 8–15
institutional analysis and 65
institutional theory in 57–8
insularity of 12–13, 15, 20
inter‐war years 29–32
pluralism of 5–6
post‐1945: 27, 32–5
pre‐1914: 26–9
professionalism and 4–8, 10, 11, 15–16, 20
professionalization of 10, 11–12, 20, 25–6, 38–9
and public culture 7, 16–18
qualitative 343, 344, 347–8, 360–1
quantitative 343–7, 344, 360–1
Political Science Association (PSA), USA 28, 43 n.4
political science departments
contribution to public life 52–3
world rankings 49–51, 51
Political Studies (UK journal) 43, 48, 49, 50, 97
Political Studies Association (PSA), UK 33, 43 n.2, 49
political theory 4, 46
politics
behaviouralism and 27–8
development as academic discipline 3–21
Differentiated Polity Model 38
in higher education 28
and history 27, 37 n., 43–4
pluralism and 30, 31
since 1990s 37–9
study of: in America 38–9
study of: British 42–53
study of: at Cambridge University 9, 26–7, 28
study of: at Oxford University 4, 26–7
Whig view 28–30
politics of presence 46
positivism 93
post‐behaviouralism: behaviouralism and 100–3
post‐Marxism 119, 120, 125–9
post‐structural feminism 140
postmodernism: feminism and 144–5
poverty 616–17, 619
child 609, 614–15, 689, 694, 892
in old age 671, 689
poverty reduction, aid and 706–10
rich–poor gap 689–90
Powellism 128, 508, 741
Power Inquiry 233–4
PPPs (public–private partnerships) 892–3
PRCA (Public Relations Consultants Association) 372
prime minister, office of 69–70, 355–6
Private Finance Initiative (PFI) 892–3
privatization 880, 882–3
programme motions 227
protest 719–31, 786
definition of 719–20
environmental issues 727, 728, 729, 786
impact of 728–30
incidence of 720–2
protesters 722–4
and social movements 725–8
Provisional IRA 527, 529
PSA (Political Science Association), USA 28, 43 n.4
PSA (Political Studies Association), UK 33, 43 n.2, 49
PSA (Public Service Agreement) targets 354
psychoanalytic theory 127
psychology 27, 109
public–private partnerships (PPPs) 892–3
Public Relations Consultants Association (PRCA) 372
Public Service Agreement (PSA) targets 354
public services: perceived unresponsiveness to users 880–6, 881
qualified majority voting (QMV) 557, 561–2
quangos 316
race 629–43
cultural racism 643
institutional racism 637–8, 639–41
police–community relations 639–41
race making 630–2
race relations paradigm 632–6, 642
racial identities 127–8
representation of minority groups 636–9
Race Relations Act 1965: 633, 635, 653
Race Relations Act 1968: 633, 635, 653, 741
Race Relations Act 1976: 633, 487, 635, 638, 639, 741–2
Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000: 492, 742
racial identities 127–8
racial issues 145–6, 487
Radical feminism 139, 146–7
radio 178
Rapid Reaction Force 554, 563
rational choice theory 75–86
cabinet studies 79–81
core executive 81–3
electoral politics 77–8
literature 76–7
local government 84–6
methodology 75
and monitoring 82
Parliament 83–4
political parties 78–9
rational choice institutionalism 62–3, 66
RDM (Russian Doll Model) 314–19, 315, 318
(p. 975) RDR (Rural Development Regulation) 842
referendums 38
Regional Development Fund 847
regulation 325–39
command regulation 336–8 see also self‐regulation
religion
anti‐Semitism 506
Catholicism 521, 530–1
ethnicity and 484–97
faith schools 491, 493, 494
Muslims 484, 486, 489–93, 494, 495–7
Protestantism 504, 522, 525, 530
religious equality 491–7
Satanic Verses affair 489
and secularism 494–5
Sikhs 487–8, 493
Report of the 1918 Committee on the Machinery of Government 311–12
Republic of Ireland 542
Review of International Studies (UK journal) 49, 50
Rio Declaration, UN 827
risk
governance failures 824–5
governance reform 825–8
and interest group politics 822–4
as organizing principle of governance 829–31
public and 820–2
risk assessment 830
technology and 818–32
rule of law
constitutionalism and 243, 246–7
parliamentary sovereignty and 264–7
Runnymede Trust 495 n.
Rural Development Regulation (RDR) 842
Russian Doll Model (RDM) 314–19, 315, 318
St Malo Declaration 843
Scandinavian Political Studies 49, 50
Scarman Report 639–40
Schengen Agreement 843
Scotland 535
Constitutional Convention 546
culture and nationalism 543–5
and devolution 250, 251–2, 384, 386, 388, 391–2, 397, 435
and devolution: background to 537–43
and identity voting 478–9, 479
post‐devolution 547–50
Scottish Parliament 251
Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) 378
Scottish National Party (SNP) 384, 478–9, 542, 545, 546
and Devolution Commission 388
SDLP (Social Democratic and Labour Party) 392, 392, 526, 528, 531
SDP (Social Democrat Party) 444
SEA (Single European Act) 556–7, 559, 942
secularism 494–5
securitization 46
security state 752–68
European Court of Human Rights 758–9
and globalization 760–1
IRA 757
and Iraqi WMD 764–6
Northern Ireland 756–7
surveillance 754, 759–60, 766–7
and terrorism post‐7/7: 766–7
and terrorism/post‐9/11: 762–4
and torture 767
self‐regulation 326–36
and cartels 329–30
crisis of 326–30
financial 327, 328, 330, 331–3
of medicine 330, 334–6
and scandals 329–30, 335
of schools 333–4
transformation of 331–6
self‐regulatory organizations (SROs) 331–2
SEPA (Scottish Environment Protection Agency) 378
Serious Organized Crime Agency (SOCA) 753
SGP (stability and growth pact) 920–1
Single European Act (SEA) 556–7, 559, 942
Single Market 556–7, 563–4
single‐member plurality system (SMPS) 443
Sinn Fein 384–5, 388, 392, 392, 393, 526, 527, 528–9
SNP (Scottish National Party) 384, 478–9, 542, 545, 546
and Devolution Commission 388
SOCA (Serious Organized Crime Agency) 753
social capital
participation and 788–91
and participation: relationship model 792–4, 793
Social Charter 557
social constructivism: anti‐foundationalism and 117
Social Democrat Party (SDP) 444
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) 392, 392, 526, 528, 531
social exclusion 675–6
social humanism 119, 120
anti‐foundationalism and 129–33
and governance 132–3
New Left 119, 120, 129–30
and resistance 133
Thatcherism 131–2
(p. 976) social mobility 609–20, 613
education and 614, 615–17, 616, 617, 618–19
patterns and trends 610–11
social movements: protest and 725–8
social science, philosophy of 93
Social Science Research Council 39
socialist feminism 139, 140
SROs (self‐regulatory organizations) 331–2
stability and growth pact (SGP) 920–1
standpoint feminism 144
Steven Report 757
stock markets 870, 871, 872
Strathclyde University 44–5, 51, 97
Stubb Report 369, 372
Sun newspaper 106–7, 175, 177
Sure Start programme 620, 621
surveys 104–6, 109
Switzerland: party system 291–2
Taff Vale Railway Co Ltd v Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants [1901] AC 426: 262
technology
public and 820–2
and risk 818–32
risk society and 819–20
television 178
House of Commons and 180
and political journalism 178–9
terrorism
post‐7/7: 766–7
post‐9/11: 762–4
war against 531–2
Thatcherism 131–2, 140, 348, 350, 941
The Times 172–4, 177
torture 767
Trade Association Forum 372
trade unions 262–3, 265–6
Treaty of European Union, Maastricht 434, 558
opt‐outs 840–1
Trist v Child (1875) 375
UK Action Committee on Islamic Affairs (UKACIA) 491–2
UK Independence Party 441
Ulster Defence Association (UDA) 525
Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) 392, 392, 393, 523–4
Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) 525
unemployment 614–15, 693
ethnic groups 743, 744–5, 744, 746
labour market institutions and 918–19
and macroeconomic policy 919–21
NAIRU (non‐accelerating inflation rate of unemployment) 919
United Kingdom (UK)
devolution in 384–99
European devolution and 434–6
post‐devolution government 394–8 see also England; Northern Ireland; Scotland; Wales
United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) 297
United Nations (UN): Rio Declaration 827
urban regime theory 60
UUP (Ulster Unionist Party) 392, 392, 393, 523–4
UVF (Ulster Volunteer Force) 525
veto‐player theory 81
Vietnam War 599
voter disengagement 183
voting: and identity 461–79
voting behaviour 294, 298, 810–11
behaviouralism and 98
Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) voters 476–7
and participation 810–11
social class and 464–6, 464
voting studies 101 n.
Wales 535–6
background to devolution 537–43
culture and nationalism 543–5
and devolution 250–1, 384, 386, 387–8, 391, 392–3, 397, 435
electoral polarization 392
and identity voting 478
post‐devolution 547–50
welfare reform 684–95, 918
cost containment 687–8
new politics of welfare 685–91
old politics of welfare 684–5
re‐commodification 686
recalibration in response to social change 688–91
UK style 692–4
US style 691–2
welfare state 124
and ageing, politics of 665–7
capitalism and 913–18
globalization and 916, 917
path dependence 63
West Peripheral Route (WPR) battle, Aberdeen 369–70
Western European Union (WEU) 563
Westminster Hall 224
Westminster Model (WM) 29, 30–1, 222–3, 311–12
challenges to 31–2, 35–7
and delegation 313
and governance 348, 349
Whitehall Model 348, 349
Whitehall Series 61–2
women's magazines 176
Women's Unit (later Women and Equality Unit) 657, 659
Working Time Directive 559
World Politics (US journal) 49, 50
World Trade Organization (WTO) 668, 713, 891
(p. 978) WPR (West Peripheral Route) battle, Aberdeen 369–70