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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 745) Index

(p. 745) Index

Ableman v. Booth (1857)443
abolitionism11, 38, 97, 146, 166–8, 177, 181, 240, 556
African American roles526, 560, 563, 564, 569, 571–2
antislavery activism of 1820s and 1830s399
in Brazil112, 119, 124
in Cuba102–3
in England378, 559–60
gradual approach in British Caribbean563–5, 570
gradual approach in French Caribbean565–7, 570
gradual approach in US558–63, 568–9
immediate approach567–70, 572–4
religious underpinning575 n.2
second French emancipation570–71
of slave trade139, 149
in Spanish South America72, 80, 81, 83
Accara164
Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade167
Act for the better ordering and governing of Negroes (1661)277–8
Act of Emancipation (British)740
Adams, John Quincy610
Adams, John431, 435
Adams, Willi Paul431
Adas, Michael337
Adélaïde-Merlande, Jacques193
African American Christianity379–83, 392
African Burial Ground (New York City)216
African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME)389–90
Africanization276–80, 284, 467
Agency (of slaves)8, 35, 36, 116–17, 121, 211, 229–30
Agorash, Kofi718
Akan/Aja138, 139, 142
Akans164
Alabama241
Mobile364
Albert Batista, Celsa29, 37
Alberta302
Aldama, Domingo de98
Alencastro, Luiz Felipe de586
Allen, Richard389, 392
Allen, Theodore492
Altink, Henrice526
Alvarado, Pedro de49, 50
Amazon River156
American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society573
American Anti-slavery Society572
American Colonization Society408, 563
American Freedman's Inquiry Commission242
American Methodist Episcopal Church389
American Revolution80, 177, 181, 223–4, 227, 234, 238, 345, 388–9, 407–8, 424–5, 430, 432, 447, 450, 535, 547, 560, 673
effects on antislavery movement580
Ethiopian Regiment580
Amerindians136, 139
Amistad573
Anderson, Bonnie557
Andes70
Andrés-Gallego, José69
(p. 746) Anglicans328, 383, 384, 385
Anglo-Spanish Treaty (1817)441
Angola50, 115, 122, 138, 156, 163, 183, 476
angolas51, 55, 58, 60
Anguilla136
Annales school112, 179
Anne I325
anomie116–17
Antelope (1825)441
Anti-Federalists435
Antigua138, 145, 146, 149, 300, 454, 459, 708, 730
sugar production734, 738
Antilles70
Apaches322, 323, 325
Aponte Rebellion100–1, 360
Aponte, José Antonio100, 586
apprenticeship282
Aptheker, Herbert9, 246 n.23, 461
Arabs338
Arawaks136
archaeology
plantations and other built environments703–7
religious expression712–16
slave consumption, production, and exchange707–13
resistance717–18
Arcos, Marqués de98
Ardouin, Alexis Beaubrun177, 185, 190, 612
Argentina69, 73, 80, 83, 303, 585
Buenos Aires8, 71, 72, 78
Córdoba77
Arizona326
Arkansas323, 366, 371
Armitage, David671
Armstrong, Douglas704
Armstrong, George D.550
Articles of Confederation434
artisans10, 74, 366, 455, 515
Aruba155, 157–8, 162, 169, 315
asiento (slave–trading contract)50, 71, 72, 80, 94–5, 97, 157
Aubert, Guillaume187
Augustinians73
autonomy145, 160, 184, 204, 208, 215, 224, 232, 400, 578
Azoca, don Louis López de57
Aztecs48, 313
Bacon, Nathaniel323, 448
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)323
Badillo, Jalil Sued34
Bahamas136, 151 n.9, 315
Bahamas651
Bailey, David Thomas692
Bailyn, Bernard671
Baiz, Gelpí34
BaKongo715–16
Balboa, Vasco Núñez de50
Bambara220
Bancroft Prize13
Bancroft, Frederic625, 628–9, 630, 631
baptism382, 388
Baptist, Edward E.237, 239, 518
Baptists384, 385, 389, 395–6 n.22, 431
Baralt, Guillermo31, 37
Barbadian Plantation Complex207
Barbados741
Barbados4, 37, 142, 144, 149, 176, 215, 299, 300, 360, 357 n.7, 406, 430, 732
Akan/Aja ethnicities, 138, 139
Bridgetown8
as model for other slave societies207, 208, 209, 210, 277, 280, 284
slave rebellion146
slave religion712
slavery charter period134–6, 139–40
sugar production135, 141, 143, 206, 208, 214, 579, 734, 738
treatment of women517
Barbuda136
Barcia, Manuel90, 101, 638
Barcia, María del Carmen96, 103
Barickman, B. J.113
Barry, Boubacar481
Bastide, Roger123
Batellas, Angela83
Baud, J. C.168
Bautista, Juan62
(p. 747) Bay, Mia558
Bayly, Christopher675, 677
Beard, Charles556
Becker, Gary489, 556
Beckles, Hilary149, 476, 514, 515, 518, 527
Beeldsnijder, Ruud169
Behrendt, Stephen D.100
Belize47, 54, 63
Bellgarde-Smith, Patrick614
bells240
Beltrán, Gonzalo Aguirre46
Benedictines383
benevolence myth23, 25–7, 30, 35, 228, 246 n.23, 293, 362, 393, 403, 405, 408, 412–13, 414, 537, 538, 541
Benito el Negro50
Bennett, Herman56, 60
Bento, Antônio591
Berbice River156
Berbice158, 168
Bergad, Laird W.504, 637–8, 668
beriberi303–4, 305
Berkenhead, Isaac142
Berlin, Ira134, 202, 205, 216, 220–1, 374, 433, 472, 475, 476, 574, 668
Bermuda134, 140, 142, 148, 151 n.9, 730
Berry, Daina Ramey495, 515, 518
Berry, Mary Frances470
Biassou, Georges605, 606
Bierck, Harold, Jr.83
Biet, Antoine142
Bight of Benin100, 115, 120, 122, 137, 180, 183, 189
Bight of Biafra51, 100, 115, 137, 138, 192, 715
Bissette, Cyrille193, 570–1
Black Code222, 736
black education740–2
black Jacobins607, 675
black Loyalists450
black majorities140, 160, 173, 175, 210, 214, 215, 221, 383, 430, 447, 451, 452, 473, 599
black Moravians382, 384
black Seminoles350, 718
black soldiers15 n.8, 115, 221, 443, 561
black tongue, see pellagra
Blackburn, Robin607, 667, 671, 673
Blackstone, William559–60
Blassingame, John W.229, 230, 344, 365, 469, 470, 478, 519, 523, 689–90, 691
Bleby, Henry148
Bledsoe, Albert Taylor403
Bloch, Mark664, 666
Blumenbach, Johann Frederick342
bodies239–40
Bogard, Mark709
Bolívar, Simón83, 584, 610
Bolivia69, 71, 72, 80, 318
Potosí73, 80, 317
Bolton, Charles C.365–6
Bonaire155, 157–8, 162, 169
Bonaparte, Joseph583
Bonaparte, Josephine566
Bonaparte, Napoleon566
Bond, Bradley G.369, 376 n.25
Bonilla, Raúl Cepero23
Bonner, Robert549
Border South369
Borrego Plá, María del Carmen79
Botkin, B. A.469
Botkin, Benjamin689
Boukman605
Boulle, Pierre H.186
Bowman, Shearer Davis669
Bowser, Frederick69, 74, 84
Boxer, C. R.112
Boyer, Jean-Pierre27
bozales (African-born slaves)70, 82, 160
Braddick, Lawrence671
Bradley, Gracy710
Braithwaite, Edward138
branding81, 316
Braude, Benjamin338
Brazil4, 5, 6, 10, 13, 40, 52, 83, 99, 102, 106, 141, 144, 163, 175, 206, 208, 210, 275, 277, 285, 319, 329, 348–9, 368, 383, 412, 492, 499, 504, 537, 540, 542, 549, 575, 579, 586, 587
Bahia112, 124, 360, 625, 637, 670, 671, 678
(p. 748) Bahia Rebellions360, 458
barracón de patio705
coffee industry677, 737
Conservative Party119
Dantas-Saraiva-Cotegipe Law (1885)124
electoral law (1881)119
emancipation579–80, 584, 586–92, 593, 728, 731
Espírito Santo112
free(d) people of color579
glass709
Goiás125
Golden Law (1888)124
hookworm301
immigrant labor737
interracial social actions455
maroon communities675, 717
Matanzas579
Mauritsstad156
Minas Gerais112, 113, 115, 118, 119, 120, 125, 637
nutrition, 302–3, 305
Palmares121–2
Paraíba Valley112, 114, 122
Paraná, 112, 115
Pernambuco112, 121, 124, 125, 156, 587, 591, 637
Recife156, 157
religion383
Rio Branco Law (1871)124
Rio das Velhas120
Rio de Janeiro112, 113, 115, 119, 120, 123, 124, 125, 300, 583, 586, 587
Rio Grande do Sul112, 113
Sabará118
Salvador8, 112, 123, 387, 458, 459, 586
Santa Catarina112
São José del Rey118
São Paulo112, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 120, 124, 125, 318, 587, 591
seventeenth century381
slave culture467, 646, 675, 714
sugar plantations360, 494, 579, 582, 636, 645, 739
Breen, T. H.340
Brissot, Jacques Pierre565, 566
Bristol, Joan55
British America185
British Caribbean37, 115, 727
British Colonial Office740–1
British Guiana136, 149, 158, 167, 168, 734, 738
British Honduras136, 151 n.9
British Virgin Islands136
Broglie, Victor de566
Brother Thornton394
Brown Fellowship Society346
Brown, Christopher557, 563, 575–6 n.5
Brown, Kathleen527
Brusone, Julio LeRiverend23
Bryant, Sherwin73, 78, 81
Bullet, Jeannot605
Burke, Edmund7, 370
Burke, Emily387
Burnard, Trevor527
Burton, Richard613
Bush, Barbara476, 513, 521
Bush, Michael669, 670, 672, 676
Butler, Jon385
Butler, Pierce433
Buxton, Thomas567
Byrne, Frank J.367
cabildos de nación100
Cabral, Pedro Alvares156
cacao8, 54, 59, 73, 80, 175, 183
Cáceres, Alonso de93
Cáceres, José Núñez de22
cachaça114
Cairnes, J. E.363
Calatrava, José Maria592
Calhoun, John C.240, 370, 545
California326
Calvinism166, 328
(p. 749) Camp, Stephanie M. H.237, 238, 239, 519, 520
Campbell, Gwyn668, 679
Camus, Jean-Yves195
Canada7, 321, 326
Candomblé123, 387
cannibalism315, 340
Canning, George567
Canny, Nicholas671
Cap Français (Saint-Domingue)8, 183, 188
Cape of Good Hope137
Cape Verde Islands114, 300
capitalism6, 8–9, 229, 230–1, 247 n.28, 280, 456, 475, 490, 539–40, 546, 557, 559
Cardoso, Ciro Flamarion113
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique112
Caribs315
Carmelites383
Carney, Judith A.474
Carnot, Lazare605
Carroll, Patrick66
Cartagena (New Grenada)8, 35
cartas de alforria (writs of freedom)120
Carter, Landon697
Casas, Bartolomé de las49, 70, 90, 92, 316, 402
Cassá, Roberto28, 37
Castañeda, Rodrigo de48
Caste War (1848, Mexico)102
castration76, 523
Castro, Hebe Maria Mattos de117–18, 119
Castro, Sheila de, 117–18
Catholic Church142, 348, 379, 380, 383, 401, 402, 617
in Brazil123
in Dutch colonies156, 161, 162
in French colonies185, 186
in Spanish colonies25, 27, 28, 30, 35, 73, 75, 96
Cayman Islands136
Cecelski, David S.241
cédula76
Celestino de Almeida, Maria Regina125
Cerezeda, Andrés de48
Cerrato, Alfonso López de49
Chagas disease658
Chalhoub, Sidney116, 122
Chandler, David71, 82
Chaplin, Joyce224, 417
Charles III81
Charles IV94
Charles V70
Charles X177
Charlestown, see South Carolina, Charleston
charter generation134
Chase, Salmon574
Chavannes, Jean-Baptiste604, 614
Chaves de Resende, Maria de Leônia125
Cherokees324, 350
Cheves, Langdon433
Chickasaws322–3, 324, 350
children282, 284, 295, 304–5, 324, 329, 424–5, 432, 439, 478–80, 514, 518, 655–6
in Brazil122
in British colonies143–4
and family unity551
in French colonies179
manumission589
in United States224, 233, 234, 236–7
Childs, Matt D.100, 360
Chile7, 72, 76, 80, 83, 316, 317
Chinese laborers102, 705
Chirac, Jacques194–5
Chirino, José Leonardo81
Choctaws323, 350
cholera303
Christianity10–11, 156, 186, 192, 205, 209, 315, 320, 327, 329, 337, 338, 342, 378, 424, 428, 429, 431
black churches388
black versions378–9, 383–7, 388–9
in British colonies142, 147, 148, 150
(p. 750) critiques of slavery166
evangelicalism11, 135, 146, 148, 224, 228, 328, 348, 361, 538, 581
missionaries162
and slaves388, 390, 528, 547
as slavery sanction404, 405, 408, 409, 410, 415, 536–9, 540–1, 543–4, 547, 548, 550–1
in Spanish colonies70, 77 see also Anglicans; Baptists; Catholicism; Methodists; Moravians; Protestantism
Christophe, Henri583
Churchill, Winston493
cimarrones (fugitive slave communities)57, 61, 204, 706
citizenship10, 37, 119, 443
Civil Rights Movement228, 229, 369, 484–5 n.9, 557, 629
Civil War227, 234, 235, 238, 242, 313, 361, 367, 369, 374, 388, 412, 435, 440, 499, 503–4, 535, 541, 545, 551, 560, 561, 569, 573, 575, 736
Civique, Gastine de177
Clarkson, Thomas556, 565
class6, 14, 29, 35
consciousness28, 358, 360, 361, 370, 371, 535
formation358, 362, 370
ideology360, 362, 370
in slaveholding societies357–62
solidarity28
tensions91, 361
Clavière, Etienne565, 566
Clay, Henry569
Clinton, Catherine235
Clitherall, Eliza542–3
clock time240
Cluny, Alexander289 n.23
coartación579
coartación95, 97, 105, 106
Cobb, Thomas Reade Rootes3, 14, 205, 438–9, 548, 574
cobreros94
Coclanis, Peter453
Code Noir (1685)184, 186–7, 220, 221, 424, 518
Código Negro Español (Spanish Black Code)81, 82, 98
Codrington, Christopher142
Coehlo, Philip655
coffee4, 8, 12, 564, 645
in Brazil112, 113, 114, 117, 121, 124
in Dutch colonies158, 159, 163
in French colonies176–7189
in Spanish colonies32, 97, 99, 100
Coffy164
cofradías (confraternities)55–6, 58, 75, 96
Cohen, David185, 186
Colfax, Richard347
Collins, Winfield H.627–8
Colombia68, 72, 73, 77, 82, 83, 318, 349, 495, 585
Bogotá82
Cartagena71, 77, 79, 300
Chocó73, 78
Comunero rebels81
Popayán73
Santa Marta79
colonial era202, 234, 280, 282
colonialism12, 313, 320, 557
English203
Spanish203, 209
Dutch154, 427
French185, 194, 427
Portuguese427
Spanish25, 90, 97, 100–1, 102, 104, 105, 427
Colorado313, 326
Columbus, Bartolomé314
Columbus, Christopher4, 50, 296, 313, 314, 320, 338, 401
Columbus, Diego28
Comanches323, 326
Commonwealth v. Aves (1836)433
Company of the Indies220
compensation63, 168
Compromise of 1850440
comunidad mulata21
(p. 751) Concepción Valdés, Gabriel de la, see Plácido
Condorcet, Nicolas de566
Confederacy542, 551
Confederate Constitution3, 439
Congo183
congos51
Congress of Vienna581, 586
conjure382, 702
Connecticut202, 215, 431, 432
New London441
Conrad, Robert635, 636
consensual sex369
Constant, Benjamin566
Constitution of 1824 (Brazil)119
Constitutional Union Party369
convicts280
Cook, Mercer185
Cook, Noble David297
Cooper, James Fennimore370
Cope, R. Douglas60
copper94
Cord, Marcelo Mac122
Coromantee, see Gold Coast
Coronado Expedition (1540–2)326
Cortés, Hernando48, 49, 50
Cortés, Juan50
Costa Rica54, 59, 315
cacao47
Cartego52, 54
slave trade50–1
cotton gin227
cotton677
cotton8, 114, 201–2, 494, 499, 501, 504, 536, 539, 540, 549, 677
post-Civil War production736–7
in British colonies140
in Dutch colonies158, 159
in Spanish colonies73
in United States205, 206, 215, 223, 224, 234, 241, 247 n.28
Coupland, Reginald556
Courlander, Howard599
Cover, Robert560
Craton, Michael208, 558
Craven, Avery687
Creek War (1813–14)218
Creeks218, 322, 324
creoles360, 384
in Brazil115, 117, 122, 123
in British colonies134, 136, 135, 139, 142, 147
creolization475–6, 482
in Dutch colonies160, 161, 167
in French colonies174, 177, 184, 190, 191
as slaves343, 537
in Spanish colonies35, 47, 55, 57, 60, 77, 82, 94, 97
in United States207, 214, 219
Crosby, Alfred W.297
Crowther, Samuel Ajayi480
Cuba4–6, 8, 10, 12–13, 21–4, 26, 32, 34, 80, 90, 124, 144, 185, 299, 303, 315, 322, 412, 441–2, 499, 504, 575, 579, 637–8, 645, 667, 678, 741
agriculture94–5
Aponte rebellion100–1, 360
barracón de patio705
Bemba uprising (1843)101
Cárdenas101, 457
early modern period92–6
El Cobre94
emancipation579–80, 583, 586–92, 593, 727, 731, 737
free(d) people of color579
gender35
glass709
Guanajay uprising (1833)101
Guamacaro rebellion (1825)101
Guantanamo104
Hatuey rebellion (1511)92
Havana8, 92, 93, 95, 100, 101, 300, 302, 303, 457, 583
indigenous population91–2
(p. 752) La Escalera586
La Guánabana uprising (1843)101
maroons717
Matanzas100, 101, 457
nineteenth century96–106, 542
Puerto Príncipe104
race35
Santa Ana de Biajacas706, 709
Santiago100, 104
slave religion712
slave uprisings457
Spanish conquest91–2
sugar plantations359, 582, 677, 737, 738, 739
Ten Years War (1868–78)103, 104, 105
Wars for Independence103
Cuban Revolution (1959)24, 27, 90
Cubano-Iguina, Astrid590
Cuffe's Rebellion (1763)600
Cuguano, Ottaba480
cultural determinism185
cultural expression8
cultural studies365
Curaçao51, 155, 157–8, 161, 167, 168, 315, 346
De Knip plantation insurrection165
Hato plantation insurrection165
Willemstad165
curandera (healer)77, 78
Curet, José31–2
Curtin, Philip70, 114–15, 135, 182, 214, 294, 480, 495, 657, 667, 669
Cushner, Nicholas73
customary servitude283
Cyrus Cylinder559
Cyrus the Great559
d'Esnambuc, Pierre173
Daget, Serge182, 183
Dahomey192
Danish Virgin Islands162
Dantas-Saraiva-Cotegipe Law (1885), see Brazil, Dantas-Saraiva-Cotegipe Law (1885)
Darnton, Robert10
Davidson, Stanley305
Davies, Samuel388, 389, 390, 391
Dávila, Pedrarias48
Davis, David Brion174, 275, 276, 404, 436, 557, 559, 667, 669, 671–2, 729
Davis, Hugh427
day-laborer slavery26
Daya, Joan188
De Soto entrada332–3 n.10
Deagan, Kathleen718
Dean, Warren112, 116
Debbasch, Yvan190, 1941
Debien, Gabriel178–9, 180, 182, 184, 188, 189, 190, 193, 599
Declaration of Independence560
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen567
Deep South369, 371
Degler, Carl N.340, 341, 369, 666
Deive, Carlos, Esteban26, 27, 41 n.17
Deken, Aagje166
Del Monte, Domingo101
Delaware223, 425–6, 436, 437, 443, 634
Delgrès, Louis615
Delisle, Philippe186
Delle, James704–5
Demarara146, 147, 148, 158, 168, 457, 567–8, 637
Democratic Party562, 563
Democratic-Republican Party562, 563
demographics90, 136, 138–40, 143, 149, 159–60, 170 n.15, 179, 180, 186, 278–79
fertility659–62
health and mortality653
origins of slavery644–5
shifts4, 23, 31
slave trade646–8
sugar plantation conditions656 –, n..9
US plantation conditions654–6
dengue fever657
(p. 753) Denmark301
Deschamps Chapeaux, Pedro91, 96
Dessales, Adrien177
Dessalines, Jean-Jacques583, 609, 610
Dew, Thomas Roderick544, 610
Deyle, Steven370, 633–4
Díaz Díaz, Rafael Antonio82
Díaz Soler, Luis M.30, 31
Díaz, María Chiquinquirá82
Díaz, María Elena94
Diego el Negro49–50
Digital Archaeological Archive of Comparative Slavery (DAACS)719
Diouf, Sylviane387
disease125, 279, 294, 296–7, 313, 315, 321, 325, 329, 493, 516, 543, 609, 644
in British colonies143–4
in Dutch colonies159–60, 164
in Spanish colonies71, 74, 91
District of Columbia424, 433, 441, 442
Dixon, Thomas412, 518
documentary studies202
Domínguez, Lourdes S.705, 714
Dominica151 n.20, 176, 177
Dominican Order52, 56, 73
Dominican Republic, see Santo Domingo
Dorigny, Marcel603, 615
Dorsey, Joseph Carroll34, 39, 638
dos Santos Gomes, Flávio116, 123
Douglas, Stephen573
Douglass, Frederick236, 392, 403, 412, 564, 569, 574, 612
Downey, Tom367, 368
Dragtenstein, Frank169
Drake, Francis204
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)440, 442, 443, 573
Drescher, Seymour155, 504, 557, 667, 672, 731
drinking74, 76, 369, 702
Du Bois Institute (Harvard University)182, 183
Du Bois, W. E. B.434, 612, 687
Dubois, Lawrence192, 193, 557, 601, 603, 608, 615
Duchet, Michèle174, 186
Duke's Law (1665)449
Dunn, Richard S.208, 361, 671
Dunning, William414
Dusinberre, William241
Dutch Caribbean4, 30
emancipation727
Dutch Leeward Islands, see Aruba; Bonaire; Curaçao
Dutch West India Company (WIC)154, 155, 156, 157, 165, 214
Dutch Windward Islands, see Saba; St. Eustatius; St. Maarten
Dutra, Antonio José587
Duvalier, François (“Papa Doc”)601, 613
Duvalier, Jean-Claude (“Baby Doc”)614
Eaton, Clement572
Eblen, Jack646–7
economics of slavery13, 38, 90, 134
autarchy30
origins of490, 499, 500, 505
patterns493, 504, 505, 506
profitability490, 491, 494, 496, 497, 500–2, 504
variations489, 490, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503
Ecuador72, 73, 77, 80, 81, 318
Esmereldas76–7
Guayaquil82, 585
Edelson, Max210, 213
Edwards, Bryan146, 610
Edwards, Laura527
Eguía, Francisco de50
Eisenberg, Peter112
El Dorado69
Eley, Geoff358, 373
Eliot, T. S.12
Elizabeth147
(p. 754) Elkins, Stanley M.228, 230, 232, 241, 403, 415, 468, 469, 489, 666, 688–9, 694
Eltis, David94, 97, 100, 137, 138, 149, 208, 285, 599, 637, 670
Emancipation Act (1833)569
Emancipation League573
Emancipation Proclamation561, 574
Emanuel the Negro428
Emerson, Ralph Waldo370
Emmer, Piet154–5
encomienda system70, 91, 93, 317
Engerman, Stanley L.144, 230–1, 302, 305, 416, 497–8, 505, 540, 557, 629–30, 668, 695
England405, 426
colonialism333 n.17, 333 n.18, 424
common law tradition425
Enlightenment6, 12
Episcopalians439
Equiano, Olaudah480
esclavos de rescate314
esclavos jornaleros, see day-laborer slavery
Essequibo158, 164, 168
estancias94
estate slaves38
Estevanico50
ethnicities4, 7, 9, 29, 90, 112, 139, 180, 182, 220, 474
Central Africans123, 381
East Africans115, 183
West Africans100, 115, 136, 137, 138, 148, 156, 157, 180, 183, 192, 208, 294, 295, 296, 299, 302, 305, 306, 319
West-Central Africans51, 55, 115, 117, 120, 121–2, 136, 137, 138, 140, 189, 379, 380, 481
ethnologists6
Eugenics413
execution79
Faesch, Isaac165
Fallope, Josette193
families117, 118, 124, 147, 189, 220, 233, 234, 235, 439–40, 471, 519–20
Faria, Sheila118, 120
Farnsworth, Paul707
Faust, Drew Gilpin526
February Revolution (1848)571
Federal Republic of Central America63
Federal Writers' Project242
Federalist Party448, 562
Fedon, Julien151 n.20
Fehrenbacher, Don E.436
Felipe de Alencastro, Luis114, 115, 125
femininity37, 522
Fennell, Christopher715–16
Ferdinand II314–15
Ferguson, Leland708, 717
Fernandes, Florestan112
Fernandes, Loureiro717
Fernández, José Ramón590
Ferraz, Lizandra Meyer120
Ferrer, Ada103, 104
fertility159, 305, 306, 342, 493–4, 516–17, 521, 643, 646–7, 653, 659–62
in British colonies136, 144, 147, 151 n.14
in United States235, 238
Fesler, Gary706, 711–12
Fett, Sharla M.237, 239
Few, Martha55
Fick, Carolyn E.198–9 n.32, 600, 601, 603, 605, 617
fictive friendships117
Fields, Barbara Jeanne338, 558
Figueroa, Luis A.34–5, 38, 359
Filho, Walter Fraga122
Finkelman, Paul432, 436, 434, 442
Finley, Moses4, 216
First Confiscation Act (1861)443
First Seminole War (1817–18)219
Fischer, David Hackett276–7
Fitzhugh, George370, 403, 421 n.28, 545, 550, 610, 628 n.30
Florentino, Manolo114
(p. 755) Florida5, 50, 100, 218, 219, 223, 241, 315, 318, 321, 322, 350
St. Augustine10, 219 see also Spanish Florida
Floyd-Wilson, Mary149
Floyd, R. F.460
Fogel, Robert William230–1, 302, 305, 416, 497–8, 540, 557, 629, 630, 651, 695
Follett, Richard359, 541
Foner, Laura667
Forbes, Robert557
forced migration241
Ford, Lacy K.365, 411
Forret, Jeff369, 696
Fort Nassau156
Forten, James563
Fouchard, Jean188, 191, 601
Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780–4)158
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth231, 370, 416, 417, 524–5
Fox, George142
Fradera, Josep M.586
France12, 173, 177, 188, 301, 448, 644
abolition of slavery167, 174, 183, 184, 192–3, 194, 583
Bordeaux182, 599
colonialism333 n.17, 424
immigration from176
Le Havre181
Nantes182, 599
Paris183, 195
racism185
Second Republic174, 571
slave treatment222
slavery in178
Franco-Prussian War177
Franco, José Luciano91
Franco, José Luciano91, 102
Franco, Maria Sylvia Carvalho112, 123
Frank, Zephyr118, 587
Franklin, Benjamin643, 661
Franklin, Isaac629
Franklin, John Hope433, 690
Frazier, E. Franklin39, 117, 468
Frederickson, George M.455, 562, 669
Free Dark Men of Color346
free land hypothesis279
Free-Soil Party560, 574
Free-womb laws82–3, 590, 728, 740
free(d) people of color5, 342, 344, 360, 366
blacks8, 55, 58, 60, 61
in Brazil111, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122
in Dutch colonies161, 165, 167
in French colonies186, 187
as slaveholders7, 188
in Spanish colonies21, 69, 75, 82, 91, 94, 95, 96, 100, 101
in US204–5, 220, 232, 431, 432, 549 see also mulattos
Freedman's Bureau740
Freedmen and Southern Society Project695
Freedmens' Saving and Trust Bank242
freedom12, 37, 75, 105, 135, 150, 164, 168, 224, 400
Freehling, William W.369, 436
French Admiralty182
French Antilles174
French Canada187, 449
French Caribbean6, 30, 727
French Company of the West Indies181
French Dominica174
French Guiana (Cayenne)164, 167, 173, 178, 194
French imperialist historians190
French National Archives195
French Revolution80, 174, 177–8, 181, 188, 190, 193, 408, 544, 564, 565, 567, 603
Frey, Sylvia383, 386, 407, 431
Freyre, Gilberto112, 119, 121, 467, 471, 667
(p. 756) Frostin, Charles602
Fuente, Alejandro de la579
Fuente, Alejandro de la91, 92, 93, 94
Fugitive Slave Law (1850)435, 573
Fugitive Slaw Law (1793)442
Fundamental Constitutions (1669)209
Furtado, Júnia118, 122
Gabriel238, 448, 450–1, 452, 457, 461
Galenson, David282, 284
Gallay, Alan217
Galle, Jillian709
Gama, Luiz591
gambling74, 369, 702
Gandano, Magahães de319
gang labor207, 208, 213, 215, 232, 285, 539, 678
García Rodriguez, Mercedes94, 95
García, Gervasio L.39
Garcia, Gloria94, 102
Garfield, Evelyn Picon102
Garofolo, Leo77
Garraway, Doris188
Garrido, Juan50
Garrigus, John187, 600, 602, 604, 616, 618
Garrison, William Lloyd202, 240, 393, 572
Gaspar, David Barry456, 476, 477, 668, 679, 694, 695
Gautier, Arlette179, 189
Geggus, David179–80, 188, 189, 191, 192, 520, 599, 601, 607, 615, 616, 675
Gehring, Charles157
Gell, Monday456
Gemery, Henry A.280
gender4, 9, 14, 36, 188, 476, 711–12
reproduction516–17
sexual difference515–16 see also labor, gendered divisions, women
Genizaros326
Genovese, Eugene D.28, 116, 241, 382, 436, 450, 457, 460, 557, 607, 666, 667, 672
on class359, 364, 365, 366, 367, 370
on paternalism403, 416, 417, 524, 677, 679, 691–2
on racism411, 421 n.28
Roll, Jordan, Roll470–1
on slavery and capitalism230–1
on slaves' perspectives229, 238
George III450
Georgia210, 232, 276, 322, 350, 365, 366, 371, 373, 387, 390, 514, 638
indigo645
rice500, 645
St. Simon711
Savannah302, 361, 364, 441, 459
slave trade433–4
Supreme Court434
temporary slavery ban406
Germany283, 372, 374
Gil-Bermejo García, Juana34
Gillespie, Michele366
Gilroy, Paul668
Ginsberg, Carlo697
Gisler, Antoine186
glass709
Goa51
Gold Coast51, 137, 138, 165, 183, 192, 449
gold27, 73, 78, 91, 93, 112, 315, 645
Golden Law (1888)592, 731 see also Brazil, Golden Law
Goldin, Claudia D.509 n.29
Gomes, Tiago del Melo119
Gomez, Michael381, 382, 472, 482
González, José Caridad612
Goodell, William556
Gorender, Jacob113
Gourou, Pierre503
Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mosé218
Graden, Dale124
Graham, Martha613
Graham, Richard635, 637
Grange movement371
Grant, U. S.561
Gray, Lewis695
Great Awakening383, 385, 547
Great Britain12, 83, 95–8, 124, 157, 158, 166, 173–4, 177, 181, 187, 223, 276, 280, 282, 301, 644
American Revolution450, 580–1
Anti-slavery movement167, 171 n.31, 581, 583, 593, 637, 730
(p. 757) Bristol284
British America277, 281, 283, 286 n.6
Emancipation Act (1833)167, 730
emancipation project11–12
evangelical Christianity581
London277, 284
rise of slavery340, 342
Greene, Jack185, 186, 417, 559
Greene, Lorenzo216
Gregg, William372
Grégoire, Abbé566
Grenada137, 149, 151 n.20, 174, 177
Griffith, D. W.412, 413
Gronniosaw, James Albert Ukawsa480
Grotius, Hugo166
Groves v. Slaughter (1841)442
Guadeloupe706
Guadeloupe30, 192, 193, 194
free people of color187, 193, 299, 706
contract labor736
as French colony173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 186, 189
French Revolution719
guajiros5
Guatemala55, 57, 61–2, 313–14
Amatitlán60
Guatemala City62, 63
Lake Izabal57
San Jerónimo52, 56
Santiago de Guatemala47, 52
slave trade50
Utatlán48
Gudmestad, Robert, 632–3
Guedes, Roberto118
Guerra y Sánchez, Ramiro23
Guerrero, Vicente63
Guiana155, 156
Guinea-Bissau51, 57
Gulf of Guinea156
Guterl, Matthew Pratt549
Gutiérrez Brockington, Lolita78
Gutman, Herbert G.116, 233, 235, 374, 471–2, 488, 519, 635
Guyana158
Hahn, Stephen365, 416
Haiti10, 104, 177, 185, 188, 190, 346, 348, 448, 452, 566, 675, 724, 736, 738, 740
coffee production582
Constitution of730
Dominican occupation27–8
emancipation27, 727, 732
free(d) people of color582
Night of Fire457
Port-au-Prince188
Post-independence610
racism582
sugar production582, 730
US invasion613 see also Haitian Revolution
Haitian Ethnographic Society613
Haitian Revolution (1791–1804)22, 25, 32, 97, 99, 124, 178, 180, 181, 185, 188, 190, 191, 192, 193, 196 n.12, 360, 357 n.7, 434, 437, 450, 503, 566–7, 575, 673, 675
colonial background598–603
effects on antislavery movement581–3
Hall, Douglas475, 694
Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo98, 185, 186, 219, 220–1, 474, 481, 482, 666, 668, 670, 679
Hall, Jacqueline Dowd518
Hall, Neville T.475
Hall, Prince431, 563
Hamilton, Alexander561
Hammond, James Henry549
Hancock, John561
Handler, Jerome299, 694, 712
Handlin, Mary340
Handlin, Oscar340
Harms, Robert183
Harper, Chancellor543
Harper, William345
Harris, J. William416
Harris, Leslie M.458, 558
Harrold, Stanley460
Hartman, Saidiya558
Hatfield, April208, 210–11, 277
Hausa123
(p. 758) Hauser Mark 707, 708, 709
Hay, Denis337
Haynes, Stephen391
Heath, Barbara707
Hegel, G. W. F.400, 535
Heinl, Nancy614
Heinl, Robert614
Helg, Aline75
Hemmings, Sally236, 343, 344
Henry, Patrick450–1
Herskovits, Melville39, 467, 468, 472, 599, 613
Heyrick, Elizabeth568
Heywood, Linda476, 670, 679
Heywood, Nancy616
Higman, Barry W.144, 303, 475, 656–7, 660
Hildalgo y Costilla, Miguel62
Hilliard, Kathleen 696, 697–8
Hilton, Rodney460
Hine, Darlene Clark476, 477, 519, 668, 679
Hispanola34, 91, 320
historical memory194–5
Hobbes, Thomas7
Hobsbawm, Eric359
Hoetink, Harry155
Hofstadter, Richard687
Hoganson, Kristin526
Hogendorn, Jan S.280
Holmes, A. T.439
Holt, Sharon Ann521
Holt, Thomas558
Holton, Woody407
Hommius, Festus166
Hondius, Jacobus166
Honduras49–50, 62, 315, 316
exportation of enslaved Indians48
Olancho53
hoodoo382
Hoogbergen, Wim163
hookworm301, 655, 658
Hoover, John438
Horn, James283
horns240
Horton, James557
Horton, Lois557
Howard, Philip100
Howe, Julia Ward393
Hudson, Larry459, 696
Hughes, Henry370
Hughes, Victor607, 615, 719
Hume, David643, 661
Hundley, Daniel546
Hunefeldt, Christine82
Hunt, Alfred612
hurricanes99, 144, 303
husbandry282
Hutcheson, Francis11
Hyden, William345
Ianni, Octávio112
Ignatiev, Noel492
Illinois432
immigration22, 125, 372, 374
immunology294–301
Imperial Commission on Slaves62
imperialism90, 179, 313, 557
Incas69, 76
incentives74
indemnification for masters104
India114
Indiana432
indigo8, 73, 140, 176, 189, 205, 210, 220, 223, 536
individuality401
Industrial Revolution676, 678, 708
industrialization367, 501, 509 n.29 see also Industrial Revolution
infanticide79
Inikori, Joseph668
Innes, Stephen340
Inquisition55, 77
integrated plantation141, 142–3, 208
internal slave trade71–2, 83, 234, 241
in Brazil626, 635–7
in British Caribbean626, 637–8
in North America626, 627–35
interracial alliances343, 369, 455–6
interracial marriage184, 187, 205, 205, 215, 217, 220, 236, 428
(p. 759) interracial sex30, 218, 427, 428, 429, 437, 475, 514, 518, 519, 522
Ireland372, 374
Irons, Charles384, 389, 395–6 n.22
Iroquois Wars (1641–1701)325
Iroquois325
Irving, Washington370
Isabel II589
Isabella I314
Islam379, 387
Iturbide, Agustín de62
Jabour, Anya525
Jackson, Andrew707, 709
Jackson, Rachel710
Jackson, Sarah Yorke710
Jakin183
Jamaica651
Jamaica10, 37–8, 51, 71, 135–40, 142–46, 149, 176, 183, 190, 293, 304, 315, 346, 384, 409, 540, 693–4, 708, 738, 741
Baptist war569
Blue Mountains704
emancipation38
free people of color187
glass709
Kingston8, 300
maroon communities675, 717, 718
Montpelier estate146–7
pottery709
“proto-peasants”38
slave economy system208
slave revolt675
sugar production579, 734
treatment of women518
James River207
James, C. L. R.605, 607, 613, 667
Janissaries326
Jay, John561
Jefferson, Thomas236, 343, 344, 426, 435, 440, 547, 560, 607
Jeffrey, Julie Roy526, 557
jeje123
Jennings, Lawrence193, 557
Jennings, Thelma518
Jesuits56, 72, 73, 74, 80, 83, 192, 318, 383
Jesup, Thomas219
Jesús, Ursula de78
Jews157, 336
Jezebel stereotype236
Jim Crow518, 690
Joe685, 686, 693, 696
Johnson, Andrew326
Johnson, Anthony448
Johnson, Lyman78
Johnson, Michael462 n.12
Johnson, Walter239, 370, 417, 456, 631–2
Johnston, George Milligan349
Jones v. Van Zandt (1847)442
Jones, Bernie433
Jones, C. L. R.675
Jones, Charles Colcock390, 547
Jones, Jacqueline476, 515, 519
Jones, Mary547
jongos122
Jordan, Levi716
Jordan, Winthrop204, 295, 338, 339, 340, 341, 427
Joyner, Charles W.241, 365, 471, 689
Juan el Negro50
Juárez, Benito102
July Monarchy (1830–48)570
Junta de Información103
Junta Piadosa de Indemnización de Esclavos63
K'iche' Maya48
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)440, 573
Kapsoli, Wilfredo80
Karasch, Mary112, 116, 123
Kaye, Anthony E.233, 235
Kelly, Kenneth706, 719
Kennedy, Cynthia519, 520
Kentucky443
Kerry, “Irish” Peg455
Kilbourne, Richard638
King Philip's War (1675–6)324, 341
King, James Ferguson68, 83
King, Rufus435, 571
King, Stewart600, 604, 605, 618
(p. 760) King, Wilma237–8, 488–9
Kinsbruner, Jay21
Kiple, Kenneth143, 299, 653, 656–7
Klein, Herbert S.100, 118, 481, 636, 666, 667, 668, 670
Knibb, William148
Knight, Franklin W.24, 98
Kolchin, Peter232, 241–2, 417, 465, 485 n.17, 665, 669, 670, 672, 678–9, 692
Komisaruk, Catherine61
Kongolese Catholicism10
Konrad, Herman56
Kortright, Cornelius38
Ku Klux Klan412
Kuhrt, Amélie559
Kupperman, Karen341
La Escalera (The Ladder)101–2
La Guyane178
labor6, 13, 281
contractual69, 318
domestic10, 51, 69, 70, 72, 74, 77, 156–7, 159, 515
free6, 52, 106, 111, 124
gendered divisions54, 513–16 immigrant 732
indentured102, 140, 149, 203–5, 208, 214, 216, 276, 277, 280–3, 300, 402, 729, 732, 734
internal migration22
labor drafts (“repartimiento”)53
manual70, 159, 189, 340
wage6, 12, 78, 168, 240, 318, 339, 361, 546, 728 see also mita
Laing, Annette380, 383
Landers, Jane218
Langfur, Hal125
Laport, Daniel578
Lara, Silvia Hunold116, 119
Larrazabal Blanco, Carlos25–6, 30
Las siete partidas91, 95
Lasch, Christopher455
Laurie, Bruce557
Law, Robin192, 476, 481
Lawson, John211
Lay, Benjamin142
Le Riverend, Julio92, 94
Leclerc, Charles608–9
Leeward Islands136, 140, 141 see also Antigua; Montserrat; Nevis; St. Christopher
Legaré, Hugh Swinton418
leishmaniasis658
Lemmon v. The People (1860)433
Lenders, Maria162
Lespinasse, Beauvais185
Lesser Antilles34, 142, 177, 315
Lévi-Strauss, Claude716
Levine, Lawrence W.229, 471
Levine, Lawrence689
Lewis, Laura55
Lewis, Matthew Gregory (Monk)306
Libby, Douglas118
Liberator, The572
Liberty Party560, 573, 574
Lightner, David L.633
Ligon, Richard338
Lima, Ivana Stoltz119
Lincoln, Abraham411, 443, 573–4
Link, William373
literacy232, 284
Littlefield, Daniel C.474, 481
Livermore, George561
livestock27, 29, 53, 73, 80, 94, 113, 158, 207, 209, 212, 215, 223
Locke, John405–6, 425
Lockley, Timothy, J.369
Lokken, Paul59
Lombardi, John83
Loncq, Hendrick Corneliszoon156
London Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade565, 569
Long, Edward342, 347
López Cantos, Ángel34
López Valdés, Rafael100
López, Narciso102
Louis XIV181
Louis XVIII566
(p. 761) Louisiana144, 174, 241, 322, 323, 451, 474, 520, 607, 659
free(d) persons of color436
French influence219–20, 223
German Coast revolt (1811)238, 457
glass709
New Orleans5, 8, 223, 300, 302, 364, 457, 459, 460, 629–31, 632
sugar plantations359, 677
Louverture, Toussaint10, 188, 360, 450, 451, 566, 567, 583, 586, 605–9, 619, 675
Lovejoy, Paul481, 483–4
Lower Guinea138
Lower South223, 224, 285
Luís, see Sanim
Luna, Francisco Vidal118
Lynch, Thomas166
lynching349, 362, 627
Macaulay, Zachary644
Maceo, Antonio104, 105
Machado de Assis, Joaquím María122
Machado, Maria Helena116
Macumba122
Madiou, Thomas177, 185, 612
Madison, James561, 562
magic77
Maine432
maize158
Majewski, John553 n.9
Makandal, François190, 191–2, 450, 600, 601
malaria209, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 307, 493, 645, 657
Malê rebellion (1835)124
Malone, Ann519–20
Malouet, Pierre-Victor177
Mammy stereotype236, 522
Mangones, Albert616
Manigat, Leslie601
Mann, Kristin476
Manuel de Céspedes, Carlos103, 104, 584
Manuel de Lando, Francisco33
manumission juntas83
manumission4, 5, 8, 167, 227, 342, 424–5, 431, 432
of one's sex partner518
as reward578
in Brazil112, 116, 117, 119, 121, 120
in French colonies185, 187
in Spanish colonies59, 61, 68, 78, 95–6
Manzano, Juan Franciso102
Margarita181
María579
Marion, Francis223
maroons145, 151 n.20, 163–4, 217–18, 220, 223, 318, 349
in Brazil591
communities of447, 449, 452
in Saint-Domingue601
in French colonies190–1
in Spanish colonies29, 31, 56, 57, 218 see also Palmares
Marquese, Rafael de Bivar, 124, 668, 671–2, 677
Marrero, Leví92
Mars, Jean-Price600, 601
Marshall, John441
Marshall, Woodville694
Martin, Gaston182, 184, 190
Martineau, Alfred178
Martínez, María Elena58
Martinez-Fernandez, Luis361
Martinique30, 173, 175, 177, 178, 181, 183, 186, 189, 192, 195, 719
contract labor736
free people of color187
Saint-Pierre194
Martins, Roberto Borges113
Marx, Karl539, 557
Marxist scholarship90, 98, 111, 112–13, 124, 280, 470
Maryland207, 284, 341, 433, 443, 638
Baltimore345, 364
manumission425–6, 437
slave religion715
masculinity523, 527
(p. 762) Massachusetts202, 215, 224–5, 431, 435, 560
Boston216, 329, 374, 431
emancipation729
masters111, 363
absentee ownership6, 53, 191, 213, 214, 383, 447, 450, 537, 542
authority of6
paternalism540–3, 550, 551
relationship with slaves400, 403, 457, 535–6, 537, 539, 541, 552
residential6
materialist scholarship277, 285, 286 n.6
Matos Rodríguez, Félix37
Mattos de Castro, Hebe Maria113
Mauritius174
Maxwell, Kenneth112
May, Louis-Philippe178
Mayo Santiago, Raúl35
Mbundu381
McCloy, Shelby185
McCurry, Stephanie416, 525
McCusker, John135
McDonald, Lawrence696, 697
McDonald, Roderick453–4, 698
McFarlane, Anthony79
McGuire, Robert655
McNeill, William295
McNight, Kathryn Joy77
Medina, Charles Beatty76
Meiklejohn, Norman68
Melish, Joanne Pope431
Mellafe, Rolando69
Memminger, Christopher439
Menard, Russell135, 140–1, 206, 208, 340
Mendoza, Antonio de49, 57
Menier, Marie-Antoinette188
Mennonites559
mercantilism111
Mercedarians73
Mérimée, Prosper183
mestizaje, see racial mixing
mestizos47, 53, 55, 59, 115, 121
Metcalf, Alida125
Methodist General Conference (1784)547
Methodists384, 385, 389, 395–6 n.22, 431
Métraux, Alfred599
Mettas, Jean182
Mexico55, 61–2, 69, 205, 223, 299, 314, 317, 321, 322, 440, 495, 670
Acapulco51, 57
Campeche51
Christianity48, 55–6
Colima54
Córdoba51, 58, 61, 62–3
Cuernavaca49
esclavos de guerra (“slaves of war”)48
esclavos de rescate (“slaves of rescue”)48
Guadalajara57
Guanajuato53
Mérida52
Mexico City47, 49, 50, 51, 55, 56, 57–8
Michoacán57
Morelos47, 52
Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de Amapa58
Oaxaca49, 52, 54, 58, 60
Orizaba58
Pánuco57
Puebla57
Puebla de los Angeles47, 51
rise of African slavery49–51
San Lorenzos de los Negros57
San Luis Potosí50, 53
silver mines53, 57
slave culture54–6
slave flight57, 61
slavery myths46
slave population47
slave resistance57–8, 61, 62–3
slave work51–4
Tabasco51
Taxco53
Tenochtitlán48, 50, 57
textile industry53–4
Tlatelolco57
Veracruz47, 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 60
Xalapa56
Zacatecas53, 57
(p. 763) Meyer, Jean182
Middelburgse Commercie Compagnie (MCC)154, 155
middle class6, 370, 371, 372
as slaveholders367–8
US South359–60, 361, 366–7, 370
Middle Colonies281, 283
Middle Passage71, 138, 144, 161, 299, 301, 328, 379, 382, 579, 667, 670, 719–20
midwifery238, 306, 515
Miers, Suzanne668, 679
Mill, John Stuart501
Miller, Christopher183
Miller, Joseph481, 668, 679
Milton, John460
Minchin, Susie71
mineiro slaves115, 118
mining28, 49, 55, 72, 113, 122
Minnesota440
Mintz, Sidney116, 137, 474, 475, 481, 557, 670, 693
miscegenation22, 30, 215
Misericórdia497
missionaries148, 320, 328, 384, 388, 392
Mississippi River223, 323, 451
Mississippi5, 241, 366, 376 n.25, 437
black majority447
Natchez5, 448, 460
Warren County247 n.28
Missouri Compromise (1820)240, 435, 440, 448, 571
Missouri371, 409, 443, 547, 561, 571
mita (forced labor system of Indians)73
Mitchell v. Wells (1859)437
modernization372
Moitt, Bernard476, 520
Monroe, James451
Montalvo, Juan101
Monteiro, John125
monteros5
Montesquieu11
Moore v. Illinois (1852)443
moral economy148
Morales Carrión, Arturo30, 31
Moravians162, 385
Moreau de Saint-Méry, Médéric Louis Élie602, 610, 612
Morelos, José María62
Moreno Fraginals, Manuel23, 24, 26, 32, 33, 35, 91, 98, 99
Moret Law105, 106, 589–90, 591, 731
Moret, Nistal35
Moret, Segismundo105
Morgan, Edmund204, 208, 407, 427, 340
Morgan, Jennifer L.476, 477, 513, 517, 521
Morgan, Kenneth144, 671
Morgan, Philip D.232, 234, 459, 474–5, 536–7, 668, 671, 695, 696, 697
moriscos51
Mormons326
Mörner, Magnus25
Morris, Gouverneur561
Morris, Thomas D.427, 433
Morrissey, Marietta515
mortality284, 294, 305–6, 307, 448, 493–4, 599, 643, 646–7, 653
in British colonies136, 144
in Dutch colonies159
in French colonies179, 180, 181
Moscoso, Francisco34
mosquitoes299
Moya Pons, Frank26, 27, 28
Moynihan Report519
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick233
Mozambique189
mozambiques51
mulatizacion22
mulattos344, 345, 346, 348
in Dutch colonies167
in French colonies185
as slaves46, 47, 54
as slaveholders7, 15 n.8
in Spanish colonies57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 75, 77, 78, 96
in United States205, 221
Mullin, Gerald W.458
Mullin, Michael202
Mulroy, Kevin218
munib47
Muñoz Marín, Luis24
(p. 764) Murray, David97
Murray, William (Lord Blackstone)559–60
Muslims123, 317, 338, 387, 391, 458, 460, 586
mutilation79
naborias316
nagô123
Napoleonic War149, 158, 191, 189, 566
narratives236
Narváez, Pánfilo de50
Nash, Gary B.283, 432
Nat Turner revolt (1831)238, 240, 360, 448, 452–3, 455, 544, 682 n.23
National Constituent Congress of Chilpancingo62
National Council for Culture and Arts in Mexico (CONACULTA)46
Native Americans5, 55, 59, 70, 72, 73, 114, 156, 187, 210, 211, 216, 237, 276, 277, 280, 289 n.23, 296–7, 299, 301–2, 339, 492, 493, 513
as English slaves320–1, 323, 324, 328, 330
European attitudes toward340
as French slaves323, 325, 330
as indentured servants326
as peons326
population declines47
pre-European slavery313–14
as Portuguese slaves318–19, 328, 330
relations with African Americans217, 218, 220
resistance to slavery319
as slaves in American North324–5
as slaves in American South322–4, 340, 349, 350, 401, 402
as slaves in the American West325–6
as slave owners321–2
slave trade217, 218, 220, 221–2
as Spanish slaves314–18, 326, 328, 330
natural scientists6
Navajos326
Negro Act (1740)454
Negro Election Day217
Negrón, Mariano35
negros del ray80
neighborhoods233, 235
Netherlands173, 175, 301, 321, 325, 644
antislavery movement171 n.31
Middleburg155–6
Netscher, P. M.164
Nevins, Allan556
Nevis708
New England140, 215, 216–17, 281, 321, 324, 329
New Grenada, see Colombia
New Hampshire224, 431, 729
New Jersey202, 432
New Laws (1542)70, 316
New Laws for the Good Treatment and Preservation of the Indians49
New Mexico316, 323
Santa Fe326
New Netherland Project157
New Netherlands214, 215, 219, 220, 321, 325
New Social History229
New York202, 214, 216, 325, 432, 433, 452, 459, 638
Long Island441
New York City374, 431, 447, 448, 449, 450, 457, 458
slave rebellion of 1712430
Newman, Richard557
Newson, Linda48, 71
Nicaragua6, 215, 314, 315, 316
exportation of enslaved Indians48
Granada52
Realejo47, 54
San Pedro Metapa60–1
slave trade50–1
Nicarao48
Nichols, Elaine718
Nicholson, Thomas11
Nield, Keith358, 373
Non-white slaveholders118
nonslaveholding whites5
North Carolina241, 303, 323, 373, 438
Halifax County451
Raleigh374
slave laws434
slave religion715
(p. 765) Northwest Ordinance434, 440
Nott, Josiah347
Nova Scotia580
Novaes, Fernando112
Nuestra Tercera Raíz (“Our Third Root”)46
Nunn, Nathan501
nutrition143–4, 190, 208, 220, 301–6, 329, 505, 516, 644, 655–6
O'Brien, Michael370, 372–3, 417, 418, 546
O'Donnell, Leopoldo98, 101
O'Farrill, Rafael98, 101
O'Neill, Eugene613
Oakes, James231, 367, 368, 411, 416, 417
Oates, Charles455
Ocaneechi322
Ogé, Vincent603–4
Ogilby, John338
Ohio River434
Ohio, 432, 437
Ojibwas325
Olano, Nuflo de50
Oliveira, Anderson J.122
Olmstead, Alan499
Olmsted, Frederick L.363, 497
One-drop rule344–5
Oostindie, Gert155, 169
Orinoco River156
Ortiz, Fernando23, 35, 39, 90, 95, 99
Otto, John707
Oudin-Bastide, Caroline189
Ouidah183
Owens, Leslie Howard488
Ownby, Ted698
Owsley, Frank363, 364
Oyos101
Pacific Northwest440
Pact of Zanjón104
Painter, Nell Irvin236, 635
Paiva, Clothilde de118
palenques79, 92
Palmares5, 318, 450
Palmer, Benjamin Morgan548
Palmer, Colin50, 52, 483
Panama Canal300
Panama48, 54, 71, 72, 204, 734
Panama City51
Portobello51
Panis325
Paquette, Robert102, 457, 608
Paraguay68, 69, 72, 76, 83, 317, 318
abolition84
Paraguayan War (1864–70)596 n.33
pardos118–19
Parés, Luís Nicolau123
Pares, Richard135
Parish, Peter540
paternalism4, 229, 230–1, 247 n.28, 293, 368, 391, 399, 403–5, 408, 411–12, 415–16, 447, 470, 535
and Christianity547, 551
development of536–9, 546
master–slave relationship540–3, 550, 551 see also Genovese, Eugene D., paternalism
patriarchy4, 158, 212, 447, 536–8, 541, 548
Patriotic Fever, see yellow fever
patrocinados106
patronato105
Patterson, Orlando4, 7, 10, 138, 400, 557, 694
Paula, A. F.168
Pawnees325
Peabody, Sue192
Peace of Ryswick598
Pedro I586
Pedro II586, 587, 590
pellagra304
Penningroth, Dylan C.233, 235, 679, 696, 697
Pennsylvania202, 215, 325, 431, 432, 442, 638
Philadelphia216, 224, 374, 431
Pequot War (1636–7)324
Pérez Cabral, Pedro Andrés21
Pérez de la Riva91, 92, 94, 99
Pérotin-Dumon, Anne179, 193
Peru69, 72–4, 77, 80–4, 316–18, 495, 497, 585, 670
(p. 766) Chicama Valley12
Cuzco69
Lima71, 72, 74, 77, 78, 82
Pétré-Grenouilleau, Olivier195, 628 n.23
Petrusewicz, Marta677
Peytraud, Lucien177–8, 182
Philippines51
Phillip, John427
Phillips, Ulrich B.293, 362–3, 403, 414–17, 467–8, 469, 539, 541, 628–9, 686–8, 690, 694–5
Phillips, Wendell572
Phillips, William669
pica (dirt-eating)304, 307
Picó, Fernando36
Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth435
Pinckney, Charles561
Pinckney, Thomas456
Pinkster217
Pipil48
Pizarro, Francisco69
Plá, Josefina68
Plácido101
plain folk363, 364, 365
plantation complex135, 214
plantation slavery10, 30, 52, 111
planter class358–9, 360–1, 366, 367, 368, 371, 415
Pluchon, Pierre191–2, 196 n.12, 615
pneumonia53, 302
political consciousness36
political expression119
political–cultural approach to slavery scholarship277, 286 n.6
poll tax514
Polonia101
Ponce de León, Juan33, 315
poor whites6, 8, 338, 340, 346–9, 363, 365, 369, 370, 371, 451, 524
Popple, Alured140
Porter, Kenneth217
Porteus, Beilby581
Portugal5, 50, 51, 111, 114, 156, 157, 163, 175, 178, 315, 644
Inquisition122
rise of slavery339, 340, 342, 348, 379
slave trade70, 71, 671
Portuondo, Olga94
post-freedom mobility117, 118–19, 121
post-revisionist scholarship231–42
Post, Elisabeth Maria166
Postlethwaite, Bill460
Postma, Johannes154–5
pottery708–9
Powell, Henry136
Praying Towns320
Presbyterians384, 385, 388, 390, 392
Price-Mars, Jean191, 613
Price, Richard116, 137, 163, 170 n.15, 474, 481
Prigg v. Pennsylvania (1842)442–3
Prim y Prats, Juan578
Pritchard, “Gullah” Jack448
Proctor, Frank T.52, 53, 56, 59
Progressive Era413
proslavery thought6, 14, 240, 347
colonial period401–5
nineteenth century409–13
revolutionary period405–8
Prosser, Thomas451
prostitution77
Protest of Baragua105
Protestantism378, 383, 384, 402
Proto-peasant adaptation36, 39
Proto-proletariat adaptation39
Puerto Rico21, 22, 24, 80, 97, 100, 315, 346, 359, 578, 583, 741
Bayamón31
emancipation30, 32, 34, 42 n.26, 586–92, 593, 595 n.30, 731, 737
Guayama32, 35, 38, 40
Mayagüez32, 40
New History31
Ponce31, 32, 36, 40
rekindled nineteenth-century slave trade39
San Juan34, 35, 36, 37
slavery29–36, 38–9
sugar production737
Pulliam & Company633
(p. 767) Punch, John428
Puritans166, 215, 324, 328
as slave owners321
Quakers11, 142, 325, 389, 431, 559, 562, 563, 568
Quamina148
Quarles, Benjamin431, 473
Quechua77
Queen Anne's War (1712)449
Quiñones, José578
Quintero Rivera, Angel39
Quintero Rivera, G.39
R. G. Dun & Company634
Raboteau, Albert394
race5, 14, 24, 60, 90, 92, 155, 174, 178, 188, 205, 217, 241, 293–4, 327, 369, 370, 426–7, 492, 494, 514, 557
African American inferiority myth229
barriers22, 348–9, 415
classification63
corporatist conception221
hair type295
mixing21, 22, 25, 75, 203, 204, 207
science178
skin color4, 7, 9, 29, 295, 330, 336, 337, 338, 340, 342, 345, 346, 359
as slavery defense339, 348
social interpretation of336, 342
racism119, 312, 331 n.2, 324, 327–30, 369, 399, 404, 408, 411, 414, 421 n.28, 427, 453–4, 492, 527, 548–9, 556, 562, 564, 572, 575, 670
black biological inferiority myth12
egalitarianism12
of English141, 149, 205, 207, 208
of French185–8, 194
Haiti582
and slavery276, 279, 285
in Spanish colonies22, 60
in United States201, 204, 229, 455
Rael, Patrick557
railroads99, 368, 544
Raimond, Julien602
Ramos Mattei, Andrés38
Ramsay, James581
Rankin, John393
rape76, 439, 517, 518, 522, 523, 526
Rawick, George P.469, 470, 689–90, 692
Raynal, Abbé149, 301, 583
Rebouças, Antônio Pereira119
Reconquista317, 338
Reconstruction234, 412, 414, 736
Rediker, Marcus449
Reform Act (1832)564, 569
Régént, Frédéric188, 193
Reid, J. H.685
Reign of Terror565, 566
Reis, João José116, 122, 123, 387
Renkema, W. E.158
rented slaves38
repartimiento317–18
repatriation408
Republican Party443, 448, 560, 573
resistance9, 10, 14, 78–84, 90–1, 92, 135, 138, 142, 145–6, 148, 150, 151 n.20, 162–4, 174, 179, 190, 193, 238
in British Caribbean456
everyday variety37
in Mexico and Central America47
(p. 768) use of courts79
women520–1
Restall, Matthew50, 76
revisionist scholarship117, 229, 232, 235
Revolution of 1848102
Rey, Terry380
Rhode Island202, 215, 324, 431, 432
Newport214, 216
Rhode, Paul499
Ribbe, Claude195
rice8, 10, 201, 210, 211, 223, 227, 232, 406, 499–500, 536
Rice, Nathan Lewis627
Richardson, David100
Ridings, Eugene368
Rijk, J. C.168
Rinchon, Dieudonné182
Rio Branco Law (1871)106, 590, 592, 731
Río de la Plata80
Riva, Juan Pérez de la24
Robeson, Paul613
Robinson, Armstead461
Robinson, Donald L.434, 436
Rockefeller, John D.301
Rodman, Selden613
Rodney, Walter481
Rodríguez Morel, Genaro28, 34, 37
Roediger, David351
Rogers, Dominique187, 188, 600, 604
Roman slave laws186–7, 427, 540–1
Romero, Fernando68
Rose, Willie Lee202, 478
Rosenbloom, Joshua500
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques6
Rout, Leslie, Jr.69
Royal African Company of England481
royal slaves93–4
Rufer, Mario81
Ruffin, Edmund541–2
runaway slaves5, 318, 350, 406, 424
in Brazil116, 121, 122
in Dutch colonies163, 167
in French colonies190–1
in Spanish colonies60, 62, 76–7, 79, 92, 93
in United States227, 239 see also maroons
rural labor74
Ryan, Thomas625
Ryden, David Beck731
Saba155, 158, 169
Sachs, Jeffrey503
Saco, José Antonio3, 14, 90, 103
Saffin, John215
Saint-Domingue7, 10, 12, 22, 25, 40, 80–1, 99, 115, 164–5, 167, 173–9, 181, 183–6, 188, 191, 408, 450, 503, 520
African-born slaves600, 603
black majority599, 603
Cap Français183, 188
class602–3, 604
Club Massiac603
creoles600, 603
effect of French Revolution603–4
emancipation729–30
free people of color185, 187, 600–1, 603, 604, 618–19
Kongo slaves189
Saint-Domingue Revolution (1791–1804)174, 190, 192, 564, 565, 566, 570, 581, 645, 667, 675
Saintoyant, Jules184, 190
Sala-Molin, Louis186
Salamanca, Miguel58
Salcedo, Diego López de48
Salles, Ricardo121
salt156, 158, 173
Sambo stereotype229, 230, 232, 468, 523
Same-sex relationship427
Samford, Patricia706, 714–15
Sandoval, Alonso de35
Santeria387
Santidade319
Santo Domingo583
Santo Domingo21, 22, 24, 27, 80, 93, 97, 583
French occupation22, 27–9
(p. 769) Haitian occupation22
sugar industry737, 740 see also Saint-Domingue
São Paulo School of Sociology111, 112, 115, 117, 118, 119, 124
São Tomé114
Saraiva-Cotegipe Law (1885)591
Sarracino, Rodolfo102
Saskatchewan302
Saugéra, Eric182
Savage, John193
Savannah River322, 323
sawbuck equality210
Sayers, Daniel718
Scarano, Francisco A.32
Schafer, Judith436
schistosomiasis658
Schmidt-Nowara, Christopher103
Schoelcher, Victor38, 177, 193–4, 615
Schulman, Ivan A.102
Schwalm, Leslie476, 527
Schwartz, Marie Jenkins237, 476, 489
Schwartz, Stuart112, 114, 460, 668, 670
scientific racism391
Scott, Rebecca103, 105, 106
scrofula, see pneumonia
Searing, James481
secession412, 421–2 n.29
Second Confiscation Act (1862)443
Second Great Awakening361
Second Seminole War (1835–42)5, 219
second slavery22, 115, 119
Second World War403
Seminoles218, 219
and runaways218, 219 see also First Seminole War; Second Seminole War
Sénégal183, 475
Senegambia51, 115, 189, 220, 481, 483
Sensbach Jon 382
sensory perception337, 345
senzala122
Serna Herrara, Juan Manuel de la52
Seven Years War (1756–63)95, 149, 174, 176, 182, 187, 326
Sewall, Samuel215
Seward, William574
sexism527
sexual abuse144–5, 147, 163, 167, 233, 235, 236, 343, 362, 410, 429, 440, 470, 489, 516, 518
sharecroppers365, 376 n.25, 728
Sharp, Samuel148
Shaw, Lemuel433
Shawnee322
Sheller, Mimi608
Short-staple cotton227–8
Shugerman, Jed H.434
Shumpeter, Joseph539
sickle cell anemia298
Sierra Leone137, 138, 294, 580
Siete partidas222
Sieur de Bienville220
silicosis53
Silié, Rubén26
Silva, Chica de122
silver53, 70, 71, 72–3, 74, 80, 93, 317, 495, 645
Singleton, Theresa705, 709
Sioux325
Skocpol, Theda664
slave alliances116
Slave Coast51, 183
slave codes177, 303, 341, 364 see also Code Noir
slave cowboys53
slave culture: African heritage466–9, 470–4, 478, 479, 480–4
geographic influences475–6
as resistance474–5
slavery's effect on468, 473, 475
temporal influences475–6
Westernization468, 475–6, 479, 480
slave economy system207, 208, 233
slave law
antebellum period436–40
colonial period426–31
revolutionary period431–6
(p. 770) right of transit432–3
slave marriages660–1
slave poisonings193, 450
slave trade5, 11, 227, 236, 391, 409, 424
1808 closing of, 538
and Brazil112, 114, 117, 119
British135, 137, 142, 149, 183, 203, 214, 564
closing of434
Dutch154–5, 156, 157, 170 n.7, 181, 203, 206, 214
French178, 179, 181–4, 188, 189, 195
internal71–2, 83, 234, 241
Portuguese183, 214
Spanish23, 214
trade clause435
transatlantic96, 97, 99–100, 732 see also internal slave trade
Slenes, Robert, 122, 124, 635, 636
Small-scale planters149, 277
smallpox50
Smallwood, Stephanie668, 670
Smith, Adam9, 11, 540
Smith, George457
Smith, Gerrit572–73
Smith, John148
Smith, Mark M.240, 337, 380, 417
Smith, Samuel Stanhope343
Smith, Venture480
Smolenski, John697
smuggling70, 71
Smytegelt, Bernard166
Soares, Mariza de Carvalho122
Sobel, Mechal385, 386
social mobility455
Société des Amis des Noirs565, 582, 603
Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade564
Society of West Indian Planters and Merchants567
Soderlund, Jean R.432
Sokoloff, Kenneth505
Solow, Barbara668
Somers, Margaret664
Somerset case559–60
Sommerville, Diane Miller523
Soto, Hernando de92
Soulodre-La France, Renée79, 81
South America100, 156
South Carolina Society497
South Carolina100, 156, 206–9, 215, 217, 220, 276–7, 280, 297–8, 322–3, 343, 350, 371, 373, 409, 411, 459, 631
Anderson Courthouse685, 693
Barnwell District368
black majority447, 473
Charleston8, 213, 217, 221, 224, 302, 346, 389–90, 406, 437, 448, 452, 453, 457, 458, 459, 625, 628
Columbia460
Constitution406
Court of Magistrates and Freeholders685–6, 697
Denmark Vesey conspiracy437
Edgefield District368
free(d) people of color221, 437
indigo production645
Native Americans349, 353 n.17
Negro Act (1740)406
pottery708
rice production211, 212, 213, 500, 645, 671
slave laws210, 430
slave rebellions452, 454, 457, 458, 460–1
slave-related statutes450, 454
slave trade433–4
treatment of women517
upcountry365 see also Stono Rebellion; Vesey, Denmark
South Province7
South Sea Company95
Souther v. Commonwealth (1851)438
Southern Claims Commission232, 234, 242, 695, 696, 697, 707
Southwest Ordinance440
(p. 771) Sovereign Constituent Congress of Mexico62
Spain26, 47, 55, 97, 103, 156, 157, 164, 174, 175–6, 181, 185, 205, 297, 301, 314–18, 448, 583, 598, 644–5
antislavery movement583–5
emancipation22
rise of slavery340, 341, 342, 348
runaway slave policy350
Santo Domingo583
Spanish Abolitionist Society589
Spanish Buck161
Spanish Florida10, 447, 449–50
Spruill, Julia Cherry525
St. Christopher136, 173, 175, 299, 738
St. Croix30
St. Eustatius (Statia)155, 157, 158, 169
St. John449
St. Kitts, see St. Christopher
St. Lucia174, 176, 177, 708
St. Maarten155, 158, 168, 169, 173
St. Thomas384
St. Vincent151 n.20, 176, 177
Stäel-Holstein family566
Stampp, Kenneth M.228–9, 293, 294, 415, 468, 629, 687–8, 694, 690
Stanton, William342
Stark, David M.43 n.44
State v. Hale (1823)438
State v. Hoover (1839)438
State v. Moran (1829)438
states' rights411
Stauffer, John557
Steckel, Richard302, 305, 505, 516, 653, 659, 660
Stedman, John Gabriel159
Stein, Robert Louis182, 196 n.12
Stein, Stanley112, 116, 122
Stephenson, Wendell Holmes629
Stevens, Brenda241, 488, 520
Stewart, James Brewer557
Stibbs, Bartholomew337
Stolcke, Verena24, 35
Stono Rebellion (1739)10, 219, 360, 380, 406, 447, 449, 454, 600, 682 n.23
Storey, Margaret M.370
Story, Joseph442, 443
Stowe, Harriet Beecher403, 438, 573
Strangers Fever, see yellow fever
Stuckey, Sterling688–9
Studer, Elena de80
Sugar Duties Act (1846)739
sugar4, 8, 9, 10, 12, 277, 299, 318, 319, 320, 493–5, 677
Barbadian production208
Brazilian production112, 113, 121, 125, 537
demographics626
Dutch production156, 157, 158, 159, 163
English production140–1, 142, 146, 207
French production175, 176, 177, 183
Jamaican production453, 540
Portuguese production207
Spanish production22, 23, 27–35, 38, 52, 55, 49, 61, 73, 90, 91, 93–5, 96–8, 99–100, 102, 104, 207
United States production201, 206, 207, 210, 214, 227, 453
suicide165
Sumpter Thomas, 223
superstition230
Suriname155, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163–4, 167, 168–9, 346, 348, 349, 738
Berbice slave revolts164
Bethlehem plantation insurrection163
Commewijne River163
maroons717, 718
Paramaribo163, 168
sugar production736
Sweden644
Sweet, James H.122, 139, 338, 380–1, 481
Sweet, John216, 217
Tadman, Michael630–1, 634, 635, 640 n.15
Tagaki, Midori456
tamemes316
(p. 772) Tannenbaum, Frank23, 25, 30, 32, 33, 35, 43 n.44, 68, 69, 185, 354–5 n.43, 415, 417, 579, 580, 666, 688
Tapuya5
Tardieu, Jean-Pierre73, 76, 80
tariffs240
task system213–14, 215, 232, 298
taxes70, 124, 374, 433, 636