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date: 14 December 2019

(p. 753) Index

(p. 753) Index

absolutism, age of, and public management 30–2
Accenture 320, 679, 689
accountability:
and the accountee 184, 186
auditors 188
courts 187–8
judgement passing 185
political forums 187
professional peers 188
superiors 187
and the accountor 184, 189–90
collective 191
corporate 190
hierarchical 190–1
individual 191–2
obligations of 185
and budget reform:
accounting reform 565–6
output and outcome budgeting 565
and bureaucracy 67
and definition of 184
and direct service provision 107–8
and disadvantages of excessive 194–6
and elements of 184–5
as elusive concept 182
and functions of 192–4
catharsis 193–4
democratic control 192–3
integrity 193
legitimising public governance 193
performance improvement 193
and governance 283–4
and government-NGO contracting 596
and hierarchy 65, 67
and historical origins 182–3
and human resource management reform 534
and hybrid bodies 361–2
and importance of 182
and influences on changes in 196
administrative accountability 196–7
demand for agency accountability 199–200
financial regulation 202
individual accountability 197
internet publication 200
media 203
New Public Management 198
quasi autonomous/independent agencies 197–8
role of markets 201–2
as liability 189
and management of 202–3
and networks 277
and New Public Management 198, 431
and participative democracy 112
and performance measurement 496–7
organizational performance 494–5
policy and program performance 495
and postmodernism 242
and privatization 200–2
as rhetorical device 183–4
as social relation 184–5
and stewardship view of leadership 451
and types of:
administrative 188
legal 187–8
organizational 187
political 187
professional 188
and vertical 196
(p. 754)
and virtual organizations 322
and workplace democracy 119
accounting reform 565–6
accreditation, and quality 547–8
accrual accounting, and budget reform 565–6, 585
Australia 570–1
New Zealand 568–9
Sweden 574
United States' rejection of 578
‘activating state’, and Germany 708
Actor Network Theory, and leadership 452–4, 463
strategic change in health care 454–5
administration, and historical use of term 9–10
administrative law 133–4, 150–1
and Administrative Procedure Acts 137–8
and bureau-centric 135
and client-centric 135
and complaints machinery:
censorate 144–5
ombudsman 138, 143–4
procuracy 145
and constitutional 135
and delegation 134, 135, 145–7
non-delegation doctrine 146
and functions of 133
and judicial interest representation 139
and judicial review 135–9
contentieux administratifs 135, 136
contentieux gracieux 135
legislative intent 136–7
sovereign intent 137
ultra vires 136, 137, 138
and New Public Management 135, 148–50
and policy 133
and public law cases 138–9
and regimes of:
Canada 142–3
comparative 139–43
European Union 143
evolution of 147–8
Germany 137, 142, 697–8
policy-making 147, 148
United Kingdom 140–1
United States 141–2
and role and structure of 134–9
administrative management, and origin of term 10
Administrative Procedure Acts (APA), and administrative law 137–8
administrative responsibility, and democratization 115–16
Africa, and public-private partnerships 348
African Development Bank 660
agencies:
and characteristics of 76
as government organizations 75
agency theory, and intra-organizational efficiency 213–15
Agranoff, R I, and networks 264
Algeria, and French influence 713
Allison, Graham 20
alterity, and postmodernism 241
Amazon.com 313
American Customer Satisfaction Index 89
American Evaluation Association 617
American Society for Public Administration 38
Amnesty International 593
anthropology, and culture 469–70
Aristotle 106
armed forces, and ethics policy 172
Arthur Andersen 315, 681, 682, 687
Arthur D Little 683
Arthur Young 681
Asia, and public-private partnerships 348
Asian Development Bank 12, 580, 660
Associated Provincial Picture Houses, Ltd v Wednesbury Corp (UK, 1948) 143
attitudes, and public/private management comparison 85–6
attribution problems:
and evaluation 625–6
and performance measurement 491, 503
(p. 755) Aucoin, Peter 16, 22
Audit Commission (UK) 330
audit explosion 326, 341–2
and accounting dimension of 332–3
and auditors as agents of change 333
and causes of 329
and consequences of 334–6
auditors as policy makers 334–5
blurring of audit/advisory roles 335
impact on behavior 335–6
impact on trust 335, 336
and higher education 428, 431
and institutional environment 329, 331–2
crises in 331
and institutions of 332
and management consultants 672
and management control systems 333, 334
and national audit bodies 329
and New Public Management 328–9
and oversight weakness 331
and professional advisory groups 329
and professionals 431, 435
and quality control dimension 333
and questioning of 439
and redesigning auditing 340–1
auditor independence 338–9
blame/learning balance 336–7
evaluative frameworks 337–8
ladder of enforcement 337
operational process and style 339–40
public responsiveness 340
reporting 340
risk-based approaches 339–40
side effects of auditing 340
timid auditors 337
and risk management systems 333–4
and United Kingdom 326
nature of 330, 331, 332
professional groups 329
and United States 329, 331, 332
auditing:
and blaming 337
and standards approach to quality 548
and supreme audit institutions 327
and traditional model of 327–8
Austin, John 22
Austin, Nancy 473
Australia:
and audit explosion 329
and budget reform 570–2, 584
accrual accounting 570–1
outcome focus of 570
problems with 570–2
and contracting out of IT 314–15
and management consultants 677
and New Public Management 44
and non-governmental organizations 594
and public-private partnerships 347
authority:
and centralization of 378–9
chains of and political systems 147–8
and decentralization of 373–4
administrative 374
competitive 375
devolution 375
internal/external 375
political 374
territorial 374–5
vertical/horizontal 376
and public/private management comparison 77, 83
AutoNation 311, 317
autopoiesis, and cybernetics 21
Bahmueller, Charles 13–14
Baker, R, and transition countries 649
Balanced Scorecard, and performance measurement 506–7
Baldrige Awards:
and performance measurement 506
and quality 549
Balzac, Honoré de 34
Bardach, Eugene 20, 309
bargaining costs:
and asset specificity 223
and competition and contestability 222–3
(p. 756)
and organizational capacity 223–4
and service provision 217–18
and task complexity 221–2
Barker, Ernest, and management definition 30
Barzelay, Michael 19
Basque country 549
Bate, P, and ‘culture wars’ 480
Bearing Point 680, 682
Beattie, J, and culture 469
behavioral commitment 476–7
behavioral complexity, and leadership 456
Behn, R D, and accountability 189
Belgium, and French influence 710
benchmarking:
and New Public Management 56
and performance measurement 506
Bentham, Jeremy 9, 13–14, 372
Berthélemy, Henry 38
best practice, and public management 20, 41–2
Blacksburg Manifesto 114, 115
Blair, Tony 285, 374, 382, 572
blaming, and auditing 337
Bogason, P, and postmodernism 244
Boltanski, L, and conventionalist theory 456–7
Booz Allen 682, 683
Boston Consulting Group 684
boundaries:
and management 724
and the ‘public’ 723–4
Bovens, M, and bureaucracy 390
Box, Richard, and local governance 249–50
Bozeman, B, and public/private management comparison 77
Braybrook, Ian 481
Brazil, and fiscal crisis 647
bribery, and ethics policy 170
Bringing In/Bringing On Talent initiatives (UK) 531
British Crime Survey 199
British Gas Corporation 226
British Institute of Management Consultants 675
British Rail 479
British Telecom 55
Brookings Institution 284
Brown v Board of Education (USA, 1954) 138
Brownlow Report (USA, 1937) 10, 39–40
Bryman, A, and leadership 448, 449
Buchanan, James 88
budget reform 563
and accountability/decentralization tension 585
and accounting reforms 565–6
and accrual accounting 565–6, 585
and Australia 570–2, 584
accrual accounting 570–1
outcome focus of 570
problems with 570–2
and budget balancing 567
and bureaucracy, role of 585–6
and Canada 584
and China 580–2
departmental budgeting 581
fiscal decentralization 581
privatization 581–2
taxation 581
transition to market orientation 580
and fiscal decentralization 566–7
China 581
Japan 579
South Africa 582, 583
and Japan 578–80
corporatization 579–80
financial problems 578
fiscal decentralization 579
health care spending 579
infrastructure spending 579
universities 580
and New Public Management 586–7
and New Zealand 568–70, 584
accrual accounting 568–9
fiscal provisioning 570
impact of decentralization 569
phases of 568
(p. 757)
problems with 569–70, 571–2
and output and outcome budgeting 564–5
and principal-agent problems 585–6
and privatization 584–5
and South Africa 582–3
assessment of 583
fiscal decentralization 582, 583
intergovernmental relations 582–3
privatization 582
and Sweden 574–5, 584
performance management 575
and transition economies 585
and United Kingdom 572–4, 584
comprehensive spending review 572
expenditure management 572–3
incremental budgeting 573
performance management 573–4
and United States 575–8
accrual accounting 578
expenditure management 575–6
Performance Assessment Rating Tool 576–7
Performance Based Organizations 576
performance management 576–7
political difficulties 576
problems with 577–8
and variety of 563, 584
and World Bank's public expenditure management framework 662–3
Budget Reform Act (USA, 1990/1993) 576
bureaucracy 32
and budget reform 585–6
and centralization 386
and challenges to:
networks 61–2
New Public Management 55–7
political institutions 53–5
postmodernism 57–9
principal-agent model 59–60
and characteristics of 52, 64–6
and client-centered approach 57–8
as complex system 63–4
and definition of 52–3
and democracy 34, 45
and democratization:
representative bureaucracy 113–14
street-level bureaucracy 114–15, 390
and direct service provision 107–8
and feminism 58
and future of 51, 66–7
and hostility to 33, 34, 36
and instability of 62–3
and organizational structure 58–9
and public management 34
and public sector culture 483–4
and public/private management comparison 84
and Weber 52, 64
see also civil service
Burnham, James 16, 17
Bush, George W 42, 492
Business Process Reengineering 432
business schools, and management consultants 684
Byrne, J 473
Callon, Michel, and Actor Network Theory 453
cameralism 13, 15, 30, 31–2
Canada:
and administrative law 142–3
and audit explosion 330
and budget reform 584
and Charter of Rights and Freedoms 139
and contracting out of IT 315
and management consultants 675
expenditure on 677
and non-governmental organizations:
government funding 594
role of 595
Canada v Public Service Alliance of Canada (Canada, 1991) 148
Canadian Evaluation Society 617
Cap Gemini 682, 683
capitalism, and public institutions 484
CARE 593, 595
Castells, M, and network society 259
Catron, B L, and public administrator 250
censorate, and administrative law 144–5
(p. 758) central and eastern European countries (CEE) 712–13
Central Policy Review Staff (UK) 379, 676
centralization 378–80
and bureaucracy 386
and France 699–700
Chadwick, Sir Edwin 9
Challenger shuttle crash 475–6
change, and public/private management comparison 87
chaos theory:
and postmodernism 249
and public management 62–3
Chapman, Richard 14
Charter Mark (UK) 200, 499
Charter of Public Service (France) 706
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Canada) 139
Chevron USA v NRDC (USA, 1984) 134, 148
Chiapello, E, and conventionalist theory 456–7
child protection 478
China:
and budget reform 580–2
departmental budgeting 581
fiscal decentralization 581
privatization 581–2
taxation 581
transition to market orientation 580
and censorate 144–5
and origins of public management 29–30
choice, and performance measurement 497–8
Church, Hamilton, and scientific management 39
Churchward v R (UK, 1865) 150
Cisco 309
citizen participation:
and advocates of 111
and co-production of policy 411
and democratization 116–17
and interactive policy making 410–11
and liberal democracy 158
and networks 111
and postmodernism 249–50
and reform 104
and technology 117
and trust in government 111–12
Citizens' Charter (UK) 498–9
citizenship:
and non-governmental organizations 606–9
and workplace democracy 118
city managers, and progressive movement (USA) 10
civil service:
and characteristics of 522–3, 529
and downsizing 525
and France 702
corps system 702–3
political involvement 703
and Germany 703–4
and higher civil service 523, 528–9
and reform of:
accountability 534
challenges facing 533–4
decentralization 526–7
ethics and values 532
hiring procedures 527–8
implementation 529
importance of 532–3
leadership requirements 531–2
performance-related pay 528–9
simplification strategies 528, 533–4
skill shortages 530–1
succession planning 531
trade unions 526–7, 533
workforce diversity 530
and United Kingdom 36
reform of 525, 526, 531
and United States:
higher-level 523, 529
reform of 521–2, 525, 526, 527, 531, 533
and Weber on 159
see also bureaucracy
Civil Service Reform Virtual Network 654
civil society 649
and ethics policy 171
CIVITAS International 655
(p. 759) Cleveland, Harland, and governance 283–5, 300
client-centered approach, and bureaucracy 57–8
Clinton, Bill 492, 684
closedness, and network research 263–4
cognition, and organizational culture 475–8
cognitive complexity, and leadership 459
cognitivists, and international regime theory 296–7
Coke, Sir Edward 32
Cole, A, and centralization 379
Columbia Accident Investigation Board 475–8
Columbia shuttle crash 475–8
Commission on Public-Private Partnerships 356–7, 360
Common Law 697
Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management 651, 658
community-based organizations 592–3
competency movement 10
competitive tendering:
and blurring of public/private sectors 74
and non-governmental organizations 600–1
and public-private partnerships 351–5
complex systems, and bureaucracy 63–4
complexity, and performance measurement 502–3
complexity theory, and performance measurement 510–11
Comprehensive Community Initiatives (US) 607
comprehensive spending review (UK) 572
computing, and institutionalization of 398–9
conflict of interest, and ethics policy 170
Confucius 29
constitutional democracy 106
constructivism 725
consumerism, and demand for quality 541, 542
contextualization, and postmodernism 238
contingency theory, and decentralization 383–4, 386
continuous quality improvement 550, 556
contract, and principal-agent theory 59–60
contracting-out:
and accountability 198
and blurring of public/private sectors 74
and complexity of 355
and costs of:
asset specificity 223
bargaining costs 217–18
competition and contestability 222–3
opportunism costs 217, 218
organizational capacity 223–4
production costs 217, 218–20
task complexity 221–2
and government capacity 354
and government-supplier relationship 354–5
and growth in 217
and information technology 314–16, 321
and market competition 354
and network disruption 263
and public/private management comparison 89, 91
and public-private partnerships 351–5
and quality 542
and virtualization 308
Contributions Agency (UK) 315
control:
and audit explosion 333
and public management 21–2
and workplace democracy 118–19
conventionalist theory, and leadership 456–7, 463
and National Film Board of Canada 457–9
convergence:
and international public management 645
(p. 760)
strategic 311
Coopers & Lybrand 681, 684
co-production of policy 411
corporate liability 190
corporate social responsibility 506
corporatization:
and China 581–2
and Japan 579–80
corruption:
and ethics policy 170, 171
and New Public Management 56
courts, and accountability 187–8
craftsmanship theory, and public management 20
culture:
and anthropology 469
and ethics 164–5
and literary analysis 469–70
culture of entrapment 476–7
customer satisfaction:
and public/private management comparison 89
and quality 546–7
customer service, and performance measurement 498–9
cybernetics, and control 21
Dahl, Robert A 40
and public/private management comparison 75–6
DBFO (design-build-finance-operate), and public-private partnerships 356–7
Deal, T 473
decentralization 54–5
and centralization 378–80
and context of 380–2
and contingency theory 383–4, 386
and definition of:
administrative decentralization 374
competitive decentralization 375
devolution 375
dispersal of authority 373–4
diversity of 373
French usage 376
internal/external decentralization 375
Italian usage 376
political decentralization 374
territorial decentralization 374–5
vertical/horizontal decentralization 376
and democratic sovereignty 158
and evidence of benefits 393
and fiscal decentralization 566–7, 569, 579, 581, 582, 583
and France 376, 382, 700, 705–6, 707
and Germany 382, 700
and the hollow state 386–7
and human resource management reform 524, 526–7
and literature on:
federalist studies 391–2
informatics 390
network theorists 386–7
new institutional theorists 390–1, 393
traditional public administration 387–90
and networks 376, 386–7
and New Public Management 372, 382, 385
United Kingdom 387–90
and New Zealand 382
and Norway 389
and organization theory 386
Mintzberg's analysis 384–5
and pivotal importance of 392
and popularity of concept 371–2
administrative benefits 377–8
political benefits 378
and public choice theory 388
and rhetoric of 390–1, 393
and suitability of programs for 393
and trade-offs for 393
and United Kingdom 382, 387–90
and United States 373, 380, 382, 389–90
rhetoric of 391, 392
states' rights 382
see also subsidiarity
Decentralization Act (France, 1982) 599
(p. 761) decision-making:
and democracy 118
and evaluation:
multi-actor evaluation 273–5
problems with conventional modes of 273
and history of concept 372–3
and network research 265
and networks 271–2
and participative decision making 119–20
and public/private management comparison 84
deconcentration, and human resource management reform 526–7
deconstruction, and postmodernism 241
delegation:
and administrative law 134, 135, 145–7
and liberal democracy 159
and non-delegation doctrine 146
DeLeon, Peter, and democracy 106
Dell, Michael 310
Dell Computers 306, 310, 317
Deloitte 681
demand patterning, and web-sites 407
Deming, W Edwards 650
democracy:
and accountability 192–3
and bureaucracy 34, 45
and citizen participation 111–12
and competing visions of 106
and definition of 106
and information and communication technologies 400, 409–12
co-production of policy 411
direct democracy 409–10
interactive policy making 410–11
politicians 411–12
and liberal democracy 158
and New Public Management 104
and non-governmental organizations 606–9
and polycentric systems 109
and public management 106–7, 121–2
administrative hierarchy 107–8
bureaucratic administration 109
democratic administration 109–10
networks 110–12
role of markets 108–10
and public organizations 117–19
participative decision making 119–20
and workplace democracy 117–19, 120
democratization:
and decentralization 54–5
and international public management 649
and previously authoritarian countries 648–9
and public management 112
administrative responsibility 115–16
citizen participation 116–17
proactive administration 114
representative bureaucracy 113–14
street-level bureaucracy 114–15
and workplace democracy 117–19, 120
participative decision making 119–20
Denhardt, R, and bureaucracy 57
Denmark:
and decentralization 382
and French influence 710
and ombudsman 144
and professions, public service 434
Dennard, Linda 239
Derrida, J 240
design-build-finance-operate (DBFO), and public-private partnerships 356–7
deterritorialization, and postmodernism 241
devolution 375
and human resource management reform 524
Dicey, A V 140
Dickson, W J, and organizational culture 470–1
digital divide 406
direct democracy, and information and communication technologies 409–10
(p. 762) direct service provision, and democracy 107–8
disclosure, and ethics policy 172
discourse analysis, and postmodernism 238–9, 244, 252
discretion:
and autonomous moral reasoning 167
and ethical action 160–5
and governance 166
and human resource management reform 523, 527
and street-level bureaucracy 424–5
disinterestedness, and public sector culture 484–5
Dobel, Patrick 17
Domesday Book 182–3
domestic violence, and non-governmental organizations 595
du Gay, Paul 483
Dunsire, Andrew 9, 14
Durkheim, Emile 235
École Nationale d'Administration 702, 710
economic development policy 664
economics:
and ascendancy of 664
and intra-organizational efficiency 211
agency theory 213–15
neoclassical economics 212–13
rational choice theory 215–16
and public management 34
education:
and centralization/decentralization conflict 380
and managerialization 428
and performance measurement 497
and Total Quality Management 555
Education Act (UK, 1988) 380
effectiveness, and performance measurement 500
efficiency:
and contracting out 354
and decentralization 388–9
and information and communication technologies 404
and intra-organizational:
agency theory 213–15
neoclassical economics 212–13
rational choice theory 215–16
and performance measurement 499–500
and privatization 224–5
regulation of 225–6
and public managers 211
and service provision costs 226–7
asset specificity 223
bargaining costs 217–18
competition and contestability 222–3
opportunism costs 217, 218
organizational capacity 223–4
production costs 217, 218–20
task complexity 221–2
Efficiency Unit (UK), and use of management consultants 677
e-government:
and barriers to 321, 412
institutional 415–16
organizational 414–15
technical 413–14
and challenges of 402
and characteristics of 399
and computerization 401–2
and democracy 400, 409–12
and digital divide 406
and expenditure on 679–80
and future of 318–19, 321–2
and information and communication technologies, role of:
supporting democracy 409–12
supporting economy of implementation 404–5
supporting public service provision 405–9
and informatization 399, 401–2
organizational implications 403
policy implications 403
technological determinism 403
and management consultants 672
outsourcing consultancy 679–80
and stages of implementation model 319–20 (p. 763)
modernist bias of 320
shortcomings of 320
and strategic management options 416–17
and structure of government 403
and virtual organizations 305, 307–8
internal virtuality 310, 314–16
Internet potential 311
virtual face of 310, 312–14
virtual networks 310–11, 316–18
Electronic Data Systems 316
employee participation, see workplace democracy
employment, and bureaucracy 66
Enron Corporation 682
enterprises, as business organizations 75
entrepreneurship:
and leadership 450–1, 465
and professionals 429
epistemological frameworks 725
Ernst & Whinney 681
Ernst & Young 682, 686
ethics, and public management 156–7, 173
and accountability 193
and Cleveland on 284
and culture 164–5
and discretion 160–5
autonomous moral reasoning 167
nature of 160–1
New Public Management 167–8
personal responsibility 162
tensions arising from 161–2
and ethics policy 169–72
boundaries 170
ethical codes 170
integrated approach to 171–2
international agreements 172
management practice 170–1
military 172
oversight 171
and human resource management reform 532
and institutional design 163–5
and liberal democratic environment 157–60
and mission orientation of administration 162–3
and principal-agent problem 163
and role of public officials 159–60
and self-interest 163–4
and values 165–9, 173–4
law and process 168
liberal tradition 167
Minnowbrook School 168
Refounding School 168
regime values 168
trusteeship/stewardship 166–7
etymology, and public management terminology 8–12
Europe:
and idea of the ‘State’ 697
and public management:
changes in 713–14
‘classical’ models of 696
continuity in 714
diversity of 696
influence of France 709, 710–11
influence of Germany 709, 711
and public management traditions 695–6
and rule of law 710
see also France; Germany
European Code of Good Administrative Behavior 170–1
European Commission:
and decentralization 371, 378
and French influence on structure 712
and management consultants 687–8
European Court of Auditors 327, 334
European Federation of Management Consulting Associations 687–8
European Foundation for Quality Management:
and performance measurement 506
and quality 549
European Parliament 170–1
European Supreme Audit Institutions 654
European Union:
and administrative law 135, 143
and administrative system: (p. 764)
French influence 711–12
influence on national systems 711, 712–13
and Charter of Fundamental Rights 159
and e-Europe Action Plan 679
and evaluation 621
and Growth and Stability Pact 567
and subsidiarity 371
evaluation:
and core dimensions of:
evaluand 623
knowledge dimension 622
utilization dimension 623
value dimension 622
and definition of 615, 616, 622
and the ‘evaluation wave’:
composite nature of 622
demand for public sector efficiency 618
evidence based practice 621
functionalist explanations of 618–19
growth in 617
ideological explanations of 619
institutionalization of 617–18
international character of 617
national differences 617, 618
origins of 618
part of larger cultural wave 616
promotion of 621
reflexive modernity 619–21
resistance to 617
ritual nature of 621
role of evaluation 620–1
tensions within 622
and expertise 440
and goal-oriented approaches 624–8
constitutive effects 627
democratic justification for 624
neglect of causality 625–6
neglect of side effects 626–7
problems specifying outcomes 627–8
relevance to public management 625
unhelpful in performance development 626
unintended consequences 627
and growth in 615
and multi-actor evaluation 273–5
and New Public Management 616, 625
and participatory approaches 632–6
constructivist evaluation 633
criticism of 635–6
democratic deliberative evaluation 633–4
empowerment evaluation 633
irrelevance of exterior constructs 632
knowledge dimension 634
relevance to public management 634–5
shared responsibility 632–3
utilization-focused evaluation 633
and performance paradox 627
and policy and program performance 495
and problems with conventional modes of 273
and public sector 615–16
and quality 544–6, 552–3
and responsive approaches 632
case studies 632
criticism of 635–6
irrelevance of exterior constructs 632
and theory-based approaches 629–32
criticism of 631–2
integration of side-effects 630
knowledge accumulation 630
provision of recommendations 629
qualifying outcome measures 629
relevance to public management 630–1
value of 630
evidence based medicine 427, 621
evidence based policy 440, 500
and the ‘evaluation wave’ 621
exclusion, and evaluation 273, 274
‘Expert State’, and knowledge workers 426, 439–40
expertise:
and bureaucracy 65–6, 67
(p. 765)
and increasing importance of 439–40
extortion, and ineffective use of public funds 485
Farmer, David, and postmodernism 241
Fayol, Henri 38
federalism:
and decentralization 374, 380, 391–2
and Germany 699, 700
feminism:
and bureaucracy 58
and hierarchy 158
and representative bureaucracy 113
files, and bureaucracy 65
Finland:
and non-governmental organizations 594
and ombudsman 144
fiscal decentralization:
and budget reform 566–7
China 581
Japan 579
South Africa 582, 583
fiscal provisioning, and New Zealand 570
Folk Theorem 216
Follett, Mary Parker 247
Ford, Henry 470
Foucault, M 240
Fountain, J E:
and organizational change 414–15
and virtuality 307
Fox, C D, and postmodernism 242–3
frames, and network research 266
France:
and administrative courts 698
and administrative law 137, 139–40, 141, 697–8
and bureaucracy 53, 54
and centralism 699–700
and civil service 702
corps system 702–3
higher-level 523
political involvement 703
and cultural comparison with Germany 701–2
and hierarchical structure 700–1
and lawyers 698
and legalistic administrative culture 697
and non-governmental organizations 599
and public management:
age of absolutism 31
as ‘classical’ model 696
Franco-German comparison 704
influence abroad 709, 710–11
influence on European Union 711–12
influence on former colonies 713
management public 42
reform programs 705–7
state administration 33
and reform of public management:
Charter of Public Service 706
decentralization 376, 382, 700, 705–6, 707
goals of 706–7
local government 700, 705–6
nature of 707
public service renewal 705
‘renewal of the state’ 706
territorial reforms 705–6
and rule of law 697–8
and universities 428
franchising, and public-private partnerships 355–6
Frederick the Great 31
Frederick William (The Great Elector) 31
Frederick William I 31
Freedland, M 150
Friedman, Milton 86, 88
Friedrich, Carl:
and cameralism 31
and democracy 106
Frissen, P H A 390
and postmodernism 244
and virtualization 307
Fulton Committee on the Civil Service (UK) 675
Gaebler, T 673, 684
and entrepreneurial governance 483
(p. 766) General Accounting Office (USA) 327, 331, 332
Germany:
and administrative courts 698
and administrative law 137, 142, 697–8
and civil service 703–4
and cultural comparison with France 701–2
and decentralization 382, 700
and federalism 699, 700
and French influence 710, 711
and hierarchical structure 700–1
and lawyers 698
and legalistic administrative culture 697
and New Public Management 700, 708
and non-governmental organizations 593
role of 594
and overregulation 698–9
and public management:
age of absolutism 31
as ‘classical’ model 696
Franco-German comparison 704
influence abroad 709, 711, 712
influence on former colonies 713
Rechtsstaat 33, 698
reform of 707–9
and reform of public management:
‘activating state’ 708
‘bottom-up’ process 708
incrementalism 707
‘Lean State’ 708
local constitutional 708
local government 708
nature of 709
new steering model 652, 708, 709
and rule of law 697–8
globalization:
and international public management 644, 647
and public management 43–4
Goma, and humanitarian assistance contracts 601
Goodnow, F J 37
Gore, Al 104, 241, 651
governance:
and accountability 192–4
and concept of:
accountability 283–4
characteristics of 433
Cleveland's conception of 283–4, 300
definition of 282, 286–9, 293
as fashionable term 285, 300
multiple meanings 285–9
public/private blurring 283
questionable value of 287–90
response to state transformation 299–300
use of 283
usefulness of 292–3
and construction of viable concept 300–1
cognitivist regime theory 296–7
definitional precision 293
inter-jurisdictional governance 294, 298, 300–1
jurisdiction-centered approach 298
lessons from regime theory 293–4, 295–7
narrowing of 293, 298
neoliberal regime theory 295–6
public nongovernmental governance 295, 301
realist regime theory 296
third-party governance 294–5, 298, 301
usefulness of 292–3
and criticism of concept 300
fashionableness of 289
focus on non-state institutions 290–1
imprecision of 289
market emphasis of 290–1
politics-administration dichotomy 291–2
reform rhetoric 290
search for general theory 292
theoretical emphasis of 291
value-laden nature of 289–90
and discretion 166
and hierarchy 298, 299
and the Hollow State 265
and information technology 317
(p. 767)
and network society 259–60
and networks 110–11, 277
and non-governmental organizations 603–4
and origin of term 11
and outcome based 500
and professions, public service 432–4
and public administration 284–9
and public-private partnerships 361–2
and research scholarship on 297–8
focus of 298
government:
and context of 299–300
and decline in trust in 103
and dissatisfaction with 648
and ethics policy 169–70
and public management 81
and reform movements 103–4
and virtual face of 310, 312–14
see also e-government
Government Performance and Results Act (USA, 1993) 42, 492, 501, 577
governmental institutions, and popular sovereignty 158
governmentality 240
Grant Maintained Schools (UK) 380
grassroots organizations, and non-governmental organizations 592–3
Greenpeace 593
Gregory, Robert 22
Grierson, John 458
Group of the World Bank 654
Growth and Stability Pact (EU) 567
Gulick, Luther 40, 374–5
Hajer, M, and postmodernism 244–5
Halligan, John 674
Hammond, B R, and public administrator 250
Hanf, K, and network management 267–8
Hansclever, A, and international regime theory 293–4
Harmon, Michael:
and postmodernism 242
and subjectivism 246
Harvard University 284, 593
and Kennedy School of Government 10
Haskins & Sells 681
Hawthorne studies 470–1
health care:
and dangers of user-driven model 485
and public sector leadership 454–5
and quality 557
assessment of 549
definition of 543
SERVQUAL system 546
Total Quality Management 555
and quality programs 552
Health Maintenance Organizations (US) 429
Heath, Edward 379, 675
Heinrich, C, and governance 286–7
Held, D:
and democracy 106
and markets 110
Heseltine, Michael 15
Hewitt, Patricia 686
hierarchy:
and accountability 65, 67, 190–1
and advantages of 107
and bureaucracy 58, 65
as coordination mechanism 106
and France 700–1
and Germany 700–1
and governance 298, 299
and intra-organizational efficiency 213–15
and networks 61, 62
and responsibility 116
high reliability theory 476
higher education:
and audit explosion 431
and managerialization 428
Hill, C J, and governance 286–7, 297–8, 299, 665
Hintze, Otto 38
Hodge, Margaret 686
hollow state:
and contracting out 308
and decentralization 386–7
(p. 768)
and governance 265
and management consultants 688
Hong Kong, and citizen participation 117
Huczynski, Andrez 19
Human Capital Initiatives (US) 531
human relations school:
and bureaucracy 57
and ‘soft’ New Public Management 431–2
human resource management reform 521–2
and accountability 534
and challenges facing 533–4
and context of 522–3
and decentralization 524, 526–7
and deconcentration 526–7
and discretion 527
and downsizing 525
and ethics and values 532
and flexibility and discretion 523
and higher civil service 528–9
and hiring procedures 527–8
and implementation 529
and importance of 532–3
and individual performance 495–6
and leadership requirements 531–2
and New Public Management 524
and Pay for Performance 522
and pay-related 523
and performance-related pay 528–9
and place in administrative reform 524–5, 532–3
and simplification strategies 528, 533–4
and skills shortages 530–1
and succession planning 531
and trade unions 526–7, 533
and workforce diversity 530
Human Rights Act (UK, 1998) 139
human rights, and liberal democracy 158, 159
Hume, Leslie 9
Huntington, Samuel 11
Hutton Inquiry 193, 312
hybridity, and public-private partnerships 348, 361–2
ideology, and public management 17–18
imaginization, and postmodernism 241
Immigration and Naturalization Directorate (UK) 315
implementation processes:
and information and communication technologies 404–5
and network research 261, 264
incentive structures:
and agency theory 215
and production of public goods 213
and public/private management comparison 84–5, 86–7
incompleteness, and performance measurement 502
individualization, and societal change 259
informatics, and decentralization 390
information and communication technologies (ICTs)
and citizen participation 117
and computerization 401–2
and contracting out 308, 314–16
and democratic policy making 400
and developing role of 399
and e-government:
supporting democracy 409–12
supporting economy of implementation 404–5
supporting public service provision 405–9
and failed projects 400
and governance 317
and impact of 398
organizational implications 403
policy implications 403
technological determinism 403
and institutionalization of 398–9
and knowledge management 399
and networks 259
and outsourcing consultancy 679–80
information asymmetry:
and agency theory 213–15
and contracting out 354–5
(p. 769)
and task complexity 221
informatization 399
and computerization 401–2
and organizational implications 403
and policy implications 403
and technological determinism 403
see also e-government
Inglehart, R 248
innovation:
and entrepreneurial leadership 450
and non-governmental organizations 602
and public/private management comparison 87
and public-private partnerships 360
Institut de Management Public (France) 42
Institute of Public Administration (UK) 38
institutional economics, and control 21
institutional reform litigation 139
institutional theory, and government-NGO contracting 598–9
interaction patterns, and network research 262–3
interactive decision making, and participative democracy 111
interactive policy making 410–11
Inter-American Development Bank 660
interest groups:
and closed networks 263–4
and public management 16–17
and web-based technologies 318
intergovernmental relations, and network research 261
inter-jurisdictional governance 294, 298, 300–1
internal market, and cultural change 480, 481
Internal Revenue Service (US) 529
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, see World Bank
International Federation of Accountants 654
International Financial Institutions 645
and international public management 659
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance 655
International Institute of Administrative Sciences 658
International Institute of Public Ethics 655
International Labour Office 679
International Monetary Fund 54, 224, 660
and development role 664
and fiscal crises 647
and international public management 644
and origins of 659
International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions 654
international public management:
and approaches to 651–2
analysis of results 657–8
descriptive analysis 653
international regulatory activities 655
New Public Management 655–7
systems and models 652
traditional sub-disciplines 654
and contemporary position of 664–6
and features of 645–6
and forces behind:
citizen discontent 648
convergence 645
democratization 649
globalization 644, 647
national fiscal problems 647–8
political change 644
previously authoritarian countries 648–9
reform needs 644–5
selected developments 651
subsidiarity 649
Total Quality Management 649–50
transferability of concepts/practices 645
and future of 666–8
leadership of 666
New Public Management 666–7
transferability question 667–8
and growth of 643–4
(p. 770)
and institutional development 659–60, 665–6
and New Public Management 645, 655–7, 658, 666–7
and number of ‘experts’ 644
and prototypes of practices 660–3
public expenditure management framework 662–3
International Public Management Network (IPMN) 658
international regime theory 299
and cognitive school 296–7
and evolution of 294
and governance 293–4
and neoliberal school 295–6
and realist school 296
see also regime theory
international relations, see international regime theory
Internet:
and governmental organizations 317–18
and public service provision 406–9
and virtual organizations 311
Irwin, Arthur 458
isomorphism, and organizational structure 472
Italy:
and decentralization 376
and French influence 711
Japan:
and budget reform 578–80
corporatization 579–80
financial problems 578
fiscal decentralization 579
health care spending 579
infrastructure spending 579
universities 580
and contracting out of IT 315, 316
and quality 541
Jaques, E:
and hierarchy 65
and organizational culture 471
joined-up government 317, 678
Jones, Bryan, and bureaucracy 62–4
Jones, L R, and citizen discontent 648
Jreisat, J E, and bureaucracy 52
judicial interest representation, and administrative law 139
judicial review:
and administrative law 135–9
comparative regimes 139–43
and Administrative Procedure Acts 137–8
and contentieux administratifs 135, 136
and contentieux gracieux 135
and legislative intent 136–7
and sovereign intent 137
and ultra vires 136, 137, 138
Juran, Joseph M 650
juridification, and anti-managerialism 16
Justi, Johann, and cameralism 31
Kantorowicz, Ernst 30
Keeling, Desmond 10
Kelly, David 185, 193, 196, 312
Kemp, Sir Peter 15
Kennedy, A 473
Kennedy Information 681
Kennedy School of Government 10, 284–5
Kettl, D:
and citizen discontent 648
and decentralization 391
and governance 286
Kickert, Walter 16
King, C S:
and citizen governance 251
and citizens and community 250
and pragmatism 247
Kinnock, Neil 687
Klijn, E -H, and strategic partnering 358
Knoke, D, and network interactions 262
knowledge management:
and information technology 399
and text building blocks 405
knowledge transfer, and prototypes of practices 660–3
knowledge workers:
and ‘Expert State’ 426, 439–40
(p. 771)
and professions 428–9
Koppell, J, and hybrid bodies 361
KPMG Consulting 680
KPMG Peat Marwick 681, 685, 689
Laclau, E 240
ladder of enforcement, and auditing 337
Lægreid, P, and decentralization 389
Lane, J, and public sector reform 656
language, and postmodernism 240–1
Laski, Harold 38
Latin America, and public-private partnerships 348
Latour, Bruno, and Actor Network Theory 453
Laumann, E O, and network interactions 262
law:
and public management 33–4
and quality 547
lawyers:
and France 698
and Germany 698
leadership:
and Actor Network Theory 452–4, 463
strategic change in health care 454–5
and behavioral complexity 456
and cognitive complexity 459
and competing values framework 455–6
and conceptions of:
behavior in collective settings 447–8
entrepreneurial view of 450–1, 464
individual attributes 447
managers of meaning 448
in organization studies 447–9
processual leadership 449
in public administration 449–52
stewardship view of 451, 464
transformational leadership 448–9
and conventionalist theory 456–7, 463
National Film Board of Canada 457–9
and human resource management reform 531–2
and problems with charismatic 484
and public sector context 462–3
and rational choice theory 216
and social intelligence 459–60
and social practice perspective 459–61, 463
museums 462
research agency 461
universities 462
‘Lean State’, and Germany 708
learning organizations 432, 436
legalism, and anti-managerialism 16
legislation, and public managers 161
legitimacy, and organizational culture 472
Lenin, V I:
and decentralization 372
and scientific management 15
Letwin, Shirley 13
Lewis, Derek 187, 196
liberal democracy 106
and characteristics of 157–8
and delegated power 159
and democratic sovereignty 158–9
and ethical sources of 158
and markets 110
and rights 158, 159
liberalism, and liberal democracy 158, 159–60
Lindblom, C E:
and performance measurement 505
and public/private management comparison 75–6
Linder, S H, and public-private partnerships 350
Lipsky, Michael, and street-level bureaucracy 115
local government:
and decentralization 374, 649
France 705–6
and fiscal decentralization 566–7
China 581
Japan 579
South Africa 582, 583
and Germany 708
Local Management of Schools (UK) 380
Locke, John 146
(p. 772) Louis XIV 31
loyalty, and responsibility 116
Lynn, L E 12–13
and governance 286–7, 297–8, 299, 665
and participative democracy 112
Lynn-Meek, V, and organizational culture 474
Maastricht Treaty (1992) 371
MacGregor, John 479
McGuire, M, and networks 264
McKinsey 682–3, 684, 689
MacLauchlan, H Wade 148–9
Macmahon, A, and decentralization 373
McSwite, O C:
and postmodernism 243
and pragmatism 248
and public good 248–9
Madison, James 163
Magna Carta 372
Malta 546
management:
and boundaries of 724
and definition of 8, 30, 400
historical usage 8–9
and organizational culture 472–5
and public/private management comparison 82–3
Management Agenda (US) 525
and performance measurement 492
Management Consultancies Association (UK) 677
and lobbying strategies 685–6
management consultants:
and adaptability of 680
and audit explosion 672
and Australia 677
and Canada:
expenditure on 677
origins of use of 675
and e-government 672, 679–80
and European Commission 687–8
and fashion-setting 683–4
and government demand for 672–80
effect of politics 674–5
modernising of policy process 677–9
New Right 676–7
outsourcing consultancy 679–80
policy advisory systems 674
public sector size 673–4
rational planning/technocratic politics 675–6
and growing importance of 671–2
and impact on government 688–9
and links with accountancy 681–2
and New Public Management 671
and New Zealand 677
and outsourcing consultancy 679
as partners in governance 679–80
and Planning, Programming and Budgeting System movement 672, 675
and public sector reform 671
and revenues of 677, 678, 681
public sector size 673–4
and supply of services to government 680–8
accountancy links 681–2
fashion creation 683–4
industry size 680–1
lobbying strategies 685–8
marketing through book publication 683–5
and think tanks 676, 689
and United Kingdom:
Conservative governments 677
expenditure on 677
influence of 673
lobbying strategies 685–6
origins of use of 675
size of sector 682
and United States:
domination of industry 672–3
expenditure on 676
policy advisory system 674
political contributions 687
management practice, and ethics policy 170
management public 42
management science, and origins of 10
managerial paradox 22
(p. 773) managerialism:
and antagonism towards 15–16
and ideology 17–18
and influence of 435
and interest groups 16–17
and public management 43
and rhetoric 17
managerialization:
and professionals 425–6, 428–9
indirect 436–7
radical 434–5
Mann, Michael 18
Mao Zedong 372
Maor, Moshe 22
March, James G 299
and cognitivist regime theory 297
market failure:
and intra-organizational efficiency 212–13
and state-owned enterprises 224
Market Testing (UK) 315
markets:
and accountability 201–2
as coordination mechanism 106
and democracy 108–10
influence of wealth 110
and intra-organizational efficiency 212–13
and New Public Management 108
and polycentric systems 109
and public/private management comparison 74–5, 76, 80–1
Marquand, David 478, 479
Marshall, T H, and citizenship 606, 608, 609
Marshall Plan 659
Martin, Shan 15–16
Marx, Karl 235
Mashaw, Jerry, and New Public Management 149–50
Massachusetts General Hospital 593
Mayer, P, and international regime theory 293–4
Médecins Sans Frontières 318
media, and political role of 203
medicine:
and Evidence Based Medicine 427, 621
and inter-professional relations 426–7
and professionals 424, 425
Mercer 682
Merkle, Judith 18
Merton, Robert 23
Mexico, and financial crisis 647, 657
military, and ethics policy 172
Mill, James 13
Mill, John Stuart:
and bureaucracy 36
and decentralization 372
Miller, H T:
and postmodernism 242–3
and pragmatism 247
Millett, John 10, 14
Minnowbrook conference, and New Public Management 114
Minnowbrook School 168
minorities, and representative bureaucracy 113
Mintzberg, Henry:
and adhocracy 314
and decentralization 373, 376, 384–5
and virtual government 308
mission, and modern administration 162–3
Mitterand, François 382
modernity:
and approach of 238
and characteristics of 236
and coexistence with postmodern 235–6
and construction of science 237
and fragmentation of society 235–7
and perceptions of 237
Moore, Mark 501
Morgan, Gareth 239
Morocco, and French influence 713
motivation, and public/private management comparison 85, 87–8, 91
Muir, Ramsey, and bureaucracy 36
mutual dependencies, and network research 266
(p. 774) Napoleon 33, 140, 372, 382, 701, 710
Napoleon III 141
narrative, and postmodernism 244
NASA, and organizational culture 475–8
and behavioral commitment 476–7
and culture of entrapment 476–7
and high reliability theory 476
and internal censorship 475–6
and tensions between different 475–6
National Academy of Public Administration (USA) 42, 285
National Audit Office (UK) 332
National Curriculum (UK) 380
National Film Board of Canada, and conventionalist leadership 457–9
National Health Service (UK), and professionals 425
National Institutes of Health (USA) 428
National Passenger Survey (UK) 199
nationalized industries, and neo-liberal attitude towards 479
neoclassical economics, and intra-organizational efficiency 212–13
neo-liberalism:
and international regime theory 295–6
and public sector culture 478–9
and public service ethic 479
Netherlands:
and administrative culture 317
and contracting out of IT 315, 316
and French influence 710
and non-governmental organizations 593
role of 594
networks:
and accountability 277
and bureaucracy 61–2
as coordination mechanism 106
and criticism of theory:
evaluation criteria 275
lack of explanatory power 276–7
normative objections 277
role of power 275–6
theoretical foundation 275
and decentralization 386–7
horizontal 376
and definition of 61
and evaluation:
multi-actor evaluation 273–5
problems with conventional modes of 273
and features of 258
and governance 110–11, 259–60, 277
and hierarchy 61, 62
and joined-up government 317
and leadership:
Actor Network Theory 452–4
strategic change in health care 454–5
and network management:
effects of 271–2
role of public manager 267–9
strategies of 269–71
and network society 259
and New Public Management 260
and participative democracy 110–12
and performance measurement 512
and popularity of concept 257–8
reasons for 258–9
and research on:
closedness 263–4
focus of 266–7
frames 266
future of 278
Hollow State 265
implementation processes 261, 264
interaction patterns 262–3
intergovernmental relations 261
mutual dependencies 266
perspectives of 265–6
policy communities 262
and virtual organizations 307, 310–11, 316–18
new institutionalism:
and decentralization 390–1, 393
and organizational culture 471–2
and performance measurement 509–10
New Left, and participative democracy 111
New Public Management:
and accountability 198, 431
and administrative law 135, 148–50
(p. 775)
and approaches of 20–1
and audit explosion 328–9
and Australia 44
and benchmarking 56
and budget reform 586–7
and bureaucracy 55–7
and business management methods 73
and cameralism 32
and citizen participation 111–12
and corruption 56
and criticism of 110, 210, 432, 656
and decentralization 372, 382, 385
United Kingdom 387–90
and democratic institutions 104
and evaluation 616, 625
and features of 209–10, 328, 722
and Germany 700, 708
and globalization of public management 44
and human resource management reform 524
and influence of 209, 721
and international public management 645, 655–7, 658, 666–7
and liberation management 56
and management consultants 671
and managerialism 43
and market mechanisms 108
and Minnowbrook conference 114
and networks 260
and New Zealand 44
and non-governmental organizations 594, 595
and performance measurement 492–3
and principal-agent theory 60
and privatization 55, 56
and professions, public service 430–1
‘hard’ New Public Management 431
indirect managerialization 436–7
perverse impact of 439
radical managerialization 434–5
‘soft’ New Public Management 431–2
and public-private partnerships 349–50
and reform drivers 328–9
and Total Quality Management 649, 650
and United Kingdom 44, 55, 64, 108
and United Nations 108
and United States 55–6
and values 167–8
and variations in 721–2
and virtual organizations 305, 317, 321–2
and Westminster model 55
New Right:
and participative democracy 111
and public sector culture 478
and use of management consultants 676–7
new steering movement 652, 708, 709
New Zealand:
and audit explosion 329, 330
and budget reform 568–70, 584
accrual accounting 568–9
fiscal provisioning 570
impact of decentralization 569
phases of 568
problems with 569–70, 571–2
and contracting out of IT 314–15
and decentralization 382
and internal organizational markets 212
and management consultants 677
and New Public Management 44
and non-governmental organizations 594
and ombudsman 144
and public-private partnerships 347
New Zealand Treasury 11
Newman, Janet, and governance 291, 292, 433
Next Steps agencies (UK) 56, 198, 655
and civil service reform 526
and decentralization 388–9
and legal identity 150
Nixon, Richard M 379
non-delegation doctrine 146
non-governmental organizations:
and attraction for governments 591–2, 595
and boards of directors 603–4
and citizenship and democracy 606–9 (p. 776)
community building 606–7
inequity 608–9
political challenges 607–8
and collaboration with other NGOs 605–6
and community-based organizations 592–3
and country regime categories 597–8
and definition of 592–3
types of 593
and fragmentation of 605
and future of 609–10
and governance structure 603–4
and government contracting 591
accountability 596
characteristics of 596
contracting regime 598
differences in guiding norms 597
dilemmas created by 592
historical perspective 593–5
institutional theory 598–9
lower labor costs 601
motives for 600
principal-agent theory 596–7
provision of new services 594–5
relational contracting 599
trends in 594–5
voucher systems 595
and government support for 599
and grassroots organizations 592–3
and historical forces shaping 598
and infrastructure support for 604–5
and innovation/flexibility 602
and New Public Management 594, 595
and performance assessment 600–2
comparing sectors 601–2
competitive tendering dangers 600–1
and political debate on role of 609–10
and religion 598
as representatives of community interest 597
and services supplied by 591
and social capital 603, 606–7
and sustainability of 604–5
and trust in 602
norms, theory of, and intra-organizational efficiency 215–16
Norris-La Guardia Act (USA) 138
Northcote-Trevelyan report (UK, 1855) 36
Norway:
and centralization/decentralization 379–80
and decentralization 389
and French influence 710
and German influence 711
and ombudsman 144
nursing, and professionalization project 426
nursing homes, and comparison of for profit/non profit 602
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (US) 655
Office of Management and Budget (US) 576
Office of Personnel Management (US) 533
Olsen, Johan P 299
and cognitivist regime theory 297
ombudsman:
and accountability relations 196
and administrative law 138, 143–4
and quality 547
one-stop shops:
and seamless service delivery 498
and virtualization 309
and web-sites 407–9
operational research, and government 10
opportunism costs:
and asset specificity 223
and competition and contestability 222–3
and contracting out 354, 355
and organizational capacity 223–4
and service provision 217, 218
and task complexity 221–2
optimal reward theory 21
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 11, 524, 621
and agenda of 645
(p. 777)
and development role 664
and international public management 659–60, 665–6
and New Public Management 44
and practice prototypes 661
and Public Governance and Territorial Development Directorate 659–60
and Public Management Service (PUMA) 659
creation of 651
public sector reform 648
subsidiarity 649
and Senior Budget Officials group 654
and Support for Improvement in Governance and Management in Central and Eastern European
Countries (SIGMA) 653, 659, 712–13
Organization for European Economic Cooperation 659
organization theory, and decentralization 384–6
organizational culture:
and change in public sector 478–82
assumption of private sector superiority 478–9, 480, 482
‘culture wars’ 480
impact of neo-liberalism 478–9
internal market 480, 481
privatization 479, 480
United Kingdom 478–82
working practices 480–1
and cognition 475–8
and history of 470–2
and legitimacy 472
and management writing 473–4
and managers 472–5
and NASA 475–8
behavioral commitment 476–7
culture of entrapment 476–7
high reliability theory 476
internal censorship 475–6
tensions between different cultures 475–6
and new institutionalism 471–2
and public sector:
bureaucracy 483–4
capitalism 484
disinterestedness 484–5
entrepreneurial governance 483
necessary for private sector 484
and quality 541
organizational structure:
and blurring of public/private sectors 73–4
and bureaucracy 58–9
and isomorphism 472
and public/private management comparison 84, 90–1
and rationality 471
Osborne, D 673, 684
and entrepreneurial governance 483
Ostrom, Vincent 9
and polycentric systems 109–10
outcome based governance 500
outcome budgeting, see budget reform
output budgeting, see budget reform
outsourcing:
and virtual corporations 308
and virtual government 308
outsourcing consultancy:
and e-government 679–80
and management consultants 679
overhead democracy 107
and trickle-down effects 114
overregulation, and Germany 698–9
oversight:
and complaints machinery:
censorate 144–5
ombudsman 138, 143–4
procuracy 145
and ethics policy 171
and hybrid bodies 361
Oxfam 595
Parker, Peter 478
participative decision making, and workplace democracy 119–20
(p. 778) participatory democracy, and public management 110–12
Passport Agency (UK) 315, 499
Patent and Trademark Office (US) 526, 527, 576
Patent Office (UK) 526
Pay for Performance, see performance-related pay
Peat Marwick 685
People's Panel (UK) 199
Performance Assessment Rating Tool (US) 576–7
Performance Based Organizations (USA) 576
performance measurement:
and arguments against 501–2
attribution problems 491, 503
cyclical incompatibility 504
impact on behavior 504
incomplete nature of 502
manipulation of results 504
measurement degradation 504–5
over-complexity 502–3
political domination of public systems 505
quantity versus quality 503
transaction costs of 503
unintended consequences 504
and arguments for:
accountability 496–7
creation of public value 501
customer service 498–9
effectiveness 500
efficiency 499–500
resource allocation 500–1
user choice 497–8
and attribution problems 491, 625–6
and budget reform:
Sweden 575
United Kingdom 573–4
United States 576–7
and differing approaches to 493–4
and fashions of 492
and financial reporting, discontent with 505
and focus of:
individual performance 495–6
organizational performance 494–5
policy and program performance 495
and future challenges:
democratic processes 512
functional approach 511
networks and partnerships 512
and government-NGO contracting 596–7
and growth in 491–2
and literature on 493
and models/techniques used 505
audit 508
Balanced Scorecard 506–7
Baldrige Awards 506
European Foundation for Quality Management 506
holistic approaches 506–7
negative drivers for 505
positive drivers for 506
public sector 507–8
and New Public Management 492–3
and non-governmental organizations 600–2
and output and outcome budgeting 564–5
and performance-related pay 529
and quality 544
evaluation of 544–6
publicizing information on 556
and theories of performance 508–9
and theory:
complexity theory 510–11
new institutionalism 509–10
political economy 510
postmodernism 510
public choice theory 509
social constructivism 510
performance-related pay 496 (p. 779)
and human resource management reform 522, 523, 528–9
and public management 85
Perrow, Charles, and decentralization 386
Peters, Guy 42
and governance 287, 298
Peters, T 473, 672–3, 683
Peterson, P, and decentralization 392
Pick, John 16
Pierre, J, and governance 287, 298
Planned Parenthood 62
Planning, Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS) movement, and management consultants 672, 675
Play, Frederick Le, and bureaucracy 34
pluriformity, and decentralization 378
policy advisory systems, and demand for management consultancy 674
policy communities 262
policy-making/implementation:
and administrative law regimes 147, 148
and complexity of 267
and co-production of policy 411
and evaluation:
multi-actor evaluation 273–5
problems with conventional modes of 273
and interactive policy making 410–11
and network management:
effects of 271–2
role of public manager 267–9
strategies of 269–71
and network research:
closedness 263–4
focus of 266–7
implementation processes 261, 264
interaction patterns 262–3
intergovernmental relations 261
perspectives of 265–6
policy communities 262
political economy, and performance measurement 510
political institutions:
and bureaucracy 53–5
and chains of authority 147–8
and public management 81
politics:
and citizen preferences 108–9
and ethics 169
and information and communication technologies 411–12
Pollitt, Christopher 18
and citizen participation 116
and context of reform 667–8
Polsby, Nelson 11
polyarchy 76
popular sovereignty 32, 35
and governmental institutions 158
Portugal:
and French influence 711
and public management reform 648
postmodernism:
and alterity 241
and approach of 238
and bureaucracy 57–9
and characteristics of 236
and coexistence with modernity 235–6
and construction of science 237–9
and contextualization 238
and deconstruction 241
and deterritorialization 241
and discourse analysis 238–9, 244, 252
and fragmentation of society 235–7
and imaginization 241
and language 240–1
and narrative 244
and participation 249–50
and perceptions of 237
and performance measurement 510
and poststructural analysis 239
and power 240
and pragmatism 247–8
and public good 248–9
and public management 237, 239–45, 248–52
and social constructivism 238, 245–6
and truth 238, 246
and versions of 248
power:
and network manager 268
(p. 780)
and network theory 275–6
and postmodernism 240
pragmatism, and public management 247–8
pressure groups, and web-based technologies 318
Price Waterhouse 681
price-cap regulation, and privatization 225–6
PricewaterhouseCoopers 682, 686, 689
principal-agent theory:
and budget reform 585–6
and bureaucracy 59–60
and government-NGO contracting 596–7
and New Public Management 60
and performance measurement 499
and public management 43, 163
Priority Review Staff (Australia) 676
Private Finance Initiative (UK) 315, 356, 360
private management, comparison with public management 72–3, 90–1
and administrative authority 83
and attitudes and values 85–6
and authority 77
and blurring of public/private sectors 73–5
and challenges in 77–9
and comparative performance 86–90, 91
and decision-making 84
and defining distinctions between 75–7
and goals and performance criteria 82
and governmental institutions 81, 90
and incentive structures 84–5, 86–7
and managerial roles 82–3
and operating environments 80–1
and organizational structure 84, 90–1
and ownership and funding 76–7
and polyarchy 76
and research approaches to 78–9
and role of markets 74–5, 76, 80–1
privatization:
and accountability 200–2
and budget reform 584–5
China 581–2
South Africa 582
and cultural change 479, 480
and efficiency gains 224–5
and impact of 423
and New Public Management 55, 56
and public/private management comparison 91
and public/private performance 89
and regulation 225–6
and trend of 72
proactive administration, and democratization 114
probation service (UK), and cultural change 481
procuracy, and administrative law 138, 145
production costs, and service provision 217, 218–20
production paradox 22
professions, public service 422–3
and ‘Expert State’ 426, 439–40
and future of:
indirect managerialization 436–7
professional-managerial hybrids 437–8
radical managerialization 434–5
self-reform 438–9
and governance narrative 432–4
and learning organization model 432
and literature on 424–6
bureau-professionalism 425
collective leadership 430
economists' perspective 425
empirical domain 441–2
entrepreneurial professionals 429
inter-professional relations 426–7
managerialization 425–6, 428–9
political science perspective 424–5
professional dominance 424, 425
professional knowledge 428–9
professional-managerial hybrids 429
theoretical domain 441
and multi-professionalization 427
and New Public Management 430–1
‘hard’ New Public Management 431
(p. 781)
perverse effects of 439
‘soft’ New Public Management 431–2
and professionalization projects, failure of 426
and public service reform 441
impact of multi-professionalization 427
and quality methods 557–9
and reprofessionalization 439
progressive movement (USA), and public management 10, 39
Protherough, Robert 16
prototypes of practices, and knowledge transfer 660–3
Prussia, and public management 33–4
public administration, and historical use of term 10
Public Administration Theory Network (PAT-Net) 235
and approach of 240
and public management 240
public choice theory:
and decentralization 388
and neoliberal regime theory 296
and performance measurement 509
and public management 43, 161
ethics 163–4
and public management performance 86
Public Finance Management Act (South Africa, 1999) 582
public good, and postmodernism 248–9
public interest systems 105
public law cases:
and United States 138–9
institutional reform litigation 139
public leverage, and public-private partnerships 351
public management:
as academic movement 10–11
and academic organization 235
and boundaries of management 724
and boundaries of the ‘public’ 723–4
and definition of 8, 28–9
and democracy 106–7
and history of:
administrative reform in Europe 42–3
age of absolutism 31–2
best practice 41–2
bureaucracy 34
cameralism 31–2
China 29–30
continuities 45
definitional problems 28–9
globalization of 43–4
influence of national institutions 46
law 33–4
managerialism 43
national sovereignty 33
New Public Management 43–4
origins of 27–8
public choice theory 43
Rechtsstaat 33, 34–5
‘reinvention movement’ 42
scientific management 39–40
state administration 33
terminological fashions 8–12
United Kingdom 35–6, 45–6
United States 35, 37–41
and perspectives on 12–13
and private management, comparison with 72–3, 90–1
administrative authority 83
attitudes and values 85–6
authority 77
blurring of public/private sectors 73–5
challenges in 77–9
comparative performance 86–90, 91
decision-making 84
defining distinctions between 75–7
distinctive transactions 81
goals and performance criteria 82
governmental institutions 81
incentive structures 84–5, 86–7
managerial roles 82–3
operating environments 80–1
organizational structure 84, 90–1
ownership and funding 76–7
polyarchy 76
research approaches to 78–9
role of markets 74–5, 76, 80–1
(p. 782)
as science 12–13, 19–23
as social movement 13–19
antagonism to other approaches 14
antagonism towards 15–16
historical precedents 13–14
ideology 17–18
interest groups 16–17
public management industry 17
rhetoric of 17
and terminological fashions in 8–12
and theory 725–6
Public Management Research Association (USA) 19
public nongovernmental governance 295, 301
public organizations:
and democracy in 117–19
participative decision making 119–20
and workplace democracy 120
Public Service Accountability Monitor 583
Public Service Agreements (UK) 501
Public Service Excellence Model, and performance measurement 507
public trust, and emergence of concept 30
public value, and performance measurement 501
public-private partnerships (PPPs):
and characteristics of 347
and definition of 348
and evaluation of 359
cost impacts 359–60
innovation 360
public governance impact 361–2
quality impacts 360
and forms of:
contracting-out 351–5
franchising 355–6
joint ventures/DBFO partnerships 356–7
public leverage 351
and hybridity 348, 361–2
and justification for 363
and national political/cultural context 347–8, 349–50
and problems with:
degree of common interest/values 363
democratic control 364
government capacity 363–4
role of trust 363
and public management reform 349–50
and strategic partnering 357–9
and Third Way politics 350
and variable meanings of 348
Pusey, Michael 16
Putnam, Robert 606–7
quality:
and academic study of 537–8
and approaches to 550
accreditation 547–8, 552
continuous quality improvement 550, 556
customer/user approach 546–7
inspection approach 556
legal approach 547
organization-wide approach 548–9
project-based approach 550
standards-based approach 548, 556
Total Quality Management 549–50
and audit explosion 333
and definition of 538, 539, 542–3
and evaluation of 544–6, 552–3
and history of:
craft-based theory 540
large-scale manufacturing 540–1
public sector 541
state regulation 540
Total Quality Management 541
worker commitment 541
and issues arising from 537
and measurement of 544
SERVQUAL system 544, 546
and performance measurement 498–9
holistic approaches 506–7
in public sector 541–2, 557–9
absence of incentives 554
challenge of improving 553–6
(p. 783)
context of 543
definition for 543
effectiveness of methods in 550–1
future of 557, 558
inappropriate methods 553–4
professional groups 557–9
publicizing information on 556
quality programs 552
research on 551–3
and public-private partnerships 360
and purpose of 538, 557
and quality movement 538
and research on 551–3
quality programs 552
and scientific management 538
and standards of 544
and Total Quality Management 432, 479, 539, 541, 649–50
health and education sectors 555
mixed results of 553
quantum theory, and postmodernism 249
Quinn, J B 308
Rabe, B, and decentralization 392
Raffarin, Jean-Pierre 707
railway industry (UK):
and ‘culture wars’ 480
and organizational culture 480
and organizational culture change 479, 481–2
rate-of-return regulation, and privatization 225, 226
rational choice theory:
and contracting out 354
and intra-organizational efficiency 215–16
and neoliberal regime theory 296
rationality, and organizational structure 471
Reagan, Ronald 392, 480
realists, and international regime theory 296
Rechtsstaat 33, 34–5, 105, 698, 711
record keeping, and bureaucracy 65
Redford, E, and ‘overhead democracy’ 107
Redlich, Josef, and bureaucracy 34
reflexive modernity, and the ‘evaluation wave’ 619–21
reform:
and citizen participation 104
and improving public goods/services 104
and public/private management comparison 87
and trust in government 103–4
Refounding School 168
Refugee Help 601
regime theory, and strategic partnering 358–9
regulation:
and hybrid bodies 362
and international regulation 655
and privatization 225–6
and quality 540, 547
Reinventing Government movement (USA) 198
relational contracting, and government-NGO contracting 599
religion, and non-governmental organizations 598
remuneration, and public/private management comparison 79, 85, 88
representative bureaucracy 113–14
representative democracy, and information and communication technologies 409–10
requisite variety, and cybernetics 21
resource allocation, and performance measurement 500–1
responsibility:
and administrative responsibility 115–16
and discretion 162
rhetoric, and public management 17
Rhodes, R A W:
and governance 286, 433
and policy communities 262
rights, and liberal democracy 158, 159
(p. 784) risk:
and public/private management comparison 87
and risk management:
audit explosion 333–4
expertise 440
Rittberger, V, and international regime theory 293–4
Roethlisberger, F J, and organizational culture 470–1
Roman Law, and influence of 697
Roosevelt, Franklin D 10, 379
Rosenberg, Hans 30
Rousseau, Jean Jacques 158
Royal Commission on Government Organization (Canada, 1962) 675
rule of law 32, 149, 697–8, 710
rules, and bureaucracy 66
Rutherford, Lord 648
safety, and quality 537
Savas, E S, and franchising 355
Save the Children 593, 595
Savoie, Donald 22
Scalia, Antonin 137
scandals, and ethics policy 169
scapegoating, and accountability 196
Scharpf, F W, and networks 261
Schumpeter, J, and cameralism 32
science:
and construction of 237–9
and public management as 12–13, 19–23
and public policy 440
scientific management 14, 39–40, 470, 681
and adoption of 15
and origin of term 10
and quality 538
Scott, W R, and decentralization 386
seamless service delivery 498
Securities and Exchange Commission 682
self-interest, and ethics 163–4
separation of powers, and United States 37
service provision, and costs of 226–7
and asset specificity 223
and bargaining costs 217–18
and competition and contestability 222–3
and opportunism costs 217, 218, 354, 355
and organizational capacity 223–4
and privatization 224–5
regulation of 225–6
and production costs 217, 218–20
and public-private partnerships 359–60
and task complexity 221–2
SERVQUAL measurement system, and quality 544, 546
Shen Pu-Hai 29–30
Siemens 315
Simon, Herbert A 40, 174
and complex systems 63
and public/private management comparison 88
Small, Albion, and cameralism 31
Smith, Adam 9, 34, 372
Smith, Tim 686
Smith, Toulmin 372–3
social capital 112
and non-governmental organizations 603, 606–7
and workplace democracy 118
social constructivism 725
and performance measurement 510
and postmodernism 238
and public management 245–6
social intelligence, and leadership 459–60
social movements:
and characteristics of 13
and public management as 13–19
antagonism to other approaches 14
antagonism towards 15–16
historical precedents 13–14
ideology 17–18
interest groups 16–17
public management industry 17
rhetoric of 17
social practice theory:
and leadership 459–61, 463
museums 462
research agency 461
(p. 785)
universities 462
social science, and construction of 237–9
South Africa:
and budget reform 582–3
assessment of 583
fiscal decentralization 582, 583
intergovernmental relations 582–3
privatization 582
and public management reform 648
Southall railway crash report (UK) 482
Southeast Asia, and fiscal crisis 647, 657
sovereignty, national, and emergence of concept 33
Soviet Union 657
and collapse of 651
and procuracy 138, 145
and public management reform 648
Spain:
and French influence 710, 711
and public management reform 648
Spencer, Herbert, and bureaucracy 36
Speyer Institute Awards, and performance measurement 507
Stake, Robert 632
Starbuck, W, and organizational theory 471
State, and European political thought 697
state-owned enterprises 224
Stein, Freiherr von 33
Stein, Lorenz von 38
stewardship:
and leadership 451
and public management 166–7
Stewart, Richard, and administrative law 142
Stivers, C:
and citizen governance 251
and citizens and community 250
strategic partnering, and public-private partnerships 357–9
street-level bureaucracy 114–15, 390
and discretion 424–5
and information and communication technologies 404, 405
structural functionalism, and management writing 474
structuration theory 239
subsidiarity 371
and international public management 649
Sun Yat Sen 145
supreme audit institutions 327–8
and International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions 654
Sutcliffe, K M, and culture of entrapment 477
Sweden:
and Administrative Procedure Acts 138
and budget reform 574–5, 584
performance management 575
and German influence 711
and human resource management 525
and non-governmental organizations 594
and ombudsman 138, 143
Swift, Jonathan 9
Switzerland:
and decentralization 382
and French influence 710
systems analysis 675–6
Taiwan, and Control Yuan 138, 144, 145
Tanzania 713
Taylor, Frederick Winslow, and scientific management 10, 14, 470, 538, 681
technology:
and citizen participation 117
and networks 259
Teisman, G, and strategic partnering 358
telematics, and strategic alliances 311
terrorism, and web-based technologies 318
text building blocks 405
Thatcher, Margaret 45, 374, 468, 677
Thévenot, L, and conventionalist theory 456
think tanks:
and growth of 676
and management consultants 689
(p. 786) Third Way 11, 432, 678
and governance 285
and public-private partnerships 350
third-party governance 294–5, 298, 301
Thomas, Clarence 137
Thompson, Dennis, and problem of many hands 189
Through the Patient's Eyes (UK) 199
Tocqueville, Alexis de 606
‘Tocquevillian paradox’ 22
Total Quality Management 432, 479, 541, 549–50
and definition of 539
and health and education sectors 555
and international public management 649–50
and mixed results of 553
and New Public Management 649, 650
and origins of 650
and promotion of 684
Touche Ross 681
Towers Perrin 682
trade unions:
and human resource management reform 526–7, 533
and scientific management 15
training, and bureaucracy 65–6
Transparency International 654
trickle-down effects, and overhead democracy 114
trust:
and audit explosion 335, 336
and citizen participation 111–12
and decline in 103
and ethics policy 169
and market-based reforms 108
and non-governmental organizations 602
and public-private partnerships 357–8, 363
trusteeship, and public management 166–7
truth, and postmodernism 238, 246
Tunisia, and French influence 713
United Kingdom:
and administrative law 137, 140–1
and audit explosion 326
nature of 330, 331, 332
professional groups 329
and budget reform 572–4, 584
comprehensive spending review 572
expenditure management 572–3
incremental budgeting 573
performance management 573–4
and centralization 379
and civil service 36
reform of 525, 526, 531
and contracting out of IT 314, 315, 316
and decentralization 382, 387–90
and Human Rights Act (1998) 139
and joined-up government 317
and management consultants:
Conservative governments 677
expenditure on 677
influence of 673
lobbying strategies 685–6
origins of use of 675
size of sector 682
and New Public Management 44, 55, 64, 108
and non-governmental organizations 593
community building 607
role of 594, 595
and performance measurement:
Citizens' Charter 498–9
public sector model 507–8
school inspections 497
and public management:
administrative revolution 45–6
history of 35–6
and public sector cultural change 478–82
and public-private partnerships 347
franchising 355
Private Finance Initiative 315, 356, 360
(p. 787) United Nations:
and International Code for Public Officials 156, 157, 160
and New Public Management 44
United Nations Development Program, and New Public Management 44
United States:
and administrative law 137, 141–2
non-delegation doctrine 146
public law cases 138–9
and audit explosion 329, 331, 332
and budget reform 575–8
accrual accounting 578
expenditure management 575–6
Performance Assessment Rating Tool 576–7
Performance Based Organizations 576
performance management 576–7
political difficulties 576
problems with 577–8
and bureaucracy 54
and centralization 379
and civil service:
higher-level 523, 529
reform of 521–2, 525, 526, 527, 531, 533
and contracting out of IT 314, 316
and decentralization 373, 380, 382, 389–90
rhetoric of 391, 392
states' rights 382
and evaluation 618
and judicial review, Administrative Procedure Act 137–8
and management consultants:
expenditure on 676
influence of 672–3
policy advisory system 674
political contributions 687
and networks 62
and New Public Management 55–6
and non-governmental organizations 593
community building 607
government funding 593, 594
role of 594, 595
and performance measurement 492
and public management:
best practice 41–2
history of 35, 37–41
‘reinvention movement’ 42
and public-private partnerships 347
public leverage 351
and scientific management 15, 39–40
and separation of powers 37
and state-owned enterprises 224
and universities 428
United States Office of Personnel Management 88
United States v Carolene Products, Co (USA, 1938) 139
universities:
and Japan 580
and managerialization 428
and public management 235
upper echelons theory, and leadership 447
Urban Institute (US), and performance measurement 492
Urwick, Lyndall 40
user choice, and performance measurement 497–8
utilitarianism, and public management 13
values:
and human resource management reform 532
and public management 165–9, 173–4
law and process 168
liberal tradition 167
Minnowbrook School 168
New Public Management 167–8
Refounding School 168
regime values 168
trusteeship/stewardship 166–7
and public/private management comparison 85–6
and stewardship view of leadership 451
Vaughan, Diane, and NASA organizational culture 475–6
venture philanthropy 604
virtual reality 306
(p. 788) virtuality:
and accountability 322
and contracting out 308, 314–16
and definition of 305
and e-government 305, 307–8
barriers to 321
future of 318–19, 321–2
stages model modernist bias 320
stages model of implementation 319–20
stages model shortcomings 320
and growth of interest in 306–7
and New Public Management 317, 321–2
and public administration 309
and public organizations 309–10
future of 318
internal virtuality 310, 314–16
Internet potential 311
virtual face of 310, 312–14
virtual networks 310–11, 316–18
and virtual corporations 308
and virtual government 308
and virtual organizations 307
and virtual state 308–9, 322
and visions of 306–9
voluntary associations, and democracy 606–7
voucher systems, and non-governmental organizations 595
Waldo, Dwight 20, 40
and democracy 117
Wamsley, G L, and public/private management comparison 76–7
Waterman, R H 473, 672–3, 683
wealth, and market-based democracy 110
Weber, Max 35
and bureaucracy 52, 64
challenges to conception of 64–6
and charisma 448
and modernity 235
and public officials 159, 161
and public/private distinction 484
web-sites:
and government use of 312–14
and public service provision 406–9
Weick, K E, and culture of entrapment 477
welfare state, and non-governmental organizations 594
Welsby, John 480
Western Electric 470–1
White, Leonard 38, 45, 141
Whitlam, Gough 676
Whyte, William H 473
Williams, Neil 679
Williams, Raymond, and culture 469
Wilson, James Q 597
Wilson, Woodrow 9
Wong, K, and decentralization 392
Woodhead, Chris 497
workflow management, and information and communication technologies 404–5
workplace democracy 120
and participative decision making 119
and public organizations 117–19
participative decision making 119–20
World Bank 11, 12, 224, 524, 566, 660
and fiscal crises 647
and governance 657
and international public management 644, 659
and practice prototypes 661
public expenditure management framework 662–3
World Health Organization 664
World Trade Organization 580
World Wildlife Fund 593
Wright, Susan, and organizational culture 474
(p. 789) Yugoslavia 120
Zald, M N, and public/private management comparison 76–7
zero touch transactions, and virtualization 309
Zifcak, Spencer 22
Zouridis, S, and bureaucracy 390