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date: 12 November 2019

(p. 747) Subject Index

(p. 747) Subject Index

Abu Ghraib 402–3
academics:
and advice to young scholars interested in practice 658–9
and influence of real world 651–3
and policy‐making 10, 76–7, 635, 649
academic obstacles to interaction 654–5
appropriateness of separation 650, 651
benefits of interaction 657
bridging the gap between 658–9
competitors for influence on 655–6
complementary relationship 636–7, 640
cultural gap between 654–5
gulf between 649–50, 653–4
influence of ‘embedded capital’ 656–7
influence on 650–1
relationship with 635–6, 645
relationship with academic knowledge 641–2
split between 636
and political commitment 642–3, 645
government service 644
political bias 643–4, 645–6
and truth:
evolutionary 639–40
nature of 637
objective 637–8
subjective 638–9
accountability, and institutional design 713–14
Afghanistan 55, 400–1, 453
agency:
and political action 362
and postmodernism 366 see also moral agency
agency theories:
and international relations theory 21
and optimism 24–5
agent‐structure debate 456
agreement, and international ethics 599
aid policy 387–8
alliances:
and formation of 527–8
and quantitative research 485
trade patterns 486
American empire 90
and legitimacy 92–3
and Marxism 182–3
and neoimperialism 183–4
American Political Science Association 84, 110, 230, 500
analytical eclecticism 110
and conception of 110–11
and contribution to intellectual progress 124–6
and costs and risks of 125
conceptual fuzziness 118
and international law 623
and international political economy 122–4
economic strategies of Soviet successor states 122–3
ratings agencies 123–4
state financial power 123
and multiperspectival approach 117
and national security 120–2
absence of war amongst developed great powers 121–2
American foreign policy 120
post‐Communist Russia 121
rise of China 120–1
and pragmatist foundation 111
and problem solving 117
and reflexive process 111
and regions 124
not theoretical synthesis 118
and value added by 118–19
anarchy:
and constructivism 304–5, 308–9
and international relations 63, 64–5, 77–8
and postmodernism 364–5
and questioning of assumption of 444
and realism 133, 135, 144, 150
defensive realism 139
moral behavior 154
offensive realism 139
argument, and international relations theory 13
arms control, and strategic studies 563
arms races, and quantitative research 484
(p. 748) Arrow theorem 14
art, and postmodernism 368–9
Asia‐Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 201, 225
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 201
asymmetric conflict 566
Australia, and human rights 260
Australian National University, Strategic and Defence Studies Centre 561
Australian Research Council 369–70
authority:
and constructivism 308–9
and global society 68
and legitimacy 92
and sovereignty 91
and the state 43–4
failed states 53
state structure 51–2
variability of 49–50
autocratic states 53
autonomy, and sovereignty 91
balance‐of‐power theory:
and critique of 528
and the English School 277
and realism 141
as unfalsifiable theory 717
balance‐of‐threat theory 528
and realism 141–2
Bandung Conference (1955) 97
Bank for International Settlements 261
bargaining, and war 433
Bayesian inference, and process tracing 504
Bayes's rule 429
behavioral economics, and prospect theory 464
beliefs:
and actor attributes 427
and shared beliefs 444
and soft power 709
and updating of 429
bounded rationality 430
British Committee on the Theory of International Politics 269–70, 286, 288, 290, 683 see also English School
bureaucracies, and foreign‐policy decision‐making 586
capitalism:
and changes in 711
and Marxist theories of imperialism 166–8
and neo‐Gramscian international political economy 174–5, 176
and world‐systems theory 169–71, 172
care, and feminism 416
Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs 595
case selection, and qualitative research 510–11
Catholic Church 49
and international society 273
causality:
and agent‐structure debate 456
and individual behavior 427
and nature of explanations 450–1
and postmodernism 371
Center for the Analysis of Personality and Political Behavior (CAPPB) 580
Central Intelligence Agency 580
change:
and ancient conceptions of 86–7
and capitalism 711
and climate change 712
and communication technologies 712
and complexity 88
and diversity of social structures 711–12
and historical structures 89–90
American empire 90
civil society 91
Westphalian state system 90–1
and history 85
and inadequate understanding of 710
and influence of scientific thinking 88–9
and institutions 215–16
and international relations theory 22, 24–5, 66
attempts to understand 75–6
and legitimacy 92–3
and Marxism 85
and modern conceptions of 87
and neorealism 84, 85
and perpetual nature of 86–7
and progress in international relations 711
and purposive change 87–9
and self‐organization 88, 89
and technology of force 710–11
Chechen wars 399
chemical weapons, and prohibition of 620
China:
and American policy towards 656–7
and eclectic approach to 120–1
and international society 272
Christianity 85–6
(p. 749) chronofetishism 523
civil society 91
as decentred network 91
and elite groups 100
and legitimacy 93
and national interest 446
classical realism 136–7 see also realism
climate change 712
coercion, and international cooperation 210–11
cognitive science, and qualitative research 512
cognitive styles:
and behavior of theorists 471–2
historical counterfactuals 472–3
possible futures 473–4
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 583
inherent bad faith model 583
Cold War:
and crisis bargaining 474–5
and globalization of violence 97
and peaceful end to 66
and psychological theory 474–5
and quantitative research on international relations 483–5
alliances 485
arms races 484
power 484–5
realist focus 483–4
collective action:
and international institutions 208, 209
and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 433
colonialism, see imperialism
Columbia University, Institute of War and Peace 561
commercial liberalism 234–5, 242–4
Committee on International Judicial Relations 261
communication, and critical theory 347
communications revolution 453–4, 712
communitarianism, and ethics 379
Comparative Foreign‐Policy (CFP) 581–2
comparative historical analysis 506–7
complexity:
and change 88
and qualitative research 512
and social structures 711–12
compliance:
and international institutions 212
and international law 259, 618, 625
liberal states 259–60
and methodological approaches 74
and psychological theory 467–8
conceptual analysis, and qualitative research 509
Concert of Europe, and hierarchy of states 55
conflict:
and commercial liberalism 243–4
and national identity 241
and political ideology 241–2
and republican liberalism 245
and trade 490 see also war
consequentialism, and Marxist ethics 190, 191, 194
Consortium for Qualitative Research Methods (CQRM) 500
constitutive theory 436–7
constructivism:
and anarchy 304–5, 308–9
and authority 308–9
and constitutive theory 436–7
and critical theory 333
and distinguishing features of 299–300
co‐constitution of actors and structures 303–4
construction of national interest 302–3
international anarchy 304–5
social construction of world politics 300, 301–2
and domestic politics 70
and the English School 269, 279–80
differences with 280–1
metatheoretical issues 280
treatment of norms 281–2
and epistemological controversy 306–7
positivism 307
postpositivism 307
and ethics 69, 317
agnosticism 320–1, 322
clashing social structures 321–2
defense of moral norms 318–19
humility 324–5
limits of ethical ideals 322–4
moral change 318
moral progress 322, 324–5
normative theorizing 319–20
positivism 307–8
postpositivism 307, 308
practical progress 323–4
and feminism 417
and holism 436–7
and ideas 256, 301
and institutions 207
and international law 620–1, 624
and international political economy 550–1
(p. 750)
and international relations 64
approach to 312–13
and materialism 310–11
and national interest 43, 302–3, 310
and normative perspective of 437
and political stance of 437
and power 693–4
and psychological theory 469–71
leadership 469–70
trade‐off reasoning 470–1
and qualitative research 501
and rationalism 310, 311–12
and social concepts 298, 299
and social construction of meaning 298
and socialization 436
and strategic behavior and norms 310–11
(p. 751)
and strategic studies 568
and subjectivism 113
and success of 313
as unfalsifiable theory 717, 718
and units of analysis 306
content analysis 585
cooperation, international:
and changes in nature of power 721–2, 723
and coercive cooperation 210–11
and functionalism 223
and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 433
and motives for 709
and neoliberal institutionalism 202, 204–5, 208–9, 223–4
and realism 209–10
and relative gains 209–10, 224
and value commitments 22
Correlates of War (COW) Project 483
corruption, and international law 622
cosmopolitan community 73
cosmopolitanism:
and critics of 379
and ethics 379, 383–4
and institutional arrangements 275
and international ethics 596–7
and pluralism 603
counterfactual analysis 505–6
covert world 91–2
crisis dynamics 563
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 580, 588
and international law 614
critical international relations theory 76
critical theory 327
and application to international relations 334–5
and communication 347
and constructivism 333
and contrasted with traditional theory 329–30
and contribution of 327, 342–3
and criticisms of 333–4, 336, 352
and discourse ethic 347, 348, 349, 351
communicative vs strategic action 355–6
criticism of 352
procedural vs substantive ethics 353–5
universality vs difference 352–3
and emancipation 328, 336, 350, 353, 663
cosmopolitan harm principle 336, 350–1
nature of 330–1
praxis of 340–1
and the English School 333
and ethics:
applied ethics 347, 348
contribution to international ethics 348–51
dialogue 347, 348, 349, 351, 353–4
ethical pluralism 346
harm principle 350–1
meta‐ethics 347
normative ethics 347
political community 349–50
and fact/value judgements 115
and feminism 334–5, 395, 418
and the good 329
and interdisciplinary nature of 328
and international political economy 548
and international relations theory, critique of 331–3
and knowledge claims 115–16
and modernity 663
and modes of theorization 330
and neoliberal institutionalism 333
and neorealism 332
and normative purpose 328, 330, 335–6, 350, 354
and praxeological research program 340–1, 350–1
role of states 341
and problem of community 328
and questioning of value‐free inquiry 348–9
and security studies 335
and sociological dimension of 337–40, 350
comparative historical sociology of states 337–8
contributions of other approaches 339–40
existing world order 337
indigenous peoples 338
institutionalization of cosmopolitan harm principles 338–9
minorities 337–8
and strategic studies 569–70
and subjectivism 112
and transdisciplinary nature of 328
and values 7
and varieties of 329
and war 332
Cuban Missile Crisis 474, 563, 584, 614
cultures, and encounters between 101–2
decision‐making:
and actor attributes 426–7
and compliance and internalization 467–8
and constructivism 469
and crisis bargaining 474–5
and crisis dynamics 563
and error and bias 475–6
and evolutionary theory 434–5
and prospect theory 464
and psychological theory 435–6
and rational choice theory 429–30
and trade‐off reasoning 470–1
and usefulness of rationalist baseline 437–8 see also foreign‐policy decision‐making
decolonization 97
and the English School 276–7
and international relations discipline 99, 103
deconstruction:
and feminism 395
and postmodernism 363, 371–2
defensive realism 139
and prospect theory 464–5
democratic peace theory 99
and liberalism 244–5, 258
and quantitative research 489–90
democratization, and resistance to 453
dependency theory 664–7
and attitude towards history 665
as counter‐analysis 664
and criticisms of 665
and development 666
and marginalization of peripheries 664–5
and suppression of 665–6
and Third World 666–7
and world‐systems theory 169
deterrence:
and definition of 562
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 579
and prospect theory 465
and strategic studies 561–2
and terrorism 475
development:
and aid policy 387–8
and dependency theory 666
development economics 541
and international political economy 545
development studies, and international relations 102–3
diplomatic immunity 274
discourse analysis, and subjectivism 113
discourses, and postmodernism 363
disjointed incrementalism 582
distributive justice, and international ethics 603–4
diversity, and world politics 711–12
Doctors without Borders 79
domestic politics:
and international institutions 214–15
and international relations 70, 214
quantitative research on 491
and realism 134
and state‐centric theories 46–8
dynamic differentials 528
eclecticism, see analytical eclecticism
effectiveness, and institutional design 713
efficiency, and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 430–1
egoism, and realism 133, 150
emancipation:
and critical theory 328, 330–1, 336, 350, 353, 663
cosmopolitan harm principle 336, 350–1
praxis of 340–1
and Frankfurt School 327–8
embedded liberalism 225, 452
empiricism, and social inquiry 112
endowment effect 465
English School:
and analytical wing of 276
as approach to international ethics 293–4
and balancing 277
and constructivism 269, 279–80
differences with 280–1
metatheoretical issues 280
treatment of norms 281–2
and critical theory 333
and development of 269–70, 683–4
and differences within 268–9
and distinctiveness of 267–8, 269
and ethics 286–7, 293–4
foundations of 295–6
future development of 294–5
the good 288–9
international society 288
international society management 290
(p. 752)
maximalist 291
moral claims 291–2
moral skepticism 288
nature of 292–3
order 290–1
political morality 289
state practice 290
and Eurocentrism 684
and human rights 275, 278–9, 281–2, 291
and imperialism 684–5
and influence of national decline 685–6
and institutions 207
and international order 684, 685
and international society 207–8, 270–1, 683–4
agents of 272–3
common interests 273
definition of 271–2
ethics 288
mutual recognition by states 272
non‐state members 273
pluralist 274–5
solidarist 275
states as members 272
types of 274–6
and leading members of 267
and normative wing of 275–6
and renewed interest in 270
and social reproduction 448
and systemic component of 276–8
and theoretical approach of 271
and theoretical middle ground 268
and war 277
and world society 63, 278–9
Enlightenment 86
epistemic communities 72, 451
and transparency 466–7
epistemology, and international relations 73–4
eschatology 85
ethics:
and applied ethics 347
and communitarianism 379
and constructivism 317
agnosticism 320–1, 322
clashing social structures 321–2
defense of moral norms 318–19
humility 324–5
limits of ethical ideals 322–4
moral change 318
moral progress 322, 324–5
normative theorizing 319–20
positivism 307–8
postpositivism 307, 308
practical progress 323–4
and cosmopolitanism 379, 383–4
and critical theory:
applied ethics 347, 348
communicative vs strategic action 355–6
contribution to international ethics 348–51
criticism of discourse ethic 352
dialogue 347, 348, 349, 351, 353–4
discourse ethic 347, 348, 349, 351
ethical pluralism 346
harm principle 350–1
meta‐ethics 347
normative ethics 347
political community 349–50
procedural vs substantive ethics 353–5
universality vs difference 352–3
and the English School 286–7, 293–4
foundations of 295–6
future development in 294–5
the good 288–9
international society 288
international society management 290
maximalist 291
moral claims 291–2
moral skepticism 288
nature of 292–3
order 290–1
political morality 289
state practice 290
and feminism 418
epistemological differences within 413–14
ethic of care 416
ethical commitment 409
inclusivity 409–10
ontologies of gender 414–16
practical ethics 416
self‐reflexivity 410
and international relations theory 19, 68–9, 193
neglect in 17–18
and Marxism 188–9
avoidance by 192–3
consequentialism 190, 191, 194
critique of ethics 195–6
future contribution of 198
international relations 192–7
interpretation problems 189–90
justice 194–5
liberation theology 195
materialism 190
morality of emancipation 191–2, 194
(p. 753)
morality of Recht 191–2, 194
naturalism 190
neo‐Gramscian approaches 196–7
practice of Marxist governments 191
and meta‐ethics 347
and moral cosmopolitanism 379
and morality 346
and neoliberal institutionalism 225–9
evaluative language 225–6
Keohane's normative turn 229–31
patterns in normative commitments 228–9
research agenda 227
silences in theory 227–8
values in conceptual framework 226–7
and new liberalism 257
behavior of states 258–9
human rights 260
international law 259–60
nature of the state 257–8
politics 257
transgovernmentalism 262–3
world order 263–5
and normative ethics 347
and postmodernism 378
contemporary ethical dilemmas 385–6
face to face 381
global space 384–5
obligation 381, 382
paradox of universalism 385
post‐Kantian nature of 384
rejection of orthodox binaries 379–80
relationship with cosmopolitanism 383–4
unsettling of the subject 380–2
violence 386–7
welcoming of other 382
and realism 188, 287, 598
anarchy 154
behavior of statesmen 155–6
denial of ethical dimension 150–1, 157–8
international society 287–8
moral relativism 151–2
natural impulsion 152–3
prudence 157
reasons of state 154–5
role of 151, 158
survival 155
and value resonance across theories 22–4 see also international ethics; moral agency
ethnocentrism, and strategic studies 564
Eurocentrism:
and the English School 684
and historical inquiry 526
Europe, and international relations theory:
and American/European divide 677
and distinctive research trajectory 677
and émigré influence on America 678, 682
and influence of national decline 678–9
European Convention on Human Rights 616
European integration 202, 203, 541, 718, 722
European Union (EU) 55, 201, 718
and gender mainstreaming 411
and peaceful power 722
evolutionary theory 434–5
and normative implications of 435
experimentation, and pragmatism 114
explanations:
and attributions 455–6
and nature of 450–1, 455
and unobservable elements 456–7
and value considerations 456
failed states 53
fear, and legitimacy 92
feminism 391–2
and constructivism 417
and contrasted with international relations 392–3
and critical theory 334–5, 395, 418
and differences within 412–13, 418–19
epistemological differences 413–14
ontologies of gender 414–16
practical ethics 416
and ethics 418
ethical commitment 409
inclusivity 409–10
practical ethics 416
self‐reflexivity 410
and feminist activism 393
and gender 391
depoliticization of 391–2, 404
gender mainstreaming 391, 400, 402, 411
gender relations 415
global actors’ use of 399–402
military 403–4
ontologies of 414–16
power 398–9
sexual torture 402–3
war 398
and international relations 397
common concerns of 397–8
development of interest in 410–11
future contribution to 419
relationship with nonfeminist approaches 417–18
and liberal feminism 393–4
(p. 754)
and methodological diversity 396, 417
and normative perspective of 408–9, 418–19
and post‐11 September feminism 412
and post‐Cold War feminism 411–12
and postcolonial feminist theory 395
and postmodern feminism 395, 413, 418
and power 397–8, 404
gender 398–9
social relations 398–9
and radical feminism 394–5
and security 412
and theoretical diversity 393
and under‐representation of women 393–4
and women's movements, second wave of 410
finance capital, and Marxist theories of imperialism 167, 168
financial power, and eclectic approaches to 123
foreign direct investment (FDI), and quantitative research 491
foreign‐policy decision‐making:
and agency:
groups 585–6
individual leaders 584–5
leadership management styles 586
organizations 586
and assumptions about decision‐making 580–1
and Comparative Foreign‐Policy 581–2
and decisional situation typologies 582
and development of study of 578–80
challenging rationality 580
deterrence 579
study of political leaders 580
and the foreign‐policy decision 588–90
constraints on 589–90
dynamic situations 588–9
explaining 576
goals of 589
policy implementation 589
and future development of subfield 590–1
and ideology 583
and national society characteristics 583
and neoclassical realism 583–4
and operational milieu 582
events data 582
and orienting statements on 580
and policy determinants 720
and popularity of subfield 576
adaptability of 577
interdisciplinary nature 576–7
intrinsic interest 576
middle‐range theories 577
relationship with policy‐making 577
and pre‐theory 581
and process of 587–8
crises 588
groupthink 587–8
poliheuristic theory 587
systematic analysis of 587
and psychological milieu 582–3
inherent bad faith 583
leaders' cognitive styles 583
and research problems:
complexity 577–8
discrimination 578
temptation to punditry 578
Frankfurt School 112, 327
and emancipation 327–8
and inspiration for 327 see also critical theory
free trade:
and commercial liberalism 243
and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 431
freedom, individual, and value commitments 22
friction, Clausewitz's concept of 563
functionalism 223
and historical inquiry 521–2
and international law 613–14
fuzzy set analysis, and qualitative research 508–9
game theory, and neoliberal institutionalism 205
gender:
and colonialism 96
and depoliticization of 391–2, 404
and gender mainstreaming 391, 400, 402, 411
and gender relations 415
and global actors' use of 399–402
and global circulation of 391
and the military 403–4
and ontologies of 414–16
and power 398–9
and sexual torture 402–3
and strategic studies 570
and war 398, 414–15 see also feminism
genealogy:
and historical inquiry 525
and postmodernism 363
Georgia, and regime change 91
Germany, and international relations theory 677
global civil society, and hegemony 174
global ethics 596
(p. 755) global finance, and ratings agencies 123–4
global governance 63–4, 69
and international organizations (IOs) 70–1
and international relations 78–9
and legitimacy 92–3
and liberalism 230
and networks 72–3, 261, 262
and non‐state actors 79
and normative issues 79
and power 79
and transgovernmentalism 260–2
global society:
and authority 68
and emergence of 452–3
and epistemological diversity 73–4
and fragmentation of 453–4
and individual participation 73
and international ethics 68–9
and international normative structures 68
and legitimacy 68
and nature of 454
and objects of study:
domestic politics 70
international organizations 70–1
transnational relations 71–3
and reasons for studying 75–7
practical action 76–7
understanding change 75–6
and security, changes in conceptions of 66–7
and transformation of international relations 62–3
and world society 63
globalization 98
and global ethics 596
and imperialism 96
and Marxism 181–3
and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 431
and societal demands under 236–7
and state structure 51, 52
as universal condition of world politics 234
governance:
and definition of 63
and multilevel governance 216
and transgovernmentalism 260–2 see also global governance
great powers, and hierarchy of states 55
grief 367–8
Group of 77, 97
Group of Seven (G7) 215
groupism, and realism 133, 150
groups, and foreign‐policy decision‐making 585–6
groupthink 587–8
Guantanamo Bay 402
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 201
Haiti 453
Harvard University, Center for International Affairs 561
hegemonic stability theory 223
and international political economy 545
and quantitative research 485–6
and realism 142
hegemony:
and neo‐Gramscian international political economy 173–4, 175, 176
and world‐systems theory 170, 172
hermeneutics 112
hierarchy, and international relations 54–6
Hiroshima 560
historical inquiry:
and advancement of contemporary goals 533
and Eurocentrism 526
and evolution of state system 524–6
and fundamental change 524–6, 532
and genealogy 525
and growth of 518
and historical complexity 523–4
and intellectual history 530
contemporary theory 530, 531
impulses behind 532
recent research 531–2
search for universal models 530–1
and international relations 533
ahistoricism 523
differences between 520–1
and international society 526
and interpretation of history 519
and managing enduring structural forces 532
and method 520
and nature of history 519
and purpose of 527
and radical simplification 529, 533
advantages of 523–4
critique of 523
functionalism 521–2
materialism 521
rational action 521
rejection of 526
and rationalism 527–9, 533
and realism 527–9, 533
and role of ideas 524–5
and search for universal models 522
contention over 522
intellectual history 530–1
(p. 756)
and theoretical orientation 518, 529–30
and theory 520–1
historical institutionalism 215–16
history:
and change 85
and Marxism 86
and modernist notion of 86
and neorealism 85
and path dependency 445
and religion 85–6
human rights:
and the English School 281–2, 291
and individual action 73
and international ethics 599–600
and liberal states 260
and solidarist international society 275
and world society 278
humanitarian intervention, and just war theory 607
humanitarian law 621
and liberal states 260
and world society 278–9
idealism 397
and realism 7
ideas:
and constructivism 256, 301
and international relations theory 21
and national interest 302
and neoliberal institutionalism 217
and role of 445, 524–5
identity:
and actor attributes 427
and liberalism 241–2
and politics 444–5
and postcolonialism 668
and postmodernism 366, 381
identity politics, and international relations theory 32
ideology:
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 583
and international law 624–5
imperialism 53
and the English School 684–5
and gender 96
and international relations:
advantages of engaging with 96
neglected by 95–6
and Marxist theories of 166–9
criticisms of 167–9
and neoimperialism 183–4
and re‐emergence of 98
inclusivity:
and feminism 409–10
and value commitments 22
indigenous peoples:
and critical theory 338
and postmodernism 365
individuals:
and global society 73
and moral agency 701, 703
inequality, and justice 603–5
inferential bias 710
influence, and power 692–3
information and communication technologies 712
institutionalism:
and development of 223
and interdependence 223
and international law 615–16
and psychological theory 466–9
compliance and internalization 467–8
epistemic communities 466–7 see also neoliberal institutionalism
institutions:
and changes in 215–16
and creation of 212
and definition of 203, 204, 207, 615
English School 207–8
social constructivism 207
and design of 213–14, 713
accountability 713–14
effectiveness 713
human obligations 713
rational design theory 619
value trade‐offs 713
and domestic politics 214–15
and historical institutionalism 215–16
and ideas 217
and importance of 201, 212
and institutional failure 211
and international cooperation 202, 204–5, 208–9, 223–4
coercive cooperation 210–11
relative gains 209–10, 224
and multilevel governance 216
and states' self‐interest 208–9 see also neoliberal institutionalism
instrumentalism, and rationalism 299
intellectual history 530
and contemporary theory 530, 531
and impulses behind 532
(p. 757)
and recent research 531–2
and search for universal models 530–1
intellectual progress:
and empiricist approach to 112
and logicism 112
and positivist conception of 111–12
and pragmatism 113
consensus 116
creative experimentation 114
open deliberation 114–15
practical approach 113–14
symbolic interactionism 115
truth claims 115
and research traditions 116
dangers of compartmentalization 116–17
and subjectivism 112–13 see also analytical eclecticism
interactional theory, and international law 623–4
interdependence:
and growth of 448–9
and institutionalism 223
and international political economy, emergence of 540, 542
and international society 273
and liberal peace 490
and state preferences 239–40
interdisciplinarity:
and critical theory 328
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 576–7
and international relations 102
interest, and international ethics 597–8
and natural law 598
and realism 598
and utilitarianism 598
international agreements, and quantitative research 493
International Association of Insurance Supervisors 261
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 201, 204
International Court of Justice 260, 452
International Criminal Court 260, 279, 319, 452, 622
international ethics 594
and agreement 599
and applied ethics 595
disadvantages of viewing as 595–6
and comparative ethics 609
and cosmopolitanism 596–7
and ethical theory 609
and global ethics 596
as historical tradition 608
and interest 597–8
natural law 598
realism 598
utilitarianism 598
and international law 603
role of 608
and justice 601
distributive justice 603–4
global justice 596
inequality 603–5
pluralism 601–3
and morality 600
and morally justified coercion 601, 608
and normative issues 596
and origins of study of 595
and outlived usefulness as term 597
and public/private distinction 595
and rights 599–600 see also ethics; moral agency
International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) 561
international institutions:
and quantitative research 493
and rational design theory 619
and realism 206
international law:
and compliance 259, 618, 625
liberal states 259–60
and constructivism 620–1, 624
and crises 614
and fragmentation of legal order 452
and functionalist approach to 613–14
as ideology 624–5
and institutionalism 615–16
and international courts 613
and international ethics 603, 608
and international lawmaking 625–8
as constant activity 625–6
eclectic approach to 628
motivations 627
strategic considerations 626–7
theoretical approaches 628
and lawmakers 612
and liberal theory 616–17
and New Haven School 614
and new liberalism 259
behavior of liberal states 259–60
and obligation 624–5
and opinio juris 621, 624
(p. 758)
and politics 621
and positivist view of 613
and rational choice theory 617–19
compliance 618
criticisms of application of 618–19
Prisoner's Dilemma 617–18
states' reputation 618
traditional/modern law 618
and rational design theory 619
and rationalism 615–16
and realist view of 613
and regime theory 614–15
and specificity of 618
and state power 624
and theoretical synthesis 622–3
analytical eclecticism 623
interactional theory 623–4
rationalism and constructivism 621–2
and transgovernmentalism 259, 260–2
and transnational networks 616–17
and ubiquity of 612
and values and interests 621–2
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 201, 202, 215, 216
and effects of programs 492
and failures of 718
international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), and international society 273
international organizations (IOs):
and authority 68
and gender 399–402
and global governance 71
and importance of 201
and institutional failure 211
and interest in 202–3
and international relations 70–1
and realism 206 see also neoliberal institutionalism
international political economy (IPE):
and anarchy narrative 65
and broadening field of 551–2
and definition of 542–3
economic component of 543
and dichotomy in approach to 547
American‐European differences 547
bridging the gap 550
‘British’ school 549
constructivism 550–1
critical theory/postmodern approach 548
criticism of American approach 549–50
misleading nature of 550
non‐American scholarship 550
normative issues 550
rationalist approach 547–8
variety of American approaches 548
and early work in:
development economics 545
international economic cooperation 544
international monetary relations 544
less developed economies 544–5
neo‐neo synthesis 546
positivist approaches 545
regime theory 545–6
responses to economic crises 544
restoring order 543–4
role of the state 546
sanctions 544
theoretical divisions 545–6
and eclectic approaches to 122–4
economic strategies of Soviet successor states 122–3
ratings agencies 123–4
state financial power 123
and emergence of 539–42
challenge to realism 540–1
economics 541
end of Bretton Woods system 540
global interdependence 542
historical origins 540
neofunctionalism 541–2
response to real world developments 540
and hegemonic stability theory 545
and narrow focus of 551
and neo‐Gramscian international political economy 173–7
ethics 196–7
and non‐state actors 541
and progress in 552
and quantitative research 485–7
hegemonic stability theory 485–6
national security 486
political‐military conflict 487
international political theory 531
international relations from below 672
and challenge to dominant theories 664
and constitutive otherness 667–70
and dependency theory 664–7
attitude towards history 665
as counter‐analysis 664
criticism of 665
development 666
marginalization of peripheries 664–5
Third World 666–7
and displacement of 664
and meaning of 663
(p. 759)
and political economy 671
and postcolonialism 667–70
challenge to dominant theories 668
decolonization of the imagination 668–9
excluded other 669–70
neglect of 669
suppression of other 670
and suppression of alternatives 665–6
international relations (IR):
and American domination of 11, 396–7, 649, 675, 676–8
Anglo‐American tradition 679–81
European émigré anomaly 678, 682
and American/European divide 677
and anarchy narrative 64–5, 77–8
and common ground in 16
and components of theorizing:
argument 13
assumptions 12–13, 42
questions 12
similarities across approaches 32–3
and criteria of 13
and decolonizing discipline 99, 103
and development of 681–2
and development studies 102–3
and diversity of approaches 11–12, 648–9
and divisions within 15, 32, 109–10, 691–2, 694–5
competing research traditions 116–17
critical/problem‐solving theories 15
separation of normative/empirical theory 19–20
verbal/mathematical theories 15–16
and divisive nature of 12
and domestic politics 70, 214
and duality of 6–7, 8
and dynamic approaches to 721–2
and empirical (positive) theory 6–7, 8, 18, 21
interconnections with normative theory 20–1, 22–5, 33
and empirical content 13–14
and empirical evidence 14–15
and epistemological diversity 73–4
and ethical considerations:
attempts to substitute logic for 18–19
neglect of 17–18
and ethics 19, 68–9, 193
neglect in 17–18
and Euro‐centric nature of 95
research 101
teaching 101
and Europe:
American/Europe divide 677
distinctive research trajectories 677
influence on America 678, 682
and global change 66
and global governance 78–9
and global society focus 62–3, 79–80
changes in conceptions of security 66–7
global governance 69
international ethics 68–9
international normative structures 68
and imperialism:
advantages of engaging with 96
neglect of 95–6
re‐emergence of 98
and importance of 5–6
and inferential bias 710
and influence of real world 651–3
and knowledge procedures of 100
inhibition of novelty 100–1
interdisciplinarity 102
and methodology 9–10, 27–8, 74–5
and moral agency 700
and moral obligations of 708–9
and motives for studying 708
and national differences 677
and non‐European world:
characterized by lack 99
colonization of discipline in 100
failure to engage with 95, 96–7, 98–9
imperialism 95–6, 98
intervention in 98
recognition of difference 99 see also international relations from below
and normative purpose 708
and normative theory 6–7, 8, 17, 21–2
distancing from social scientific approaches 19–20
interconnections with empirical theory 20–1, 22–5, 33
revival of 193
suppression of 17–18
and objects of study 70–3
domestic politics 70
international organizations 70–1
state‐centric focus 70
transnational relations 71–3
and other disciplines 10
and perspectives on 8
interplay between 8–9
as practical discourse 7–8, 33
and priority over empirical analysis 15
and professionalization of 110
(p. 760)
and progress in 25, 75, 711
addressing biases in 27
competition between approaches 30–2, 116–17
conceptual rigor 25–6
difficulties in evaluating 25
external borrowing 29–30
incorporation of new approaches 26
individual research areas 28–9
less complacency 26–7
methodology 27–8
overall field 29
and rational choice 18–19
and reasons for studying 75–7
practical action 76–7
understanding change 75–6
and shortcomings of discipline 94–5
and static theories 716–17, 723
falsifiable theories that are false 718–21
unfalsifiable theories 717–18
and status of countries 675, 678–9
and subfields of 10
as thriving discipline 94
and top‐down approach of 101
and traditional concerns of 62
and transformation in discipline 62–3, 78, 79–80
impact of global change 66
strategies for effecting 103
and values 7, 17–18
resonance across opposed theories 22–4 see also academics; analytical eclecticism
international society, and the English School 207–8, 270–1, 683–4
and agents of 272–3
and common interests 273
and definition of 271–2
and ethics 288
and mutual recognition by states 272
and non‐state members 273
and states as members 272
and types of 274–6
pluralist 274–5
solidarist 275
international system, and constitution of 446
Internet 712
interpretivism, and qualitative research 501
Iraq 55, 475–6
Judaism 85
just war theory 606–8
justice:
and global justice 596
and international ethics 601
distributive justice 603–4
inequality 603–5
morally justifiable coercion 601
pluralism 601–3
and Marxism 194–5
King's College London, Department of War Studies 561
knowledge:
and nature of truth 637
evolutionary 639–40
objective 637–8
subjective 638–9
and relationship between academic and policy knowledge 641–2 see also social inquiry
Kosovo 321, 368, 453, 621
labor regimes, and world‐systems theory 169, 171
Landmines Convention 319
law:
and international system 446
and society 447 see also international law
Law of the Sea Court 452
leadership 469–70
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 584–5
League of Nations 202, 223
and hierarchy of states 55
and mandate system 99
legitimacy:
and authority 92
and change 92–3
and civil society 93
and fear 92
and global governance 92–3
and global society 68, 453
and methodological approaches 74–5
and politics 444–5
liberal democracies, and transnational relations 50
liberal feminism 393–4
liberal peace, and quantitative research 489–90
liberalism:
and international law 616–17
and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 425, 430
tensions between 431 see also new liberalism
(p. 761) liberation theology, and Marxism 195
logicism, and social inquiry 112
market failure, and state intervention 211
Marxism 163
and American empire 182–3
and change 85
and ethics 188–9
avoidance of 192–3
consequentialism 190, 191, 194
critique of 195–6
future contribution to 198
international relations 192–7
interpretation problems 189–90
justice 194–5
liberation theology 195
materialism 190
morality of emancipation 191–2, 194
morality of Recht 191–2, 194
naturalism 190
neo‐Gramscian approaches 196–7
practice of Marxist governments 191
and future contribution of 198
and globalization 181–3
and history 86
and imperialism 166–9
American empire 182–3
criticism of theories of 167–9
neoimperialism 183–4
and Marx and Engels on international relations 163–6, 184, 192
class relations 164–5
deficiencies 164
geopolitical deficiency 166
limitations of 166
revolutionary change 165
unevenness 165–6
universalization of capitalism 164–5
and neo‐Gramscian international political economy 173–7
ethics 196–7
hegemony 173–4, 175, 176
and realism 188
and reformulation of international relations theory 177–80
historical development 177–9
political Marxism 178
and stages of 189
and truth 198, 639–40
as variegated tradition 189
and world‐systems theory 169–73
materialism:
and approach of 300–1
and constructivism 310–11
and historical inquiry 521
and international relations theory 21
and Marxist ethics 190
and neoliberalism 300–1
and neorealism 300–1
and power 692
and realism 299
media, and foreign‐policy decision‐making 586
methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 425
and actors 426
attributes of 426–7
domestic political institutions 428–9
individual behavior 427
state as unitary actor 428
understanding behavior of 427
and application to international relations 432–3
and efficiency 430–1
and free trade 431
and freedom 431
and future research:
empirical testing 439
uncertainty 438–9
and globalization 431
and liberalism 425, 430
tensions between 431
and mathematical models 425–6, 429
and rational decision‐making 429–30
and science 425
and usefulness of rationalist baseline 437–8
methodology 9–10
and international relations theory 27–8, 74–5
military, and gender 403–4
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) 201, 204, 216
modernity, and critical theory 663
modernization theory, and postmodernist criticisms of 363–4
money, as institutional fact 457
monotheism 85
Montreal Consensus 263
moral agency:
and assumptions about 702
individuals 703
nonstate actors 702–3
normative theorizing 703
states as purposive actors 702
and international relations theory, neglected by 700, 703–4 (p. 762)
and obligation 699–700
and responsibility 700–2, 704
agents capacities 705
collectivities 701–2, 704, 705
context of actions 705
ex ante judgments 701
ex post facto assessments 701
identifying moral agents 705
individuals 701
as moral question 704
and world politics 699 see also agency
moral relativism, and realism 151–2
and rejection by 152
morality:
and ethics 346
and international ethics 600 see also ethics; international ethics; moral agency
multiculturalism, and justice 601
multilateral institutions, and accountability 713–14
multilateralism:
and national identity 69
as organizational form 452
multilevel governance 216
multinational corporations, and limits of state‐centric theory 49
Nagasaki 560
Nanking, Treaty of (1843) 272
national identity:
and liberalism 241
and multilateralism 69
national interest:
and approaches to construction of 303
and civil society 446
and constructivism 302–3, 310
and definition of 156
and disputed existence of 46–8
and state‐centric theories 42–3
and value commitments 22
national security:
and ambiguity of term 46
and eclectic approaches to 120–2
absence of war amongst developed great powers 121–2
American foreign policy 120
post‐Communist Russia 121
rise of China 120–1 see also security; security studies
natural law, and international ethics 598
naturalism, and Marxist ethics 190
naturalist fallacy 323
neoclassical realism 140–1
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 583–4
neofunctionalism, and international political economy 541–2
neo‐Gramscian international political economy 173–7
and ethics 196–7
and hegemony 173–4, 175, 176
neoimperialism 183–4
neoliberal institutionalism:
and change in institutions 215–16
and collective action 208, 209
and creation of institutions 212
and critical theory 333
and definition of institutions 203, 204
broad nature of 207–8
and design of institutions 213–14
and development of 203–4, 223–4
different conceptions 224–5
and domestic politics 70, 214–15
and ethics 225–9
evaluative language 225–6
Keohane's normative turn 229–31
patterns in normative commitments 228–9
research agenda 227
silences in theory 227–8
values in conceptual framework 226–7
as falsifiable theory 718–19
and game theory 205
and historical institutionalism 215–16
and ideas 217
and importance of institutions 201, 212
and institutional failure 211
and interdependence 223
and international cooperation 202, 204–5, 208–9, 223–4
coercive cooperation 210–11
relative gains 209–10, 224
and international law 615–16
and liberalism 204–5, 229–30
and multilevel governance 216
and neorealism 205
and psychological theory 466–9
and rationalism 205, 223
and scope of 207
and states 203
and states' self‐interest 208–9
and territorial trap 65
and use of term 202
and Western focus of 230–1
(p. 763) neoliberalism:
and development 103
as falsifiable theory 718–19
and materialism 300–1 see also liberalism; new liberalism
neo‐neo synthesis 653
and international political economy 546
neorealism 136, 137–9
and approach of 84
popularity of 84–5
and change 84, 85
and critical theory 332
and defensive realism 139
and history 85
and materialism 300–1
and national interest 43
and neoliberal institutionalism 205
and offensive realism 139
and territorial trap 65 see also realism
networks:
and advantages of 73
and authority 73
and transgovernmentalism 261, 262
and transnational relations 72–3
New Haven School, and international law 614
New International Economic Order (NIEO) 540, 544, 551, 652
new liberalism, and international relations 229–30
and commercial liberalism 234–5, 242–4
and core theoretical assumptions 236
policy interdependence 239–40
pre‐strategic state preferences 237–9
societal demands under globalization 236–7
and democratic peace 244–5, 258
and embedded liberalism 225
and ethics 257
behavior of states 258–9
human rights 260
international law 259–60
nature of the state 257–8
politics 257
transgovernmentalism 262–3
world order 263–5
and global governance 230
and ideational liberalism 234, 240–2
and institutionalism 223
and international law 259
compliance with 259–60
and legal norms 256
and liberalism as systemic theory 247–9
and nature of 265
and neoliberal institutionalism 204–5
and predictions of liberal theory 246–7
foreign policy variations 246–7
long‐term historical change 247
and republican liberalism 235, 244–6
and scientific basis of 256
and social identity 240–2
legitimacy of socioeconomic order 242
national identity 241
political ideology 241–2
and state preferences 234, 235, 256–7
acquisition of 257
behavior of states 258
nature of the state 257–8
pre‐strategic preferences 237–9
priority in multicausal analysis 249–51
representation 238
and transgovernmentalism 259, 260–2
and war 235, 258–9, 259–60
and Western focus of 230–1
and world order 263–4
American exceptionalism 265
contradictions in 264
political and pre‐political split 264–5 see also neoliberal institutionalism
nonalignment 97
nongovernmental organizations, and dependency on clients 453
nonintervention, principle of 91
nonrandom selection, and quantitative research 492–3
non‐state actors:
and global governance 79
and international political economy 541
and international society 273
and moral agency 702–3
and state‐centric theories 48–51
normative beliefs, and actor attributes 427
normative structures, and global society 68
norms:
and compliance and internalization 467–8
and constitutive effects 447, 448
and constructivism 310
and enforcement of 468–9
and international ethics 69
and social role of 447–8
norms entrepreneurs 48
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 201, 225
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 201, 206, 215, 216, 225, 321, 621
(p. 764) nuclear deterrence theory 433
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 579
and national interest 43 see also deterrence
nuclear nonproliferation 656, 657
Nuclear Non‐Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 201, 204
nuclear strategy 561
obligation:
and institutional design 713
and international law 624–5
and moral agency 699–700
offense‐defense theory, and realism 142
offensive realism 139
and prospect theory 464–5
operational code studies 585
optimism, and agential theories 24–5
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and Anti‐Bribery Convention 622
Organization of African Unity 97
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 201, 540, 544, 652
organized crime 91, 92
Ottawa Convention 260, 437, 620
Pakistan 53
Pareto optimality 227
path dependency 445
patriarchy, and radical feminism 394
peace, and realism 144
pluralism:
and cosmopolitanism 603
and international society 274–5
and justice 601–3
policy interdependence 239–40
policy‐making:
and academics 10, 76–7, 635, 649
academic obstacles to interaction 654–5
appropriateness of separation 650, 651
benefits of interaction 657
bridging the gap between 658–9
competitors for influence 655–6
complementary relationship 636–7, 640
cultural gap between 654–5
government service 644
gulf between 649–50, 653–4
influence of ‘embedded capital’ 656–7
influence on 650–1
nature of truth 637–40
political bias 643–4, 645–6
relationship with 635–6, 645
relationship with policy knowledge 641–2
split between 636
and advice to young scholars interested in 658–9
and international relations theory 396–7
poliheuristic theory 587
political morality 595
and the English School 289
political science, and prospect theory 466
political society 100
positivism 14
and constructivism 307
ethics 307–8
and international law 613
and international political economy 545
and social inquiry 111–12, 675
postcolonialism 667–70
and challenge to dominant theories 668
and decolonization of the imagination 668–9
and excluded other 669–70
and neglect of 669
and political economy 671
and postcolonial feminist theory 395
and suppression of other 670
postmodernism:
and actors’ identities 32
and agency 366
and aim of 359
as analytical orientation 360
and anarchy 364–5
and art 368–9
and causality 371
and challenging existing practices 359
and change 24
and criticisms of 370–1
and deconstruction 363
normative consequences of 371–2
and Derrida's influence 362–3
and difference 364
and discourses 363
and empirical works of 370
and epistemology of 362
and ethics 378
contemporary ethical dilemmas 385–6
face to face 381
global space 384–5
obligation 381, 382
paradox of universalism 385
post‐Kantian nature of 384
rejection of orthodox binaries 379–80
relationship with cosmopolitanism 383–4
(p. 765)
unsettling of the subject 380–2
violence 386–7
welcoming of other 382
and feminism 395, 413, 418
and Foucault's influence 363
and fundamental characteristic of 359
and future of 369–73
and genealogy 363
and identity 366, 381
and indigenous peoples 365
and international political economy 548
and meaning 362–3
and nature of politics 380
and power 363, 364, 372, 381
and progress 365
and rationalism 363–4
and realism 360–2
criticism of 362
and security 366–7
and sovereignty 364, 365–6
and structuring of reality 363
and subjectivity 366, 380, 381, 383
and textuality 368
and value of 360
and violence 367–8, 386–7
and war 372, 386–7
postmodernity 359
postpositivism:
and constructivism 307
ethics 307, 308
and social inquiry 675–6
poststructuralism, and international relations theory 21 see also postmodernism
poverty 98–9 see also inequality
power:
and changes in nature of 721–2
and compulsory power 21
and conceptions of:
constructivist 694
as discursive process 693–4
faces of power 693
Gramscian 693
materialist 692
relationship of influence 692–3
search for common ground 695–6
and configurations of:
American empire 90
civil society 91
covert world 91–2
overlapping nature of 92
Westphalian state system 90–1
as contested concept 691
and dynamic approaches to 721–2
and feminism 397–8, 404
social relations 398–9
and gender 398–9
and global governance 79
and institutional power 21
and international relations theory 21, 691–2
approach of 695
influence of divisions within 694–5
lack of framework for 695
and metatheory 696–7
and modalities of 695
and national interest 43
and normative power 722
and peaceful power 722
and politics 691
and postmodernism 363, 364, 372, 381
and productive power 21
and quantitative research 484–5
and separation of 444
and social relational framework 695–6
and soft power 709
and structural power 21
and study of 709
and technology 721–2
and typology of forms of 695–6
power politics:
and definition of 154
as falsifiable theory 719–21
and realism 133, 150
power theories, as falsifiable theories 719–21
power transition theory, and realism 142–3
pragmatism:
and consensus 116
and creative experimentation 114
and fact/value judgements 115
and open collaboration 114–15
and practical approach 113–14
and rational choice theory 115
and social inquiry 113
and symbolic interactionism 115
and truth claims 115
preferences:
and actor attributes 427
and preference aggregation 428
and role of 445 see also state preferences
pre‐theory, and foreign‐policy decision‐making 581
preventive war 432
Princeton Project 264
(p. 766) Prisoner's Dilemma:
and collective action 433
and evolutionary theory 434
and international institutions 208
and international law 617–18
problem solving 450
process tracing:
and Bayesian inference 504
and qualitative research 503–4
progress:
and international relations 711
and postmodernist criticisms of 365 see also intellectual progress
prospect theory 436
and realism 464–6
deterrence and compellance 465
offensive and defensive realism 464–5
protectionism, and Marxist theories of imperialism 167
prudence, and realism 157
psychological theory, and international relations 435–6, 462–3, 476–7
and cognitive styles 471–2
historical counterfactuals 472–3
possible futures 473–4
and Cold War 474–5
and constructivism 469–71
leadership 469–70
trade‐off reasoning 470–1
and crisis bargaining 474–5
and deterrence 475
and error and bias 475–6
and influence of contemporary politics 474
and institutionalism 466–9
compliance and internalization 467–8
epistemic communities 466–7
and Iraq war 475–6
and realism 463–6
deterrence and compellance 465
offensive and defensive realism 464–5
perceptions 463
prospect theory 464–6
public opinion, and foreign‐policy decision‐making 586
qualitative research, and international relations:
and constructivism 501
and future development:
access to data 512–13
cognitive science 512
complexity 512
generalizability of findings 513
multi‐method research 511–12
and innovations in third generation methods 502–3
case selection 510–11
comparative historical analysis 506–7
conceptual analysis 509
counterfactual analysis 505–6
crucial cases 505
deviant cases 505
fuzzy set analysis 508–9
implicit comparisons 505–6
least‐likely cases 505
least‐similar cases 506
most‐likely cases 505
most‐similar cases 506
process tracing 503–4
small‐n comparisons 506–7
two‐level theories 509–10
typological theorizing 507–8
and institutionalization of 500
and interpretivism 501
and methodological diversity 500, 501
and popularity of 499
and resurgence of 499–500
and theory development and testing 500–1
and third generation 500
quantitative research, and international relations 481, 494
and areas covered by 483
and limitations of 482
and reasons for using 481–2
assessing relationships 482
making inferences 482
testing competing explanations 482
use of large data‐sets 482
and research during Cold War 483–5
alliances 485
arms races 484
hegemonic stability theory 485–6
international political economy 485–7
national security 486
political‐military conflict 487
power 484–5
realist focus 483–4
and research since mid‐1990s 487–8
alternative theoretical approaches 488
availability of data‐sets 488–9
breadth of 487
democratic peace 489
growth of 487–8
influence of domestic politics 491
international agreements 493
international institutions 493
liberal peace 489–90
(p. 767)
nonrandom selection 492–3
sanctions 491–2
sophistication of 487
United States' use of force 490–1
questions, and international relations theory 12
radical feminism 394–5
raison d'etat, see reasons of state
RAND Corporation 560
ratings agencies 123–4
rational action 521
rational choice theory:
and bounded rationality 430
and decision‐making 429–30
and imperialism of 426
and instrumentalist empiricism 430
and international law 617–19
criticisms of application to 618–19
and international relations theory 18–19
and normative biases 19
and pragmatism 115
rational design theory, and international law 619
rationalism:
and constructivism 310, 311–12
and historical inquiry 527–9, 533
and instrumentalism 299
and international law 615–16
and neoliberal institutionalism 205, 223
and postmodernism 363
realism:
and anarchy 135, 144
moral behavior under 154
and change 24
inability to explain 75
and contemporary nature of 145–7
cumulation of new research 146–7
interaction with other theoretical schools 145–6
modesty and exaggeration 159–60
reduced inter‐paradigmatic competition 145
and definition of 132
and development of 397
and diversity within 135
and domestic politics 134
and ethics 188, 287, 598
under anarchy 154
behavior of statesmen 155–6
denial of ethical dimension 150–1, 157–8
international society 287–8
moral relativism 151–2
natural impulsion 152–3
prudence 157
reasons of state 154–5
role of 151, 158
skepticism towards 133
survival 155
and generations of realist scholars 132
and historical inquiry 527–9, 533
and idealism 7
and influence of 131
and international cooperation 209–10
coercive cooperation 210–11
and international institutions 206
and international law 613
and international political economy 540–1
and Marxism 188
and materialism 299
and misconceptions about 143–5
and misunderstanding of 131
and moral relativism 151–2
rejection of 152
and national interest 43
and nature of international politics 134, 135, 361
not a single theory 131
and peace 144
and postmodernist criticisms of 362
and propositions of 150
anarchy 133
egoism 133
groupism 133
power politics 133
and psychological theory 463–6
deterrence and compellance 465
offensive and defensive realism 464–5
perceptions 463
prospect theory 464–6
and questioning of assumptions of 444–5
and signature argument of 135, 144
and strategic studies 567
and theoretical diversity 141, 143
balance‐of‐power theory 141
balance‐of‐threat theory 141–2
hegemonic stability theory 142
offense‐defense theory 142
power transition theory 142–3
security‐dilemma theory 142
and theoretical schools of 135–6
classical realism 136–7
defensive realism 139
neoclassical realism 140–1
(p. 768)
neorealism 136, 137–9
offensive realism 139
as unfalsifiable theory 717–18
and war 135, 709 see also neorealism
reasons of state, and realism 154–5
reciprocity, and international cooperation 709
redistributive politics, and national interest 46
regime change:
and civil society 91
and evolutionary theory 435
regime theory 203, 449–50
and international law 614–15
and international political economy 545–6
and organizational forms 451–2
and regimes as intervening variables 449, 451 see also neoliberal institutionalism
regimes, and definition of 203
regions, and eclectic approaches to 124
relative gains, and international cooperation 209–10, 224
religion, and history 85–6
representation:
and liberal feminism 393–4
and radical feminism 394
and republican liberalism 244–5
and state preferences 238
republican liberalism 235, 244–6
reputation, and states' self‐interest 618
responsibility, and moral agency 700–2, 704
and agents' capacities 705
and collectivities 701–2, 704, 705
and context of actions 705
and ex ante judgments 701
and ex post facto assessments 701
and identifying moral agents 705
and individuals 701
as moral question 704
revisionist states 121, 445
Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan 401
rights, and international ethics 599–600
risk, and prospect theory 436, 464–5
role socialization, and foreign‐policy decision‐making 586
rules, and functions of 457–8
Russia, and authority over sovereign states 55
Rwanda 156
sanctions:
and international political economy 544
and quantitative research 491–2
scholarship, see academics
science:
and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 425
as social enterprise 449
security:
and changes in conceptions of 66–7
and critical theory 335
and feminism 412
and gender 414
and non‐government provision of 446
and postmodernism 366–7
security studies:
and normative issues 570
and strategic studies, relationship with 570–1, 572
security‐dilemma theory 432
and realism 142
selection effects, and quantitative research 492–3
self‐organization, and change 88, 89
self‐reflexivity:
and feminism 410
and value commitments 22
Serbia, and regime change 91
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) 201
skepticism, and structural theories 24
social constructivism, see constructivism
social contract 209
social identity, and liberalism 240–2
and legitimacy of socioeconomic order 242
and national identity 241
and political ideology 241–2
social imperialism 167, 168
social inquiry:
and empiricist approach to 112
and logicism 112
and positivist conception of 111–12, 675
and postpositivism 675–6
and pragmatism 113
consensus 116
creative experimentation 114
open deliberation 114–15
practical approach 113–14
symbolic interactionism 115
truth claims 115
and research traditions 116
dangers of compartmentalization 116–17
and subjectivism 112–13 see also analytical eclecticism
social knowledge, and nature of 636
social order:
and norms 447–8
and reproduction of 447
(p. 769) social relationism, and power 695–6
socialization, and constructivism 436
society:
and law 447
as set of processes 454
and shared beliefs 444
and the state 447
sociological approaches:
and explanation 455
attributions 455–6
nature of 450–1
value considerations 456
and fragmentation of legal order 452
and global society:
emergence of 452–3
fragmentation of 453–4
nature of 454
reform failures 453
and international interdependencies 448–9
and nature of the ‘social’ 446–7
and norms 447–8
and questioning of assumptions 446–7
and regimes 449–50
organizational forms 451–2
and social reproduction 447, 448
and society as set of processes 454
and treatment of social facts 455
institutional facts 457
intersubjective understanding 455–6
rules 457–8
truth 458
unobservable elements 456–7
value considerations 456
solidarism, and international society 275
Somalia 53
sovereignty:
and authority 91
and autonomy 91
and emergence of 524–6
and non‐Western valuing of 230–1
and postmodernism 364, 365–6
and the state 43–4
and study of 709
and transnational actors 49
and variability of 49–50
Soviet Union:
and collapse of 54, 66, 206, 473–4
and economic strategies of successor states 122–3
Stanford School 453
state, the:
and centrality in international relations 41–2, 56, 64–5
territorial trap 64–5
and evolution of state system 524–6
and future research on 51
international hierarchy 54–6
(p. 770)
state structure 51–3
unit heterogeneity 53–4
and international institutions 208–9
and international organizations (IOs) 70–1
and internationalization of 181, 449
and limits of state‐centric theory 46, 56
disputed existence of national interest 46–8
domestic politics 46–8
transnational relations 48–51
and Marxist theories of imperialism 167, 168–9
and moral agency 702
and neo‐Gramscian international political economy 174–5
and reasons for studying 42
national interest 42–3
pragmatic approach to theory 45
state authority 43–4
states as primary actors 42
system‐level processes 44–5, 48
theoretical parsimony 42
and reform failures 453
and society 447
as unitary actor 428
and Westphalian state system 90–1
and world‐systems theory 169–70, 171–2
state death, and evolutionary theory 435
state preferences:
and acquisition of 257
and behavior of the state 258
and commercial liberalism 242–4
and liberalism 234, 235, 256–7
as systemic theory 247–9
and nature of the state 257–8
and policy interdependence 239–40
and pre‐strategic preferences 237–9
and priority in multicausal analysis 249–51
and representation 238
and republican liberalism 244–6
and social identity 240–2
legitimacy of socioeconomic order 242
national identity 241
political ideology 241–2
and societal demands under globalization 236–7
state structure 51–3
and authority 51–2
and globalization 51, 52
and lack of typology 52–3
status quo states 121, 445
strategic behavior, and constructivism 310
strategic studies:
and amorality of 558, 569
and arms control 563
and asymmetric conflict 566
and constructivism 568
and crisis dynamics 563
and critical theory 569–70
and deterrence 561–2
definition of 562
and empirical elements of 567
and end of cold war 565
and foreign‐policy decision‐making 579
and formal methods 563–4
and gender 570
and international relations 558–9
relationship with 570–1, 572–3
and international relations theory 567–8
and liberal institutionalism 567–8
and military technology 562–3, 566
and nonstate actors' use of force 566
and nontraditional security issues 565
and normative issues 568–70
and nuclear strategy 561
and obsolescence of inter‐state symmetric warfare 565–6
and origins of 559–61
and policy advice 568
and political science 571–2
and practical interests of 558, 568, 572
and preoccupations of 558, 561
and realism 567
and renaissance in 564–5
and security studies, relationship with 570–1, 572
and strategic culture 568
and strategic ethnocentrism 564
and strategic interaction 562
and strategy:
definition of 562
nature of 559–60
as subject in its own right 559
and terrorism 566
and uncertainty 563
and use of force 561
justification of 569
and Vietnam War 564
and war 559–60
political nature of 560
structural adjustment programs 98
structuralism:
and international relations theory 21
and skepticism 24
structure:
as insufficient explanation 445
and international relations theory 21
subjectivism, and social inquiry 112–13
subjectivity, and postmodernism 366, 380, 381, 383
subordination, and gender 415
survival:
and national interest 43
and realism 155
symbolic interactionism 115
system‐level processes, and the state 44–5, 48
technology:
and communication technologies 712
and expansion of force 710–11
and power 721–2
and states system 278
and strategic studies 562–3, 566
and transnational relations 50–1
tempocentrism 523
territorial trap:
and escape from 65–6
and international relations 63, 64–5
and Third World 66
terrorism 91, 92
and deterrence 475
and feminism 412
and network structure 73
and strategic studies 566
textuality, and postmodernism 368
Third World:
and characterized by lack 99, 667
and collective action 97
and failed challenge to the West 97
and imperialism's legacy 96
and international relations scholarship 100
and nonalignment 97
and recognition of difference 99
and the state 66
and Western intervention 98 see also international relations from below
threats, and balance‐of‐threat theory 141–2
Timor 453
torture, and gender 402–3
totalitarian states 53
(p. 771) trade:
and alliance 486
and hegemonic stability theory 485–6
and political‐military conflict 487, 490
trade‐off reasoning 470–1
Trade‐Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 201
transgovernmentalism 260–2
and networks 261, 262
and new liberalism 259
transnational advocacy networks 72
and limits of state‐centric theory 49
transnational networks, and international law 616–17
transnational relations 652
and international relations 63, 71–3
and liberal states 50
and network organization 72–3
and sovereignty 49–50
and state‐centric theories 48–51
and technology 50–1
transnational social movements 72, 454
transparency, and institutions 466
truth 458
and nature of 637
evolutionary 639–40
objective 637–8
subjective 638–9
two‐level theories, and qualitative research 509–10
typological theorizing, and qualitative research 507–8
Ukraine, and regime change 91
uncertainty:
and methodological individualism and rational choice (MIRC) theory 438–9
and strategic studies 563
United Kingdom, and international relations field
and American hegemony in 676–7
and Anglo‐American tradition 679–81
and influence of national decline 678–9, 685–6 see also English School
United Nations Charter 278–9
United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 451
United Nations Global Compact 262–3
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 79
United Nations International Law Commission 613
United Nations (UN) 201, 202
and failures of 718
and gender 401
gender mainstreaming 400
and post‐Cold War feminism 411
United Nations Security Council 231
and gender 400, 401, 411
and hierarchy of states 55
United Nations World Conference on Women (Beijing, 1995) 400
United States:
and American empire 90
Marxist theories 182–3
neoimperialism 183–4
and authority over sovereign states 55
and foreign policy, eclectic approach to 120
and human rights 260
and informal empire 182
and international relations field 11, 649, 675, 676–8
development of 396–7
and neoimperialism 183–4
and use of force, quantitative studies of 490–1
utilitarianism:
and international ethics 598
and neoliberal institutionalism 226–7
values:
and critical theory 7
and international relations theory 17–18
resonance across opposed theories 22–4
and national interest 156
and value commitments 21–2
varieties of capitalism, and state structure 52
Vietnam War 331, 564, 652
violence, and postmodernism 367–8, 386–7
war:
and absence among developed great powers 121–2
and bargaining 433
and critical theory 332
and dynamic differentials 528
and the English School 277
and gender 398, 414–15
and just war theory 606–8
and liberalism 235, 258–9, 259–60
commercial liberalism 243–4
republican liberalism 245
social identity 241–2
and military technology 710–11
and political nature of 560
and postmodernism 372, 386–7
(p. 772)
and preventive war 432
and realism 135, 709
defensive realism 139
offensive realism 139
and strategy 559–60
and study of 709
and trade 490
weapons of mass destruction, and feminism 410
Whig interpretation of history 519
World Bank 98, 202
and gender 400, 401, 411
world politics:
and changes in capitalism 711
and climate change 712
and communication technologies 712
and diversity of social structures 711–12
and expansion of force 710–11
and institutional design 713
accountability 713–14
effectiveness 713
human obligations 713
value trade‐offs 713
and normative concerns 708, 712–13
and progress in international relations 711
world society:
and emergence of 452–3
and the English School 63, 278–9
and failure of state reform 453
and fragmentation of 453–4
and nature of 454
World Trade Organization (WTO) 201, 216, 225, 452
and failures of 718
world‐systems theory 169–73