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date: 18 June 2019

(p. 654) (p. 655) Index of Subjects, Names, and Places

(p. 654) (p. 655) Index of Subjects, Names, and Places

A
Aaron531, 536
Abba Saul238
Abior Cave365
Abraham318, 506, 523
Abu Gosh156
academies465, 469, 472
Acco148, 150, 158, 160, 165, 276, 304, 507, 508, 615; see also Ptolemais
Achaemenid Empire124, 128
Achilles492
Adar (month)581, 583
Aelia Capitolina150, 159, 177, 179, 300, 505, 513, 514; see also Jerusalem
Africa299
North88, 200, 248, 372, 539
afterlife440–62; see also death
Agrippa II75
Aila76, 149
Akeldama Tombs (Jerusalem)397
Akhziv288
Akko, see Acco
Alexander the Great30, 128, 166, 169
Alexander Severus94
Alexandria19, 89, 148, 161, 215, 384, 387, 388, 474
Alexandrium154
Amazon456
Amidah134, 511–12, 547, 550, 551, 553, 554, 555, 558–9, 560, 561
Eighteen Benedictions62, 558
Amman625
Ammaus155
amoraic period386, 471, 474, 490, 582, 643
amoraim635, 636, 637
Amorites598
amphitheatre623–40; see also theatre
Amram Gaon547
Anab al-Kabir257
Anaia109
Ananus86, 88
Anastasius I193
Anatolia150
‘Anchor Church’515
androcentrism48, 49, 328
animal husbandry256–8
Antioch148, 150, 152, 396, 452, 475, 534
Antioch, Pisidian89
Antiochos169
Antipas175, 176, 506, 630
Antipatris148, 158, 175
Antipita of Caesarea92
Antonia154
Aphrodite168, 507, 613, 614, 615
Aphrodite's bathhouse (Acco)507, 508, 613, 615, 617
Apollonia148, 160, 276
Apuleius593
Aqedah531, 536
Aquila130
Arab conquest178, 289
Arabia13, 72, 76, 95, 98, 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 300, 373, 452, 570
Arabic language127–8, 136
Arabic period128
Arabs115, 387, 517, 620
Aramaic language52, 53, 122, 123, 124, 126–31, 132, 133–4, 135, 136, 137, 138, 321, 337, 347, 386, 446, 448, 454, 456, 457, 471, 487, 508, 550, 553, 569, 582
Aramaization126–31
(p. 656) Aravah149, 365
Arbel280
Arch of Titus replica (Rome)529
Archelaus72, 103, 176, 445
Archeological Survey of Israel106
Aristobulus127
aristocracy475, 446, 475
Aristotle468
Armageddon (Plain of)452
Armenian language123
army:
in Judaea-Palestine154–5
Roman71, 73, 74, 77, 78, 153–61, 648
Arsacius321
Arsuf, see Apollonia
art16, 22, 177, 178, 366, 379, 529–39, 541
Artas609
Asclepieion613
Aseneth357, 373, 376, 377
Ashdod165, 169
Ashkelon61, 112, 148, 149, 158, 165, 173, 176, 255, 268, 288, 625
Asia89, 299
Asia Minor200, 277, 288, 300, 303, 373, 388, 443, 447, 605
Assyria411
Assyrian empire124
athletic contests630–3
Attica485
Augustus451
Aurelius Marcellinus159
Av (month)583
B
Babatha13, 51, 95–8, 123, 233, 240–1, 242, 348, 354, 410, 478
archive and letters60, 85, 95, 97, 99, 123, 134, 240, 241, 250, 318, 346, 354, 355, 370, 374, 491, 505
Babele215
Babylonia4, 210, 211, 216, 217, 218, 223, 224, 358, 364, 374, 412, 452, 469, 522, 545, 547, 552, 553, 554, 560, 573, 588, 589, 597
Sassanian17, 452
Babylonian Aramaic incantation bowls589
Babylonian Exile127, 522, 567
Babylonian Jewry4
Babylonian law349
Bacon, R.598
Baetica73
balsam281–2
Bar'am528
Bar Hebraeus104
Bar Kokhba caves410
Bar Kokhba letters124, 128, 570, 579
Bar Kokhba period363, 510, 579, 648
Bar Kokhba revolt13, 49, 57, 75, 87, 95, 96, 123, 127, 150, 151, 157, 158, 159, 177, 192, 193, 196, 197, 221, 233, 274, 300, 363, 365, 633
Bar Qappara129
Barnabas89
Bashan region431
Batanaea154, 300
bathhouses64–5, 171, 216, 433–4, 507–8
and the Jews608–14; see also rabbis, ‘and bathhouses’
and magic618–20
and nudity616–17, 618
as places of social and cultural interaction605–22
statuary in612–14
bayyit38
Beer Sheva76
Beirut452
Beit Nattif271
Ben Sira447
Beowulf493
Berosaba148, 149
Beruriah (Torah scholar)60, 477
Berytos176, 280
bestiality214
Bet Alpha33, 318, 366, 374, 375, 509, 526, 531, 532, 536–8, 539
Bet Govrin113, 157–8, 177, 452, 505, 515
(p. 657) Bet Horon148, 156
bet midrash470, 551; see also study house
Bet She'arim14, 23, 34, 90, 177, 316, 366, 442, 452–6, 459, 508–9
Bet Shean152, 157, 169, 177, 271, 276, 509, 515, 539, 610
synagogue539
valley113, 158, 252, 254, 256 see also Scythopolis
Bet Yerah (Khirbet el-Kerak)159
Bethesda pool (Jerusalem)504
betrothal349–50; see also marriage
bigamy97
Binding of Isaac23, 366; see also Aqedah
Birkat ha-Mazon547, 550
Birsama (Beer Shema)159
Bithynia87, 88
body55–6
Boethusians569, 577, 578
Book of Hagi/ Hagu331
Book of Secrets532
Bordeaux pilgrim (333 ce)221
Bostra148, 150, 151, 254, 614, 627, 631
Botna, fair of507
bread317, 405, 406, 409, 412, 413, 414, 416, 504, 570, 576, 577
Brindisi219
Bronze Age420
Burak248
Byblos280, 452
Byzantine churches42
Byzantine culture28, 541; see also Christian-Byzantine culture
Byzantine empire395, 397, 400
Byzantine law41
Byzantine rule4, 517
Byzantium390
C
Caesar319
Caesarea24, 51, 73, 74, 75, 78, 79, 86, 89, 103, 112, 133, 148, 150, 154, 155, 158, 160, 169, 170, 171, 175, 176, 177, 179, 181, 212, 255, 271, 280, 300, 304, 435, 452, 468, 474, 476, 504, 514, 516, 573, 609, 610, 615, 625, 626, 627, 629, 630, 631, 633, 634, 636
Caesarea Philippi148, 300, 301, 506
Caiaphas449
Cairo Geniza documents496, 547, 560, 561, 591, 619
calendar566, 567, 574, 576, 577, 580
Canaan598
Canaanites115, 237
Cancer375
Caparcotna158
Capernaum113, 159, 191, 192, 197, 198, 248, 269, 424, 513, 515, 526
synagogue509
Cappadocia74, 215
Caracalla151, 168
Carmel159, 160, 191, 197, 322, 408, 452
Carthage288, 372
Castra109, 276
Cato247, 253
Cave of the Pool (Nahal David)365
Cestius Gallus104
Charakmoba149
chariot races630–3
charity55, 308–24
and the redistribution of wealth319–21
Charon456
childhood327–43, 358; see also education
China300, 304, 356
Christ, see Jesus
Christian-Byzantine culture15, 16, 23, 41
Christian church400, 514
Christian art and culture220, 509
Christianity1, 2, 18, 30, 44, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 127, 137, 189, 191, 222, 301, 319, 322, 327, 328, 364, 400, 440, 441, 449, 457–8, 468, 474, 486, 503–20, 521, 549, 552, 560, 629
Christianization71, 79, 194, 510, 511
Christians116, 129, 133, 136, 172, 192, 194, 195, 214, 217, 218, 221, 373, 393, 394, 399, 406, 435, 490, 569, 576, 617, 620; see also Christianity
(p. 658) church fathers43, 44, 515, 593, 617
Cicero95
Cilicia89, 279
circumcision64, 569
Circus Maximus (Rome)630
circus506, 623, 624; see also amphitheatres
citizenship179
City of David273
civil war174
class (strata)434, 466–7, 475, 476, 478, 483, 487, 488, 489, 490, 492, 592, 606, 615,   616, 618, 629, 647, 648
Claudius74, 86, 104, 150
climate5, 153, 248–9, 253, 254, 255, 265, 285, 310, 368, 375, 446
clothing56–7, 317, 318, 362–81, 570
black377
footwear and socks374–5
and gender368–77
Greek378
head coverings371–4
mantle (tallit)367, 368–70, 377, 378, 550, 551
Roman362, 378, 379
tunic (haluk)367–8, 377, 378
undergarments371
coins193–4, 259, 299, 304, 367, 393, 397, 435, 504, 506, 529
Bar Kokhba529, 579
Iudaea Capta367 see also money
Colonatus law251
coloniae, Roman71, 75, 176, 177, 505
colonization176
Columella247, 314, 598
concubinage356
conquest300, 400
Constantine41, 151, 221, 300, 510, 513, 514, 515, 516
Constantinople289
Corinthian marble heads373
corruption88
Council of Nicaea113, 514
courts, see judicial system
cremation447; see also burial
Crusaders547
Cyprus200, 249, 288, 609
Cyrene89
D
Damascus171
Damascus Document568, 577, 583
Damascus Rule320
Daniel531
Daniel in the Lion's Den (biblical scene)23, 366
Darb el-Ghaza149
Darom (southern Judah)110, 113
dates (fruit)254–5
David33, 366, 509, 531, 554
Davidic dynasty549, 559
Dead Sea196, 399, 422, 425, 442, 446, 457, 505, 506, 609 Salt Sea
Dead Sea sect57, 232, 233
death58–9, 334, 335–6, 339, 440–62
at the arena   633–4
as punishment568, 570–1
Decalogue548, 557, 558
Decapolis73, 150, 174, 176, 427, 503
Decius79
Delos136
democracy483
Demotic language134
Diaspora3, 14, 16, 30, 61, 117, 126, 128, 130, 133, 176, 181, 215, 217, 218, 220, 221, 224, 234, 320, 362, 364, 367, 388, 412, 452, 453, 454, 504, 523, 524, 525, 531, 538, 541, 548, 553, 554, 571, 572, 573, 576, 581
diglossia131
Diocaesarea109, 148, 506
Diocletian76, 78, 79, 91, 277, 280, 506, 514, 619
Dion173
Dionysiac cult509
Dionysos168, 373
Dionysos mosaic (Sepphoris)37, 509
Diospolis (Lod, Lydda)109, 148, 149, 505; see also Lydda
divorce55, 65, 93, 134, 241, 242, 344–61
women's right to352–3
(p. 659) Domitius Ulpianus of Tyre94
Dor160, 165, 169
Dura Europos363
synagogue (murals)364, 367, 369, 370, 371–2, 375, 377, 531, 532, 533–4, 538
E
Eastern churches, early556
economy202, 229–45, 260, 297–307
central-place theory of299, 302
primitivist vs modernist view of297–9
education42, 48, 52, 59–60, 127, 132, 167, 217, 223, 329, 331, 332, 486, 557
private and public465–81, 487
universality of469–70
and women48, 52–4, 476–8
Egeria132, 136, 221
Egypt2, 3, 29, 36, 53, 90, 96, 103, 134, 148, 174, 177, 210, 252, 254, 259, 288, 300, 301, 303, 348, 352, 353, 363, 375, 377, 551, 553, 554, 557, 576
Hellenistic347
Ptolemaic522
Roman250
Ein Boqeq160
Ein Gedi157, 191, 196, 201, 233, 248, 254, 258, 281, 282, 399, 422, 425, 516, 609
Ein Zur (at Ramat ha-Nadiv)609
Elephantine347
Elephantine papyri33, 347
Eleutheropolis148, 149, 157, 300, 505, 515, 625, 633
Elusa149
Emesa617
Emmaus155, 156, 158, 176, 505
Enchiridion93
endogamy vs exogamy355
Enlightenment593
Ennion (Sidonian manufacturer)276
Ephesus89
Ephron the Hittite523
Epicurus’ Garden468
epigraphy135–7
Epiphanius of Salamis112, 515
epitaphs, Jewish58, 135, 136, 156316, 353, 457–8
Eros508
Eshtemoa526
Essenes130, 318, 320, 364, 366, 573
clothes of375–7
Qumran364, 370
Esther581
Eucharist254
Eudocia221
euergetism447, 452
Euphrates533
Eusebius79, 80, 109, 159, 511, 514, 515
Eve58, 374
Exodus551, 554, 557
Ezra469, 522, 523
F
Fadus89
family life38–9, 229, 230
Fast of Esther583
Fast Scroll (Megillat Taanit)582–3
fasting582, 583
Feast of Tabernacles632
Felix86, 87, 89, 90
festivals566–86
Festus88, 89
figs254–5
fish201, 252, 301, 317, 403, 405, 406, 407, 412, 414, 417, 418, 474
fishing industry407
Flavia Neapolis176
flax255–6, 277, 278, 279, 280, 313, 569
food and meals57, 317, 403–19, 571, 574, 575, 576, 577, 579, 580
food processing282–8
France, southern288
French Annales school2, 178
G
Gaba154
Gadara76, 122, 148, 173, 617, 625, 627
Gaius87
Galatia74, 321
Galen597
(p. 660) Galilee, Sea of148
Galileo Galilei598
Gallienus, emperor79, 173
gambling646, 647; see also games, ‘and play’
games623, 632
and play641–53
Gamla274, 284, 435
synagogue448
geonic period546, 547, 553, 554, 555, 556, 561, 579, 583
Gaza148, 149, 157–8, 173, 288, 300, 304, 366, 511, 514, 515, 531, 625
jars268, 286
synagogue33
gender38, 39, 48–68, 102, 132, 200, 238–43, 258, 260, 279, 327, 328–9, 333–4, 340, 345–6, 348, 349, 368, 369, 370, 372–3, 382, 393, 399–400, 435–6, 476, 553–4, 560, 566, 574, 575, 579, 581, 607, 611, 630, 647
and bathhouses616–7
and education476–8
and literacy491–2 see also clothing, ‘and gender’; divorce; jewellery; marriage; wives
Gentiles35, 65, 91, 108, 109, 112, 113, 116, 203, 214, 219, 282, 284, 287, 355, 378, 389, 393, 399, 404, 407–9, 412, 413, 503, 504, 507, 510, 511, 514, 554, 592, 596, 609, 637
Georgian language123
Gerasa148, 150, 170, 173, 177, 271, 531, 625, 627, 631
gladiatorial combats171, 172, 633, 634
glass275–7, 304, 393, 397–8
Gnostic teachings554
gold394, 395–7
Gophna148
Gorgon's head396
grapes253–4, 403; see also wine
Greece2, 249, 288, 329, 349, 441, 483, 484, 485, 492
courts14
gymnasium605
public baths605
Greek culture and literature30, 166, 329, 378, 476, 504, 553; see also Homer
Greek language15, 30, 36, 52, 53, 93, 96, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128–9, 130, 131–7, 167, 182, 195, 315, 316, 321, 347, 386, 448, 454, 457, 471, 474, 475, 476, 477, 487, 489, 504, 505, 508, 534, 550, 553
Greek magical papyri588, 589, 598
Greek wisdom596–7
Greeks115, 122, 415, 487, 491, 605
Gregory the Wonderworker77
Gush Halav190, 284, 528
H
Hadera276
Hadrian87, 94, 150, 155, 158, 177, 220, 300, 506, 582
Hadrianeum506
Haifa109, 285
Halamish109
Halicarnassus, mausoleum at443
halitzah ceremony375
Hammat Gader61, 171, 304, 539, 627
Hammat Tiberias33
synagogue370, 372, 509–10, 531, 532–3, 534–6, 573
Hanukkah554, 575, 582
Har Hamelekh255
Harkan53
Harod valley113
Hasmonaean period170, 173, 174, 175, 251, 300, 367, 442, 444, 451, 503, 582
Hasmonaeans154, 169
Hauran175, 430, 431, 625
heaven336
Hebrew language52, 53, 122, 123, 130, 132, 133–4, 135, 137, 332, 337, 446, 454, 471, 487, 489, 508, 545, 550, 552, 553
Biblical124, 125, 130, 556, 558
Middle131
Mishnaic123–6, 138
rabbinic124
vernacular123–6, 128
Hebron148, 156–7, 158
mountains149, 515
(p. 661) Hector492
Hekhalot literature591, 592
Helena (Constantine's mother)221
Helena (queen of Adiabene)62, 440–1, 444, 445, 446
Helios22–3, 531, 532, 534, 536
Hellenistic period166–73, 299, 300, 322, 353, 378, 384, 406, 407, 411, 412, 413, 424, 431, 465, 473, 490, 521, 523, 581, 605, 609, 647
Hellenization126–31, 179, 180, 195, 231, 451, 454, 503–5, 509, 608
henotheism510
Herculaneum420
heresy512
Hermeticism591, 595
Herod Agrippa I73, 74, 75, 76, 86, 89
Herod the Great86, 154, 157, 161, 171, 174–5, 176, 177, 179, 180, 221, 281, 287, 300, 320, 385, 445, 446, 448, 449, 451, 503, 504, 505, 582, 609, 623, 625, 626, 630, 632, 633, 637
burial of389, 445–6
Herodian dynasty490
Herodian kingdom73
Herodian period313, 400, 444, 447–51, 491, 630, 633, 635
Herodium154, 445, 446, 609
Heshbon154
Hilkiyah, palace of609
Hillel:
Hillelites582
house of569, 573
school of241, 349
Hillel II509, 536
Hippocrates595, 597
hippodrome504, 623–40; see also stadia
Holy Land440, 452, 516
Holy Sepulchre397
homosexuality171
Homer42, 216, 328, 467, 471, 472, 475, 478
Horvat ’Ammudim528
Horvat Susiya191, 196, 201
hostels213–14, 221
household1, 12, 389, 534, 93, 168, 197202, 204, 22944, 25860, 266, 27980, 314, 409, 423, 4346, 4545, 570
House of Dionysos509
House of Leontis (Bet Shean)509
House of the Nile Festival509
House of Orpheus509
House of Peter515
Huleh Valley113
Husifah (on Mount Carmel)516
I
Iamblichus593
identity32–3, 35, 50, 51–2, 102–21, 133, 137, 223, 224, 355, 456, 471, 476, 506, 510, 590
idolatry34, 181, 451, 507, 509, 510, 596, 608, 612, 613, 614, 635, 648
Idumaea103, 105, 503
Iliad492
Illyricum516
Imma Shalom513
India300, 356
infanticide52
inscriptions72, 78, 79, 109, 117, 128, 133, 136, 151, 156, 157, 158, 167, 190, 192, 215, 316, 435, 442, 465, 548, 567, 612, 629
burial13, 14, 15, 215, 442, 447–8, 455, 456, 457, 476, 487, 508
ossuary14, 134–5, 491
synagogue13, 14, 15, 23, 61, 135, 137, 321, 452, 457, 476, 491, 522, 528, 534, 536, 541, 554
insulae, Roman22, 38
intertextuality32
Ioullos534
Iranian society4
Iraq545, 547
Irenaeus of Lyon512
Iron Age166, 170, 249, 283, 420, 431, 432
Islam127, 289, 521
Islamic civilization4
Islamic (Muslim) conquest76, 111, 193, 300
(p. 662) Islamic period128, 196, 322, 496
Italy249, 284, 301, 485
Roman29, 40, 210, 211, 215, 257, 304, 317
southern136, 606
Ituraea175
Iulia Crispina97
Izates444
J
Jacob109, 357
Jaffa103, 148, 155–6, 173, 215, 625; see also Joppa
James86
James ossuary440, 441
Jerash422, 427
Jericho109, 148, 154, 157, 158, 171, 192, 254, 281, 365, 446, 609, 625, 626, 630
valley258
Jerome109
Jerusalem14, 28, 48, 73, 74, 75, 87, 89, 103, 104, 105, 128, 134, 136, 137, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 154, 155–9, 160, 165, 169, 171, 174, 176, 177, 192, 193, 196, 197, 221, 222, 224, 251, 257, 267, 269, 271, 273, 274, 275, 300, 315, 320, 367, 368, 385, 396, 397, 398, 424, 435, 441, 443, 445, 446, 450, 451, 453, 491, 504, 511, 514, 517, 521, 524, 525, 529, 534, 539, 548, 549, 550, 559, 574, 575, 581, 583, 609, 625, 626, 630
Jewish Quarter421, 424
Kidron Valley443
Old City of421
ossuary burial in447–51
Talpiot440
Temple220, 221, 376, 384, 416, 432, 448, 488, 489, 504, 511, 517, 521, 524–5, 530, 534, 548, 550, 551, 553, 559, 611
Temple Mount421, 424, 443, 448, 504, 525, 557
Upper city268, 276, 424
‘Jerusalem of Gold’394
Jesus10, 127, 191, 197, 222, 234, 318, 345, 421, 440, 509, 511, 512, 513, 514, 518, 525, 568, 569, 615
Last Supper576
Tomb440, 441
Jesus of Pandera/Pantera/Pantiri512–3
jewellery56–7
archaeological evidence for393–402
literary evidence for382–92
Roman393–4
Jewish revolt156, 168, 171, 176, 180, 193, 197, 201, 214, 251; see also Jewish war
Jewish war74, 155, 156, 315, 471; see also Jewish revolt
Jezreel Valley76, 128, 158, 250, 256, 452, 536
John86
John of Gischala301
Jonathan366
Joppa160, 176, 181; see also Jaffa
Jordan148, 159, 175, 422, 511
Jordan Valley148, 154, 155, 157, 158, 254, 255, 281
Joseph (patriarch)357
Joseph (Mary’s husband)350
Joseph of Tiberias514
Josephus3, 10, 38, 40, 42, 71, 85, 86, 88, 98, 103, 104, 105, 124, 129, 155, 156, 190, 216, 232, 234, 247, 284, 308, 310, 316, 317, 318, 319, 330, 346, 353, 365, 366, 376, 384, 405, 442–3, 444–5, 446, 447, 449, 459, 469, 470, 475, 476, 490, 525, 532, 557, 569, 582, 625, 633
Joshua581
Joshua b. Gamla469, 470, 471
Josianic reforms (622 bce)522
Jotapatah192
Judaean Desert123, 124, 133, 154, 182, 191, 196, 232, 233, 234, 240, 248, 250, 281, 310, 345, 363, 364, 365, 374, 399, 424
caves13, 19, 347, 379
papyri13, 14, 19, 33, 49, 51, 346, 350
Judaean hills281
Judah ha-Nasi52, 423, 452, 453, 454, 455, 509, 526; see also patriarch (patriarchate)
Judah (Babatha’s husband)97, 240, 241
Judah Maccabee582
judges79, 85–7, 89, 90, 92, 98, 182, 320, 333, 352, 479; see also judicial system
(p. 663) judicial system51, 85–101, 182, 233
Julian the Apostate151, 321, 511, 536
Julias175
Julio-Claudian period74
Julius Caesar176
Jupiter157
justice, see judicial system
Justin Martyr512
Justinian76, 79, 515, 516
Justus of Tiberias129, 475
Juvenal408
K
Kabbalah560, 588, 590–1
kallal273
Karaism560
kashrut (food laws)408–9, 410, 411, 418, 517
Kefar ‘Otnay158, 506
ketubbah14, 33, 242, 344, 347, 348, 350–2, 359, 373
Kfar Hananya (KH)197, 200, 265, 267, 268, 270
Khirbet Shema‘190, 193, 196, 268, 528
kilayim259, 260
Kislev (month)582
knowledge, transfer of222–4
Korazim22, 196, 424, 509, 528
L
landscape archaeology179
Laodicaea280
Late Roman Red Ware (LRRW)268, 285
Latin122, 136, 137, 182, 386, 474, 479, 504, 534, 553
law:
Greek14, 32, 93, 99, 168, 441, 595
Hellenistic347, 348, 413
Jewish351, 352, 504
Roman law32, 39, 86, 87, 91, 92–5, 96, 97, 98, 99, 220, 237, 238, 240, 479
Lebanon281, 443
Leda (and the swan)456, 508
Legio148, 150, 152, 160, 177, 506
legions:
III Cyrenaica157
V Macedonica156, 157
VI Ferrata158, 159, 280
X Fretensis148, 150, 155, 157, 158, 159
XI Claudia159
XII Fulminata157
Levant, the168, 169, 443
Levantine coast165
Libanius475
life expectancy329, 353
literacy60, 138, 331, 466, 478, 479, 482–99
liturgy545–65; see also prayer
Livias175
Lod109; see also Lydda; Diocaesarea
love336
Lucius Verus, Parthian campaign of151
Lyceum468
Lydda147, 158, 177, 181, 252, 280, 473, 513, 515; see also Diocaesarea; Lod
Lysias87, 89
Lystra89
M
M. Ulpius Magnus157
M. Ulpius Traianus150
Mabartha169
Maccabaean uprising (revolt)174, 250, 251, 504
Machaerus154, 609
magic63–4, 129, 554, 618–20
and healing587–602
and medicine595, 606
Mahoza13, 95, 96, 123, 240
Maimonides338, 588, 591
Maiumas112
Mampsis148, 149, 422, 425
Nabataean cemetery447
Mamre (Kh. El-Halil, Botnah)304, 506
Mandaic texts589
Mandatory Palestine441
Mariamne (Herod’s wife)86
Marissa169
marital law347, 348; see also divorce; marriage
market, markets40, 43, 44, 54, 170–1, 172, 173, 201, 202, 230, 231, 232, 235–6, 238, (p. 664) 254, 255, 257, 269, 276, 287, 289, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302–3, 305, 311313, 405, 407, 416, 506, 523, 649
marriage93, 97, 102, 134, 213, 313, 327, 331, 617
Christian356
Greek356
and household economy238–43, 244
Jewish33, 39, 52, 95, 96, 234, 241, 333, 334, 337, 339, 344–61
Levirate355–6, 375
Roman239–40, 335, 356, 359
martyrdom557
marxism178
Mary (mother of Jesus)350
Masada154, 278, 280, 287, 265, 374, 375, 377, 378, 448, 567, 609
material culture16, 35–8, 166, 189, 190, 192, 195–200, 203, 266, 267, 390
Matsot festival574, 575
Maximinopolis113, 158, 506
Maximos534
meat406–9, 410, 412; see also food and meals
Medusa509
Megiddo155, 158
Meiron190, 193, 236, 243, 268
synagogue528
Melania221
Meleager122
Melkart504
menorah456, 457, 508, 517, 529, 538–9
Mercurius506
Merot191, 366, 528, 531
Mesopotamia177, 300, 423, 547
Islamic553
Mesopotamian literature332
Michal bat Kushi62
Middle Ages220, 222, 224, 576, 587, 590, 594, 616, 646, 647
Milan, Edict of514
Minerva399
Miqvah/miqvaot (ritual bath)21, 56, 192, 197, 284, 433–4, 435, 611
Miriam97, 240
Mithras620
Moabitis149
mobility214–16; see also travel
Modi’in443, 525
mohar351
money173, 232, 233, 238, 243, 346, 630, 647
Monobazus444
monotheism557, 593, 596
morality95
Mordecai581
mosaics366, 448, 496, 509, 517, 534, 536, 606; see also Jewish art
Moses93, 332, 530, 554, 577
motherhood54–5
Mount Ebal176
Mount Gerizim169, 176
Mount Scopus274, 448
mourning377, 451; see also death
Murabba’at134, 312
mysticism554, 588, 590–2
N
Na’aran61, 109, 196, 366, 531, 539
Nabataean kingdom13, 149, 387, 427
Nabataens123, 127, 136, 301, 303, 425, 447
language122, 123, 127, 130
Nabratein190
Nahal Hever347, 349, 352, 354
Cave of Horror365, 374
Cave of Letters365, 368, 374, 377, 399
Naomi65
Nash Papyrus557
Natronai Gaon547
Nazareth113, 513
Nazoreans512
Neapolis148, 157, 169, 177, 180, 256, 280, 300, 626, 631, 633
Negev76, 149, 178, 179, 287, 288, 365, 421, 425, 430, 447
Nehardea452
Nehemiah522, 523
Neoplatonism591, 595
Nero86, 104, 150
Nessana149
Nicanor (p. 665) 583
the Alexandrian448
Day582, 583
ossuary449
Nicopolis148, 149, 180, 505
Nike177, 508
Nile Delta347
Nineveh411
Nissan (month)457, 575
Nitzana248
Noah531, 577
Noricum75
O
Oboda149, 422
Odysseus, mosaic of509
Odyssey492
oikos/domus38; see also household
oil lamps270–1, 435, 506, 539, 571
old age327–43
olive oil282–6, 301, 405, 412, 413
olives253, 311, 313
Oral Law494
Oral vs Written Tradition546
orality392–3, 482–99, 546, 590, 595
Orient180, 301
Orientalism36
Origen468, 474, 514, 593
Orontes452
Orpheus33
ossilegium275
ossuaries274, 275, 442, 446, 447–51, 491; see also inscriptions, ‘ossuary’
ostraca569
Ottoman period36
P
pagan (art and culture)14, 23, 33, 43, 178, 389, 531
paganism23, 115, 180, 181, 301, 364, 374, 486, 503–20, 524, 598, 609, 611
pagans195, 214, 217, 222, 373, 394, 399, 408, 413
Palaestina Prima76, 159
Palaestina Secunda76, 77, 113
Palaestina Tertia76
Palaestina Salutaris76
Palmyra316, 396, 452
Pan (god)505
Panias505, 506
Passion (of Jesus)568
Passover62, 86, 104, 220, 256, 317, 457, 547, 569
Haggadah547, 551, 554, 576
Matsot festival574, 575–7, 583
Seder254, 414–15
paterfamilias237–8, 243
patriarch, patriarchate18, 31, 38, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 62, 63, 64, 90, 92, 216, 217, 218, 332, 349, 354, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 472, 473, 474, 475, 508, 509, 515, 526, 534, 536, 541, 554, 559, 617, 619
Paul (apostle)87, 88, 89, 372, 447, 490, 511, 525
Paula153
Pax Augusta175
peddler202, 298; see also rochel
Pella76, 148, 150, 169, 173, 422, 427, 511
Per Ankh522
Peraea127, 175
Persia11, 374, 581
conquest of Palestine (614 ce)517
Persian period128, 165
Persians620
Pertinax151, 180
Peter (apostle)86, 198
Petra76, 96, 97, 98, 123, 149, 271, 422, 427
Pharisees370, 416, 449–50, 505, 524, 568, 569
Philadelphia89, 148, 173, 627
Philip (Herod’s son)505
Philippus175, 176
Philo (of Alexandria)346, 365, 376, 406, 447, 470, 525, 532, 552, 557, 569
Philotheria173
Phoenicia249, 268, 299, 452
Phoenician language122
Phoenicians115, 165, 620
pilgrimage220–2, 224
Pirqoi ben Baboi556
(p. 666) piyyutim358, 531, 532, 536, 547, 556, 560
Plato595
Platonic Academy468
Pliny87, 247, 254, 281, 314, 598
Plutarch373
poetry:
epic492–3
Gaelic493
Homeric492
polygamy375
polygyny355
polytheism192, 510, 593
Pompeii420, 444
Stabian baths616
Pompey4, 28, 29, 146, 154, 174, 503
Pomponius93
population102–17, 127, 129, 216, 375, 452, 470, 487, 496, 514, 517, 518, 636
pottery266–70, 290, 301, 302, 311, 393, 435, 649
poverty55, 308–24
and wealth309–10
prayer522, 525, 617, 619
role of mysticism in554
in the Second Temple period548–9
prayer book338, 545, 546, 547, 556
Probus, reign of (276–282 ce)76
Procopius132, 136
Proklos b. Philosophos507, 613, 617
prostitution171
Ptolemaic empire128, 166, 169, 299
period128, 300
Ptolemaios169
Ptolemais112, 150, 158, 173, 176, 625; see also Acco
Ptolemy158
Ptolemy Philadelphus384
Purim575, 581, 582, 583
purity55–6
Pythagoreans376
Q
Qallir556
Qanatir528
Qatzrin191, 199, 200, 202, 422, 424, 528
Quirinius103
Qumran129, 130, 160, 232, 330–1, 376, 399, 409, 410, 489, 555, 556, 557, 567
Aramaic (dialect)126
Temple Scroll567
texts (literature)316, 328, 549, 552, 554, 560, 567, 574, 575, 577, 581
R
Rabban Gamaliel219, 220, 232, 475, 477, 488, 507, 508, 560, 569, 613, 614, 615, 617
Rabban Shimon b. Gamaliel450, 451, 452, 506
Rachel357
Ramat Hanadiv160
Ramat Rahel156–7
Rashi450
Red Sea150, 554, 615
Rehov319, 539
resurrection568
Rhinocorura149
Rift Valley106, 111
road, roads36, 41, 75, 146, 147–58, 159, 160, 161, 171, 177, 194, 202, 210–13, 216, 300–1, 313, 318, 425, 506, 626, 631, 633
rochel301–2; see also peddler
Romanitas607
Romanization19, 137, 231, 244, 451
Rome (city of)75, 87, 88, 89, 94, 96, 105, 172, 210, 216, 219, 220, 254, 301, 304, 328, 329, 353, 390, 441, 455, 468, 485, 606, 607, 629
Rosh Hashanah530, 574, 580, 647
Rosh Hodesh63
Ruth65
S
Sa’adya Gaon547
Sabbath56, 62–3, 65, 91, 213, 219, 270, 317, 365, 375, 385, 386, 404, 405, 416, 457, 546, 547, 551, 556, 559, 566–86, 610, 629, 647
day of study and worship573–4
joy572–4
Sabbatical Year247, 260, 319, 320
Sadducees449–50, 511
Sabbath law of569
Safaic (language)123
Salome64
Salome Komaise13, 233, 352, 354, 478
papyri250, 491
Samaria72, 73, 103, 157, 158, 165, 169, 176, 191, 195, 201, 252, 260, 271, 276, 630
Samaritans115, 116, 150, 192, 214, 287, 572
Samuel the Prophet336
sanhedrin18, 86, 87, 88, 90, 611
Sapiential texts232
Sarah648
Sardis171
Sarepta280
schools332, 466, 470, 471, 473, 478, 479; see also education
science596–9
scribes478, 482, 486, 487, 546, 558
professional488–9
Scythopolis76, 113, 136, 148, 150, 152, 157, 158–9, 170, 173, 174, 177, 179, 256, 271, 279, 280, 503, 505, 610, 627, 633; see also Bet Shean
Sea of Galilee159, 173, 175, 256, 424, 514, 615
seafaring212, 219–20
Sebaste148, 154, 157, 175, 177, 180, 504, 627
Second Commandment400
Seleucid:
kings251
period128, 135
Seleucid empire128, 166, 169, 173
Seleukos169
Semitic languages386
Sepphoris22, 23, 37, 56, 109, 154, 158, 159, 172, 175, 176, 181, 192, 231, 236, 243, 252, 268, 269, 271, 274, 276, 300, 375, 408, 422, 424, 435, 452, 472, 473, 506, 509, 515, 531, 532, 536, 538, 610, 626, 627
Septimius Severus93, 94, 151, 158
Septuagint129, 130, 131
Serapis620
settlements108–12, 192–5, 260, 408, 624
Severans177
Severos534
sex54, 214, 334, 335, 346, 347, 568, 572, 580, 606, 616, 648
sexual desire335
sexuality334
Shammai:
house of569, 573
school of241, 349
Shammaites570, 582
Sharon region239, 249, 258
Shavuot220, 574, 577–8
Shekhem (Nablus)157
Shelamzion97
Shema (prayer)129, 133, 134, 332, 547, 548, 550, 551, 555, 557–8
Shephelah197, 257, 443
Shikhin200, 268, 269, 270
Shimon (Babatha’s father)240
Shimon b. Shetach350–1, 469, 470, 471
Shiqmonah112, 191
Shmuel bar Nahman619
Sidon171, 276, 279, 452
Siddur see also prayer hook
silk255–6, 304
silver397
Simon the Hasmonian443
Simon Maccabee451
Sinai76, 149
Sinai Desert387
Sivan (month)577
slavery32–3, 38, 39, 41, 59, 77, 88, 93, 168, 212, 215, 233–4, 237, 238, 244, 266, 279, 297, 319, 356, 358, 375, 417, 466, 477, 489, 515, 579, 607, 615, 634
Sol Invictus22, 509, 510, 534
Solomon, King336, 337
Solomon’s Pools609
Solon329
Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice567
Soumaios128
Spain86
Sphinx335
spices255, 304
stadia506, 615, 630–3; see also hippodrome
(p. 668) Stephen (apostle)89
Stoics468
stone vessels271–5, 435
stones, precious398–9
study house470, 473, 474, 551; see also bet midrash
Subeita422, 425
Sukkot220, 525, 529, 530, 536, 569, 574, 577, 578–9, 582, 583
Sumaqa191, 197
Sun god509
Susa (Shushan)581
Susita (Hippos)109, 303
Susiya531
Sword of Moses129
Symeon ‘the fool’617
Symmachus130
synagogue15, 18, 21, 22, 23, 33, 37, 43, 92, 107, 109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116–17, 124, 129, 130, 137, 171, 178, 190, 191, 192, 193, 196, 197, 198, 202, 203, 218, 282, 289, 320, 333, 366, 389, 424, 435, 471, 477, 496, 509, 510, 511, 515–17, 521–44, 545, 547, 548, 550, 551, 553, 554, 556, 561, 566, 570, 573, 574, 579
Galilean526–8
and gender553–4
of late antiquity526–8, 536, 540
in Second Temple period522–5
and study houses60–1, 456, 551 see also inscriptions, ‘synagogue’
syncretism505
Syria13, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 81, 86, 87, 103, 104, 150, 151, 174, 176, 177, 216, 247, 248, 260, 284, 288, 300, 301, 303, 363, 373, 388, 420, 443, 475, 503, 526, 533
Syriac (language)136
incantation bowls589
liturgy358
Syrians115, 122, 620
T
Tabernacle530, 531, 536
Tabi (R. Gamliel’s slave)477
Tacitus104, 105, 408, 411
Tamar51, 92
Tammuz583
taqanah351
Targum126–7, 130–1, 134, 316, 546, 555, 556, 569
Jonathan126
Onqelos126, 130–1
Taricheae630
Tarraconensis74
Tarsus89, 215
taxation173, 233, 247, 289, 305, 311, 314, 319, 322, 606, 626
Temple220, 221, 376, 384, 416, 432, 448, 488, 489, 504, 511, 517, 521, 524–5, 530, 534, 548, 550, 551, 553, 559, 611
destruction of4, 10, 11, 33, 48, 55, 89, 90, 125, 176, 197, 210, 221, 247, 315, 414, 457, 471, 489, 505, 521, 522, 548, 550, 566, 570, 574, 576, 580, 583, 609
Ten Commandments530
Tertullian372
Tetrarchs151, 158
Tevet (month)583
textiles277–80
Thallus129
Thamudic (language)123
theatre64–5, 171–2, 175, 496, 504, 506, 615, 623–40; see also amphitheatre
Theodotos inscription548
Theophanes152
Therapeutes376
Thessalonica89
Thophlos448, 449
Tiberias18, 109, 148, 159, 169, 172, 175, 177, 181, 192, 231, 236, 254, 256, 300, 303, 435, 452, 472, 506, 515, 534, 610, 615, 619, 630
Tishri (month)530, 578, 580, 583
Tobias357
Tomb:
of Absalom443
of Hamrath443
of Jason443, 447
of the Kings443, 444, 445, 446
(p. 669) of Nicanor453
of Zechariah441, 443, 446
of Sanhedrin453
topography87, 147, 153, 170, 196, 248–9, 429
Torah shrine456, 457, 517, 530, 534
torture88
Tosafot450
Trachonitis154
Trajan75, 87, 150, 177, 300, 582, 630
Transjordan76, 122, 149, 154, 173, 174, 281, 427, 513, 625, 628
travel220–2, 224; see also mobility
Tribonianus Gallus157
triglossia132; see also diglossia
Twelve Tables (Roman law code)93
Tyre279, 280, 452, 506
Tyrian Shekel504
U
Ulpian87
Ummidius Quadratus150
urbanization53, 147, 165–88, 220, 300–1, 312, 490, 505, 506
V
Valerian79
Varro247
vegetables255, 311, 313, 405; see also food and meals
Vespasian74, 155, 176, 180
Via Nova Traiana148
villa156, 179, 195, 197, 201, 216, 237, 257, 424, 433, 606
of Dionysos37, 509
Virgil467, 472
virginity334, 373
Virgo370, 372
W
Wadi Dalia (Masada)365
Wadi Murabba’at caves365, 374, 399
wedding357, 358, 373, 388, 389, 416; see also marriage
wheat252
wine286–8, 304, 312, 313, 317, 403, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 576, 577
wisdom42, 93, 334
women, 1315, 319, 4865, 97, 105, 168, 200, 221, 23343, 252, 258, 260, 279, 31517, 32740, 34455, 36477, 3826, 395, 400, 417, 4768, 48592, 55360, 5745, 57982, 60717, 629, 647
wood280–1
X
xenophobia174
Y
Yannai556
Yavneh90, 148, 252, 511
Yehudai (Gaon of Sura)556
Yemen303
Yodfat279
Yom Kippur416, 525, 530, 574, 580–1, 583, 632
Yose ben Yose556
Z
Zenon papyri251
Zeus168, 456, 508, 648
Zoar159, 281, 442, 457, 458, 459
Zodiac22, 33, 366, 374, 509, 531, 532, 534, 536
Zohar532
Zoroastrians11, 374