(p. xiv) About the Contributors
(p. xiv) About the Contributors
Yvonne Åberg is a Research Fellow at Nuffield College, University of Oxford, and Assistant Professor of Sociology at the Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from Stockholm University. Her research focuses on large-scale population based social networks, especially family networks and complex overlapping networks, models of social interactions, and family demography.
Delia Baldassarri is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Princeton University. She holds Ph.D.s in sociology from Columbia University and the University of Trento. Her work in the areas of social networks, collective behavior, political inequality, and economic development aims at capturing the attitudinal and structural bases of social integration and conflict. She is the author of a book on cognitive heuristics and political decision-making (The Simple Art of Voting), and has written articles on interpersonal influence, public opinion and political polarization, formal models of collective action, civil-society and inter-organizational networks.
Karen Barkey is Professor of Sociology at Columbia University. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. She studies state centralization/decentralization, state control, and social movements against states in the context of empires. Her research focuses primarily on the Ottoman Empire and recently on comparisons between Ottoman, Habsburg, and Roman empires. Her latest book is Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
Peter Bearman is Director of the Lazarsfeld Center for the Social Sciences, the Cole Professor of Social Science, Codirector of the Health and Society Scholars Program, and an Associate Member of Nuffield College, University of Oxford. He holds a Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University. A recipient of the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award in 2007, Bearman is currently investigating the social and environmental determinants of the autism epidemic. Current projects also include an ethnographic study of the funeral industry and, with support from the American Legacy Foundation, an investigation of the social and economic consequences of tobacco-control policy.
Michael Biggs is Lecturer in Sociology at the University of Oxford. He studied at Victoria University of Wellington and Harvard University. His research has focused (p. xv) on social movements and political protest, addressing two theoretical puzzles. One is the volatility of collective protest: why a mass movement can emerge suddenly, appear powerful, and yet collapse quickly. The second puzzle is the use of self-inflicted suffering for political ends, as with hunger strikes and, most dramatically, with protest by self-immolation.
Iris Bohnet is Professor of Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, Director of the Women and Public Policy Program, Associate Director of the Harvard Laboratory for Decision Science and a vice chair of the Program on Negotiation at Harvard. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Zürich. A behavioral economist, combining insights from economics and psychology, her research focuses on decision-making, and on improving decision-making in organizations and society. In particular, she analyzes the causes and consequences of trust and employs experiments to study the role of gender and culture in decision-making and negotiation.
Richard Breen is Professor of Sociology at Yale University. He received his Ph.D. in social anthropology from the University of Cambridge. He has previously held faculty positions at Nuffield College, University of Oxford, the European University Institute, and the Queen’s University, Belfast. He has also held research positions at the Economic and Social Research Institute, and was Director of the Centre for Social Research at the Queen’s University, Belfast. His research interests are social stratification and inequality, and the application of formal models in the social sciences.
Elizabeth Bruch is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Complex Systems at the University of Michigan, and a faculty member at the Population Studies Center. She earned her Ph.D. at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her research spans a broad array of population phenomena in which the actions of individuals and other units (such as families, couples, or neighborhoods) are dynamically interdependent. Her current work examines the conditions under which income inequality and economic factors associated with neighborhood choice can exacerbate or attenuate race segregation.
Hannah Brückner is Professor of Sociology at Yale University. She received her Ph.D. from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. She works on a wide range of topics related to the life course, inequality, health, gender, and sexuality. Current research projects focus on adolescent romantic relationships, and timing and sequencing of family formation and career development. She has a long-standing interest in quantitative methodology and the integration of biological and sociological explanations of social structure and human behavior.
Ivan Chase is Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York, Stony Brook. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University. He is interested (p. xvi) in social organization: what forces produce it, how it comes to have its characteristic forms, and what kinds of theories are best suited to understanding it. In pursuing these problems, he works primarily with social structures that can be studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory. These social structures include networks of relationships in face-to-face groups using dominance hierarchies in fish, the distribution of material resources using resource distribution through ‘vacancy chain’ processes, in humans and hermit crabs, and cooperation and the coordination of effort using ‘foraging decisions’ in ants.
Karen S. Cook is the Ray Lyman Wilbur Professor of Sociology and Director of the Institute for Research in the Social Sciences at Stanford University, where she also received her Ph.D. in sociology. Her current research focuses on issues of trust in social relations and networks. She is also working on projects related to social justice, power-dependence relations, and social-exchange theory, in addition to collaborative research on physician–patient trust. She is the co-author of Cooperation without Trust? (New York: Russell Sage, 2005).
Peter Dodds is Assistant Professor of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Vermont, and a visiting faculty Fellow at the Vermont Advanced Computing Center. He received his Ph.D. in mathematics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is working on problems in geomorphology, biology, ecology, and sociology, with a general interest in complex systems and networks.
Jon Elster is the Robert K. Merton Professor of Social Sciences at Columbia University and a professor at the Collège de France. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Paris. Before taking his current position at Columbia University, he taught in Paris, Oslo, and Chicago. His research interests include the theory of rational choice, the theory of distributive justice, and the history of social thought (Marx and Tocqueville). He is currently working on a comparative study of constitution-making processes from the Federal Convention to the present, besides being engaged in a project on the microfoundations of civil war.
Scott Feld is Professor of Sociology at Purdue University. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from the John Hopkins University and has held faculty positions at SUNY, Stony Brook, and Louisiana State University. His ongoing research interests focus on social networks, and processes of individual and collective decision-making. Currently he is studying innovations in marriage and divorce laws.
Andreas Flache is Professor of Sociology at the University of Groningen and member of the Interuniversity Center for Social Science Theory and Methodology (ICS). He received his Ph.D. in social and behavioral sciences from the University of Groningen. His general research interest concerns cooperation, social integration, and solidarity and how they are related to the structure and emergence of social networks.
(p. xvii) Christine Fountain is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of South Carolina and a visiting associate research scholar at the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy at Columbia University. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Washington. Her work concerns the relationships between institutions and the interactions of people within those institutions. Specifically, she studies the interplay between labor markets, network structures, careers, and hiring processes.
Jeremy Freese is Professor of Sociology at Northwestern University. He previously taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and was a Robert Wood Johnson Scholar in Health Policy Research at Harvard University. He attained his Ph.D. in sociology from Indiana University. Freese is interested in drawing connections across biological, psychological, and social causes of divergence in individuals’ lives, especially as these intersect with technological and other kinds of social change. Additionally, he has worked on social-science methods, including co-authoring a book on the analyses of categorical data.
Diego Gambetta is an Official Fellow of Nuffield College and Professor of Sociology at the University of Oxford. He previously was a Research Fellow at King’s College, Cambridge, and then reader in sociology at the University of Oxford, and Fellow of All Souls College. His main interests are signaling theory; trust and mimicry; organized crime and violent extremists. He recently published (with Heather Hamill) Streetwise: How Taxi Drivers Establish Their Customers’ Trustworthiness (New York: Russell Sage, 2005). His new book, Codes of the Underworld. How Criminals Communicate, will be published by Princeton University Press in the summer of 2009.
Alexandra Gerbasi is an Assistant Professor at California State University at Northridge. She received her Ph.D. in sociology at Stanford University. Her research interests include the development of trust and cooperation in exchange networks, the sources and effects of transitions in types of exchange, and the role of social-psychological incentives in social exchange.
Daniel G. Goldstein is Assistant Professor of Marketing at London Business School. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago and previously he has been at Columbia, Harvard, and Stanford universities and at the Max Planck Institute in Berlin. His expertise is in psychology and decision-making, with an emphasis on business and policy. He is on the executive board of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making and is the editor of Decision Science News.
Bernard Grofman is Jack W. Peltason Endowed Chair and Professor of Political Science, Adjunct Professor of Economics, and Director of the Center for the Study of Democracy at the University of California, Irvine. He holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago. His past research has dealt with (p. xviii) mathematical models of group decision making, legislative representation, electoral rules, and redistricting. Currently he is working on comparative politics and political economy, with an emphasis on viewing the USA in a comparative perspective.
Peter Hedström is Professor of Sociology and an Official Fellow of Nuffield College, University of Oxford. He holds a Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University, and previously held faculty positions at the University of Chicago, Stockholm University, and Singapore Management University. He recently published Dissecting the Social: On the Principles of Analytical Sociology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), and he has a special interest in analytical sociology and the analysis of complex social networks.
Stathis Kalyvas is the Arnold Wolfers Professor of Political Science at Yale, where he directs the program on ‘Order, Conflict, and Violence.’ He earned his Ph.D. in political science at the University of Chicago. He is the author of The Rise of Christian Democracy in Europe (New York: Cornell University Press, 1996) and, more recently The Logic of Violence in Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006). He is currently researching the micro-dynamics of civil war, with a focus on warfare, recruitment, and violence, using disaggregated data from Colombia and Vietnam, among others.
W. Brent Lindquist is Deputy Provost and Professor of Applied Mathematics and Statistics at the State University of New York, Stony Brook. He received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Cornell University. His research career has included quantum electrodynamics, Riemann problems in conservation laws, and numerical computation of flow in porous media. His current research concentrates on various aspects of data mining—largely in application to three-dimensional digitized images.
Freda Lynn is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Iowa and received her Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University. Her research interests include status processes, social inequality, and social networks. She is currently studying how quality uncertainty affects citation accumulation in scientific disciplines.
Michael Macy is Goldwin-Smith Professor of Sociology at Cornell University and received his Ph.D. in sociology from Harvard University. Macy pioneered the use of agent-based models in sociology to explore the effects of heterogeneity, bounded rationality, and network structure on the dynamics and stability of social systems. He is currently principal investigator for an NSF-supported team of social, information, and computer scientists who are building tools that will make the Internet archive accessible for research on social and information networks.
Robert Mare is Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Statistics at the University of California, Los Angeles and an Associate Member of Nuffield College, University (p. xix) of Oxford. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Michigan. His research interests focus on dynamic analysis of residential mobility and residential segregation; educational assortative mating and marriage markets; and the joint analysis of social mobility, fertility, marriage, and other demographic processes.
James Moody is Associate Professor of Sociology at Duke University, where he recently moved after teaching for seven years at Ohio State University. He attained his Ph.D. in sociology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. An expert in network analysis, he has written extensively about the implications of social network structure for health and social organization. With Peter Bearman and Katherine Stovel, Moody co-authored ‘Chains of Affection: The Structure of Adolescent Romantic and Sexual Networks,’ which received the Gould Prize for the best paper published in the American Journal of Sociology in 2004.
Trond Petersen holds a joint appointment in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Organizational Behavior and Industrial Relations Group at the Walter A. Haas School of Business at Berkeley. He is an adjunct Professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim and an adjunct researcher at the University of Oslo. Prior to Berkeley, he taught at Harvard University. He earned his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He is interested in organizations, social stratification, inequality, economic sociology, comparative studies, and quantitative methods.
Joel Podolny is Vice President and Dean of Apple University at Apple, Inc. Prior to his current position, he was Dean of the Yale School of Management. He has also served as a professor at the Harvard Business School, Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences, and the Stanford Graduate School of Business. His best-known research brings the sociological conception of status to the study of market competition. In addition to his work on status, he has conducted research on the role of social networks in mobility and information transfer within organizations. His current research explores how leaders infuse meanings into their organizations.
Meredith Rolfe is a Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Corporate Reputation, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford and a Research Fellow at Nuffield College, University of Oxford. Her recently completed book, Voting Together, uses conditional decision models to challenge the conventional explanation of why college-educated citizens are more likely to vote. Her current research uses the conditional choice approach to better understand why women support social welfare more than men, why ethnic minorities earn less than ethnic majorities, and why corporations rise and fall in public esteem. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Chicago.
Jens Rydgren is Associate Professor of Sociology at Stockholm University and is associated with the Linnaeus Center for Integration Studies. He received his Ph.D. (p. xx) in sociology at Stockholm University and is currently doing research on radical right-wing parties in Western Europe, as well as on xenophobic attitudes among West European voters.
Matthew J. Salganik is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Princeton University. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Columbia University. His research interests include sampling methods for hidden populations such as drug injectors and sex workers, social networks, fads, and web-based social science.
Katherine Stovel is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Washington and received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. While her research spans a number of substantive areas, including economic sociology, adolescent health, and quantitative methods, her work is motivated by a general concern with how basic principles of social interaction are expressed in specific historical or cultural contexts, and why these expressions may result in new institutional arrangements or new identities for individuals.
Lars Udehn is Professor of Sociology at Stockholm University. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Uppsala University. His interests include the history of ideas and sociological theory, and he recently published Methodological Individualism: Background, History and Meaning (London: Routledge, 2001).
Diane Vaughanis Professor of Sociology and International and Public Affairs at Columbia University. She holds a Ph.D. in sociology from Ohio State University. Her specializations include the sociology of organizations, culture, science and technology, ethnography, and analogical theorizing. Much of her work has examined ‘the dark side of organizations’: mistake, misconduct, and disaster. The orientation of her research is to situate individual action and meaning-making within its social context, including the organization itself and its institutional environment. She is currently working on Dead Reckoning: Air Traffic Control in the Early 21st Century and Theorizing: Analogy, Cases, and Comparative Social Organization.
Duncan J. Wattsis a principal research scientist at Yahoo! Research, where he directs the Human Social Dynamics group. He is also an adjunct Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Social and Economic Research and Policy at Columbia University, an external faculty member of the Santa Fe Institute, and an associate member of Nuffield College, University of Oxford. His research interests include the structure and evolution of social networks, the origins and dynamics of social influence, and the nature of distributed ‘social’ search. He is the author of Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age (New York: W.W. Norton, 2003) and Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999). He holds a B.Sc. in physics from the University (p. xxi) of South Wales and a Ph.D. in theoretical and applied mechanics from Cornell University.
Christopher Winship is the Diker-Tishman Professor of Sociology at Harvard University, where he also received his Ph.D. Research interests include the Ten Point Coalition, a group of black ministers who are working with the Boston police to reduce youth violence; statistical models for causal analysis; the effects of education on mental ability; causes of the racial difference in performance in elite colleges and universities; changes in the racial differential in imprisonment rates over the past sixty years. With Steve Morgan he recently published Counterfactuals and Causal Inference: Methods and Principles for Social Research (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007). (p. xxii)